Toyota Land Cruiser
Overview
 
The is a series of four-wheel drive
Four-wheel drive
Four-wheel drive, 4WD, or 4×4 is a four-wheeled vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all four wheels to receive torque from the engine simultaneously...

 vehicles produced by the Japanese car maker Toyota Motor Corporation. It is not related to the Studebaker Land Cruiser
Studebaker Land Cruiser
The Studebaker Land Cruiser was an automobile produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from 1934-1954. The Land Cruiser debuted at the World's Fair alongside the Silver Arrow, a product of Studebaker's former premium make Pierce-Arrow.The Land Cruiser was introduced at the...

 car produced in the US from 1934-1954.

Development of the first generation Land Cruiser began in 1951 as Toyota's version of a Jeep
Jeep
Jeep is an automobile marque of Chrysler . The first Willys Jeeps were produced in 1941 with the first civilian models in 1945, making it the oldest off-road vehicle and sport utility vehicle brand. It inspired a number of other light utility vehicles, such as the Land Rover which is the second...

-like vehicle and production started in 1954. The Land Cruiser has been produced in convertible
Convertible
A convertible is a type of automobile in which the roof can retract and fold away having windows which wind-down inside the doors, converting it from an enclosed to an open-air vehicle...

, hardtop, station wagon
Station wagon
A station wagon is a body style variant of a sedan/saloon with its roof extended rearward over a shared passenger/cargo volume with access at the back via a third or fifth door , instead of a trunk lid...

, and utility truck versions.
The Land Cruiser's reliability and longevity has led to huge popularity, especially in Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

 where it is the best-selling full-size, body-on-frame, four-wheel drive vehicle.
Discussions
Encyclopedia
The is a series of four-wheel drive
Four-wheel drive
Four-wheel drive, 4WD, or 4×4 is a four-wheeled vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all four wheels to receive torque from the engine simultaneously...

 vehicles produced by the Japanese car maker Toyota Motor Corporation. It is not related to the Studebaker Land Cruiser
Studebaker Land Cruiser
The Studebaker Land Cruiser was an automobile produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from 1934-1954. The Land Cruiser debuted at the World's Fair alongside the Silver Arrow, a product of Studebaker's former premium make Pierce-Arrow.The Land Cruiser was introduced at the...

 car produced in the US from 1934-1954.

Development of the first generation Land Cruiser began in 1951 as Toyota's version of a Jeep
Jeep
Jeep is an automobile marque of Chrysler . The first Willys Jeeps were produced in 1941 with the first civilian models in 1945, making it the oldest off-road vehicle and sport utility vehicle brand. It inspired a number of other light utility vehicles, such as the Land Rover which is the second...

-like vehicle and production started in 1954. The Land Cruiser has been produced in convertible
Convertible
A convertible is a type of automobile in which the roof can retract and fold away having windows which wind-down inside the doors, converting it from an enclosed to an open-air vehicle...

, hardtop, station wagon
Station wagon
A station wagon is a body style variant of a sedan/saloon with its roof extended rearward over a shared passenger/cargo volume with access at the back via a third or fifth door , instead of a trunk lid...

, and utility truck versions.
The Land Cruiser's reliability and longevity has led to huge popularity, especially in Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

 where it is the best-selling full-size, body-on-frame, four-wheel drive vehicle. Toyota also extensively tests the Land Cruiser in the Australian outback — considered to be one of the toughest operating environments in both temperature and terrain. Main rivals include the Range Rover
Range Rover
The Range Rover is a large luxury four-wheel drive sport utility vehicle produced by British car maker Land Rover. The model, launched in 1970, is now in its third generation...

, Land Rover Discovery
Land Rover Discovery
The Discovery was introduced into the United Kingdom in 1989. The company code-named the vehicle "Project Jay". The new model was based on the chassis and drivetrain of the more upmarket Range Rover, but with a lower price aimed at a larger market segment and intended to compete with Japanese...

