University of Glasgow
Overview
The University of Glasgow is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world
English-speaking world
The English-speaking world consists of those countries or regions that use the English language to one degree or another. For more information, please see:Lists:* List of countries by English-speaking population...

 and one of Scotland's four ancient universities
Ancient university
Ancient university is a term used to describe seven medieval and renaissance universities of the United Kingdom and Ireland that exist today. Six of those universities are currently located in the United Kingdom and one in the Republic of Ireland...

. Located in Glasgow
Glasgow
Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom. The city is situated on the River Clyde in the country's west central lowlands...

, the university was founded in 1451 and is presently one of seventeen British higher education institutions ranked amongst the top 100 of the world.

A major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment
Scottish Enlightenment
The Scottish Enlightenment was the period in 18th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments. By 1750, Scots were among the most literate citizens of Europe, with an estimated 75% level of literacy...

 during the 18th century, from the 19th century it became a pioneer in British higher education by providing for the educational needs of students from the growing urban and commercial classes, as opposed to the upper class.
Encyclopedia
The University of Glasgow is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world
English-speaking world
The English-speaking world consists of those countries or regions that use the English language to one degree or another. For more information, please see:Lists:* List of countries by English-speaking population...

 and one of Scotland's four ancient universities
Ancient university
Ancient university is a term used to describe seven medieval and renaissance universities of the United Kingdom and Ireland that exist today. Six of those universities are currently located in the United Kingdom and one in the Republic of Ireland...

. Located in Glasgow
Glasgow
Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom. The city is situated on the River Clyde in the country's west central lowlands...

, the university was founded in 1451 and is presently one of seventeen British higher education institutions ranked amongst the top 100 of the world.

A major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment
Scottish Enlightenment
The Scottish Enlightenment was the period in 18th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments. By 1750, Scots were among the most literate citizens of Europe, with an estimated 75% level of literacy...

 during the 18th century, from the 19th century it became a pioneer in British higher education by providing for the educational needs of students from the growing urban and commercial classes, as opposed to the upper class. Glasgow served these students by preparing them for professions outwith commerce - the law, medicine, teaching, and the church. It also trained smaller numbers for careers in science and engineering. More recently it was the Sunday Times "Scottish University of the Year" for 2007 and the university is currently a member of the Russell Group
Russell Group
The Russell Group is a collaboration of twenty UK universities that together receive two-thirds of research grant and contract funding in the United Kingdom. It was established in 1994 to represent their interests to the government, parliament and other similar bodies...

 and of Universitas 21
Universitas 21
Universitas 21 is an international network of universities, established as an "international reference point and resource for strategic thinking on issues of global significance." Together, there are 500,000 students and 40,000 academics and researchers associated with these universities, which...

.

Since 1870, the main University campus has been located on Gilmorehill
Hillhead
Hillhead is a district of Glasgow, Scotland. Situated north of Kelvingrove Park and to the south of the River Kelvin, Hillhead is at the heart of Glasgow's fashionable West End, with Byres Road forming the western border of the area, the other boundaries being Dumbarton Road to the south and the...

 in the West End of the city. Additionally, there are a number of university buildings elsewhere in the city, a facility at Loch Lomond
Loch Lomond
Loch Lomond is a freshwater Scottish loch, lying on the Highland Boundary Fault. It is the largest lake in Great Britain by surface area. The lake contains many islands, including Inchmurrin, the largest fresh-water island in the British Isles, although the lake itself is smaller than many Irish...

, the University Marine Biological Station Millport and the Crichton Campus
Crichton Campus
The Crichton is an institutional campus in Dumfries, south-west Scotland. It incorporates part of Dumfries and Galloway Royal Infirmary, a business park, and Crichton University Campus, which serves as a remote campus for the University of Glasgow, University of the West of Scotland , Dumfries and...

 in Dumfries
Dumfries
Dumfries is a market town and former royal burgh within the Dumfries and Galloway council area of Scotland. It is near the mouth of the River Nith into the Solway Firth. Dumfries was the county town of the former county of Dumfriesshire. Dumfries is nicknamed Queen of the South...

.

Glasgow has departments of Law
University of Glasgow School of Law
The School of Law at the University of Glasgow provides undergraduate and postgraduate courses in Law, and awards the degrees of Bachelor of Laws , Master of Laws , Master of Science , Master of Research and Doctor of Philosophy , the degree of Doctor of Laws...

, Medicine, Veterinary Medicine, and Dentistry
Glasgow Dental Hospital and School
The Glasgow Dental Hospital and School is a dental teaching hospital, situated in the Garnethill area of the city centre of Glasgow, Scotland.Dental students have been educated in Glasgow since 1879, and the Dental School began issuing the Bachelor of Dental Surgery Degree of the University of...

—a position that is unique amongst the other universities in Scotland. The alumni of the University includes six Nobel
Nobel Prize
The Nobel Prizes are annual international awards bestowed by Scandinavian committees in recognition of cultural and scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the prizes in 1895...

 laureates and two British Prime Ministers
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the Head of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister and Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Sovereign, to Parliament, to their political party and...

.

History

The University of Glasgow was founded in 1451 A.D by a papal bull
Papal bull
A Papal bull is a particular type of letters patent or charter issued by a Pope of the Catholic Church. It is named after the bulla that was appended to the end in order to authenticate it....

 of Pope Nicholas V
Pope Nicholas V
Pope Nicholas V , born Tommaso Parentucelli, was Pope from March 6, 1447 to his death in 1455.-Biography:He was born at Sarzana, Liguria, where his father was a physician...

, at the suggestion of King James II
James II of Scotland
James II reigned as King of Scots from 1437 to his death.He was the son of James I, King of Scots, and Joan Beaufort...

, giving Bishop William Turnbull permission to add the university to the city's cathedral. It is the second-oldest university in Scotland, and the fourth-oldest in the English-speaking world. The Universities of St Andrews
University of St Andrews
The University of St Andrews, informally referred to as "St Andrews", is the oldest university in Scotland and the third oldest in the English-speaking world after Oxford and Cambridge. The university is situated in the town of St Andrews, Fife, on the east coast of Scotland. It was founded between...

, Glasgow and Aberdeen
University of Aberdeen
The University of Aberdeen, an ancient university founded in 1495, in Aberdeen, Scotland, is a British university. It is the third oldest university in Scotland, and the fifth oldest in the United Kingdom and wider English-speaking world...

 are ecclesiastical foundations, while Edinburgh
University of Edinburgh
The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1583, is a public research university located in Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The university is deeply embedded in the fabric of the city, with many of the buildings in the historic Old Town belonging to the university...

 was a civic foundation.

The University has been without its original Bull, issued by Pope Nicholas V in 1451, since the mid-sixteenth century. In 1560, during the political unrest accompanying the Scottish Reformation
Scottish Reformation
The Scottish Reformation was Scotland's formal break with the Papacy in 1560, and the events surrounding this. It was part of the wider European Protestant Reformation; and in Scotland's case culminated ecclesiastically in the re-establishment of the church along Reformed lines, and politically in...

, the then chancellor, Archbishop James Beaton, a supporter of the Marian cause, fled to France taking with him for safe-keeping many of the archives and valuables of the Cathedral and the University, including the Mace and the Bull. Although the Mace was sent back in 1590, the archives were not. Principal Dr James Fall told the Parliamentary Commissioners of Visitation on 28 August 1690, that he had seen the Bull at the Scots College in Paris, together with the many charters granted to the University by the monarchs of Scotland from James II
James II of Scotland
James II reigned as King of Scots from 1437 to his death.He was the son of James I, King of Scots, and Joan Beaufort...

 to Mary, Queen of Scots. The University enquired of these documents in 1738 but was informed by Thomas Innes
Thomas Innes
Thomas Innes was a Scottish Roman Catholic priest and historian. He studied at the Scots College, , of which he became vice-principal...

 and the superiors of the Scots College
Scots College (Paris)
The Scots College was a college of the University of Paris, France, founded by an Act of the Parlement of Paris on 8 July 1333. The act was a ratification of an event that had already taken place, the founding of the Collegium Scoticum, one of a number of national colleges into which the...

, that the original records of the foundation of the University were not now to be found. If they had not been lost by this time they certainly went astray during the French Revolution
French Revolution
The French Revolution , sometimes distinguished as the 'Great French Revolution' , was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France and Europe. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years...

 when the Scots College was itself under threat and its records and valuables were moved for safe-keeping out of the city of Paris. Nevertheless, the Bull remains the authority by which the University awards degrees.

