University Interscholastic League
Overview
 
The University Interscholastic League (UIL) is an organization that creates rules for and administers almost all athletic, music, and academic contests for public primary and secondary schools in the American state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 of Texas
Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

.

Activities range from American football
American football
American football is a sport played between two teams of eleven with the objective of scoring points by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone. Known in the United States simply as football, it may also be referred to informally as gridiron football. The ball can be advanced by...

 and cross-examination debate to mathematics
Mathematics
Mathematics is the study of quantity, space, structure, and change. Mathematicians seek out patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proofs, which are arguments sufficient to convince other mathematicians of their validity...

 and marching band
Marching band
Marching band is a physical activity in which a group of instrumental musicians generally perform outdoors and incorporate some type of marching with their musical performance. Instrumentation typically includes brass, woodwinds, and percussion instruments...

 competitions; however, the UIL does not administer Academic Decathlon competitions.

The UIL is under the governance of the Vice President for Diversity and Community Engagement at the University of Texas at Austin
University of Texas at Austin
The University of Texas at Austin is a state research university located in Austin, Texas, USA, and is the flagship institution of the The University of Texas System. Founded in 1883, its campus is located approximately from the Texas State Capitol in Austin...

 in Austin, Texas
Austin, Texas
Austin is the capital city of the U.S. state of :Texas and the seat of Travis County. Located in Central Texas on the eastern edge of the American Southwest, it is the fourth-largest city in Texas and the 14th most populous city in the United States. It was the third-fastest-growing large city in...

.
Encyclopedia
The University Interscholastic League (UIL) is an organization that creates rules for and administers almost all athletic, music, and academic contests for public primary and secondary schools in the American state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 of Texas
Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

.

Activities range from American football
American football
American football is a sport played between two teams of eleven with the objective of scoring points by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone. Known in the United States simply as football, it may also be referred to informally as gridiron football. The ball can be advanced by...

 and cross-examination debate to mathematics
Mathematics
Mathematics is the study of quantity, space, structure, and change. Mathematicians seek out patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proofs, which are arguments sufficient to convince other mathematicians of their validity...

 and marching band
Marching band
Marching band is a physical activity in which a group of instrumental musicians generally perform outdoors and incorporate some type of marching with their musical performance. Instrumentation typically includes brass, woodwinds, and percussion instruments...

 competitions; however, the UIL does not administer Academic Decathlon competitions.

The UIL is under the governance of the Vice President for Diversity and Community Engagement at the University of Texas at Austin
University of Texas at Austin
The University of Texas at Austin is a state research university located in Austin, Texas, USA, and is the flagship institution of the The University of Texas System. Founded in 1883, its campus is located approximately from the Texas State Capitol in Austin...

 in Austin, Texas
Austin, Texas
Austin is the capital city of the U.S. state of :Texas and the seat of Travis County. Located in Central Texas on the eastern edge of the American Southwest, it is the fourth-largest city in Texas and the 14th most populous city in the United States. It was the third-fastest-growing large city in...

. Although the Texas Education Agency
Texas Education Agency
The Texas Education Agency is a branch of the state government of Texas in the United States responsible for public education. The agency is headquartered in the William B...

 governs the activities of schools and school districts in Texas, the UIL does not report to TEA, but is instead a separate entity.

History

The UIL was originally created by UT in 1910 as two different entities, the Debating League of Texas High Schools (to govern debating contests) and the Interscholastic Athletic Association (to govern athletic contests). The two entities merged in 1913 and adopted the UIL name.

At the time, UIL only governed white schools in Texas. From 1940 to 1970, an era of racial segregation
Racial segregation
Racial segregation is the separation of humans into racial groups in daily life. It may apply to activities such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a public toilet, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home...

 in Texas, the Prairie View Interscholastic League (PVIL), headquartered at Prairie View A&M University
Prairie View A&M University
Prairie View A&M University is a historically black university located in Prairie View, Texas and is a member of the Texas A&M University System. PVAMU offers baccalaureate degrees in 50 academic majors, 37 master’s degrees and four doctoral degree programs through nine colleges and schools...

, served as a separate parallel organization for African-American public high schools in Texas.

