Tree frog
Overview
 
Hylidae is a wide-ranging family
Family (biology)
In biological classification, family is* a taxonomic rank. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, genus, and species, with family fitting between order and genus. As for the other well-known ranks, there is the option of an immediately lower rank, indicated by the...

 of frog
Frog
Frogs are amphibians in the order Anura , formerly referred to as Salientia . Most frogs are characterized by a short body, webbed digits , protruding eyes and the absence of a tail...

s commonly referred to as "tree frog
Tree frog
Hylidae is a wide-ranging family of frogs commonly referred to as "tree frogs and their allies". However, the hylids include a diversity of frog species, many of which do not live in trees, but are terrestrial or semi-aquatic.-Characteristics:...

s and their allies". However, the hylids include a diversity of frog species, many of which do not live in trees, but are terrestrial
Terrestrial animal
Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land , as compared with aquatic animals, which live predominantly or entirely in the water , or amphibians, which rely on a combination of aquatic and terrestrial habitats...

 or semi-aquatic.
Most hylids show adaptations suitable for an arboreal lifestyle, including forward-facing eyes providing binocular vision
Binocular vision
Binocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used together. The word binocular comes from two Latin roots, bini for double, and oculus for eye. Having two eyes confers at least four advantages over having one. First, it gives a creature a spare eye in case one is damaged. Second, it gives a...

, and adhesive pads on the fingers and toes. In the non-arboreal species, these features may be greatly reduced, or absent.
Unanswered Questions
Encyclopedia
Hylidae is a wide-ranging family
Family (biology)
In biological classification, family is* a taxonomic rank. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, genus, and species, with family fitting between order and genus. As for the other well-known ranks, there is the option of an immediately lower rank, indicated by the...

 of frog
Frog
Frogs are amphibians in the order Anura , formerly referred to as Salientia . Most frogs are characterized by a short body, webbed digits , protruding eyes and the absence of a tail...

s commonly referred to as "tree frog
Tree frog
Hylidae is a wide-ranging family of frogs commonly referred to as "tree frogs and their allies". However, the hylids include a diversity of frog species, many of which do not live in trees, but are terrestrial or semi-aquatic.-Characteristics:...

s and their allies". However, the hylids include a diversity of frog species, many of which do not live in trees, but are terrestrial
Terrestrial animal
Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land , as compared with aquatic animals, which live predominantly or entirely in the water , or amphibians, which rely on a combination of aquatic and terrestrial habitats...

 or semi-aquatic.

Characteristics

Most hylids show adaptations suitable for an arboreal lifestyle, including forward-facing eyes providing binocular vision
Binocular vision
Binocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used together. The word binocular comes from two Latin roots, bini for double, and oculus for eye. Having two eyes confers at least four advantages over having one. First, it gives a creature a spare eye in case one is damaged. Second, it gives a...

, and adhesive pads on the fingers and toes. In the non-arboreal species, these features may be greatly reduced, or absent. The Cyclorana
Cyclorana
Cyclorana is a subgenus of the frog genus Litoria in the family Hylidae , whose members are found in most of Australia. It was formerly considered a separate genus, but reclassified following a major revision by Frost et al. in 2006...

species are burrow
Burrow
A burrow is a hole or tunnel dug into the ground by an animal to create a space suitable for habitation, temporary refuge, or as a byproduct of locomotion. Burrows provide a form of shelter against predation and exposure to the elements, so the burrowing way of life is quite popular among the...

ing frogs, that spend much of their lives underground.

Hylids mostly feed on insects and other invertebrates, but some larger species can feed on small vertebrates.

Hylids lay their eggs in a range of different locations, depending on species. Many use ponds, or puddles that collect in the holes of their trees, while others use bromeliads or other water-holding plants. Other species lay their eggs on the leaves of vegetation overhanging water, allowing the tadpole
Tadpole
A tadpole or polliwog is the wholly aquatic larval stage in the life cycle of an amphibian, particularly that of a frog or toad.- Appellation :...

s to drop into the pond when they hatch.

A few species use fast-flowing streams, attaching the eggs firmly to the substrate. The tadpoles of these species have suckers enabling them to hold onto rocks after they hatch. Another unusual adaptation is found in some South American hylids, which brood the eggs on the back of the female. The tadpoles of most hylid species have laterally placed eyes, and broad tails with a narrow, filamentous, tip.