Glasgow is the only tertiary education establishment in Scotland which offers a complete range of professional studies including law, medicine, veterinary medicine, dentistry, and engineering, combined with a comprehensive range of academic studies including science, social science, ancient and modern languages, literature
Literature
Literature is the art of written works, and is not bound to published sources...

, theology and history.

Teaching at the University began in the chapterhouse of Glasgow Cathedral
Glasgow Cathedral
The church commonly known as Glasgow Cathedral is the Church of Scotland High Kirk of Glasgow otherwise known as St. Mungo's Cathedral.The other cathedrals in Glasgow are:* The Catholic Metropolitan Cathedral Church of Saint Andrew...

, subsequently moving to nearby Rottenrow
Rottenrow
Rottenrow is a famous street in the city of Glasgow in Scotland. It is located at Townhead, in the northern periphery of the city centre.Rottenrow dates back to the city's medieval beginnings, and once connected the historic High Street to the northern reaches of what is now the Cowcaddens area. ...

, in a building known as the "Auld Pedagogy". The University was given 13 acres (52,609.2 m²) of land belonging to the Black Friars (Dominicans) on High Street
High Street (Glasgow)
High Street in Glasgow, Scotland is the city's oldest and one of its most historically significant streets.Originally the city's main street in medieval times, it formed a direct north-south artery between the Cathedral of St...

 by Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1563. By the late 17th century, the University building centred on two courtyards surrounded by walled gardens, with a clock tower, which was one of the notable features of Glasgow's skyline, and a chapel adapted from the church of the former Dominican
Dominican Order
The Order of Preachers , after the 15th century more commonly known as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is a Catholic religious order founded by Saint Dominic and approved by Pope Honorius III on 22 December 1216 in France...

 (Blackfriars) friary. Remnants of this Scottish Renaissance building, mainly parts of the main facade, were transferred to the Gilmorehill campus and renamed as the "Pearce Lodge", after Sir William Pearce
Sir William Pearce, 1st Baronet
Sir William Pearce, 1st Baronet was a British shipbuilder, under whose management the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company in Govan on the River Clyde became the leading shipbuilding company in the world...

. The Lion and Unicorn Staircase
Lion and Unicorn Staircase
The Lion and Unicorn Staircase, at the University of Glasgow, is located next to the University's Memorial Chapel on the west side of the Main Building. It consists of two flights connected by a landing, the upper flight turning ninety degrees to the left from the lower flight. There is a...

 was also transferred from the old college site and is now attached to the Main Building.

John Anderson
John H. D. Anderson
John Anderson was a Scottish natural philosopherand liberal educator at the forefront of the application of science to technology in the industrial revolution, and of the education and advancement of working men and women....

, while professor of natural philosophy at the university, and with some opposition from his colleagues, pioneered vocational education
Vocational education
Vocational education or vocational education and training is an education that prepares trainees for jobs that are based on manual or practical activities, traditionally non-academic, and totally related to a specific trade, occupation, or vocation...

 for working men and women during the industrial revolution
Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times...

. To continue this work in his will he founded Anderson's College, which was associated with the university before merging with other institutions to become the University of Strathclyde
University of Strathclyde
The University of Strathclyde , Glasgow, Scotland, is Glasgow's second university by age, founded in 1796, and receiving its Royal Charter in 1964 as the UK's first technological university...

 in 1964.

Reputation

The University's teaching quality was assessed in 2009 to be among the top 10 in the United Kingdom, along with its reputation as a "research powerhouse", whose income from annual research contracts also placing among the top 10 the UK. The university overall generates a total income of over £421,000,000 per year- also amongst the top 10 in the UK. The University is a member of the Russell Group
Russell Group
The Russell Group is a collaboration of twenty UK universities that together receive two-thirds of research grant and contract funding in the United Kingdom. It was established in 1994 to represent their interests to the government, parliament and other similar bodies...

 of research-led British universities and was a founding member of the organisation, Universitas 21
Universitas 21
Universitas 21 is an international network of universities, established as an "international reference point and resource for strategic thinking on issues of global significance." Together, there are 500,000 students and 40,000 academics and researchers associated with these universities, which...

, an international grouping of universities dedicated to setting worldwide standards for higher education. The university currently has fifteen Regius Professorships, nearly twice the number held by the next nearest, Oxford.

Glasgow has the fourth largest financial endowment
Financial endowment
A financial endowment is a transfer of money or property donated to an institution. The total value of an institution's investments is often referred to as the institution's endowment and is typically organized as a public charity, private foundation, or trust....

 among UK universities at £133m, and the fifth largest endowment per student, according to the Sutton Trust, with investment in facilities of over £150 million in the last 5 years.

In the 2011/12 QS World University Rankings
QS World University Rankings
The QS World University Rankings is a ranking of the world’s top 500 universities by Quacquarelli Symonds using a method that has published annually since 2004....

 Glasgow jumped from 77th overall in 2010 to 59th overall in the world in 2011 (in 2010 Times Higher Education World University Rankings
Times Higher Education World University Rankings
The Times Higher Education World University Rankings is an international ranking of universities published by the British magazine Times Higher Education in partnership with Thomson Reuters, which provided citation database information...

 and QS World University Rankings
QS World University Rankings
The QS World University Rankings is a ranking of the world’s top 500 universities by Quacquarelli Symonds using a method that has published annually since 2004....

 parted ways to produce separate rankings). According to The Times Good University Guide and The Guardian University Guide 2009, Glasgow University was ranked amongst the top 20 universities in the UK. In the most recent Times Higher Education World rankings of universities, Glasgow is among only a handful of UK universities in the top 100, placed at 13th in the UK and 79th in the World. In the Guardian University Guide for 2010 Glasgow University fell by six places to number 23.

The University has recently published its "Building on Excellence" strategy for 2006-2010. The University's strategic plan sets out the ambition to be one of the best universities in the world. The University aims to be recognised as one of the UK's top 10 universities and as one of the world's top 50 research-intensive universities.

As of February 2009, the University had almost 20,000 undergraduate and 5,000 postgraduate students. Glasgow has a large (for the UK) proportion of "home" students, with 40 per cent of the student body coming from the West of Scotland, an additional 39 per cent from elsewhere in the UK, leaving 16 per cent from elsewhere in the world. More recently the University has started to attract more overseas students, particularly from Asia. There are 6,000 staff, of whom 3,400 are researchers, bringing in £130M of research income (2006-7). Twenty-three subject areas, and 96 per cent of staff, were awarded 5 or 5* ratings in the 2001 Research Assessment Exercise
Research Assessment Exercise
The Research Assessment Exercise is an exercise undertaken approximately every 5 years on behalf of the four UK higher education funding councils to evaluate the quality of research undertaken by British higher education institutions...

.

The most recent rankings from Times Higher Education, compiled by QS, place Glasgow in the top 75 Worldwide for Arts, Humanities, Biological Sciences, and Social Sciences. On top of this, recent statistics also show Glasgow to be among the top 10 in the UK for both entry standards, as well as the percentage of students who go on to gain first or upper second class honours degrees.

The University is ranked equal 101st by the Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Shanghai Jiao Tong University or SJTU), sometimes referred to as Shanghai Jiaotong University , is a top public research university located in Shanghai, China. Shanghai Jiao Tong University is known as one of the oldest and most prestigious universities in China...

's Academic Ranking of World Universities
Academic Ranking of World Universities
The Academic Ranking of World Universities , commonly known as the Shanghai ranking, is a publication that was founded and compiled by the Shanghai Jiaotong University to rank universities globally. The rankings have been conducted since 2003 and updated annually...

. In 2008, it was ranked in 73rd place in the Top 100 universities in the THE - QS World University Rankings 2008.

In the 2008 Research Assessment Exercise
Research Assessment Exercise
The Research Assessment Exercise is an exercise undertaken approximately every 5 years on behalf of the four UK higher education funding councils to evaluate the quality of research undertaken by British higher education institutions...

 (RAE), almost 70% of research carried out at the university was in the top two categories (88% in the top three categories). Eighteen subject areas were rated top ten in the UK, whilst fourteen subject areas were rated the best in Scotland. The latest Times RAE table ranks according to an 'average' score across all departments, of which Glasgow posted an average of 2.6/4. The overall average placed Glasgow as the thirty-third highest of all UK universities, although placed fourteenth in the UK and second in Scotland for total Research Power.