In 1965. the UIL agreed to admit PVIL member schools for competition. Black schools began UIL competition beginning in the 1967-68 school year. After the 1969-70 school year, the UIL fully absorbed all PVIL member schools, the majority of which would later be merged with their white counterparts.http://www.fridaynighthistory.com/pvilarchives.html

Beginning with the 2003-2004 academic school year, two large all-male private schools, Dallas Jesuit
Jesuit College Preparatory School of Dallas
Jesuit College Preparatory School of Dallas is a private, college-preparatory school for young men under the direction of the Society of Jesus and home to the Jesuit Dallas Museum in Dallas, Texas...

 and Houston Strake Jesuit
Strake Jesuit College Preparatory
Strake Jesuit College Preparatory is an all-men's Jesuit, university-preparatory school for grades 9-12 in the Greater Sharpstown area of Houston, Texas. It is located in proximity to Alief....

 of Houston, were granted UIL membership. This came after extensive court battles and negotiations from both the UIL's lawyers and the schools' joint lawyers. Previously, both schools were members of the now-defunct Texas Christian Interscholastic League (TCIL); after that league's demise and their inability to gain admittance into the Texas Association of Private and Parochial Schools
Texas Association of Private and Parochial Schools
The Texas Association of Private and Parochial Schools, or TAPPS, is an organization headquartered in Salado, Texas which creates rules for, and sometimes administers, almost all athletic and academic contests for non-public high schools in the American state of Texas...

 (TAPPS) or Southwest Preparatory Conference
Southwest Preparatory Conference
The Southwest Preparatory Conference is an athletic conference for certain private high schools in Texas and Oklahoma. It is composed of the following schools:*All Saints Episcopal School in Fort Worth, Texas*Casady School in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma...

 (SPC), they decided to further pursue their decade-long battle of gaining membership into the UIL. They are so far the only private schools to be granted UIL membership, as the new UIL rules established after the Jesuit schools' entry prohibited those schools who were eligible for memberships in other similar associations (such as TAPPS or the SPC) to apply. However, Cornerstone Christian School
John Hagee
John Charles Hagee is an American founder and senior pastor of Cornerstone Church in San Antonio, Texas, a non-denominational charismatic megachurch with more than 19,000 active members...

 of San Antonio, a former TAPPS member who was refused re-entry after excessive recruiting violations, recently attempted to gain entry to the UIL, claiming eligibility on the basis that they were ineligible to join TAPPS as that organization refused to accept them as a member; the case was later dismissed.

The Texas Legislature rewrote titles 1 and 2 of the Texas Education Code and greatly restricted the functions to be performed by the Texas Education Agency and the UIL. The changes made Texas an equal access state. The law now requires the public schools to allow all students that reside within the schools boundary equal access to all activities. The Senate also made amendments that expressly regulate the UIL and invalidated certain UIL rules limiting student eligibility for competitions by providing that UIL rules would only apply to a student enrolled in the public school. The UIL no longer has the authority to determine the eligibility of Charter/Home/Private school students.

All students must abide by the state No-Pass No-Play law. Only students that are enrolled in the public school must abide by UIL eligibility rules, even if the activity is not a UIL event.

REF: eligibility rules for TMEA - http://www.tmea.org/programs/all-state/eligibility.

Charter/Home/Private school students may now participate in all public school extra-curricular activities. Note: In 2008 two non-public school students won UIL wrestling championships.

On 10/10/10 the Third District Court of Appeals in Austin ruled that the UIL operates as a public organization not a private organization. The ruling clarified that the UIL is legally considered a state agency and must comply with the prerequisites and duties that all other state agencies have. As a state agent the UIL must treat individuals equally and show the purpose/need as well as a rational basis for eligibility restrictions.

Organization

The UIL governs only public schools and 2 private high schools. Activities for most Texas private schools are governed by separate bodies, the largest of which is TAPPS. However, private schools are allowed to join the UIL only if 1) they meet UIL's definition of a high school, 2) they are accredited by the Texas Private School Accreditation Commission, and 3) they are ineligible for membership in any league similar to UIL (such as TAPPS or the Southwest Preparatory Conference). Furthermore, private schools must compete at one classification higher than their enrollment would otherwise dictate (charter schools are not subject to this restriction). UIL schools are permitted to schedule contests with private schools and/or home school groups.

Schools are arranged by classification to ensure that schools compete on a regular basis with other schools in the geographic area of a similar size. The classifications are A (the smallest), AA, AAA, AAAA, and AAAAA (the largest). The corresponding alphanumeric designations (1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, and 5A) are used in everyday conversation, but officially UIL only uses the alphabetic designations. The general guideline is that the UIL desires between 220-245 schools in Class AAAAA, at least 200 schools in Classes AA, AAA, and AAAA with the grades 9-12 enrollment ratio for those classes no greater than 2.0 between the largest and smallest school in each class, and Class A consisting of all other schools.

In addition, for football participation, a school whose enrollment is at or below 99.5 students may choose to play either six-man football
Six-man football
Six-man football is a variant of American football that is played with six players per team, instead of 11.-History:6-man football was developed in 1934 by Chester High School coach Stephen Epler as an alternative means for small high schools to field a football team during the Great Depression...

 or 11-man Class A football. The school is included in a Class A district for all other events. Class A schools with enrollments over 99.5 are only eligible for 11-man football; however, some schools organize a six-man team and play an "outlaw" schedule (i.e., the school is not eligible for the postseason). Moreover, for some events (such as team tennis or swimming and diving), the UIL organizes all participating schools into Class AAAAA and Class AAAA, with the latter encompassing all schools not meeting the Class AAAAA enrollment requirements.

