Ulrike Meinhof
Overview
 
Ulrike Marie Meinhof was a German left-wing militant. She co-founded the Red Army Faction
Red Army Faction
The radicalized were, like many in the New Left, influenced by:* Sociological developments, pressure within the educational system in and outside Europe and the U.S...

 (Rote Armee Fraktion) in 1970 after having previously worked as a journalist for the monthly left-wing magazine Konkret
Konkret
konkret has been the name of two German magazines.konkret was originally the name of a magazine established by Klaus Rainer Röhl in 1957, that was an influential magazine on the German political left in the 1960s...

. She was arrested in 1972, and eventually charged with numerous murders and the formation of a criminal association. Before the trial concluded, Meinhof was found hanged in her cell in 1976.
Ulrike Meinhof was born in 1934 in Oldenburg
Oldenburg
Oldenburg is an independent city in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated in the western part of the state between the cities of Bremen and Groningen, Netherlands, at the Hunte river. It has a population of 160,279 which makes it the fourth biggest city in Lower Saxony after Hanover, Braunschweig...

, Germany.
Encyclopedia
Ulrike Marie Meinhof was a German left-wing militant. She co-founded the Red Army Faction
Red Army Faction
The radicalized were, like many in the New Left, influenced by:* Sociological developments, pressure within the educational system in and outside Europe and the U.S...

 (Rote Armee Fraktion) in 1970 after having previously worked as a journalist for the monthly left-wing magazine Konkret
Konkret
konkret has been the name of two German magazines.konkret was originally the name of a magazine established by Klaus Rainer Röhl in 1957, that was an influential magazine on the German political left in the 1960s...

. She was arrested in 1972, and eventually charged with numerous murders and the formation of a criminal association. Before the trial concluded, Meinhof was found hanged in her cell in 1976.

Early life

Ulrike Meinhof was born in 1934 in Oldenburg
Oldenburg
Oldenburg is an independent city in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated in the western part of the state between the cities of Bremen and Groningen, Netherlands, at the Hunte river. It has a population of 160,279 which makes it the fourth biggest city in Lower Saxony after Hanover, Braunschweig...

, Germany. In 1936, her family moved to Jena
Jena
Jena is a university city in central Germany on the river Saale. It has a population of approx. 103,000 and is the second largest city in the federal state of Thuringia, after Erfurt.-History:Jena was first mentioned in an 1182 document...

 when her father, art historian Dr. Werner Meinhof, became director of the city's museum. Her father died of cancer in 1940, causing her mother to take in a boarder, Renate Riemeck
Renate Riemeck
Renate Riemeck was an historian and energetic peace activist who became known as former foster parent of the terrorist Ulrike Meinhof....

, to make money. In 1946, the family moved back to Oldenburg because Jena fell under Soviet rule as a result of the Yalta agreement
Yalta Conference
The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea Conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, held February 4–11, 1945, was the wartime meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, represented by President Franklin D...

. Ulrike's mother, Dr. Ingeborg Meinhof, worked as a teacher after World War II and died 8 years later from cancer. Renate Riemeck took on the role of guardian for Ulrike and her elder sister.

In 1952, she took her Abitur
Abitur
Abitur is a designation used in Germany, Finland and Estonia for final exams that pupils take at the end of their secondary education, usually after 12 or 13 years of schooling, see also for Germany Abitur after twelve years.The Zeugnis der Allgemeinen Hochschulreife, often referred to as...

 at a school in Weilburg
Weilburg
Weilburg is, with just under 14,000 inhabitants, the third biggest town in Limburg-Weilburg district in Hesse, Germany, after Limburg an der Lahn and Bad Camberg.- Location :...

. She then studied philosophy, sociology, education and German at Marburg
Marburg
Marburg is a city in the state of Hesse, Germany, on the River Lahn. It is the main town of the Marburg-Biedenkopf district and its population, as of March 2010, was 79,911.- Founding and early history :...

 where she became involved with reform movements.

In 1957, she moved to the University of Münster
University of Münster
The University of Münster is a public university located in the city of Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany. The WWU is part of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, a society of Germany's leading research universities...