Campus

The University is currently spread over a number of different campuses. The main one is the Gilmorehill campus, in Hillhead
Hillhead
Hillhead is a district of Glasgow, Scotland. Situated north of Kelvingrove Park and to the south of the River Kelvin, Hillhead is at the heart of Glasgow's fashionable West End, with Byres Road forming the western border of the area, the other boundaries being Dumbarton Road to the south and the...

. As well as this there is the Garscube Estate in Bearsden
Bearsden
Bearsden ) is a town in East Dunbartonshire, Scotland. It lies on the northwestern fringe of Greater Glasgow, approximately from the City Centre, and is effectively a suburb, with housing development coinciding with the introduction of a railway line in 1863, and from where the town gets its name...

, housing the Veterinary School, Observatory
Observatory
An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial or celestial events. Astronomy, climatology/meteorology, geology, oceanography and volcanology are examples of disciplines for which observatories have been constructed...

, Ship model basin
Ship model basin
A ship model basin may be defined as one of two separate yet related entities, namely:* a physical basin or tank used to carry out hydrodynamic tests with ship models, for the purpose of designing a new ship, or refining the design of a ship to improve the ship's performance at sea;* the...

 and much of the University's sports facilities, the Dental School
Glasgow Dental Hospital and School
The Glasgow Dental Hospital and School is a dental teaching hospital, situated in the Garnethill area of the city centre of Glasgow, Scotland.Dental students have been educated in Glasgow since 1879, and the Dental School began issuing the Bachelor of Dental Surgery Degree of the University of...

 in the city centre, and the Crichton campus in Dumfries, operated jointly by the University of Glasgow, the University of the West of Scotland and the Open University
Open University
The Open University is a distance learning and research university founded by Royal Charter in the United Kingdom...

. The University has also established joint departments with the Glasgow School of Art
Glasgow School of Art
Glasgow School of Art is one of only two independent art schools in Scotland, situated in the Garnethill area of Glasgow.-History:It was founded in 1845 as the Glasgow Government School of Design. In 1853, it changed its name to The Glasgow School of Art. Initially it was located at 12 Ingram...

 and in naval architecture
Naval architecture
Naval architecture is an engineering discipline dealing with the design, construction, maintenance and operation of marine vessels and structures. Naval architecture involves basic and applied research, design, development, design evaluation and calculations during all stages of the life of a...

 with the University of Strathclyde
University of Strathclyde
The University of Strathclyde , Glasgow, Scotland, is Glasgow's second university by age, founded in 1796, and receiving its Royal Charter in 1964 as the UK's first technological university...

.

High Street

The University's initial accommodation was part of the complex of religious buildings in the precincts of Glasgow Cathedral
St. Mungo's Cathedral, Glasgow
Glasgow Cathedral, also called the High Kirk of Glasgow or St Kentigern's or St Mungo's Cathedral, is today a gathering of the Church of Scotland in Glasgow....

. In 1460, the University received a grant of land from James, Lord Hamilton, on the east side of the High Street
High Street (Glasgow)
High Street in Glasgow, Scotland is the city's oldest and one of its most historically significant streets.Originally the city's main street in medieval times, it formed a direct north-south artery between the Cathedral of St...

, immediately north of the Blackfriars Church, on which it had its home for the next four hundred years. In the mid-seventeenth century, the Hamilton Building was replaced with a very grand two-court building with a decorated west front facing the High Street, called the "Nova Erectio", or New Building.

Over the following centuries, the University's size and scope continued to expand. In 1757 it built the Macfarlane Observatory
Macfarlane Observatory
At Glasgow University, the Macfarlane Observatory was established in 1757 with instruments donated by Alexander Macfarlane, a merchant in Jamaica. The instruments arrived to Glasgow in a deteriorated condition, and their suitability for mounting was in question before they were taken in hand by...

 and later Scotland's first public museum, the Hunterian
Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery
The University of Glasgow's Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery is the oldest public museum in Scotland. It is located in various buildings on the main campus of the University in the west end of Glasgow.-History:...

. It was a centre of the Scottish Enlightenment
Scottish Enlightenment
The Scottish Enlightenment was the period in 18th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments. By 1750, Scots were among the most literate citizens of Europe, with an estimated 75% level of literacy...

 and subsequently of the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times...

, and its expansion in the High Street was constrained. The area around the University declined as well-off residents moved westwards with expansion of the city and overcrowding of the immediate area by less well-off residents. It was this rapid slumming of the area that was a chief catalyst of the University's migration westward.

Gilmorehill

Consequently, in 1870, it moved to a (then greenfield
Greenfield land
Greenfield land is a term used to describe undeveloped land in a city or rural area either used for agriculture, landscape design, or left to naturally evolve...

) site on Gilmorehill in the West End of the city, around three miles (5 km) west of its previous location, enclosed by a large meander
Meander
A meander in general is a bend in a sinuous watercourse. A meander is formed when the moving water in a stream erodes the outer banks and widens its valley. A stream of any volume may assume a meandering course, alternately eroding sediments from the outside of a bend and depositing them on the...

 of the River Kelvin
River Kelvin
The Kelvin rises on watershed of Scotland on the moor south east of the village of Banton, east of Kilsyth - . At almost 22 miles long, it initially flows south to Dullatur Bog where it falls into a man made trench and takes a ninety degree turn flowing west along the northern boundary of the bog...

. The original site on the High Street was sold to the City of Glasgow Union Railway and replaced by the College Goods yard. The new-build campus was designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott
George Gilbert Scott
Sir George Gilbert Scott was an English architect of the Victorian Age, chiefly associated with the design, building and renovation of churches, cathedrals and workhouses...

 in the Gothic revival style. The largest of these buildings echoed, on a far grander scale, the original High Street campus's twin-quadrangle
Quadrangle (architecture)
In architecture, a quadrangle is a space or courtyard, usually rectangular in plan, the sides of which are entirely or mainly occupied by parts of a large building. The word is probably most closely associated with college or university campus architecture, but quadrangles may be found in other...

 layout, and may have been inspired by Ypres
Ypres
Ypres is a Belgian municipality located in the Flemish province of West Flanders. The municipality comprises the city of Ypres and the villages of Boezinge, Brielen, Dikkebus, Elverdinge, Hollebeke, Sint-Jan, Vlamertinge, Voormezele, Zillebeke, and Zuidschote...

' late medieval Cloth Hall
Cloth hall
A cloth hall or linen hall is a historic building located in the centre of main marketplaces of European towns. They contained trading stalls, particularly for the selling of cloth as well as leather, wax and salt, including exotic imports such as spices and silk...

; Gilmorehill in turn inspired the design of the Clocktower complex of buildings for the new University of Otago
University of Otago
The University of Otago in Dunedin is New Zealand's oldest university with over 22,000 students enrolled during 2010.The university has New Zealand's highest average research quality and in New Zealand is second only to the University of Auckland in the number of A rated academic researchers it...

 in New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

. In 1879, Gilbert Scott's son, Oldrid
John Oldrid Scott
John Oldrid Scott was an English architect.He was the son of Sir George Gilbert Scott and Caroline née Oldrid. His brother George Gilbert Scott Junior and nephew Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, were also prominent architects. He married Mary Ann Stevens in 1868, eldest daughter of the Reverend Thomas...

, completed this original vision by building an open undercroft
Undercroft
An undercroft is traditionally a cellar or storage room, often brick-lined and vaulted, and used for storage in buildings since medieval times. In modern usage, an undercroft is generally a ground area which is relatively open to the sides, but covered by the building above.- History :While some...

 forming two quadrangles, above which is his grand Bute Hall (used for examinations and graduation ceremonies). Oldrid also later added a spire to the buildings' signature gothic
Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

 bell tower
Bell tower
A bell tower is a tower which contains one or more bells, or which is designed to hold bells, even if it has none. In the European tradition, such a tower most commonly serves as part of a church and contains church bells. When attached to a city hall or other civic building, especially in...

 in 1887. The blond sandstone cladding and Gothic design of the building's exterior belie the modernity of its Victorian
Victorian era
The Victorian era of British history was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a long period of peace, prosperity, refined sensibilities and national self-confidence...

 construction; Scott's building is structured upon what was then a cutting-edge riveted iron frame
Steel frame
Steel frame usually refers to a building technique with a "skeleton frame" of vertical steel columns and horizontal -beams, constructed in a rectangular grid to support the floors, roof and walls of a building which are all attached to the frame...

 construction, supporting a lightweight wooden-beam roof. The building also forms the second-largest example of Gothic revival architecture in Britain, after the Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster
The Palace of Westminster, also known as the Houses of Parliament or Westminster Palace, is the meeting place of the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom—the House of Lords and the House of Commons...