Within each classification, the UIL separates the schools in regions, and then further separates the regions into districts for various contests. The districts are numbered from 1 (in far west Texas) to 32 (in south Texas). There are always 32 districts in Class AAAAA and Class AAAA, but the smaller classifications may have numbers skipped based on the number of schools in the classification. No more than 10 schools are permitted in a single district unless all schools and the UIL consent otherwise; the preference is for an even number of schools in each district (6, 8, 10) though in some cases travel issues may prevent such.

Previously, schools were permitted to request to be placed in a higher classification than their enrollment would otherwise dictate, usually to play at a higher level of competition. The "play up" rule was later eliminated for competition reasons, but has been retained for geographic reasons (where playing at the current level would create a travel hardship for the school), and where school districts with eight or more high schools could keep all or most of them in the same classification. However, the school must then participate at the higher classification in all UIL events in which it does participate.

Each type of contest has different regions and competitors, as there is no requirement that a school participate in all UIL events – some small rural schools do not participate in football or choose six-man over 11-man, while some magnet schools do not field athletic teams but participate in academic events only.

Unlike the college ranks or other states, the regions and districts are not permanently set, but are redrawn biennially by the UIL behind closed doors in an attempt to keep schools within a certain distance of their geographic area when attending competitions, and to adjust for the changing enrollments of schools (moving schools with increased attendance up in classification and those with decreased attendance down). The main redrawing of regions and districts takes place on February 1 of even-numbered years (and the final allocation, especially relating to high school football
High school football
High school football, in North America, refers to the game of football as it is played in the United States and Canada. It ranks among the most popular interscholastic sports in both of these nations....

, is the subject of much pre-announcement anticipation and speculation as to which schools move up or down and the final composition of the districts), but as new schools open or smaller schools close, interim adjustments can be made. The changing districts and regions have produced unusual results – for example, the 2008-09 Class AAAAA boys' basketball championship featured champion DeSoto from Region II defeating Cedar Hill from Region I, notwithstanding that the schools are in neighboring districts.

Football

In AAAAA the top four teams from each district are eligible for the playoffs. The two eligible teams with the highest student enrollment for its district are seeded in the Division I playoff bracket, and the remaining two teams (with the lower enrollment) are seeded in the Division II playoff bracket. This method is supposed to prevent matchups between large and small schools within a classification, although in practice this is not always the case (for example, in the 2006 playoffs, Southlake Carroll, the Division I champion, had a lower student enrollment than Cedar Hill, the Division II champion).

In 4A,,3A, 2A & A only the top three teams in each district are eligible for the playoffs. The team with the highest student enrollment for its district is seeded in the Division I playoff bracket, and the remaining two teams (with the lower enrollment) are seeded in the Division II playoff bracket.

For six-man football, the UIL divides schools into separate Division I (large) and Division II (small) districts prior to the beginning of the season, and separate playoffs are held for each division with the top two teams from each district eligible. Beginning with the 2010 season Class A 11-man and Class AA were also divided into Division I and Division II districts with separate playoff formats.

Other major team sports

In AAAAA and AAAA, the top four teams from each district are eligible. However, the UIL does not use a Division I/Division II alignment as in football; only one champion is crowned in each class. A similar arrangement exists in AAA and AA, and for Class A in all other team sports except basketball, except only the top three teams are eligible.

For Class A basketball, similar to the six-man football setup the UIL divides schools into separate Division I (large) and Division II (small) districts prior to the beginning of the season, and separate playoffs are held for each division with the top two teams from each district eligible. This arrangement exists because, in some small schools, basketball is the only team sport in which the school participates.

For baseball, at all levels except the state tournament, playoff rounds are best 2-of-3 only if both coaches agree; if they do not then the playoff round is a single-game format. At the state tournament both the semifinals and finals are single-game format.

Academics and other sports

Advancement in these activities is dependent on the individual event involved.

Athletics

Historically, the football championship games have been held in mutually agreed upon neutral sites, but in 2006, 2007 and 2009, both Class 5A championship games were played at the Alamodome
Alamodome
The Alamodome is a domed 65,000 seat, multi-purpose facility that is primarily used as a football/basketball stadium and convention center in San Antonio, Texas, U.S...

 in San Antonio. In 2010 the UIL went to a designated site for all championship games: the AAAAA, AAAA, and AAA championships were held at Cowboys Stadium in Arlington
Arlington, Texas
Arlington is a city in Tarrant County, Texas within the Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area. According to the 2010 census results, the city had a population of 365,438, making it the third largest municipality in the Metroplex...