Type species

The European treecat frog, Hyla arborea, is common in the middle and south of Europe, and range into Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

 and North Africa
North Africa
North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, linked by the Sahara to Sub-Saharan Africa. Geopolitically, the United Nations definition of Northern Africa includes eight countries or territories; Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, South Sudan, Sudan, Tunisia, and...

. The species become very noisy on the approach of rain and are sometimes kept in confinement as a kind of barometer
Barometer
A barometer is a scientific instrument used in meteorology to measure atmospheric pressure. Pressure tendency can forecast short term changes in the weather...

.

In North America, there are many species of the Hylidae family, including Hyla versicolor (the grey tree frog) and Hyla cinerea (the American green tree frog). The spring peeper
Spring Peeper
The Spring Peeper is a small chorus frog widespread throughout the eastern USA and Canada.-Subspecies:There are two subspecies of the Spring Peeper, the Northern and the Southern Spring Peeper . The Northern is similar to the Southern except for a strong dark marking on the Southern frog's belly...

 (Pseudacris crucifer) is also widespread in the eastern United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and is commonly heard on summer and spring evenings.

"Tree frog" is a popular name for several of the Hylidae. Hyla versicolor is the changeable tree frog, Trachycephalus lichenatus is the lichened tree frog, and Trachycephalus marmoratus the marbled tree frog. However, the name "treefrog" is not unique to this family, also being used for many species of the Rhacophoridae
Rhacophoridae
Rhacophoridae is a family of frog species, which occur in tropical regions of Asia and Africa. They are commonly known as shrub frogs, or more ambiguously as "moss frogs" or "bush frogs". Some Rhacophoridae are called "tree frogs"...

.

Taxonomy

The Hylidae family is divided into the following subfamilies and genera:
Hylidae
  • Subfamily Pelodryadinae
    Pelodryadinae
    Pelodryadinae is a subfamily of Hylidae, the "tree frogs".-External links:* *http://www.tolweb.org/Pelodryadinae*http://amphibiaweb.org/lists/Hylidae.shtml...

     (Austro-Papuan tree frogs)
    • Litoria
      Litoria
      Litoria is a genus of Hylidae tree frogs native to Australia, the Bismarck Archipelago, the Solomon Islands, New Guinea, the Lesser Sunda Islands, the Moluccan Islands, and Timor. They are sometimes collectively referred to as Australasian treefrogs...

    • Nyctimystes
      Nyctimystes
      Nyctimystes is a genus of tree frog in the Hylidae family. They are principally Papuan species but do inhabit islands in the Moluccas and northern Queensland, Australia. All species in this genus have one distinct feature that separates them from other species in the Hylidae genus, the lower eyelid...

    • Pelodryas
  • Subfamily Phyllomedusinae
    Phyllomedusinae
    Phyllomedusinae is a subfamily of Hylidae, the tree frogs. Commonly called leaf frogs, they are found in the Neotropics. The type genus Phyllomedusa contains more thean half of the known species within this subfamily.- Taxonomy :...

     (Leaf frogs)
    • Agalychnis
      Agalychnis
      Agalychnis is a genus of tree frogs native to forests in Mexico, Central America and northwestern South America.- Taxonomy :There used to be 8 species within the Agalychnis genus but a recent major revision of the Hylidae family moved two species to the newly created genus Cruziohyla leaving 6...

    • Cruziohyla
      Cruziohyla
      Cruziohyla is a genus of frogs in the Hylidae family. This genus was erected in 2005 following a major revision of the Hylidae family . The two species in this genus were previously placed in the Agalychnis genus but were first highlighted as being separate in 2003...

    • Hylomantis
      Hylomantis
      Hylomantis, the rough leaf frogs, is a genus of tree frogs. Until recently only two species was placed in this genus, but following a major revision of the Hylidae family six species previously placed in Phyllomedusa were moved here.-Species:...

      - Rough Leaf Frogs
    • Pachymedusa - Mexican Leaf Frogs
    • Phasmahyla
      Phasmahyla
      Phasmahyla is a genus of tree frogs. They are commonly known as shining leaf frogs.- Species :- External links :. 2007. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.1 . . Electronic Database accessible at http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php. American Museum of...