. An illustration of the Main Building currently features on the reverse side of the current series of £100 notes issued by the Clydesdale Bank
Clydesdale Bank
Clydesdale Bank is a commercial bank in Scotland, a subsidiary of the National Australia Bank Group. In Scotland, Clydesdale Bank is the third largest clearing bank, although it also retains a branch network in London and the north of England...

.

The University's Hunterian Museum
Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery
The University of Glasgow's Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery is the oldest public museum in Scotland. It is located in various buildings on the main campus of the University in the west end of Glasgow.-History:...

 resides in the Main Building, and the related Hunterian Gallery is housed in buildings adjacent to the University Library. The latter includes "The Mackintosh House", a rebuilt terraced house designed by, and furnished after, architect Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Charles Rennie Mackintosh was a Scottish architect, designer, watercolourist and artist. He was a designer in the Arts and Crafts movement and also the main representative of Art Nouveau in the United Kingdom. He had a considerable influence on European design...

.

Even these enlarged premises could not contain the expanding University, which quickly spread across much of Gilmorehill. The 1930s saw the construction of the award-winning round Reading Room (it is now a category-A listed building) and an aggressive programme of house purchases, in which the University (fearing the surrounding district of Hillhead was running out of suitable building land) acquired several terraces of Victorian houses and joined them together internally. The departments of Psychology, Computing Science and most of the Arts Faculty continue to be housed in these terraces.
More buildings were built to the west of the Main Builidng, developing the land between University Avenue and the River Kelvin with natural science buildings and the faculty of medicine. The medical school spread into neighbouring Partick
Partick
Partick is an area of Glasgow on the north bank of the River Clyde, just across from Govan. To the west lies Whiteinch. Partick was a Police burgh from 1852 until 1912 when it was incorporated into the city.-History:...

 and joined with the Western General Infirmary
Western Infirmary
The Western Infirmary is a teaching hospital situated in the West End of Glasgow, Scotland. There is also a Maggie's centre at the hospital to help cancer patients, as well as the Glasgow Clinical Research Facility....

. At the eastern flank of the Main Building, the James Watt Engineering Building was completed in 1959. The growth and prosperity of the city, which had originally forced the University's relocation to Hillhead
Hillhead
Hillhead is a district of Glasgow, Scotland. Situated north of Kelvingrove Park and to the south of the River Kelvin, Hillhead is at the heart of Glasgow's fashionable West End, with Byres Road forming the western border of the area, the other boundaries being Dumbarton Road to the south and the...

, again proved problematic when more real estate was required. The school of veterinary medicine, which was founded in 1862, moved to a new campus in the leafy surrounds of Garscube Estate on the edge of the city in 1954. The university later moved its sports ground and associated facilities to Anniesland
Anniesland
Anniesland is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated north of the River Clyde, and centres around the junction of the Great Western Road and Crow Road; also known as Anniesland Cross....

 (around two miles (3 km) west of the main campus) and built student halls of residence in both Anniesland and Maryhill
Maryhill
Maryhill is an area of the City of Glasgow in Scotland. Maryhill is a former burgh. The population of Maryhill is about 52,000. Maryhill stretches over along Maryhill Road...

.

The growth of tertiary education, as a result of the Robbins Report
Robbins Report
The Robbins Report was commissioned by the British government and published in 1963. The Committee met from 1961 to 1963...

 in the 1960s, led the University to build numerous modern buildings across Hillhead, including several brutalist concrete blocks: the Mathematics building; the Boyd Orr
John Boyd Orr, 1st Baron Boyd-Orr
John Boyd Orr, 1st Baron Boyd-Orr CH, DSO, MC, FRS , known as Sir John Boyd Orr from 1935 to 1949, was a Scottish teacher, doctor, biologist and politician who received the Nobel Peace Prize for his scientific research into nutrition and his work as the first Director-General of the United Nations...

 Building and the Adam Smith building (housing the Faculty of Law, Business and Social Sciences, named after university graduate Adam Smith
Adam Smith
Adam Smith was a Scottish social philosopher and a pioneer of political economy. One of the key figures of the Scottish Enlightenment, Smith is the author of The Theory of Moral Sentiments and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations...

). Other additions around this time, including the new glass-lined Glasgow University Library
Glasgow University Library
The University of Glasgow Library is one of the oldest and largest University libraries in Europe. It holds more than 2.5 million books and journals, as well as providing access to an extensive range of electronic resources including over 30,000 electronic journals.The current 12-storey building,...

, Rankine Building for Civil Engineering (named for William John Macquorn Rankine
William John Macquorn Rankine
William John Macquorn Rankine was a Scottish civil engineer, physicist and mathematician. He was a founding contributor, with Rudolf Clausius and William Thomson , to the science of thermodynamics....

) and the amber-brick Gregory Building (housing the Geology department), were more in keeping with Gilmorehill's leafy suburban architecture. The erection of these buildings in the late 1960s however involved the demolition of a large number of houses in Ashton Road, and rerouting the west end of University Avenue to its current position. To cater for the expanding student population, a new refectory
Refectory
A refectory is a dining room, especially in monasteries, boarding schools and academic institutions. One of the places the term is most often used today is in graduate seminaries...

, known as the Hub, was opened adjacent to the library in 1966. The Glasgow University Union also had an extension completed in 1965 and the new Queen Margaret Union building opened in 1969.

In October 2001 the century-old Bower Building (previously home to the university's botany department) was gutted by fire. The interior and roof of the building were largely destroyed, although the main facade remained intact. After a £10.8 million refit, the building re-opened in November 2004.
The Wolfson Medical School Building, with its award-winning glass-fronted atrium, opened in 2002, and in 2003, the St Andrews Building was opened, housing the Faculty of Education. It is sited a short walk from Gilmorehill, in the Woodlands
Woodlands, Glasgow
Woodlands is a residential area in the west-end of Glasgow, Scotland. It is to the east of Hillhead, the south of Maryhill and Woodside, and north of the city's Park District...

 area of the city on the site of the former Queens College, which had in turn been bought by Glasgow Caledonian University
Glasgow Caledonian University
Glasgow Caledonian University is a public university in Glasgow, Scotland.The university was constituted by an Act of Parliament on 1 April 1993 as a result of a merger between Glasgow Polytechnic and The Queen's College, Glasgow....

, from whom the university acquired the site. It replaced the St Andrews Campus in Bearsden. The University also procured the former Hillhead Congregational Church, converting it into a lecture theatre in 2005. The Sir Alwyn Williams building, designed by Reiach and Hall, was completed at Lilybank Terrace in 2007, housing the Department of Computing Science.

Chapel

The University Chapel was constructed as a memorial to the 755 sons of the University who had lost their lives in the First World War
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

. Designed by Sir John Burnet
John James Burnet
Sir John James Burnet was a Scottish Edwardian architect who was noted for a number of prominent buildings in Glasgow, Scotland and London, England...

, it was completed in 1929 and dedicated on 4 October. Tablets on the wall behind the Communion Table list the names of those who died, while other tablets besides the stalls record the 405 members of the University community who gave their lives in the Second World War
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. Most of the windows are the work of Douglas Strachan
Douglas Strachan
Dr. Douglas Strachan was considered the most significant Scottish designer of stained glass windows in the 20th Century. Schooled at Robert Gordon's, he studied art at Gray's School of Art in Aberdeen, at the Life School of the Royal Scottish Academy in Edinburgh, and the Royal Academy in London...

, although some have been added over the years, including those on the South Wall, created by Alan Younger.