, while the AA and A championships were held at Newsom Stadium in Mansfield
Mansfield, Texas
Mansfield is a city in Ellis, Johnson, and Tarrant counties in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 56,368.In 2009, CNN/Money Magazine rated Mansfield as one of the "Best Places to Live" in the United States, ranking 24th out of the top 100 places.-History:The first...

 and the six-man championships were held at Shotwell Stadium
Shotwell Stadium
Shotwell Stadium is a stadium in Abilene, Texas. It was built in 1959, using Rice Stadium as a model. It was initially named the Public Schools Stadium. The first game played in the Stadium was in the fall of 1959. Shortly after the first season, the stadium was renamed Shotwell Stadium, after the...

 in Abilene
Abilene, Texas
Abilene is a city in Taylor and Jones counties in west central Texas. The population was 117,063 at the 2010 census. It is the principal city of the Abilene Metropolitan Statistical Area, which had a 2006 estimated population of 158,063. It is the county seat of Taylor County...

.

The state semi-final and championship games for all five classes in boys and girls basketball are held at the Frank Erwin Center
Frank Erwin Center
Frank C. Erwin, Jr. Special Events Center, commonly known as Frank Erwin Center or UT Erwin Center, is a multi-purpose arena on the campus of The University of Texas at Austin...

 on the campus of The University of Texas at Austin
University of Texas at Austin
The University of Texas at Austin is a state research university located in Austin, Texas, USA, and is the flagship institution of the The University of Texas System. Founded in 1883, its campus is located approximately from the Texas State Capitol in Austin...

.

The state track and field meet and swimming championships are also held on the UT campus, the former at Mike A. Myers Stadium
Mike A. Myers Stadium
Mike A. Myers Stadium is the home of The University of Texas Longhorn track and field and soccer teams and also home to the USATF Elite Running Circuit Austin Track Club...

 and the latter at the Lee and Joe Jamail Texas Swimming Center
Lee and Joe Jamail Texas Swimming Center
The Lee and Joe Jamail Texas Swimming Center is an aquatics facility at the University of Texas at Austin. It is home to the University men and women's swimming and diving teams, a variety of University offered swimming and scuba diving classes, as well as Longhorn Aquatics, a youth program...

.

The soccer semi-finals and finals for 4A and 5A are held at Birkelbach Field in the Austin
Austin, Texas
Austin is the capital city of the U.S. state of :Texas and the seat of Travis County. Located in Central Texas on the eastern edge of the American Southwest, it is the fourth-largest city in Texas and the 14th most populous city in the United States. It was the third-fastest-growing large city in...

 suburb of Georgetown
Georgetown, Texas
Georgetown is a city and also the county seat of Williamson County, Texas, United States with a population of 47,400 at the 2010 census. Southwestern University, founded in 1840, is the oldest university in Texas and is located in Georgetown, about 1/2 mile east of the historic square...

, and the state baseball tournament is held at Dell Diamond
Dell Diamond
The Dell Diamond is the home stadium of the Round Rock Express, the AAA minor league baseball affiliate of the Texas Rangers major league baseball team...

 in another Austin suburb, Round Rock
Round Rock, Texas
Round Rock is a city in Travis and Williamson counties in the U.S. state of Texas. It is part of the metropolitan area. The 2010 census places the population at 99,887....

. The state softball tournament is held at McCombs Field on the UT campus in Austin.

The state Cross Country meet is held at Old Settlers Park in Round Rock.

The state Wrestling tournament is held at the DELCO Center in Austin.

Since 2000 the girls' volleyball tournament in Strahan Coliseum on the campus of Texas State University
Texas State University–San Marcos
Texas State University–San Marcos is a doctoral-granting university located in San Marcos, Texas...

 in San Marcos
San Marcos, Texas
San Marcos is a city in the U.S. state of Texas, and is the seat of Hays County. Located within the metropolitan area, the city is located on the Interstate 35 corridor—between Austin and San Antonio....

.

The Class 5A Golf State Tournament is held at the Jimmy Clay Golf Course, a municipal course in Austin.

Academics

Though UIL is best known as the governing body for public school athletic competition, it also hosts numerous academic competitions as well. Between athletics, music, and academics, UIL estimates that half of all public high school graduates have competed in at least one UIL-sanctioned event during their high school tenure.

The state level academic competitions are held on the campus of The University of Texas at Austin.

For fine arts and journalism contests, the UIL has not adopted an "amateur rule.” Thus, students who have acted or performed professionally or who have written for a local newspaper may still compete in UIL-sanctioned contests provided they are otherwise eligible.

Any student who competes at a state academic meet (at any high school grade) is also eligible to apply for a scholarship from the Texas Interscholastic League Foundation, an affiliate of UIL. The student must attend college in Texas full-time and meet certain grade requirements.

External links


The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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