, where she met the Spanish Marxist Manuel Sacristán
Manuel Sacristán
Manuel Sacristán was a Spanish philosopher and writer.Sacristán, the son of a Francoist collaborator, moved to Barcelona in 1940, thereafter living most of his life in said city...

 (who later translated and edited some of her writings) and joined the Socialist German Student Union
Sozialistischer Deutscher Studentenbund
Der Sozialistische Deutsche Studentenbund was founded 1946 in Hamburg, Germany, as the college organisation of the SPD...

, participating in the protests against the rearmament of the Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
The Bundeswehr consists of the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities...

 and its involvement with nuclear weapon
Nuclear weapon
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Both reactions release vast quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. The first fission bomb test released the same amount...

s as proposed by Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer was a German statesman. He was the chancellor of the West Germany from 1949 to 1963. He is widely recognised as a person who led his country from the ruins of World War II to a powerful and prosperous nation that had forged close relations with old enemies France,...

's government. She eventually became the spokeswoman of the local Anti-Atomtod-Ausschuss ('Anti-Atomic Death Committee'). In 1958, she spent a short time on the AStA
AStA
The General Students' Committee or AStA, is the acting executive board and the external representing agency of the student body at universities in most German states. It is therefore considered the student government and student representative organization...

 (German: Allgemeiner Studierendenausschuss, or General Committee of Students) of the university and wrote articles for various student newspapers.

In 1959, she joined the Communist Party of Germany
Communist Party of Germany
The Communist Party of Germany was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period until it was banned in 1956...

 (KPD)—the banned German Communist Party—and later began working at the magazine konkret
Konkret
konkret has been the name of two German magazines.konkret was originally the name of a magazine established by Klaus Rainer Röhl in 1957, that was an influential magazine on the German political left in the 1960s...

, serving as chief editor from 1962 until 1964. In 1961, she married the co-founder and publisher of konkret, Klaus Rainer Röhl
Klaus Rainer Röhl
Klaus Rainer Röhl is a pre-eminent German journalist and author, best known as founder, owner, publisher and editor-in-chief of konkret, the most influential magazine on the German political left from the 1960s to the early 1970s...

. Their marriage produced twins, Regine and Bettina, on 21 September 1962, and lasted until their separation in 1967, which was followed by divorce the following year.

Establishment of the Red Army Faction

The attempted assassination of student activist Rudi Dutschke
Rudi Dutschke
Alfred Willi Rudi Dutschke was the most prominent spokesperson of the German student movement of the 1960s. He advocated 'a long march through the institutions' of power to create radical change from within government and society by becoming an integral part of the machinery...

 on 11 April 1968, provoked Meinhof to write an article in konkret demonstrating her increasingly militant attitude and containing perhaps her best-known quote:

Later that year, her writings on arson attacks in Frankfurt protesting the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of...

 resulted in her developing an acquaintance with the perpetrators, most significantly Andreas Baader
Andreas Baader
Andreas Bernd Baader was one of the first leaders of the German left-wing militant organization Red Army Faction, also commonly known as the Baader-Meinhof Gang.- Life :...

 and Gudrun Ensslin
Gudrun Ensslin
Gudrun Ensslin was a founder of the German militant group Red Army Faction . After becoming involved with co-founder Andreas Baader, Ensslin was influential in the politicization of Baader's voluntaristic anarchistic beliefs. Ensslin was perhaps the intellectual head of the RAF...

. She left her job at konkret in the early part of 1969 (later returning to vandalise the offices in May) and began her life as a guerilla.

Perhaps her last work as an individual was the writing and production of a film Bambule de) in 1970, urging female revolt and class warfare; by the time it was scheduled to be aired, she had become a wanted terrorist and its broadcast was delayed until 1997. More specifically, by that point she had participated in the breakout of Baader on 14 May 1970. During this assisted escape (from a research institute Baader was visiting rather than a prison), a 64-year old librarian was shot (several times with a pistol, resulting in critical liver damage) and two law enforcement officers were wounded. Baader and the three women involved were accused of attempted murder and a 10,000DM reward was offered for Meinhof's capture.