Daily services are held in the Chapel during term-time, as well as seasonal events. Before Christmas, there is a Service of Nine Lessons and Carols
Nine Lessons and Carols
The Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols is a format for a service of Christian worship celebrating the birth of Jesus that is traditionally followed at Christmas...

 on the last Sunday of term, and a Watchnight service
Watchnight service
A watchnight service is a late-night Christian church service.In many different Christian traditions, a watchnight service is held late on New Year's Eve, and ends after midnight. This provides the opportunity for Christians to review the year that has passed and make confession, and then prepare...

 on Christmas Eve
Christmas Eve
Christmas Eve refers to the evening or entire day preceding Christmas Day, a widely celebrated festival commemorating the birth of Jesus of Nazareth that takes place on December 25...

. Graduates, students, members of staff and the children of members of staff are entitled to be married
Marriage
Marriage is a social union or legal contract between people that creates kinship. It is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually intimate and sexual, are acknowledged in a variety of ways, depending on the culture or subculture in which it is found...

 in the Chapel, which is also used for baptism
Baptism
In Christianity, baptism is for the majority the rite of admission , almost invariably with the use of water, into the Christian Church generally and also membership of a particular church tradition...

s, funeral
Funeral
A funeral is a ceremony for celebrating, sanctifying, or remembering the life of a person who has died. Funerary customs comprise the complex of beliefs and practices used by a culture to remember the dead, from interment itself, to various monuments, prayers, and rituals undertaken in their honor...

s. Civil marriage
Civil marriage
Civil marriage is marriage performed by a government official and not a religious organization.-History:Every country maintaining a population registry of its residents keeps track of marital status, and most countries believe that it is their responsibility to register married couples. Most...

s and civil partnerships may be blessed in the Chapel, although under UK law may not be performed there.

The current Chaplain of the University is the Reverend Stuart MacQuarrie, and the University appoints Honorary Chaplains of other denominations.

Library and Archives

The University Library
Glasgow University Library
The University of Glasgow Library is one of the oldest and largest University libraries in Europe. It holds more than 2.5 million books and journals, as well as providing access to an extensive range of electronic resources including over 30,000 electronic journals.The current 12-storey building,...

, situated on Hillhead Street opposite the Main Building, is one of the oldest and largest libraries in Europe. Situated over 12 floors, it holds more than 2.5 million books and journals, as well as providing access to an extensive range of electronic resources including over 30,000 electronic journals. It also houses sections for periodicals, microfilms, special collections and rare materials. Open between 7am-2am, 361 days of the year, the Library provides a resource not only for the academic community in Glasgow, but also for scholars worldwide. There are study spaces for more than 2,500 students, with over 800 computers, and wi-fi access is available throughout the building.

In addition to the main library, subject libraries also exist for Chemistry, Dental Medicine, Veterinary Medicine, Education, Law, and the faculty of Social Sciences, which are held in branch libraries around the campus. In 2007, a state of the art section to house the library's collection of historic photographs was opened, funded by the Wolfson Foundation.

The Archives of the University of Glasgow
Archives of the University of Glasgow
The Archives of the University of Glasgow maintain the historical records of the University of Glasgow back to its foundation in 1451. Its earliest record is a charter dating from 1304 for the lands of the earliest mention of record-keeping in the University is in 1490 when it is recorded in...

 are the central place of deposit for the records of the University, created and accumulated since its foundation in 1451.

Crichton Campus, Dumfries

The University opened a campus in the town of Dumfries
Dumfries
Dumfries is a market town and former royal burgh within the Dumfries and Galloway council area of Scotland. It is near the mouth of the River Nith into the Solway Firth. Dumfries was the county town of the former county of Dumfriesshire. Dumfries is nicknamed Queen of the South...

 in Dumfries and Galloway
Dumfries and Galloway
Dumfries and Galloway is one of 32 unitary council areas of Scotland. It was one of the nine administrative 'regions' of mainland Scotland created in 1975 by the Local Government etc. Act 1973...

 during the 1980s. The Crichton campus, designed to meet the needs for tertiary education in an area far from major concentrations of population, is operated jointly by the University of Glasgow, the University of the West of Scotland and the Open University
Open University
The Open University is a distance learning and research university founded by Royal Charter in the United Kingdom...

. It offers a modular undergraduate curriculum, leading to one of a small number of liberal arts degrees, as well as providing the region's only access to postgraduate study.

Non-teaching facilities

As well as these teaching campuses the University has halls of residence in and around the North-West of the city, accommodating a total of approximately 3,500 students. These are the Murano Street halls in Maryhill; Wolfson halls on the Garscube Estate; Queen Margaret halls, in Kelvinside
Kelvinside
Kelvinside is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated north of the River Clyde and is bounded by Dowanhill, Hyndland and Broomhill to the South with Kelvindale and the River Kelvin to the North...

; Cairncross House and Kelvinhaugh Gate, in Yorkhill
Yorkhill
Yorkhill is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated north of the River Clyde in the West End of the city. It is known for its famous hospitals; the Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Yorkhill and the Queen Mother's Maternity Hospital....

. In recent years, Dalrymple House and Horslethill halls in Dowanhill
Dowanhill
Dowanhill is a district of Glasgow, Scotland, occupying the area west of Hillhead, south of Kelvinside and east of Hyndland.A residential district the area generally contains a mixture of terraced townhouses with private communal gardens, detached villas with private grounds and a number of...

, Reith halls in North Kelvinside
North Kelvinside
North Kelvinside is a middle-class residential district of the Scottish city of Glasgow....

 and the Maclay halls in Park Circus (near Kelvingrove Park
Kelvingrove Park
Kelvingrove Park is a public park located on the River Kelvin in the West End of the city of Glasgow, Scotland, containing the world-famous Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum.-History:...

), have closed and been sold, as the development value of such property increased.

The Stevenson Building on Gilmorehill, opened in 1961 and provides students with the use of a fitness suite, squash courts, sauna and six-lane 25m swimming pool. The University also has a large sports complex on the Garscube Estate, beside their Wolfson Halls and Vet School. This is a new facility, replacing the previous Westerlands sports ground in the Anniesland
Anniesland
Anniesland is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated north of the River Clyde, and centres around the junction of the Great Western Road and Crow Road; also known as Anniesland Cross....

 area of the city, which was sold for housing. The university also has a boathouse situated at Glasgow Green
Glasgow Green
Glasgow Green is a park situated in the east end of Glasgow on the north bank of the River Clyde. It is the oldest park in the city dating back to the 15th century.In 1450, King James II granted the land to Bishop William Turnbull and the people of Glasgow...

 on the River Clyde
River Clyde
The River Clyde is a major river in Scotland. It is the ninth longest river in the United Kingdom, and the third longest in Scotland. Flowing through the major city of Glasgow, it was an important river for shipbuilding and trade in the British Empire....

. It is out of here that the Glasgow University Boat Club
Glasgow University Boat Club
Glasgow University Boat Club is one of the oldest institutions at the University of Glasgow, in the city of Glasgow, Scotland, with a rich tradition stretching back to its foundation in 1877. Although traditionally all-male, in 2004 the club underwent an historic transformation with the acceptance...

 trains.

Governance and administration


In common with the other ancient universities of Scotland
Ancient universities of Scotland
The ancient universities of Scotland are medieval and renaissance universities which continue to exist until the present day. The majority of the ancient universities of the British Isles are located within Scotland, and have a number of distinctive features in common, being governed by a series of...

 the University's constitution is laid out in the Universities (Scotland) Acts. These Acts create a tripartite structure of bodies: the University Court
University Court
A University Court is an administrative body of a university in the United Kingdom. In England's Oxbridge such a Court carries out limited judicial functions; whereas in Scotland it is a University's supreme governing body, analogous to a Board of Directors or a Board of Trustees.-England:In the...

 (governing body), the Academic Senate
Academic Senate
An Academic Senate is a governing body in some universities and colleges, and is typically the supreme academic authority for the institution.-Scotland:...

 (academic affairs) and the General Council
General Council (Scottish university)
The General Council of an ancient university in Scotland is the corporate body of all graduates and senior academics of each university. They were instituted by the Universities Act 1858, but each has had its constitution and organisation considerably altered by subsequent statutes.The Act of...

 (advisory). There is also a clear separation between governance and executive administration.

The University's constitution, academic regulations, and appointments are authoritatively described in the University calendar, while other aspects of its story and constitution are detailed in a separate "history" document.

Officers

There are several officers of the university. The role of each involves management of the operations of Glasgow.

