Variable-incidence wing
A variable-incidence wing has an adjustable angle of incidence
Angle of incidence
Angle of incidence is a measure of deviation of something from "straight on", for example:* in the approach of a ray to a surface, or* the angle at which the wing or horizontal tail of an airplane is installed on the fuselage, measured relative to the axis of the fuselage.-Optics:In geometric...

 in order to reduce landing and take-off distances. It was patented in France on May 20, 1912 by Bulgaria
Bulgaria , officially the Republic of Bulgaria , is a parliamentary democracy within a unitary constitutional republic in Southeast Europe. The country borders Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, as well as the Black Sea to the east...

n inventor George Boginoff.

One of the earlier designs to use it was the Supermarine Type 322
Supermarine Type 322
-See also:-Notes:The Albacore first flew on 12 December 1938.-References:*Andrews, C.F. and Morgan, E.B. Supermarine Aircraft since 1914. London: Putnam, 1987. ISBN 0 85177 800 3....

 of 1943 intended, though not adopted, for aircraft carrier use.

The necessary components add extra weight to the aircraft and increase maintenance costs. In some aircraft the benefits outweigh the costs, and variable-incidence functionality is incorporated into the design, most notably with the F-8 Crusader
F-8 Crusader
The Vought F-8 Crusader was a single-engine, supersonic, carrier-based air superiority jet aircraft built by Vought for the United States Navy and the U.S. Marine Corps, replacing the Vought F7U Cutlass...

, although other designs have used it, such as the Martin XB-51
Martin XB-51
|-See also:-References:NotesBibliography* Andrade, John M. U.S. Military Aircraft Designations and Serials since 1909. Earl Shilton, Leicester, UK: Midland Counties Publications, 1979. ISBN 0-904597-22-9....


No modern aircraft has used this design since the F-8, and it was omitted from the derivative, subsonic A-7 Corsair II
A-7 Corsair II
The Ling-Temco-Vought A-7 Corsair II is a carrier-based subsonic light attack aircraft introduced to replace the United States Navy's Douglas A-4 Skyhawk, initially entering service during the Vietnam War...

due to lower landing speeds and weights.
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.