Treaty of Tartu (Russian–Finnish)
The Treaty of Tartu between Finland
Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden in the west, Norway in the north and Russia in the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.Around 5.4 million people reside...

 and Soviet Russia
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic , commonly referred to as Soviet Russia, Bolshevik Russia, or simply Russia, was the largest, most populous and economically developed republic in the former Soviet Union....

 was signed on 14 October 1920 after negotiations that lasted for four months. The treaty confirmed the border between Finland and Soviet Russia after the Finnish civil war
Finnish Civil War
The Finnish Civil War was a part of the national, political and social turmoil caused by World War I in Europe. The Civil War concerned control and leadership of The Grand Duchy of Finland as it achieved independence from Russia after the October Revolution in Petrograd...

 and Finnish volunteer expeditions
The term in Finnish historiography heimosodat in English literally "Kindred Nations Wars", "Wars for kindred peoples" or "Kinship Wars" for Finnic kinship. It is often erroneously translated as "Tribal Wars"...

 in Russian East Karelia. Ratifications of the treaty were exchanged in Moscow on December 31, 1920. The treaty was registered in the League of Nations Treaty Series on March 5, 1921.

The treaty confirmed that the Finnish-Soviet border would follow the old border between the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland
Grand Duchy of Finland
The Grand Duchy of Finland was the predecessor state of modern Finland. It existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire and was ruled by the Russian czar as Grand Prince.- History :...

 and Imperial Russia. Finland additionally received Petsamo
Pechengsky District
Pechengsky District is an administrative and municipal district , one of the five in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. It is located to the northwest of the Kola Peninsula on the coast of the Barents Sea and borders with Finland in the south and southwest and with Norway in the west, northwest, and north...

, with its ice-free harbour on the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
The Arctic Ocean, located in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Arctic north polar region, is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceanic divisions...

. As far back as 1864, Tsar Alexander II
Alexander II of Russia
Alexander II , also known as Alexander the Liberator was the Emperor of the Russian Empire from 3 March 1855 until his assassination in 1881...

 had promised to join Petsamo to Finland in exchange for a piece of the Karelian Isthmus
Karelian Isthmus
The Karelian Isthmus is the approximately 45–110 km wide stretch of land, situated between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia, to the north of the River Neva . Its northwestern boundary is the relatively narrow area between the Bay of Vyborg and Lake Ladoga...

. Finland also agreed to leave the joined and then occupied
Military occupation
Military occupation occurs when the control and authority over a territory passes to a hostile army. The territory then becomes occupied territory.-Military occupation and the laws of war:...

 areas of Repola
Repola is a parish in the Republic of Karelia of the Russian Federation by the Finnish border. In 1926 the parish had a population of 1465.After Finland's declaration of independence the parish became an issue in Finnish-Russian relations when its population held a vote in August 1918 to join...

 (joined to Finland during the Viena expedition
Viena expedition
The Viena expedition was a military expedition in March 1918 by Finnish volunteer forces to annex White Karelia from Bolshevist Russia. It was one of the many "kinship wars" fought near the newly independent Finland during the Russian Civil War...

) and Porajärvi
Porosozero is a rural locality in Suoyarvsky District of the Republic of Karelia, located along the Suna River. Municipally, it is a part and the administrative center of Porosozerskoye Rural Settlement of Suoyarvsky Municipal District. Population: 3,529 ; 4,406 .Before 1920 it was a municipality...

 (joined during the Aunus expedition
Aunus expedition
The Aunus expedition was an attempt by Finnish volunteers to occupy parts of East Karelia in 1919, during the Russian Civil War. Aunus is the Finnish name for Olonets Karelia...

) in Russian East Karelia
East Karelia
East Karelia , also rendered as Eastern Karelia or Russian Karelia, is a name for the part of Karelia that since the Treaty of Stolbova in 1617 has remained Christian Orthodox under Russian supremacy. It is separated from the western part of Karelia, called Finnish Karelia or historically Swedish...

. The treaty also had some articles besides area and border issues, including Soviet guarantee of free navigation of merchant ships from the Finnish ports in Lake Ladoga
Lake Ladoga
Lake Ladoga is a freshwater lake located in the Republic of Karelia and Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia, not far from Saint Petersburg. It is the largest lake in Europe, and the 14th largest lake by area in the world.-Geography:...