Action in the Red Army Faction and arrest

In the next two years Meinhof participated in the various bank robberies and bombings executed by the group. She and other RAF members attempted to kidnap her children so that they could be sent to a camp for Palestinian orphans and educated there according to her desires; however, the twins were intercepted in Sicily and returned to their father, in part due to the intervention of Stefan Aust
Stefan Aust
Stefan Aust is a German journalist and was the editor-in-chief of the weekly news magazine Der Spiegel from 1994 to February 2008...

.

During this period, Meinhof wrote or recorded many of the manifestos and tracts for the RAF. The most significant of these is probably The Concept of the Urban Guerrilla, a response to an essay by Horst Mahler
Horst Mahler
Horst Mahler is a former German lawyer and advocate of radical ideologies. He once was an extreme-left militant, a founding member of the Red Army Faction. Subsequently he became a Maoist and later shifted to the extreme-right. He was for a time a member of the National Democratic Party of Germany...

, that attempts to set out more correctly their prevailing ideology. It also included the first use of the name Rote Armee Fraktion and, in the publications of it, the first use of the RAF insignia.Information on copy held by the Bonn Museum of History (site refers to an exhibit by the DHM
Deutsches Historisches Museum
The German Historical Museum , DHM for short, is a museum in Berlin devoted to German history and defines itself as a place of enlightenment and understanding of the shared history of Germans and Europeans....

) Her practical importance in the group, however, was often overstated by the media, the most obvious example being the common name Baader-Meinhof gang for the RAF. (Gudrun Ensslin
Gudrun Ensslin
Gudrun Ensslin was a founder of the German militant group Red Army Faction . After becoming involved with co-founder Andreas Baader, Ensslin was influential in the politicization of Baader's voluntaristic anarchistic beliefs. Ensslin was perhaps the intellectual head of the RAF...

 is often considered to have been the effective female co-leader of the group rather than Meinhof.)

On 22 October 1971, Meinhof, alongside Margrit Schiller
Margrit Schiller
Margrit Schiller was a West German militant leftist associated with the Socialist Patients' Collective and later the second generation Red Army Faction.-Early life:Schiller was born in Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia in March, 1948...

 and Gerhard Müller, was involved in a shoot out with a group of policemen in Hamburg during an attempted arrest. One policeman was shot six times and killed. Though Müller and Meinhof managed to get away, Schiller was arrested a few hours later.

On 14 June 1972, in Langenhagen
Langenhagen
Langenhagen is a town in the Hanover district of Lower Saxony, Germany.-International relations:Langenhagen is twinned with: - Joinville - - Economy :...

, Fritz Rodewald, a teacher who had been providing accommodation to deserters from the U.S. Armed Forces
United States armed forces
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard.The United States has a strong tradition of civilian control of the military...

, was approached by a stranger asking for an overnighting house the next day for herself and a friend. He agreed but later became suspicious that the woman might be involved with the RAF and eventually decided to call the police. The next day the pair arrived at Rodewald's dwelling while the police watched. The man was followed to a nearby telephone box and was found to be Gerhard Müller who was armed. After arresting Müller, the police then proceeded to arrest the woman – Ulrike Meinhof.

Imprisonment and death

In December 1972, Meinhof, who was awaiting trial, was called to testify at Horst Mahler
Horst Mahler
Horst Mahler is a former German lawyer and advocate of radical ideologies. He once was an extreme-left militant, a founding member of the Red Army Faction. Subsequently he became a Maoist and later shifted to the extreme-right. He was for a time a member of the National Democratic Party of Germany...

's trial where Mahler questioned her about the statement of support the two had issued for the September 1972 massacre
Munich massacre
The Munich massacre is an informal name for events that occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Bavaria in southern West Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage and eventually killed by the Palestinian group Black September. Members of Black September...

 of Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympics. His questioning led her to say

How was Auschwitz possible, what was anti-Semitism? It used the hatred of the people of their dependence on money as a medium of exchange, their longing for communism. Auschwitz means that six million Jews were murdered and carted on to the rubbish dumps of Europe for being that which was maintained of them – Money-Jews. What had happened was that finance capital and
banks, the hard core of the system of imperialism and capitalism, had diverted the people’s hatred of money and exploitation away from themselves and on to the Jews.