      - Shining Leaf Frogs
    • Phrynomedusa
      Phrynomedusa
      Phrynomedusa is a genus of tree frogs. They are commonly known as colored leaf frogs.-Species:- External links :. 2007. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.1 . . Electronic Database accessible at http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php. American Museum of...

      - Colored Leaf Frogs
    • Phyllomedusa
      Phyllomedusa
      Phyllomedusa is a genus of tree frog from Central and South America. It ranges from Costa Rica southward to Argentina. It has around thirty species.-Secretion:...



  • Subfamily Hylinae
    Hylinae
    Hylinae is the largest of three subfamilies of Hylidae, the "tree frogs". It contains hundreds of species in 38 genera.-Genera:*Subfamily Hylinae*Acris - Cricket Frogs *Anotheca - Spiny-headed Treefrogs...

    • Acris - Cricket Frogs
    • Anotheca - Spiny-headed Treefrogs
    • Aparasphenodon
      Aparasphenodon
      Aparasphenodon is a genus of frogs in the Hylidae family, and are found southeastern Brazil, the Orinoco Basin, Venezuela and Colombia. These are tree-dwelling species usually hiding in the cisterns of epiphytic bromeliads...

      - Casque-headed Frogs
    • Aplastodiscus - Canebreak Treefrogs
    • Argenteohyla - Argentinian Frogs
    • Bokermannohyla
      Bokermannohyla
      Bokermannohyla is a genus of frogs in the Hylidae family. This genus was erected in 2005 following a major revision of the Hylidae family . 23 species that were previously placed in the Hyla genus were moved to this genus.-Species:...

    • Bromeliohyla
      Bromeliohyla
      Bromeliohyla is a genus of frogs in the Hylidae family. This genus was erected in 2005 following a major revision of the Hylidae family . The two species in this genus were previously placed in the Hyla genus. Found in tropical southern Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, and northern Honduras.- Species :-...

    • Charadrahyla
      Charadrahyla
      Charadrahyla is a genus of frogs in the Hylidae family. This genus was erected in 2005 following a major revision of the Hylidae family . The five species in this genus were previously placed in the Hyla genus. Found in tropical southern Mexico....

    • Corythomantis - Casque-headed Treefrog
    • Dendropsophus
      Dendropsophus
      Dendropsophus is a genus of frogs in the Hylidae family. This genus was resurrected in 2005 following a major revision of the Hylidae family. 88 species that were previously placed in the Hyla genus were moved to this genus...

    • Duellmanohyla - Brook Frogs
    • Ecnomiohyla
      Ecnomiohyla
      Ecnomiohyla is a genus of frogs in the Hylidae family. This genus was erected in 2005 following a major revision of the Hylidae family . The ten original species in this genus were previously placed in the Hyla genus. Found at wet forested highlands of southern Mexico through Central America to...

    • Exerodonta
      Exerodonta
      Exerodonta is a genus of frogs in the Hylidae family. This genus was resurrected in 2005 following a major revision of the Hylidae family . 11 species that were previously placed in the Hyla genus were moved to this genus. Endemic to South-central Mexico.-Species:-External links:. 2007. Amphibian...

    • Hyla
      Hyla
      The genus Hyla is one of approximately 38 genera in the New World family of tree frogs . The word Hyla translates to "tree," and tree frogs are indeed arboreal...

      - Common Treefrogs
    • Hyloscirtus
      Hyloscirtus
      Hyloscirtus is a genus of frogs in the Hylidae family. This genus was resurrected in 2005 following a major revision of the Hylidae family. The distinguishing feature being 56 transformations in nuclear and mitochondrial protein and ribosomal genes. 28 species that were previously placed in the...

    • Hypsiboas
      Hypsiboas
      Hypsiboas is a genus of frogs in the Hylidae family. This genus was resurrected in 2005 following a major revision of the Hylidae family. 70 species that were previously placed in the Hyla genus were moved to this genus.-Species:...

      - Gladiator Frogs
    • Isthmohyla
      Isthmohyla
      Isthmohyla is a genus of frogs in the Hylidae family. This genus was erected in 2005 following a major revision of the Hylidae family. The fifteen species in this genus were previously placed in the Hyla genus. They are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama.-Species:-External links:. 2007. Amphibian...