, Mitsubishi Pajero
Mitsubishi Pajero
The Mitsubishi Pajero is a sport utility vehicle manufactured by Mitsubishi Motors. It was named after Leopardus pajeros, the Pampas Cat which is native to the Patagonia plateau region of southern Argentina. However, since pajero is an offensive term for "wanker" in Spanish, alternative names have...

 and Nissan Patrol
Nissan Patrol
The Nissan Patrol is a four-wheel drive vehicle manufactured by Nissan in Japan since 1951. In Japan since 1980, it has been known as the Nissan Safari. The Patrol is available in Australasia, Central and South America, South Africa, parts of Southeast Asia and Western Europe as well as Iran and...

.

Chronology

In 1941 the Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army
-Foundation:During the Meiji Restoration, the military forces loyal to the Emperor were samurai drawn primarily from the loyalist feudal domains of Satsuma and Chōshū...

 occupied the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

, where they found an old Bantam Mk II, and promptly brought it to Japan. The Japanese military authorities commanded Toyota to make a similar vehicle but to not model the appearance on the American Jeep. The prototype was called the Model AK and was formally adopted by The Japanese Imperial Army as the Yon-Shiki Kogata Kamotsu-Sha ( 小型
Compact car
A compact car , or small family car , is a classification of cars which are larger than a supermini but smaller than or equal to a mid-size car...

貨物
Cargo
Cargo is goods or produce transported, generally for commercial gain, by ship, aircraft, train, van or truck. In modern times, containers are used in most intermodal long-haul cargo transport.-Marine:...

Vehicle
A vehicle is a device that is designed or used to transport people or cargo. Most often vehicles are manufactured, such as bicycles, cars, motorcycles, trains, ships, boats, and aircraft....

 type 4 compact cargo-truck ).

Later in 1941 the Japanese government asked Toyota to produce a light truck for the Japan military campaign. Toyota developed a ½ ton prototype called the AK10 in 1942. The AK10 was built using reverse-engineering from the Bantam GP. There are no known surviving photographs of the AK10. The only known pictorial representations are some rough sketches. The truck featured an upright front grille, flat front wheel arches that angled down and back like the FJ40, headlights mounted above the wheel arches on either side of the radiator and a folding windshield.

The AK10 used the 2259 cc, 4-cylinder Type C engine from the Toyota Model AE sedan with a three-speed manual transmission
Manual transmission
A manual transmission, also known as a manual gearbox or standard transmission is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications...

 and two-speed transfer gearbox connected to it. There is no mechanical relationship between the AK10 and the postwar Toyota "Jeep" BJ. Most of the AK10's were not actively used (unlike the U.S. Jeep) and there are almost no photographs of it in the battlefield.

BJ and FJ

  • 1950 - The Korean War
    Korean War
    The Korean War was a conventional war between South Korea, supported by the United Nations, and North Korea, supported by the People's Republic of China , with military material aid from the Soviet Union...

     created demand for a military light utility vehicle. The war put a Jeep
    Jeep
    Jeep is an automobile marque of Chrysler . The first Willys Jeeps were produced in 1941 with the first civilian models in 1945, making it the oldest off-road vehicle and sport utility vehicle brand. It inspired a number of other light utility vehicles, such as the Land Rover which is the second...

     on Japan's doorstep. The United States government ordered 100 vehicles with the new Willys
    Willys
    Willys was the brand name used by Willys-Overland Motors, an American automobile company best known for its design and production of military Jeeps and civilian versions during the 20th century.-Early History:In 1908, John Willys bought the Overland Automotive Division of Standard Wheel Company...

     specs and Toyota was asked to build them.
  • 1951 - The Toyota "Jeep" BJ prototype was developed in January 1951. This came from the demand for military-type utility vehicles, much like the British Land Rover Series 1 that appeared in 1948. The Jeep BJ was larger than the original U.S. Jeep
    Jeep
    Jeep is an automobile marque of Chrysler . The first Willys Jeeps were produced in 1941 with the first civilian models in 1945, making it the oldest off-road vehicle and sport utility vehicle brand. It inspired a number of other light utility vehicles, such as the Land Rover which is the second...

     and more powerful thanks to its Type B 3.4 L six-cylinder OHV
    Overhead valve
    An overhead valve engine, also informally called pushrod engine or I-head engine, is a type of piston engine that places the camshaft within the cylinder block , and uses pushrods or rods to actuate rocker arms above the cylinder...