 (Laatokka in Finnish) to the Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
The Gulf of Finland is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea. It extends between Finland and Estonia all the way to Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. Other major cities around the gulf include Helsinki and Tallinn...

 via the River Neva. Finland guaranteed land transit from Soviet Union to Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

 via the Petsamo area. Also, Finland agreed to disarm the coastal fortress in Ino, opposite the Soviet city Kronstadt
Kronstadt , also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt |crown]]" and Stadt for "city"); is a municipal town in Kronshtadtsky District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia, located on Kotlin Island, west of Saint Petersburg proper near the head of the Gulf of Finland. Population: It is also...

 located on the island of Kotlin. The Finnish outer islands in the Gulf of Finland were demilitarized.

The treaty was subject to controversy first during the East Karelian Uprising 1921–1922 when Finnish government allowed volunteers to take part in the conflict, and finally broken by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 in 1939 when it started the Winter War
Winter War
The Winter War was a military conflict between the Soviet Union and Finland. It began with a Soviet offensive on 30 November 1939 – three months after the start of World War II and the Soviet invasion of Poland – and ended on 13 March 1940 with the Moscow Peace Treaty...


The Finnish delegation

  • Juho Kusti Paasikivi
    Juho Kusti Paasikivi
    Juho Kusti Paasikivi was the seventh President of Finland . Representing the Finnish Party and the National Coalition Party, he also served as Prime Minister of Finland , and was generally an influential figure in Finnish economics and politics for over fifty years...

    , leader
  • Juho Vennola
    Juho Vennola
    Juho Heikki Vennola was Professor of National Economics at the University of Helsinki, a member of the Parliament of Finland, and a politician from the National Progressive Party, who served as Prime Minister of Finland for three times.Vennola's first government was from August 15, 1919 to March...

  • Alexander Frey
    Alexander Frey (politician)
    Alexander Frey was a Finnish senator, bankman and was in the Finnish delegation of Treaty of Tartu between Finland and Russia. He was in Finnish parliament in 1917. Frey was a Chairman of the Board in Pohjoismaiden Yhdyspankki in 1928 - 1945.-External links:*...

  • Rudolf Walden
    Rudolf Walden
    Karl Rudolf Walden was a Finnish industrialist and general.He received his military education in Hamina Cadet School 1892–1900....

  • Väinö Tanner
    Väinö Tanner
    Väinö Tanner was a pioneer and leader in the cooperative movement in Finland, and Prime Minister of Finland from 1926 to 1927....

  • Väinö Voionmaa
    Väinö Voionmaa
    Kaarle Väinö Voionmaa was a Finnish professor, member of the parliament of Finland, senator, minister and chancellor. He also was one of the most influential politicians during the early times of independent Republic of Finland...

  • Väinö Kivilinna

Soviet Delegation

  • Yan Antonovich Berzin (Berzin-Ziemelis)
  • Platon Mikhailovich Kerzhentsev
    Platon Kerzhentsev
    Platon Mikhailovich Kerzhentsev , real name Lebedev was a Russian state and party official, journalist, playwright and arts theorist who was involved with the Proletcult movement...

  • Nikolai Sergeyevich Tikhmenev
  • Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Samoylo
  • Yevgeny Andreyevich Berens

See also

  • List of Finnish treaties
  • Treaty of Tartu (Russian–Estonian)
    Treaty of Tartu (Russian–Estonian)
    Tartu Peace Treaty or Treaty of Tartu was a peace treaty between Estonia and Russian SFSR signed on February 2, 1920 ending the Estonian War of Independence. The terms of the treaty stated that "Russia unreservedly recognises" the independence of Republic of Estonia de jure and renounced in...

  • Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty
    Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty
    The Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty, also known as the Moscow Peace Treaty, was signed between Lithuania and Soviet Russia on July 12, 1920. In exchange for Lithuania's neutrality and permission to freely move its troops in the recognized territory during its war against Poland, Soviet Russia...

  • Latvian–Soviet Peace Treaty

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.