Chancellor

The Chancellor is the titular head of the University and President of the General Council
General Council (Scottish university)
The General Council of an ancient university in Scotland is the corporate body of all graduates and senior academics of each university. They were instituted by the Universities Act 1858, but each has had its constitution and organisation considerably altered by subsequent statutes.The Act of...

. He awards all degrees
Academic degree
An academic degree is a position and title within a college or university that is usually awarded in recognition of the recipient having either satisfactorily completed a prescribed course of study or having conducted a scholarly endeavour deemed worthy of his or her admission to the degree...

, although this duty is generally carried out by the Vice-Chancellor, appointed by him. The current Chancellor is Professor Sir Kenneth Calman
Kenneth Calman
Sir Kenneth Charles Calman, KCB, DL, FRSE is a Scottish cancer researcher and former Chief Medical Officer of Scotland, and then England. He was Warden and Vice-Chancellor of Durham University from 1998 to 2006, before becoming Chancellor of the University of Glasgow. He has held the position of...

 and the current Vice-Chancellor is the Principal, Professor Anton Muscatelli
Anton Muscatelli
Professor Vito Antonio "Anton" Muscatelli FRSA FRSE AcSS is the Principal of the University of Glasgow and one of the United Kingdom's leading economists.-Early life:...

.

Rector

All students at the University are eligible to vote in the election of the Rector (officially styled "Lord Rector"), who holds office for a three year term and chairs the University Court. In the past, this position has been a largely honorary and ceremonial one, and has been held by political figures including William Gladstone
William Ewart Gladstone
William Ewart Gladstone FRS FSS was a British Liberal statesman. In a career lasting over sixty years, he served as Prime Minister four separate times , more than any other person. Gladstone was also Britain's oldest Prime Minister, 84 years old when he resigned for the last time...

, Benjamin Disraeli, Andrew Bonar Law, Robert Peel
Robert Peel
Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet was a British Conservative statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 10 December 1834 to 8 April 1835, and again from 30 August 1841 to 29 June 1846...

, Raymond Poincaré
Raymond Poincaré
Raymond Poincaré was a French statesman who served as Prime Minister of France on five separate occasions and as President of France from 1913 to 1920. Poincaré was a conservative leader primarily committed to political and social stability...

, Arthur Balfour
Arthur Balfour
Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour, KG, OM, PC, DL was a British Conservative politician and statesman...

, and 1970s union activist Jimmy Reid
Jimmy Reid
James "Jimmy" Reid was a Scottish trade union activist, orator, politician, and journalist born in Govan, Glasgow. His role as spokesman and one of the leaders in the Upper Clyde Shipbuilders Work-in between June 1971 and October 1972 attracted international recognition...

, and latterly by celebrities such as TV presenters Arthur Montford
Arthur Montford
Arthur Montford is a former Scottish television sports journalist, best known for his 32 year tenure as the presenter of Scotsport. Although he was most associated with football, he covered a number of other sports for ITV, notably Golf.Montford was raised in Greenock...

 and Johnny Ball
Johnny Ball
Johnny Ball is a British television personality, a great populariser of mathematics and the father of BBC Radio 2 DJ Zoë Ball.-Early life:...

, musician Pat Kane
Pat Kane
Pat Kane is a Scottish musician, and half of the pop duo Hue and Cry with his younger brother Greg.Independently of Hue & Cry, lead singer Kane writes on politics and culture...

, and actors Richard Wilson, Ross Kemp
Ross Kemp
Ross James Kemp is a BAFTA award-winning British actor, author and journalist, who rose to prominence in the role of Grant Mitchell in the BBC soap opera, EastEnders...

 and Greg Hemphill
Greg Hemphill
Gregory "Greg" Hemphill is a Scottish actor and comedian. He has also presented on television and radio. Along with his comedy partner, Ford Kiernan, he is best known in the United Kingdom for his appearances in Still Game and Chewin' the Fat.-Personal life:Hemphill was born in Glasgow, Scotland,...

. In 2004, for the first time in its history, the University was left without a Rector as no nominations were received. When the elections were run in December, Mordechai Vanunu
Mordechai Vanunu
Mordechai Vanunu ; is a former Israeli nuclear technician who, citing his opposition to weapons of mass destruction, revealed details of Israel's nuclear weapons program to the British press in 1986. He was subsequently lured to Italy by a Mossad agent, where he was drugged and kidnapped by...

 was chosen for the post, even though he was unable to attend due to restrictions placed upon him by the Israeli government. The current rector of the University, elected on 28 February 2008, is Charles Kennedy
Charles Kennedy
Charles Peter Kennedy is a British Liberal Democrat politician, who led the Liberal Democrats from 9 August 1999 until 7 January 2006 and is currently a Member of Parliament for the Ross, Skye and Lochaber constituency....

, the former leader of the Liberal Democrat party
Liberal Democrats
The Liberal Democrats are a social liberal political party in the United Kingdom which supports constitutional and electoral reform, progressive taxation, wealth taxation, human rights laws, cultural liberalism, banking reform and civil liberties .The party was formed in 1988 by a merger of the...

 and former President of the Glasgow University Union
Glasgow University Union
Glasgow University Union is one of the largest and oldest students' unions in the UK, serving students and alumni of the University of Glasgow since 1885....

. He was re-elected March 2011 and is currently in his second term.

Principal

Day-to-day management of the University is undertaken by the University Principal (who is also Vice-Chancellor). The current principal is Professor Anton Muscatelli
Anton Muscatelli
Professor Vito Antonio "Anton" Muscatelli FRSA FRSE AcSS is the Principal of the University of Glasgow and one of the United Kingdom's leading economists.-Early life:...

 who replaced Sir Muir Russell
Muir Russell
Sir Muir Russell KCB DL FRSE is a former civil servant and former Principal and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Glasgow, and Chairman of the Judicial Appointments Board for Scotland.-Early life:...

 in October 2009.

There are also several Vice-Principals, each with a specific remit. They, along with the Clerk of Senate, play a major role in the day to day management of the University.

University Court

The governing body of the University is the University Court
University Court
A University Court is an administrative body of a university in the United Kingdom. In England's Oxbridge such a Court carries out limited judicial functions; whereas in Scotland it is a University's supreme governing body, analogous to a Board of Directors or a Board of Trustees.-England:In the...

, which is responsible for contractual matters, employing staff, and all other matters relating to finance and administration. The Court takes decisions about the deployment of resources as well as formulating strategic plans for the university. The Court is chaired by the Rector
Rector
The word rector has a number of different meanings; it is widely used to refer to an academic, religious or political administrator...

, who is elected by all the matriculated students
Matriculation
Matriculation, in the broadest sense, means to be registered or added to a list, from the Latin matricula – little list. In Scottish heraldry, for instance, a matriculation is a registration of armorial bearings...

 at the University. The Secretary of Court is the Head of University Services, and assists the Principal in the day-to-day management of the University. The current Secretary of Court is Mr. David Newall.

Academic Senate

The Academic Senate
Academic Senate
An Academic Senate is a governing body in some universities and colleges, and is typically the supreme academic authority for the institution.-Scotland:...

 (or University Senate) is the body which is responsible for the management of academic affairs, and which recommends the conferment of degrees by the Chancellor. Membership of the Senate comprises all Professors of the University, as well as elected academic members, representatives of the Student's Representative Council
Glasgow University Students' Representative Council
Glasgow University Students' Representative Council was founded on 9th March 1886 and recognised as the legal representative body for students of the University of Glasgow by the Universities Act 1889. The SRC is responsible for representing students' interests to the management of the University...

, the Secretary of Court and directors of University services (e.g. Library
Glasgow University Library
The University of Glasgow Library is one of the oldest and largest University libraries in Europe. It holds more than 2.5 million books and journals, as well as providing access to an extensive range of electronic resources including over 30,000 electronic journals.The current 12-storey building,...

). The President of the Senate is the Principal.

The Clerk of Senate, who has status equivalent to that of a Vice-Principal and is a member of the Senior Management Group, has responsibility for regulation of the University's academic policy, such as dealing with plagiarism and the conduct of examanitions. Notable Clerks of Senate have included the chemist, Professor Joseph Black
Joseph Black
Joseph Black FRSE FRCPE FPSG was a Scottish physician and chemist, known for his discoveries of latent heat, specific heat, and carbon dioxide. He was professor of Medicine at University of Glasgow . James Watt, who was appointed as philosophical instrument maker at the same university...