     Gasoline engine which generated 63 kW at 3600 rpm and 215 newton metre torque
    Torque
    Torque, moment or moment of force , is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis, fulcrum, or pivot. Just as a force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist....

     at 1600 rpm. It had a part-time four-wheel drive
    Four-wheel drive
    Four-wheel drive, 4WD, or 4×4 is a four-wheeled vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all four wheels to receive torque from the engine simultaneously...

     system like the Jeep
    Jeep
    Jeep is an automobile marque of Chrysler . The first Willys Jeeps were produced in 1941 with the first civilian models in 1945, making it the oldest off-road vehicle and sport utility vehicle brand. It inspired a number of other light utility vehicles, such as the Land Rover which is the second...

    . Unlike the Jeep, however, the Jeep BJ had no low-range transfer case
    Transfer case
    A transfer case is a part of a four-wheel-drive system found in four-wheel-drive and all-wheel-drive vehicles. The transfer case is connected to the transmission and also to the front and rear axles by means of drive shafts...

    .
  • 1951 - In July 1951, Toyota's test driver Ichiro Taira drove the next generation of the Jeep BJ prototype up to the sixth stage of Mount Fuji
    Mount Fuji
    is the highest mountain in Japan at . An active stratovolcano that last erupted in 1707–08, Mount Fuji lies about south-west of Tokyo, and can be seen from there on a clear day. Mount Fuji's exceptionally symmetrical cone is a well-known symbol of Japan and it is frequently depicted in art and...

    , the first vehicle to climb that high. The test was overseen by the National Police Agency
    National Police Agency (Japan)
    The is an agency administered by the National Public Safety Commission of the Cabinet Office in the cabinet of Japan, and is the central coordinating agency of the Japanese police system....

     (NPA). Impressed by this feat, the NPA quickly placed an order for 289 of these offroad vehicles, making the Jeep BJ their official patrol car.
  • 1953 - Regular production of the "Toyota Jeep BJ" began at Toyota Honsya Plant (Rolling chassis assembly), and body assembly and painting was done at Arakawa Bankin Kogyo KK, later known as ARACO (now an affiliate of Toyota Auto Body Co.). The "Toyota Jeep BJ" Series was introduced alongside the following:
    • BJ-T (Touring),
    • BJ-R (Radio),
    • BJ-J (Cowl-chassis for a fire-engine).
  • 1954 - The name "Land Cruiser" was created by the technical director Hanji Umehara. "In England we had another competitor - Land Rover
    Land Rover
    Land Rover is a British car manufacturer with its headquarters in Gaydon, Warwickshire, United Kingdom which specialises in four-wheel-drive vehicles. It is owned by the Indian company Tata Motors, forming part of their Jaguar Land Rover group...

    . I had to come up with a name for our car that would not sound less dignified than those of our competitors. That is why I decided to call it 'Land Cruiser'," he recalls. The name had already been used on the US Studebaker Land Cruiser
    Studebaker Land Cruiser
    The Studebaker Land Cruiser was an automobile produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from 1934-1954. The Land Cruiser debuted at the World's Fair alongside the Silver Arrow, a product of Studebaker's former premium make Pierce-Arrow.The Land Cruiser was introduced at the...

     car from 1934 to 1954 but this didn't cause any problems.
  • 1954 - The 93 kW, 3.9 L Type F
    Toyota F engine
    The Toyota F series engine was a series of OHV inline-6 cylinder engines produced by Toyota between 1955-1992. They are known for their high amount of torque at low RPM, massive cast iron blocks and heads and also their high reliability. The F Engine had one of the longest production runs of any...

     gasoline engine added for the fire-engine chassis. Models are renamed as:
    • BJ-T (Touring),
    • BJ-R (Radio),
    • BJ-J (Cowl-chassis for a fire-engine),
    • FJ-J (Cowl-chassis for a fire-engine).

