United States Fish and Wildlife Service
Overview
 
The United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is a federal government
Federal government of the United States
The federal government of the United States is the national government of the constitutional republic of fifty states that is the United States of America. The federal government comprises three distinct branches of government: a legislative, an executive and a judiciary. These branches and...

 agency within the United States Department of the Interior
United States Department of the Interior
The United States Department of the Interior is the United States federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for the management and conservation of most federal land and natural resources, and the administration of programs relating to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native...

 dedicated to the management of fish
Fish
Fish are a paraphyletic group of organisms that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic vertebrate animals that lack limbs with digits. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish, as well as various extinct related groups...

, wildlife
Wildlife
Wildlife includes all non-domesticated plants, animals and other organisms. Domesticating wild plant and animal species for human benefit has occurred many times all over the planet, and has a major impact on the environment, both positive and negative....

, and natural habitats. The mission of the agency reads as "working with others to conserve, protect, and enhance fish
Fish
Fish are a paraphyletic group of organisms that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic vertebrate animals that lack limbs with digits. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish, as well as various extinct related groups...

, wildlife
Wildlife
Wildlife includes all non-domesticated plants, animals and other organisms. Domesticating wild plant and animal species for human benefit has occurred many times all over the planet, and has a major impact on the environment, both positive and negative....

, plant
Plant
Plants are living organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. Precise definitions of the kingdom vary, but as the term is used here, plants include familiar organisms such as trees, flowers, herbs, bushes, grasses, vines, ferns, mosses, and green algae. The group is also called green plants or...

s and their habitat
Habitat
* Habitat , a place where a species lives and grows*Human habitat, a place where humans live, work or play** Space habitat, a space station intended as a permanent settlement...

s for the continuing benefit of the American people
People of the United States
The people of the United States, also known as simply Americans or American people, are the inhabitants or citizens of the United States. The United States is a multi-ethnic nation, home to people of different ethnic and national backgrounds...

."

The leader of FWS is the director of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service
Director of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service
The following is a list of directors of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service:...

. On Monday, December 6, 2010, President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Barack Hussein Obama II is the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama previously served as a United States Senator from Illinois, from January 2005 until he resigned following his victory in the 2008 presidential election.Born in...

 nominated Daniel M. Ashe
Daniel M. Ashe
Daniel M. Ashe is the Director of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service . The United States Senate confirmed him to the post by unanimous consent on June 30, 2011. Ashe previously was Deputy Director for Policy of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service...

, of Maryland, to the U.S.
Encyclopedia
The United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is a federal government
Federal government of the United States
The federal government of the United States is the national government of the constitutional republic of fifty states that is the United States of America. The federal government comprises three distinct branches of government: a legislative, an executive and a judiciary. These branches and...

 agency within the United States Department of the Interior
United States Department of the Interior
The United States Department of the Interior is the United States federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for the management and conservation of most federal land and natural resources, and the administration of programs relating to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native...

 dedicated to the management of fish
Fish
Fish are a paraphyletic group of organisms that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic vertebrate animals that lack limbs with digits. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish, as well as various extinct related groups...

, wildlife
Wildlife
Wildlife includes all non-domesticated plants, animals and other organisms. Domesticating wild plant and animal species for human benefit has occurred many times all over the planet, and has a major impact on the environment, both positive and negative....

, and natural habitats. The mission of the agency reads as "working with others to conserve, protect, and enhance fish
Fish
Fish are a paraphyletic group of organisms that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic vertebrate animals that lack limbs with digits. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish, as well as various extinct related groups...

, wildlife
Wildlife
Wildlife includes all non-domesticated plants, animals and other organisms. Domesticating wild plant and animal species for human benefit has occurred many times all over the planet, and has a major impact on the environment, both positive and negative....