After two years of preliminary hearings, Meinhof was sentenced to 8 years' imprisonment on 29 November 1974. Eventually Meinhof, Baader, Ensslin, and Raspe were jointly charged on 19 August 1975, with four counts of murder, fifty-four of attempted murder, and a single count of forming a criminal association. However before the trial was concluded, Meinhof was found hanged by a rope, fashioned from a towel, in her cell in the Stammheim Prison
Stammheim Prison
Stammheim Prison is a prison in Stuttgart, Baden Württemberg, Germany. It is situated on the northern boundaries of Stuttgart in the city district of Stuttgart-Stammheim — right between fields and apartment blocks on the fringes of Stammheim...

 on 9 May 1976. It is highly probable that, if not for her death, she would have been sentenced to 'life imprisonment plus 15 years'. (The remaining three defendants received such a sentence, designed to minimize the possibility of early parole.)

The official verdict was that Meinhof had committed suicide. It was later discovered that she had become increasingly isolated from other RAF prisoners. Notes exchanged between them in prison included one by Gudrun Ensslin
Gudrun Ensslin
Gudrun Ensslin was a founder of the German militant group Red Army Faction . After becoming involved with co-founder Andreas Baader, Ensslin was influential in the politicization of Baader's voluntaristic anarchistic beliefs. Ensslin was perhaps the intellectual head of the RAF...

, describing her as 'too weak'. The official findings were not accepted by many in the RAF and other militant organisations, and there are still some who doubt their accuracy and believe that she was murdered by the authorities. In 2001, the findings of the inquiry were published under the title Der Tod Ulrike Meinhofs. Bericht der Internationalen Untersuchungskommission (The Death of Ulrike Meinhof. Report of the International Investigation Committee).

Meinhof's body was buried six days after her death, in Berlin-Mariendorf
Mariendorf
Mariendorf is a locality in the southern Tempelhof-Schöneberg borough of Berlin.- Geography :Mariendorf is situated between the localities of Tempelhof in the north and Marienfelde and Lichtenrade in the south...

.

In late 2002, following investigations by her daughter Bettina, it was discovered that her brain had been retained (apparently without permission) following the autopsy performed as part of the investigation into Meinhof's death. The original autopsy had found brain injury near the amygdala
Amygdala
The ' are almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep within the medial temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans. Shown in research to perform a primary role in the processing and memory of emotional reactions, the amygdalae are considered part of the limbic system.-...

, resulting from unsuccessful surgery in 1962 to remove a benign brain tumor. The unpublished autopsy results at the time stated that the brain injuries "justified questions as to the culpability" of Meinhof. Bernhard Bogerts, a psychiatrist at Magdeburg university, later examined the brain again and also doubted that Meinhof was fully criminally responsible. On Bettina's request, the brain was interred in Meinhof's burial place on 19 December 2002.

Portrayals

The book Lieber wütend als traurig (Better Angry than Sad) by Alois Prinz was intended as a mainly faithful account of Meinhof's lifestory for adolescents.

Meinhof's life has been the subject, to varying degrees of fictionalisation, of several films and stage productions. Included in the former is Reinhard Hauff's 1986 account of the Stammheim trial, Margarethe von Trotta's 1981 Marianne and Juliane
Marianne and Juliane
Marianne and Juliane is a 1981 West German film directed by Margarethe von Trotta. Its original German title is Die bleierne Zeit, an idiomatic expression which can be translated as "the leaden times" and refers to a complex mixture of feelings that were shared by many people of the 1970s political...

and Uli Edel
Uli Edel
Uli Edel is a German film director.-Work:After studying theatre science in Munich, he was accepted into Munich Film School alongside Bernd Eichinger. Uli befriended him and they started working together on their exercise movies, sharing a love for the nouvelle vague and Italian neorealism as well...