20 Series

  • 1955 - The Second generation, 20 Series was introduced. It was designed to have more civilian appeal than the BJ for export reasons. It also had more stylish bodywork and a better ride thanks to longer four-plate leaf springs which had been adapted from the Toyota Light Truck
    Truck
    A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary greatly in size, power, and configuration, with the smallest being mechanically similar to an automobile...

    . It had a more powerful 135 PS 3.9 L six-cylinder Type F
    Toyota F engine
    The Toyota F series engine was a series of OHV inline-6 cylinder engines produced by Toyota between 1955-1992. They are known for their high amount of torque at low RPM, massive cast iron blocks and heads and also their high reliability. The F Engine had one of the longest production runs of any...

     gasoline engine, but still only had a three speed gearbox. The interior of the vehicles were made more comfortable by moving the engine 120 mm (4.7 in) forward. The 20 Series still had no low range, but it had synchromesh on the third and fourth gears.
  • 1958 - The first Station wagon Land Cruiser was introduced with an even longer 2650 mm (104.3 in) wheelbase
    Wheelbase
    In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels.- Road :In automobiles, the wheelbase is the horizontal distance between the center of the front wheel and the center of the rear wheel...

     (the FJ35V; wagon and van). The FJ25 production started in Brazil
    Brazil
    Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

     being the first Toyota vehicle built outside Japan.
  • 1957 - A 4-door Station Wagon was added as the FJ35V. Land Cruisers were first imported into Australia by B&D Motors as FJ25/28 cab chassis with Australian made bodies. They were the first Japanese cars to be regularly exported to the country and a few were initially used in the Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Scheme, by sub contractor Theiss Constructions.

40 Series

  • 1960 - The 20 Series was upgraded to the now classic 40. Toyota made many production changes by buying new steel presses. Mechanically, the FJ40 was given a new 93 kW, 3.9 L F
    Toyota F engine
    The Toyota F series engine was a series of OHV inline-6 cylinder engines produced by Toyota between 1955-1992. They are known for their high amount of torque at low RPM, massive cast iron blocks and heads and also their high reliability. The F Engine had one of the longest production runs of any...

     engine and the Land Cruiser finally received low-range gearing, but continued the three speed main gearbox. The Brazil
    Brazil
    Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

    ian model was rebadged the Bandeirante and received a Mercedes-Benz
    Mercedes-Benz
    Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of automobiles, buses, coaches, and trucks. Mercedes-Benz is a division of its parent company, Daimler AG...

     built Diesel engine
    Diesel engine
    A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber...

     generating 58 kW.
  • 1965 - Global production surpassed 50,000 vehicles.
    The Land Cruiser was the best selling Toyota in the United States.
  • 1968 - The 100,000th Land Cruiser was sold worldwide.
  • 1972 - The 200,000th Land Cruiser was sold worldwide.
  • 1973 - The 300,000th Land Cruiser was sold worldwide.
    The first diesel Land Cruiser was introduced for export on long wheelbase
    Wheelbase
    In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels.- Road :In automobiles, the wheelbase is the horizontal distance between the center of the front wheel and the center of the rear wheel...

     models with a six-cylinder H
    Toyota H engine
    - H :The H is a 3.6 L inline 6, 12 valve OHV diesel engine. Bore is 88 mm and stroke is 98 mm, with a compression ratio of 21:1...

     engine.
  • 1974 - A four-cylinder 3.0 L B
    Toyota B engine
    The Toyota B engine family was a series of inline-4 diesel engines.Toyota also had a 3.4 L inline-6 gasoline engine from 1937 to 1947 that was also called the B engine. The earlier engine was used in early Toyota cars and trucks and in the first version of the Land Cruiser when it was known...

     diesel was offered. The introduction of this engine boosted sales in Japan by putting the Land Cruiser in a lower tax compact Freight-car category than its 3.9 L gasoline version. Note: the new B
    Toyota B engine
    The Toyota B engine family was a series of inline-4 diesel engines.Toyota also had a 3.4 L inline-6 gasoline engine from 1937 to 1947 that was also called the B engine. The earlier engine was used in early Toyota cars and trucks and in the first version of the Land Cruiser when it was known...

     diesel engine
    Diesel engine
    A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber...