; Professor John Anderson
John H. D. Anderson
John Anderson was a Scottish natural philosopherand liberal educator at the forefront of the application of science to technology in the industrial revolution, and of the education and advancement of working men and women....

, father of the University of Strathclyde
University of Strathclyde
The University of Strathclyde , Glasgow, Scotland, is Glasgow's second university by age, founded in 1796, and receiving its Royal Charter in 1964 as the UK's first technological university...

; and the economist, Professor John Millar.

Committees

There are also a number of committees of both the Court and Senate that make important decisions and investigate matters referred to them. As well as these bodies there is a General Council made up of the university graduates that is involved in the running of the University. The graduates also elect the Chancellor of the University. A largely honorific post, the current Chancellor is Professor Sir Kenneth Calman
Kenneth Calman
Sir Kenneth Charles Calman, KCB, DL, FRSE is a Scottish cancer researcher and former Chief Medical Officer of Scotland, and then England. He was Warden and Vice-Chancellor of Durham University from 1998 to 2006, before becoming Chancellor of the University of Glasgow. He has held the position of...

, former Chief Medical Officer and former Vice-Chancellor of the University of Durham.

Colleges

There are currently four Colleges within the University of Glasgow, each containing a number of Schools. They are:
  • College of Arts
    • School of Critical Studies
    • School of Culture and Creative Arts
    • School of Humanities
    • School of Modern Languages and Cultures
    • ArtsLab Glasgow
    • Graduate School of the College of Arts
  • College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences
    • School of Life Sciences
    • School of Medicine (including Dentistry
      Glasgow Dental Hospital and School
      The Glasgow Dental Hospital and School is a dental teaching hospital, situated in the Garnethill area of the city centre of Glasgow, Scotland.Dental students have been educated in Glasgow since 1879, and the Dental School began issuing the Bachelor of Dental Surgery Degree of the University of...

      )
    • School of Veterinary Medicine
  • College of Science and Engineering
    • School of Chemistry
    • School of Computing Science
    • School of Engineering
    • School of Geographical and Earth Sciences
    • School of Mathematics and Statistics
    • School of Physics and Astronomy
    • School of Psychology
  • College of Social Sciences
    • Business School
    • School of Education
    • School of Interdisciplinary Studies (at Crichton Campus, Dumfries)
    • School of Law
      University of Glasgow School of Law
      The School of Law at the University of Glasgow provides undergraduate and postgraduate courses in Law, and awards the degrees of Bachelor of Laws , Master of Laws , Master of Science , Master of Research and Doctor of Philosophy , the degree of Doctor of Laws...

    • School of Social and Political Sciences


At the University's foundation in 1451, there were four original faculties: Arts, Divinity, Law and Medicine. The Faculty of Divinity became a constituent school of the Faculty of Arts in 2002, while the Faculty of Law was changed in 1984 into the Faculty of Law and Financial Studies, and in 2005 became the Faculty of Law, Business and Social Sciences. Although one of the original faculties established, teaching in the Faculty of Medicine did not begin formally until 1714, with the revival of the Chair in the Practice of Medicine
Regius Professor of Medicine and Therapeutics, Glasgow
The Regius Chair of Medicine and Therapeutics is considered the oldest Chair at the University of Glasgow, Scotland. It was formed in 1989 from the merge of the Regius Chairs of the Practice of Medicine and of Materia Medica...

. The Faculty of Science was formed in 1893 from Chairs removed from the Faculties of Arts and Medicine, and subsequently divided in 2000 to form the three Faculties of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Computing Science, Mathematics and Statistics (now Information and Mathematical Sciences) and Physical Sciences. The Faculty of Social Sciences was formed from Chairs in the Faculty of Arts in 1977, and merged to form the Faculty of Law, Business and Social Sciences in 2005, the two having operated as a single 'resource unit' since 2002. The Faculty of Engineering was formally established in 1923, although engineering had been taught at the University since 1840 when Queen Victoria founded the UK's first Chair of Engineering. Through a concordat ratified in 1913, Royal Technical College (later Royal College of Science and Technology
Royal College of Science and Technology
The Royal College of Science and Technology, situated at 138 George Street in Glasgow, Scotland was the principal predecessor institution of the University of Strathclyde, and now serves as one of the main educational buildings of the campus.-History:...

 and now University of Strathclyde
University of Strathclyde
The University of Strathclyde , Glasgow, Scotland, is Glasgow's second university by age, founded in 1796, and receiving its Royal Charter in 1964 as the UK's first technological university...

) students received Glasgow degrees in applied sciences, particularly engineering. It was in 1769 when James Watt's engineering
Engineering
Engineering is the discipline, art, skill and profession of acquiring and applying scientific, mathematical, economic, social, and practical knowledge, in order to design and build structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes that safely realize improvements to the lives of...

 at Glasgow led to a stable steam engine and, subsequently, the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times...

. The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine was established in 1862 as the independent Glasgow Veterinary College, being subsumed into the University in 1949 and gaining independent Faculty status in 1969. The Faculty of Education was formed when the University merged with St Andrew's College of Education in 1999.

On 1 August 2010, the former Faculties of the University were removed and replaced by a system of four larger Colleges, intended to encourage interdisciplinary research and make the University more competitive. This structure was similar to that at other universities, including the University of Edinburgh.

Notable alumni and staff

Many distinguished figures have taught, worked and studied at the University of Glasgow, including six Nobel laureates and two Prime Ministers
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the Head of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister and Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Sovereign, to Parliament, to their political party and...

, Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
Henry Campbell-Bannerman
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman GCB was a British Liberal Party politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1905 to 1908 and Leader of the Liberal Party from 1899 to 1908. He also served as Secretary of State for War twice, in the Cabinets of Gladstone and Rosebery...

 and Andrew Bonar Law. Famous names include the physicist, Lord Kelvin
William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin
William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin OM, GCVO, PC, PRS, PRSE, was a mathematical physicist and engineer. At the University of Glasgow he did important work in the mathematical analysis of electricity and formulation of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and did much to unify the emerging...

, 'father of economics' Adam Smith
Adam Smith
Adam Smith was a Scottish social philosopher and a pioneer of political economy. One of the key figures of the Scottish Enlightenment, Smith is the author of The Theory of Moral Sentiments and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations...

, James Watt
James Watt
James Watt, FRS, FRSE was a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer whose improvements to the Newcomen steam engine were fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.While working as an instrument maker at the...

, John Logie Baird
John Logie Baird
John Logie Baird FRSE was a Scottish engineer and inventor of the world's first practical, publicly demonstrated television system, and also the world's first fully electronic colour television tube...

, Joseph Black
Joseph Black
Joseph Black FRSE FRCPE FPSG was a Scottish physician and chemist, known for his discoveries of latent heat, specific heat, and carbon dioxide. He was professor of Medicine at University of Glasgow . James Watt, who was appointed as philosophical instrument maker at the same university...

, Sir John Boyd Orr, Professor Sam Karunaratne
Sam Karunaratne
Emeritus Professor Samarajeewa "Sam" Karunaratne, FIET, FIESL is an Professor of Engineering and a leading Sri Lankan academic who is the founding & current Chancellor of the Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology and the former Vice-Chancellor of the University of Moratuwa...

, Francis Hutcheson
Francis Hutcheson (philosopher)
Francis Hutcheson was a philosopher born in Ireland to a family of Scottish Presbyterians who became one of the founding fathers of the Scottish Enlightenment....

 and Joseph Lister
Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister
Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister OM, FRS, PC , known as Sir Joseph Lister, Bt., between 1883 and 1897, was a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery, who promoted the idea of sterile surgery while working at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary...

.

In more recent times, the University boasts one of Europe's largest collections of life scientists, as well as having been the training ground of numerous politicians, including former First Minister
First Minister of Scotland
The First Minister of Scotland is the political leader of Scotland and head of the Scottish Government. The First Minister chairs the Scottish Cabinet and is primarily responsible for the formulation, development and presentation of Scottish Government policy...

 Donald Dewar
Donald Dewar
Donald Campbell Dewar was a British politician who served as a Labour Party Member of Parliament in Scotland from 1966-1970, and then again from 1978 until his death in 2000. He served in Tony Blair's cabinet as Secretary of State for Scotland from 1997-1999 and was instrumental in the creation...