, plant
Plant
Plants are living organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. Precise definitions of the kingdom vary, but as the term is used here, plants include familiar organisms such as trees, flowers, herbs, bushes, grasses, vines, ferns, mosses, and green algae. The group is also called green plants or...

s and their habitat
Habitat
* Habitat , a place where a species lives and grows*Human habitat, a place where humans live, work or play** Space habitat, a space station intended as a permanent settlement...

s for the continuing benefit of the American people
People of the United States
The people of the United States, also known as simply Americans or American people, are the inhabitants or citizens of the United States. The United States is a multi-ethnic nation, home to people of different ethnic and national backgrounds...

."

The leader of FWS is the director of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service
Director of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service
The following is a list of directors of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service:...

. On Monday, December 6, 2010, President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Barack Hussein Obama II is the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama previously served as a United States Senator from Illinois, from January 2005 until he resigned following his victory in the 2008 presidential election.Born in...

 nominated Daniel M. Ashe
Daniel M. Ashe
Daniel M. Ashe is the Director of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service . The United States Senate confirmed him to the post by unanimous consent on June 30, 2011. Ashe previously was Deputy Director for Policy of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service...

, of Maryland, to the U.S. Senate to be the new Director, succeeding Samuel D. Hamilton.

Units within the FWS include:
  • National Wildlife Refuge System (548 National Wildlife Refuges and 66 National Fish Hatcheries)
  • Division of Migratory Bird Management
  • Federal Duck Stamp
    Federal Duck Stamp
    The federal duck stamp was created through a wetlands conservation program. President Herbert Hoover signed the Migratory Bird Conservation Act in 1929 to authorize the acquisition and preservation of wetlands as waterfowl habitat....

  • National Fish Hatchery System
    National Fish Hatchery System
    The National Fish Hatchery System was established by the U.S. Congress in 1871 through the creation of a U.S. Commissioner for Fish and Fisheries. This system of fish hatcheries is now administered by the Fisheries Program of the U.S...

  • Endangered Species program
  • United States Fish and Wildlife Service Office of Law Enforcement
    United States Fish and Wildlife Service Office of Law Enforcement
    The United States Fish and Wildlife Service Office of Law Enforcement contributes to Service efforts to manage ecosystems, save endangered species, conserve migratory birds, preserve wildlife habitat, restore fisheries, combat invasive species, and promote international wildlife conservation.The...

    • Clark R. Bavin National Fish and Wildlife Forensic Laboratory

History

The Fish and Wildlife Service originated in 1871 as the United States Commission on Fish and Fisheries, created by Congress
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C....

 with the purpose of studying and recommending solutions to a noted decline in the stocks
Fish stock
Fish stocks are subpopulations of a particular species of fish, for which intrinsic parameters are the only significant factors in determining population dynamics, while extrinsic factors are considered to be insignificant.-The stock concept:All species have geographic limits to their...

 of food fish
Fish (food)
Fish is a food consumed by many species, including humans. The word "fish" refers to both the animal and to the food prepared from it. Fish has been an important source of protein for humans throughout recorded history.-Terminology:...

. Spencer Fullerton Baird
Spencer Fullerton Baird
Spencer Fullerton Baird was an American ornithologist, ichthyologist and herpetologist. Starting in 1850 he was assistant-secretary and later secretary of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C...

 was appointed its first commissioner.

In 1885, the Division of Economic Ornithology and Mammalogy was established in the United States Department of Agriculture
United States Department of Agriculture
The United States Department of Agriculture is the United States federal executive department responsible for developing and executing U.S. federal government policy on farming, agriculture, and food...

, which in 1896 became the Division of Biological Survey. Its early work focused on the effect of birds in controlling agricultural pests and mapping the geographical distribution of plants and animals in the United States. Jay Norwood Darling
Jay Norwood Darling
Jay Norwood Darling , better known as Ding Darling, was a Pulitzer-Prize winning American cartoonist....

 was appointed Chief of the new Bureau of Biological Survey in 1934; the same year Congress passed the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act
Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act
The Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of the United States was enacted March 10, 1934 to protect fish and wildlife when federal actions result in the control or modification of a natural stream or body of water...