     was different from the B gasoline engine used in the original BJ.
  • 1975 - The 3.9 L gasoline engine was replaced by a larger, more powerful 4.2 L 2F unit.
    The FJ55 received front disc brakes.
    The 3.6 L H diesel engine was optional in some markets in the HJ45.
  • 1976 - United States-version FJ40 Land Cruisers received front disc brakes like the FJ55.
    The Toyota Land Cruiser Association was founded in California
    California
    California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

    .
  • 1977 - The Irish Army
    Irish Army
    The Irish Army, officially named simply the Army is the main branch of the Defence Forces of Ireland. Approximately 8,500 men and women serve in the Irish Army, divided into three infantry Brigades...

     took delivery of the first of 77 FJ45 Land Cruisers. Although fast, reliable and with good off-road performance the type tended to rust excessively in the wet Irish climate. A few which did not succumb to the effects of weather were repainted in gloss olive green and survive as ceremonial gun tractors at military funerals.
  • 1978 - The first BJ / FJ40 and FJ55 models were officially sold in West Germany with both diesel (BJ40) and petrol engines (FJ40 /55).
  • 1979 - United States-version FJ40s were updated this year with a new wider, square bezel surrounding the headlights.
    Power steering
    Power steering
    Power steering helps drivers steer vehicles by augmenting steering effort of the steering wheel.Hydraulic or electric actuators add controlled energy to the steering mechanism, so the driver needs to provide only modest effort regardless of conditions. Power steering helps considerably when a...

     and cooler
    Air conditioning
    An air conditioner is a home appliance, system, or mechanism designed to dehumidify and extract heat from an area. The cooling is done using a simple refrigeration cycle...

     were offered in FJ40s for the first time.
    The diesel engine was improved, evolving into the 3.2 L 2B only in Japan.
  • 1980 - The H diesel engine (HJ45) was replaced by the 4.0 L 2H engine (HJ47).
  • 1981 - the Diesel version received front disc brakes and the more powerful 3.4 L 3B engine.
  • 1983 - the last FJ40s imported to the U.S. were 1983 models (mid 1982 to mid 1983). It is unknown how many were imported by Toyota, but many guess the number to be around 300. 1983 FJ40s typically bring a premium for their rarity, though they are not much different from 1982 models (mid 1981 to mid 1982).

50 Series

  • 1967 - Production of the FJ55 began. The FJ55 was a 4-door station wagon
    Station wagon
    A station wagon is a body style variant of a sedan/saloon with its roof extended rearward over a shared passenger/cargo volume with access at the back via a third or fifth door , instead of a trunk lid...

     version based on the FJ40's Drive-train, replacing the 4-Door FJ45V (I). It was colloquially known as the "Moose
    Moose
    The moose or Eurasian elk is the largest extant species in the deer family. Moose are distinguished by the palmate antlers of the males; other members of the family have antlers with a dendritic configuration...

    ". It has also been referred to as a pig or an iron pig. The FJ55 had a longer wheelbase
    Wheelbase
    In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels.- Road :In automobiles, the wheelbase is the horizontal distance between the center of the front wheel and the center of the rear wheel...

     2710 mm and was designed to be sold in North America and Australia.
  • Jan 1975 saw the F engine replaced by the 2F engine. Unusually for Toyota, the model (e.g. FJ55) did not change.
  • Model 56 is in Japan only, with 2F engine ( Jan. 1975 - Jul. 1980 ).

60 Series

The Land Cruiser 60 series was produced from 1980 through 1990. It is a front engine, four door wagon which can seat five to eight people. Like all Land Cruisers generations, it is well known in the off-roading community for its off-road capabilities but was somewhat limited by its poor departure angle. The 60 series was offered in the following solid exterior colors: Alpine White, Brown, Desert Beige, Freeborn Red, Royal Blue; and in the following metallic exterior colors: Charcoal Gray, Cognac, Gray-Blue, Rootbeer, Sky Blue, Stardust Silver.
  • 1980 - The 60 series was introduced. While still retaining the rugged off-road characteristics of previous Land Cruisers, the 60 was designed to better compete in the emerging sport utility vehicle
    Sport utility vehicle
    A sport utility vehicle is a generic marketing term for a vehicle similar to a station wagon, but built on a light-truck chassis. It is usually equipped with four-wheel drive for on- or off-road ability, and with some pretension or ability to be used as an off-road vehicle. Not all four-wheel...

     market. The 60 was given a variety of comforts like air conditioning
    Air conditioning
    An air conditioner is a home appliance, system, or mechanism designed to dehumidify and extract heat from an area. The cooling is done using a simple refrigeration cycle...

