Vpered was an organisation within Russian Social Democracy
Russian Social Democratic Labour Party
The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party , also known as Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party or Russian Social Democratic Party, was a revolutionary socialist Russian political party formed in 1898 in Minsk to unite the various revolutionary organizations into one party...

 set up by Alexander Bogdanov
Alexander Bogdanov
Alexander Aleksandrovich Bogdanov –7 April 1928, Moscow) was a Russian physician, philosopher, science fiction writer, and revolutionary of Belarusian ethnicity....

 in December 1909. Alongside Bogdanov Anatoly Lunacharsky, Mikhail Pokrovsky, Grigory Aleksinsky
Grigory Aleksinsky
Grigory Alekseyevich Aleksinsky was a prominent Russia Social Democrat and Bolshevik who was elected to the Second Duma in 1907.Born to Middle class parents in Daghestan, he became politically involved when a student at Moscow University, from where he was excluded...

, Stanislav Volski and Martyn Liadov
Martyn Liadov
Martyn Nikolaevich Liadov was a Bolshevik and Vperedist.Liadov was fist drawn to the populist Narodnik movement in Moscow in 1891. By 1893 he was involved in founding the Moscow Workers’ Union. Following his arrest in 1895 he was exiled to Verkhoiansk two years later. In 1902 he joined the...

, were involved in the breakaway group.

Rupture with Bolshevism

The group retained a strong role for the intellectuals as advocated by Lenin in What is to be done?
What is to be Done?
What to do? Burning Questions of Our Movement is a political pamphlet written by the Russian revolutionary Vladimir Lenin in 1901 and published in 1902...

. However, Lenin had developed a new view which allowed for the working class a greater role in developing their own ideology. Bogdanov sowed the seeds of Vpered at the Conference of the Extended Editorial Board of Proletary
Proletary was an illegal Russian Bolshevik newspaper edited by Lenin; it was published from September 3, 1906 until December 11, 1909. A total of fifty issues having appeared. Active participants in the editorial work were M. F. Vladimirsky, V. V. Vorovsky, I. F. Dubrovinsky, Anatoly Lunacharsky...

 which Lenin called in Paris, in June 1909 in Paris. He presented his Statement to the Editorial Board of Proletary. In this text he raised the issue of the "practical work" of "widening and deepening of fully socialist propaganda" amongst the working class. He claimed that the editors of Proletarii had not properly attended to the intellectual development of workers. He said that the lack of any "theoretical and historical" elaboration of the people's armed struggle against the autocracy meant the absence of "conscious leaders" in workers' organizations. The intelligentsia were necessary to train workers as conscious leaders. With the departure of many intellectuals from the Party, the few intellectuals remaining in its rank should train workers
would form the new party leadership. Bogdanov proposed to meet this challenge by organising "Proletarian Universities" Such as the Capri Party School that autumn. During a period of counter-revolution, the most important "task of the moment" was creating organisations for party intellectuals to "systematize" the socialist education of workers and so "allow" workers to play the leadership role in the Party "they ought to play" but were not now playing. "The question of a Party university is
the question of the day." The Paris Conference completely disavowed Bogdanov's proposal, who promptly turned on his heels and left. Bogdanov worked closely with Leonid Krassin to produce a Report which appeared in July 1909. This was to serve as an outline of Vpered viewpoint:That Lenin and his allies had fundamentally deviated from "revolutionary Marxism" and the centrality of the hegemonic role of the proletariat in the coming democratic revolution. the defeat of the 1905 Revolution The had entailed the rise of "bourgeois liberalism" during the "Duma period" in the Social Democratic
Social democracy
Social democracy is a political ideology of the center-left on the political spectrum. Social democracy is officially a form of evolutionary reformist socialism. It supports class collaboration as the course to achieve socialism...

 movement. They accused Lenin and his partisans of extending this period through parliamentarism" at any price". The otzovists constituted a reassertion of revolutionary Marxism. However it was necessary to criticise the otzovists from a tactical point of view, as the recall of the Duma deputies was impractical.
Bogdanov and Krasin go onto complain that Proletarii had failed to produce one pamphlet in eighteen months and had abandoned socialist propaganda work. After reviewing propaganda work prior to 1905, they called for propaganda of a "much higher type," "more complete and encyclopaedic". This was nurture an "influential nucleus of workers" who could act as conscious leaders in all forms of proletarian struggle. Party Schools were the way to do this. They would enable workers to gain the intellectual discipline which the intelligentsia obtained at university.

Proletarian Universities

The Vperedists created experimental "proletarian universities" on the Isle of Capri
Isle of Capri
Isle of Capri may refer to:* Capri, the Italian island* Isle of Capri Casinos, an American gaming company* "Isle of Capri" , a song written in 1934* Isle of Capri, Queensland, a locality on the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia...

 between August to December
1909, and then in Bologna
Bologna is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna, in the Po Valley of Northern Italy. The city lies between the Po River and the Apennine Mountains, more specifically, between the Reno River and the Savena River. Bologna is a lively and cosmopolitan Italian college city, with spectacular history,...

from November 1910 to March 1911.
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