, fomer leader of the Liberal Democrats and current Rector of the University Charles Kennedy
Charles Kennedy
Charles Peter Kennedy is a British Liberal Democrat politician, who led the Liberal Democrats from 9 August 1999 until 7 January 2006 and is currently a Member of Parliament for the Ross, Skye and Lochaber constituency....

, Liam Fox
Liam Fox
Liam Fox MP is a British Conservative politician, Member of Parliament for North Somerset, and former Secretary of State for Defence....

, John Smith, Sir Menzies Campbell
Menzies Campbell
Sir Walter Menzies "Ming" Campbell, CBE, QC, MP is a British Liberal Democrat politician and advocate, and a retired sprinter. He is the Member of Parliament for North East Fife, and was the Leader of the Liberal Democrats from 2 March 2006 until 15 October 2007.Campbell held the British record...

 and current Deputy First Minister
Deputy First Minister of Scotland
The Deputy First Minister of Scotland is the deputy to the First Minister of Scotland.The post is not recognised in statute , and its holder is simply an ordinary member of the Scottish Government...

 Nicola Sturgeon
Nicola Sturgeon
Nicola Sturgeon is the Deputy First Minister of Scotland, Cabinet Secretary for Health, Wellbeing and Cities Strategy, Deputy Leader of the Scottish National Party and Member for Glasgow Southside....

.


Students

Unlike other universities in Scotland, Glasgow does not have a single students' association; instead, there exist a number of bodies concerned with the representation, welfare and entertainment of students. As a result of the university's retention of its separate male and female students' unions (which since 1980 have both admitted men and women as full members whilst retaining their separate identities) there are two entirely separate students' unions, as well as a sports association and students' representative council. None of these is affiliated to the National Union of Students: membership has been rejected on a number of occasions, most recently in November 2006, on both economic and political grounds.

In common with the other ancient universities of Scotland
Ancient universities of Scotland
The ancient universities of Scotland are medieval and renaissance universities which continue to exist until the present day. The majority of the ancient universities of the British Isles are located within Scotland, and have a number of distinctive features in common, being governed by a series of...

, students at Glasgow also elect a Rector.

Students' Representative Council

The Students' Representative Council is the legal representative body for students, as recognised by the Universities (Scotland) Act 1889. The SRC is responsible for representing students' interests to the management of the University and to local and national government, and for health and welfare issues. Under the Universities (Scotland) Acts, all students of the University automatically become members of the SRC, however they are entitled to opt out of this. Members of the SRC sit on various committees throughout the University, from Departmental level to the Senate and Court.

The SRC organises RAG (Raising And Giving) Week and SHaG (Sexual Health at Glasgow) Week, as well as funding some 130 clubs and societies
Student society
A student society or student organization is an organization, operated by students at a university, whose membership normally consists only of students. They are often affiliated with a university's students' union...

.

The Unions


In addition to the Students' Representative Council, students are commonly members of one of the University's two students' union
Students' union
A students' union, student government, student senate, students' association, guild of students or government of student body is a student organization present in many colleges and universities, and has started appearing in some high schools...

s, the Glasgow University Union (GUU) and the Queen Margaret Union (QMU). These are largely social and cultural institutions, providing their members with facilities for debating, dining, recreation, socialising, and drinking, and both have a number of meeting rooms available for rental to members. Postgraduate students, mature students and staff were previously able to join the Hetherington Research Club, however large debts led to the club being closed in February 2010. However, in February 2011, students gained access to the old HRC building, situated at 13 University Gardens (Hetherington House) and have now "reopened" it as the Free Hetherington, a social centre for learning and lectures, as well as protesting the shutting down of the club. Attempts to evict this occupation resulted in complaints of heavy-handed policing and much controversy on campus.

The separate unions exist due to the University's previous male-only status; the Glasgow University Union
Glasgow University Union
Glasgow University Union is one of the largest and oldest students' unions in the UK, serving students and alumni of the University of Glasgow since 1885....

 was founded before the admission of women to the University, while the Queen Margaret Union
Queen Margaret Union
The Queen Margaret Union is one of two students' unions at the University of Glasgow, Scotland. Founded in 1890, it caters for the social and cultural needs of its members by providing a range of services including, entertainments, catering, shop facilities, bars and games.-History:The Queen...

 was originally the union of Queen Margaret College
Queen Margaret College (Glasgow)
Queen Margaret College was a women-only higher education institution based in North Park House in Glasgow, Scotland.It was established in 1868 by the Association for the Higher Education of Women, as women were not at the time permitted to study at universities in Scotland. The College was named...

, a women-only college which merged with the University in 1892. Their continued separate existence is due largely to their individual atmospheres. While the GUU's focus is mainly towards people involved in sports and debates (as among its founders were the Athletic Association
Glasgow University Sports Association
Glasgow University Sports Association is a student organisation at the University of Glasgow responsible for the promotion of sport, and to which sports teams at the University may affiliate.-History:...

 and Dialectic Society
Glasgow University Dialectic Society
The Glasgow University Dialectic Society, re-instituted in 1861, is a student society at the University of Glasgow, Scotland, committed to the promotion of debating, logic, ethics and literary discussion at the University...

), the QM is one of Glasgow's premier music venues, and has played host to Nirvana
Nirvana (band)
Nirvana was an American rock band that was formed by singer/guitarist Kurt Cobain and bassist Krist Novoselic in Aberdeen, Washington in 1987...

, Biffy Clyro
Biffy Clyro
Biffy Clyro are a Scottish rock band from Kilmarnock, comprising Simon Neil , James Johnston and Ben Johnston...

 and Franz Ferdinand
Franz Ferdinand (band)
Franz Ferdinand are a Scottish post-punk revival band formed in Glasgow in 2002. The band is composed of Alex Kapranos , Bob Hardy , Nick McCarthy , and Paul Thomson .The band first experienced chart success when their second single, "Take Me Out", reached #3 in...

. However, many students choose to frequent both unions.

Glasgow has led the UK's university debating culture since 1953. In 1955, the GUU won the Observer Mace
John Smith Memorial Mace
The John Smith Memorial Mace is an annual debating tournament contested by universities in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales....

, now the John Smith Memorial Mace, named after the deceased GUU debater and former leader of the British Labour Party. The GUU has since won the Mace debating championship fourteen more times, more than any other university. The GUU has also won the World Universities Debating Championships five times, more than any other university or club in the series' history.

Glasgow University Sports Association

Sporting affairs are regulated by the Glasgow University Sports Association (GUSA) (previously the Glasgow University Athletics Club) which works closely with the Sport and Recreation Service. There are a large number of varied clubs, who regularly compete in BUSA competitions. Students who join one of the sports clubs affiliated with the university must also join GUSA. However there are also regular classes and drop-in sessions for various sports which are non-competitive and available to all university gym members.

Student clubs and societies

The University has an eclectic body of clubs and societies, including sports teams, political and religious groups and gaming
Role-playing game
A role-playing game is a game in which players assume the roles of characters in a fictional setting. Players take responsibility for acting out these roles within a narrative, either through literal acting, or through a process of structured decision-making or character development...

 societies.

Mature Students' Association

The community of mature students - that is those students aged 25 or over - are served by the Mature Students' Association located at 62 Oakfield Avenue. The MSA aims are to provide all mature students with facilities for recreation and study. Throughout the year, the MSA also organises social events and peer support for the wide range of subjects studied by the university's mature students.

Media

There is an active student media scene at the University, part of, but editorially independent from, the SRC. There is a newspaper, the Glasgow University Guardian
Glasgow University Guardian
Glasgow University Guardian is the student newspaper of the University of Glasgow.Founded in 1956 as the Gilmorehill Guardian, it changed its name in 1960 to the Glasgow University Guardian under editor Neil MacCormick...

; Glasgow University Magazine
Glasgow University Magazine
The first issue of Glasgow University Magazine was published on 5 February 1889, aiming to keep students informed of news and events within the University, and to provide an outlet for student writing and illustrations....

; Glasgow University Student Television
Glasgow University Student Television
Glasgow University Student Television or GUST, is the student television station of the University of Glasgow. Founded around 1964, it is one of the oldest student TV station in the world with the first being ICTV in 1954 . The station is run entirely by students and produces programs covering...

; and Subcity Radio. In recent years, independent of the SRC, the Queen Margaret Union has published a fortnightly magazine, qmunicate, and Glasgow University Union has produced the GUUi.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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