    , a rear heater and an upgraded interior. The FJ60's "2F" petrol engine was left unchanged from the "40" series while six-cylinder 4.0 L 2H and four-cylinder 3.4 L 3B diesel engine
    Diesel engine
    A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber...

    s were added to the product line.
  • 1981 - Land Cruiser sales surpassed 1 million
    Million
    One million or one thousand thousand, is the natural number following 999,999 and preceding 1,000,001. The word is derived from the early Italian millione , from mille, "thousand", plus the augmentative suffix -one.In scientific notation, it is written as or just 106...

     and a high-roof version was introduced. The 60 series was introduced to South Africa when a stock Land Cruiser competed in the Toyota 1000 km
    Kilometre
    The kilometre is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres and is therefore exactly equal to the distance travelled by light in free space in of a second...

     Desert Race in the punishing wilds of Botswana
    Botswana
    Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana , is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa. The citizens are referred to as "Batswana" . Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name after becoming independent within the Commonwealth on 30 September 1966...

    .
  • 1984 - This was the final year for the 40 series. Specialist suppliers of aftermarket parts and restorers who return old FJ40s to better-than-new condition replaced Toyota dealers as the main source of Land Cruiser expertise.
  • 1984 - Alongside the 60 series, the 70 series was introduced.
  • 1985 - The Direct-injection
    Diesel engine
    A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber...

     12H-T and 13B-T turbodiesel
    Turbodiesel
    Turbodiesel refers to any diesel engine with a turbocharger. Turbocharging is the norm rather than the exception in modern car and truck diesel engines...

     engines were introduced.
  • 1988 - The petrol engine was upgraded to a 4.0 L 3F-E EFI engine. The FJ62G VX-Series was introduced allowing the Land Cruiser to be sold in Japan as a passenger vehicle.

70 Series

  • 1984 - 70 Series was introduced. 70Heavy as a soft-top, hard-top, FRP
    Fibre-reinforced plastic
    Fibre-reinforced plastic is a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres. The fibres are usually fibreglass, carbon, or aramid, while the polymer is usually an epoxy, vinylester or polyester thermosetting plastic...

     top, utility, cab-chassis, and Troop Carrier (inward facing rear seats).The petrol engine was replaced with a 4.0 L 3F engine. The 70 Light had a four-wheel coil spring solid-axle suspension for better ride quality. This lighter duty version of the Land Cruiser had the 22R 2.4 L gasoline engine, 2L and 2L-T ( turbo ) 2.4 L diesel engine
    Diesel engine
    A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber...

    s commonly found in the Toyota Hilux
    Toyota Hilux
    The Toyota Hilux is a series of compact pickup trucks produced and marketed by the Toyota Motor Corporation. Most countries used the Hilux name for the entire life of the series but in North America, the Hilux name was retired in 1976 in favor of Truck, Pickup Truck, or Compact Truck...

    . The 70 Light was sold in some markets as the Bundera or the Landcruiser II, later called 70 Prado. The 70 Prado eventually became popular and evolved into the 90. An automatic transmission
    Automatic transmission
    An automatic transmission is one type of motor vehicle transmission that can automatically change gear ratios as the vehicle moves, freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually...

     (A440F) was introduced making it the first four-wheel drive
    Four-wheel drive
    Four-wheel drive, 4WD, or 4×4 is a four-wheeled vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all four wheels to receive torque from the engine simultaneously...

     Japanese vehicle with an automatic transmission
    Automatic transmission
    An automatic transmission is one type of motor vehicle transmission that can automatically change gear ratios as the vehicle moves, freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually...