's 2008 film The Baader Meinhof Complex. Of the latter there has been the 1990 opera Ulrike Meinhof by Johann Kresnik, the 1993 play Leviathan by Dea Loher, the 2005 play La extraordinaria muerte de Ulrike M. by Spanish playwright Carlos Be
Carlos Be
Carlos Be is an author and theatre director. Highlights among his works include La caja Pilcik , Llueven vacas , Achicorias , Galimatías , Origami , La extraordinaria muerte de Ulrike M. Carlos Be (born in Vilanova i la Geltrú, Barcelona, Spain, 4 November 1974) is an author and theatre director....

 and the 2006 play Ulrike Maria Stuart (de) by Austrian playwright Elfriede Jelinek
Elfriede Jelinek
Elfriede Jelinek is an Austrian playwright and novelist. She was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2004 for her "musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that, with extraordinary linguistic zeal, reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power."-...

.

The 2010 feature documentary Children of the Revolution tells Meinhof's story from the perspective of her daughter, journalist and historian Bettina Röhl (de).

Subtopia, a novel published in 2005 by Australian author and academic A.L. McCann, is partially set in Berlin and contains a character who is obsessed with Ulrike Meinhof and another that claims to have attended her funeral.

Music

Marianne Faithfull
Marianne Faithfull
Marianne Evelyn Faithfull is an award-winning English singer, songwriter and actress whose career has spanned five decades....

's album Broken English had the title track dedicated to Meinhof.

The anarcho punk band Chumbawamba
Chumbawamba
Chumbawamba is a British musical group who have, over a career spanning nearly three decades, played punk rock, pop-influenced music, world music, and folk music...

's 1990 album, Slap!
Slap!
Slap! is a 1990 album by anarchist punk band Chumbawamba. It was a radical redefinition of the band's sound and attitude. The songs now inspired dancing more than moshing, and the lyrics were celebratory as opposed to victimist.-Track listing:...

featured an opening and closing track, both named after Meinhof. The first track was entitled Ulrike and featured lyrics which directly involved Ulrike Meinhof as the protagonist and the final track was purely instrumental (but unrelated to the first track) and was entitled "Meinhof". The album's liner notes included information and an article relating to the song Ulrike.

Electronica
Electronica
Electronica includes a wide range of contemporary electronic music designed for a wide range of uses, including foreground listening, some forms of dancing, and background music for other activities; however, unlike electronic dance music, it is not specifically made for dancing...

 act Doris Days created a track entitled To Ulrike M., in which there is a passage spoken in German throughout the song, presumably an archived audio file from Ulrike Meinhof herself. This track has since been remixed by other electronica acts like Zero 7
Zero 7
Zero 7 is a British musical duo consisting of Henry Binns and Sam Hardaker. The group members began their musical careers as studio engineers and in 1997 formed the group Zero 7. Their debut album, Simple Things was released in 2001 and received critical acclaim...

, Kruder & Dorfmeister
Kruder & Dorfmeister
Kruder & Dorfmeister, named after members Peter Kruder and Richard Dorfmeister, is an Austrian duo most known for their downtempo-dub remixes of pop, hip-hop and drum and bass songs.-Style:...

, and The Amalgamation Of Soundz.

The German duo Andreas Ammer and F.M. Einheit released an album in 1996 entitled Deutsche Krieger, a substantial portion of which consists of audio recordings of and about Ulrike Meinhof.

London-based experimental group Cindytalk
Cindytalk
Cindytalk is an experimental music group fronted by Gordon Sharp, a Scottish performer who has been the only constant member since its inception in 1982.-History:...

 have an electronic side-project called Bambule, named after the Meinhof film of the same name.

The Brazilian Rock band Legião Urbana
Legião Urbana
Legião Urbana were a Brazilian rock band formed in 1982 in Brasília, Distrito Federal. The band primarily consisted of Renato Russo , Dado Villa-Lobos and Marcelo Bonfá...

 has a song called "Baader-Meinhof Blues".