    • Itapotihyla
    • Lysapsus
      Lysapsus
      Harlequin Frogs is a genus of frogs in the Hylidae family, and are found in South America east of the Andes.-Species:* Lysapsus caraya Gallardo, 1964.* Lysapsus laevis Parker, 1935.* Lysapsus limellum Cope, 1862....

    • Megastomatohyla
      Megastomatohyla
      Megastomatohyla is a genus of frogs in the Hylidae family. This genus was erected in 2005 following a major revision of the Hylidae family . The four species in this genus were previously placed in the Hyla genus. They are endemic to the cloud forests of central Veracruz and Oaxaca,...

    • Myersiohyla
      Myersiohyla
      Myersiohyla is a genus of frogs in the Hylidae family. This genus was erected in 2005 following a major revision of the Hylidae family . The four species were previously placed in the Hyla genus.-Species:...

    • Nyctimantis - Brown-eyed Treefrogs
    • Osteocephalus - Slender-legged Treefrogs
    • Osteopilus
      Osteopilus
      Osteocephalus is a genus of frogs in the Hylidae family. These species have a bony co-ossification on the skull resulting in a casque. Color varies between uniform brown, brown-gray, or olive with darker markings or marbled with greens, grays or brown, making a distinct pattern. The finger disks...

      - Cuban Treefrogs
    • Phyllodytes - Heart-tongued Frogs
    • Plectrohyla - Spike-thumb Frogs
    • Pseudacris - Chorus Frogs
    • Pseudis
      Pseudis
      Pseudis is a genus of frogs in the Hylidae family, and are found in the Guianas, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad, southern Brazil, Paraguay, southeastern Peru, eastern Bolivia, northeastern Argentina and Uruguay....

      - Swimming Frogs
    • Ptychohyla
      Ptychohyla
      Ptychohyla is a genus of frogs in the Hylidae family, and are found in the southern Mexican states of Chiapas, Guerrero and Oaxaca, Central America to western Panama.-Species:...

      - Stream Frogs
    • Scarthyla - Madre de Dios Treefrogs
    • Scinax
      Scinax
      Scinax is a genus of frogs in the Hylidae family, and are found in eastern and southern Mexico to Argentina and Uruguay, Trinidad and Tobago and Saint Lucia. These are small to moderate-sized tree frogs, drably colored. Duellman and Wiens resurrected This genus in 1992...

      - Snouted Treefrogs
    • Smilisca - Burrowing Frogs
    • Sphaenorhynchus
      Sphaenorhynchus
      Sphaenorhynchus is a genus of frogs in the Hylidae family, and are found in the Amazon and Orinoco basins of South America, Guianas, Trinidad and southern and eastern Brazil.-Species:...

      - Lime Treefrogs
    • Tepuihyla - Amazon Treefrogs
    • Tlalocohyla
      Tlalocohyla
      Tlalocohyla is a genus of frogs in the Hylidae family. This genus was created in 2005 following a major revision of the Hylidae family . The four species in this genus were previously placed in the Hyla genus.-Species:...

    • Trachycephalus
      Trachycephalus
      Trachycephalus is a genus of frogs, the Casque-headed Treefrogs, contained within the Hylidae family. They are found in eastern Brazil and Pacific lowlands from southern Colombia to northern Peru...

      - Casque-headed Treefrogs
    • Triprion
      Triprion
      Triprion is a genus of frogs in the Hylidae family found in the Pacific lowlands of Mexico, the Yucatán Peninsula, and Guatemala. These frogs hide in tree-holes and plug the entrance with their strange-looking bony head....

      - Shovel-headed Treefrogs
    • Xenohyla
      Xenohyla
      Xenohyla is a genus of frogs in the Hylidae family, and are found in the Brazilian states of Bahia and Rio de Janeiro.-Species:Only two species are recognized in this genus:...



External links


  • http://www.tolweb.org/Hylidae
  • http://amphibiaweb.org/lists/Hylidae.shtml
  • http://www.floridanature.org/family.asp?family=Hylidae
  • http://www.fs.fed.us/r4/amphibians/family_hylidae.htm
  • http://www.livingunderworld.org/anura/database/hylidae/
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