    .
  • 1990 - New-generation diesel engines were introduced including a five-cylinder SOHC naturally aspirated motor (1PZ),and a six-cylinder SOHC naturally aspirated motor (1 HZ).
  • 1993 to 1996 - the KZ 3.0 L turbocharged diesel engine replaced the LJ in the 70 series in European markets where this model was known as the KZJ70.
  • 1993 - An advanced 24-valve, 4.5 L six-cylinder petrol engine, 1FZ-FE was introduced.
  • 1999 - Toyota updated the 70 series in several ways. The solid front axle received coil-spring suspension. The rear leaf springs were lengthened for increased ride comfort and wheel travel. The six-bolt wheels were replaced with five-bolt wheels. Several smaller modifications to the drivetrain provided increased durability. The long-wheel-base models received new designations: 78 for the troop carrier, and 79 for the pick-up.
  • 2002 - HDJ79 is introduced to Australia with the 1HD-FTE 4.2 L six-cylinder 24-valve turbodiesel
    Turbodiesel
    Turbodiesel refers to any diesel engine with a turbocharger. Turbocharging is the norm rather than the exception in modern car and truck diesel engines...

     EFI engine.
  • 2007 - Toyota's first turbodiesel V8 engine
    V8 engine
    A V8 engine is a V engine with eight cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two banks of four cylinders, in most cases set at a right angle to each other but sometimes at a narrower angle, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft....

    , the 1VD-FTV
    Toyota VD engine
    -1VD-FTV:The Toyota 1VD-FTV engine is the first V8 diesel engine produced by Toyota. It is a 32-Valve DOHC, with Common Rail fuel injection and either one or two Variable geometry turbochargers.-Vehicles and Availability:...

     was released in some countries for the 70 Series Land Cruiser. Other modifications include the addition of a 4-door medium-wheel-base model (the 76) and a significantly altered front look on all models.
  • The Sixth and Seventh generations of the Land Cruiser are still being produced and sold in African and Latin American regions. Production in Venezuela
    Venezuela
    Venezuela , officially called the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela , is a tropical country on the northern coast of South America. It borders Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south...

     ended in 2008.
  • The 70 series is also still marketed in Australia as 4-door wagon, 2-door 'Troop Carrier' and 2-door cab-chassis.

80 Series

The Land Cruiser 80 series was introduced in late 1989. It had swing-out back doors, which were replaced by a winch
Winch
A winch is a mechanical device that is used to pull in or let out or otherwise adjust the "tension" of a rope or wire rope . In its simplest form it consists of a spool and attached hand crank. In larger forms, winches stand at the heart of machines as diverse as tow trucks, steam shovels and...

 door in 1995. The Land Cruiser was nicknamed the Burbuja (Bubble) in Colombia
Colombia
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia , is a unitary constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The country is located in northwestern South America, bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the north by the Caribbean Sea; to the...

 and Venezuela
Venezuela
Venezuela , officially called the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela , is a tropical country on the northern coast of South America. It borders Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south...

 due to its roundness, but it was officially released as Land Cruiser Autana in both countries. The name is a reference to the Tepui
Tepui
A tepui , or tepuy, is a table-top mountain or mesa found in the Guiana Highlands of South America, especially in Venezuela. The word tepui means "house of the gods" in the native tongue of the Pemon, the indigenous people who inhabit the Gran Sabana....

 mesa Autana
Autana
Autana, the tree of life, is a spectacular tepui located in the Amazonas state in Venezuela, part of the Guiana Shield. It stands 1,220 m above sea level. A unique cave runs from one side of the mountain through the other. Boat trips are available from Puerto Ayacucho . Allow at least 3 days for...

, a spectacular plateau & cave system along the Guiana Shield craton
Craton
A craton is an old and stable part of the continental lithosphere. Having often survived cycles of merging and rifting of continents, cratons are generally found in the interiors of tectonic plates. They are characteristically composed of ancient crystalline basement rock, which may be covered by...