The refrain of the song "Ludvig van Beethoven" from the Finnish popular-music band SIG
SIG (band)
SIG was a pop band from Raisio, Finland, formed in 1978. The singer of the band was Matti Inkinen. Two SIG's probably most famous songs are “Vuosisadan rakkaustarina“ and “Hyvää syntymäpäivää“ .-Discography:* Matkalla maineeseen...

 is "And nobody has heard about rock 'n' roll or Ulrike Meinhof's death"

Powerviolence
Powerviolence
Powerviolence , is a raw and dissonant subgenre of hardcore punk. The style is closely related to thrashcore and grindcore.-History:...

 band The Endless Blockade has a song entitled "Ulrike Meinhof's Brain"

Works of the Red Army Faction

  • Das Konzept Stadtguerilla, 1971
    • The Concept of the Urban Guerilla
  • Stadtguerilla und Klassenkampf, 1972/1974
    • Urban Guerilla and Class Struggle

Posthumous collections of essays

  • Deutschland, Deutschland unter anderem (Deutschland, Deutschland among Other Things), Wagenbach, 1995 (ISBN 3-803-12253-8)
  • Die Würde des Menschen ist antastbar (The Dignity of Man Is Violable), Wagenbach, 2004 (ISBN 3-803-12491-3)
  • Karin Bauer, ed. Everybody Talks about the Weather... We Don't: The Writings of Ulrike Meinhof, Seven Stories Press, New York, 2008 (ISBN 978-1583228319). A selection of Meinhof's writings published in konkret from 1960 to 1968, with a foreword by Elfriede Jelinek, translated by Luise von Flotow.

Books

  • Aust, Stefan
    Stefan Aust
    Stefan Aust is a German journalist and was the editor-in-chief of the weekly news magazine Der Spiegel from 1994 to February 2008...

    : Der Baader-Meinhof Komplex, (1998, ISBN 3-442-12953-2)
  • Bauer, Karin (editor): Everybody Talks About The Weather...We Don't. The writings of Ulrike Meinhof. Preface by Elfriede Jelinek (Seven Stories Press
    Seven Stories Press
    Seven Stories Press is an independent publishing company. Located in New York City, the company was founded by editor Dan Simon in 1995 after he parted company with Four Walls Eight Windows. The company was named for its seven founding authors: Annie Ernaux, Gary Null, the estate of Nelson Algren,...

     ISBN 978-1-58322-831-9)
  • Becker, Jillian
    Jillian Becker
    Jillian Becker is a novelist, prize-winning story-writer, critic, journalist, lecturer, best known internationally as a writer, researcher, and authority on the subject of terrorism.-Life:...

    : Hitler's Children: The Story of the Baader-Meinhof Terrorist Gang, London 1977.
  • Brückner, Peter: Ulrike Meinhof und die deutschen Verhältnisse (/Ulrike Meinhof and the German Situation) (1976, ISBN 978-3-8031-2407-4)
  • Ditfurth, Jutta: Ulrike Meinhof (2007, ISBN 978-3-550-08728-8)
  • Krebs, Mario: Ulrike Meinhof (1988, ISBN 3-49915642-3)
  • Röhl, Bettina (Meinhof's daughter): So macht Kommunismus Spass (/Making Communism Fun), (2007, ISBN 978-3434506003)

Films

  • Ulrike Marie Meinhof, a documentary produced by ARTE
    Arte
    Arte is a Franco-German TV network. It is a European culture channel and aims to promote quality programming especially in areas of culture and the arts...

     in 1994
  • Ulrike Meinhof – Wege in den Terror (Ulrike Meinhof – Paths to Terror), a documentary produced by RBB in 2006
  • So macht Kommunismus Spass (Making Communism Fun), a documentary produced by Bettina Röhl, Meinhof's daughter, for Der Spiegel
    Der Spiegel
    Der Spiegel is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg. It is one of Europe's largest publications of its kind, with a weekly circulation of more than one million.-Overview:...

    TV in 2006
  • Der Baader Meinhof Komplex (2008)
  • Children of the Revolution (documentary, 2010)

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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