 (FWCA), one of the oldest federal environmental review statutes. Under Darling's guidance, the Bureau began an ongoing legacy of protecting vital natural habitat throughout the country. The Fish and Wildlife Service was finally created in 1940, when the Bureaus of Fisheries and Biological Survey were combined after being moved to the Department of the Interior.

Today, the Service consists of a central administrative office with eight regional offices and nearly 700 field offices distributed throughout the United States.

Pursuant to the eagle feather law
Eagle feather law
The eagle feather law provides many exceptions to federal wildlife laws regarding eagles and other migratory birds to enable Native Americans to continue their traditional practices....

, Title 50, Part 22 of the Code of Federal Regulations
Code of Federal Regulations
The Code of Federal Regulations is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government of the United States.The CFR is published by the Office of the Federal Register, an agency...

 (50 CFR 22), and the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act
Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act
The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act is a legislation in the United States of America that protects two species of eagle. The Bald Eagle was chosen as a national emblem of the United States by the Continental Congress of 1782 and was given legal protection by the Bald Eagle Protection Act of...

, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service administers the National Eagle Repository
National Eagle Repository
The National Eagle Repository is operated and managed under the Office of Law Enforcement of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service located at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge outside of Denver, Colorado. It serves as central location for the receipt, storage, and...

 and the permit system for Native American
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of North and South America, their descendants and other ethnic groups who are identified with those peoples. Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, and in the United States as Native Americans...

 religious use of eagle feathers.

The Service governs two National Monuments
U.S. National Monument
A National Monument in the United States is a protected area that is similar to a National Park except that the President of the United States can quickly declare an area of the United States to be a National Monument without the approval of Congress. National monuments receive less funding and...

, Hanford Reach National Monument
Hanford Reach National Monument
The Hanford Reach National Monument is a national monument in the U.S. State of Washington. It was created in 2000, mostly from the former security buffer surrounding the Hanford Nuclear Reservation...

 in Washington state and Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, a huge maritime area northwest of Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii is the newest of the 50 U.S. states , and is the only U.S. state made up entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of...

 (jointly with NOAA
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration , pronounced , like "noah", is a scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere...

).

See also

  • Federal law enforcement in the United States

Related governmental agencies

  • National Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory
    National Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory
    The National Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory is located in Ashland, Oregon, United States. Founded in 1988 and run by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the forensics laboratory is the only such laboratory in the world devoted to wildlife law enforcement...

  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration , pronounced , like "noah", is a scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere...

  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Office for Law Enforcement
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Office for Law Enforcement
    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office of Law Enforcement is a federal police part of the National Marine Fisheries Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, headquartered in Silver Spring, Maryland...

  • National Park Service
    National Park Service
    The National Park Service is the U.S. federal agency that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations...

  • Partners for Fish and Wildlife
    Partners for Fish and Wildlife
    Partners for Fish and Wildlife is a voluntary partnership program administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service to provide financial and technical assistance to private landowners who wish to protect or restore wetlands, uplands, and riparian and instream habitats...

  • United States Coast Guard
    United States Coast Guard
    The United States Coast Guard is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven U.S. uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, military, multi-mission service unique among the military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission and a federal regulatory agency...


Regulatory matters

  • Coastal Barrier Resources Act
    Coastal Barrier Resources Act
    The Coastal Barrier Resources Act of the United States was enacted October 18, 1982. The United States Congress passed this Act in order to address the many problems associated with coastal barrier development. CBRA designated various undeveloped coastal barriers, which were illustrated by a...

  • Endangered Species Act
    Endangered Species Act
    The Endangered Species Act of 1973 is one of the dozens of United States environmental laws passed in the 1970s. Signed into law by President Richard Nixon on December 28, 1973, it was designed to protect critically imperiled species from extinction as a "consequence of economic growth and...

  • Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act
    Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act
    The Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of the United States was enacted March 10, 1934 to protect fish and wildlife when federal actions result in the control or modification of a natural stream or body of water...

  • Lacey Act
    Lacey Act
    The Lacey Act of 1900, or more commonly The Lacey Act is a conservation law introduced by Iowa Rep. John F. Lacey. Protecting both plants and wildlife by creating civil and criminal penalties for a wide array of violations, the Act most notably prohibits trade in wildlife, fish, and plants that...

  • Listing priority number
  • Marine Mammal Protection Act
    Marine Mammal Protection Act
    The Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 was the first article of legislation to call specifically for an ecosystem approach to natural resource management and conservation. MMPA prohibits the taking of marine mammals, and enacts a moratorium on the import, export, and sale of any marine mammal,...

  • Migratory Bird Treaty Act
  • Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918
    Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918
    The Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 , codified at , is a United States federal law, at first enacted in 1916 in order to implement the convention for the protection of migratory birds between the United States and Great Britain...

  • National Wetlands Inventory
    National Wetlands Inventory
    In the United States the National Wetland Inventory is a Fish and Wildlife Service program started in the 1970s to inventory and map all wetlands, primarily for scientific purposes. It has since been de-funded and most of its data is outdated. The data and maps it produces have been used to track...

  • National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act of 1966
    National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act of 1966
    The provided guidelines and directives for administration and management of all areas in National Wildlife Refuge system including "wildlife refuges, areas for the protection and conservation of fish and wildlife that are threatened with extinction, wildlife ranges, game ranges, wildlife management...

  • Sikes Act
    Sikes Act
    The Sikes Act , was enacted into United States law on September 15, 1960. It provides for cooperation by the Department of the Interior and Department of Defense with State agencies in planning, development and maintenance of fish and wildlife resources on military reservations throughout the...

  • Wild Bird Conservation Act of 1992

Wildlife management

  • International Migratory Bird Day
  • Timeline of environmental events
    Timeline of environmental events
    The timeline lists geological, astronomical, and climatological events in relation to events in human history which they influenced. For the history of humanity's perspective on these events, see timeline of the history of environmentalism...

  • Tri-State Bird Rescue and Research
    Tri-State Bird Rescue and Research
    Tri-State Bird Rescue and Research, Inc. is a nonprofit conservation organization located in Newark, Delaware, dedicated to indigenous wild bird rehabilitation, especially rehabilitation efforts related to oil spills...

  • United States Fish and Wildlife Service list of endangered species
    United States Fish and Wildlife Service list of endangered species
    This list contains only the bird and mammal species described as endangered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. It contains species not only in the U.S. and its territories, but also species only found abroad. It does not contain fish, amphibians, reptiles, plants, or invertebrates,...


Other related topics

  • Arizona Game and Fish Department
    Arizona Game and Fish Department
    The Arizona Game and Fish Department is a state agency of Arizona, headquartered in Phoenix. The agency is tasked with conserving, enhancing, and restoring Arizona's diverse wildlife resources and habitats through aggressive protection and management programs...

  • National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation
    National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation
    The has been sponsored since 1955 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and is one of the oldest and most comprehensive continuing recreation surveys. The most recent found that 87.5 million U.S. residents 16 years old and older participated in wildlife-related recreation and spent $122.3...

  • National Wildlife Refuge Association
    National Wildlife Refuge Association
    The National Wildlife Refuge Association is an independent non-profit 501 membership organization that works to conserve American wildlife by strengthening and expanding the National Wildlife Refuge System managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service...

  • North American Game Warden Museum
    North American Game Warden Museum
    The North American Game Warden Museum is a museum in the International Peace Garden on the Canada–United States international border between the Canadian province of Manitoba and the U.S. state of North Dakota. The museum is located on the American side of the border...


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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