. Land Cruiser sales reached 2 million vehicles.
  • 1990 - The 80 series station wagon
    Station wagon
    A station wagon is a body style variant of a sedan/saloon with its roof extended rearward over a shared passenger/cargo volume with access at the back via a third or fifth door , instead of a trunk lid...

     was introduced, replacing the 60 series. All 80s sold in North America and Europe now have a full-time four-wheel drive
    Four-wheel drive
    Four-wheel drive, 4WD, or 4×4 is a four-wheeled vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all four wheels to receive torque from the engine simultaneously...

     system. In Japan, Africa and Australia, a part-time system was still available. 80s produced between 1990 and 1991 had an open centre differential which was lockable in 4HI and automatically locked in 4LO. From 1992 onward, vehicles with anti-lock brakes had a viscous coupling that sent a maximum of 30% torque to the non-slipping axle. The differential was lockable in 4HI and automatically locked in 4LO.
  • 1990 - A new generation of diesel engines were introduced, adding to the engines available in the 80 series. The 80 series came with either a (3F-E) six-cylinder naturally aspirated petrol engine, a six-cylinder SOHC naturally aspirated diesel engine, (1HZ), or a 1HD-T direct injection
    Diesel engine
    A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber...

     turbo diesel.
  • 1991 - By mid 1991 the (3F-E) was introduced to the Australian market, a fuel injected version of the 3F.
  • 1993 - An advanced 24-valve, 4.5 L six-cylinder petrol engine, 1FZ-FE
    Toyota FZ engine
    The Toyota FZ engine was a 24-valve, 4.5L DOHC straight-6 internal combustion engine manufactured by Toyota to replace the F-series engine. It was used primarily in SUV's because of its large displacement, smoothness, ruggedness and torque.-Technical data:...

     was introduced. Larger brakes were added from October 1992 and the total wheelbase was made slightly longer.Front and rear axle lockers (code k294) appeared as an option. The High Pinion Electric Locking front differential become available in US models.
  • 1994 - A limited edition Land Cruiser Blue Marlin FZJ80R was introduced into the Australian market. They have 4.5 L straight 6 petrol motors with double overhead cams, automatic or manual transmission and 158 kW at 4600 rpm. The car is blue from the Blue Marlin fish and they have the Blue Marlin logo throughout the car. Some of the features that the Blue Marlin included were altimeters, power windows, disk brakes, leather gear knob and steering wheel, central locking, leather trim, chrome handles and sidesteps, 16" alloy wheels, limited slip diff, ABS (antilock brakes), power steering, CD and cassette players, flares and a limited edition bull bar. Only 500 were made.
  • 1995 - Driver and passenger airbag
    Airbag
    An Airbag is a vehicle safety device. It is an occupant restraint consisting of a flexible envelope designed to inflate rapidly during an automobile collision, to prevent occupants from striking interior objects such as the steering wheel or a window...

    s were introduced as were adjustable shoulder-belt anchors and an anti-lock braking system
    Anti-lock braking system
    An anti-lock braking system is a safety system that allows the wheels on a motor vehicle to continue interacting tractively with the road surface as directed by driver steering inputs while braking, preventing the wheels from locking up and therefore avoiding skidding.An ABS generally offers...

    . The "T O Y O T A" badge was replaced with the modern Toyota logo (which is sometimes described as a "bean with a hat" aka "the sombrero").
  • 1996 - In the Dakar Rally
    Dakar Rally
    The Dakar Rally is an annual rally raid type of off-road automobile race, organised by the Amaury Sport Organisation...

    , a pair of Land Cruisers finished first and second in the unmodified production class. All American and British 80s adopted anti-lock brakes and airbag
    Airbag
    An Airbag is a vehicle safety device. It is an occupant restraint consisting of a flexible envelope designed to inflate rapidly during an automobile collision, to prevent occupants from striking interior objects such as the steering wheel or a window...

    s as standard equipment. The Land Cruiser was withdrawn from Canada this year and was replaced by the Lexus LX 450.
  • 1997 - A limited run of Land Cruiser 80s was built specifically for collectors and therefore called the Land Cruiser Collector's Edition. The Collectors Edition sported Collectors Edition badging, "Collector's Edition" embroidered floor mats, automatic climate control, wheels with the "D" windows painted dark grey and special grey side moldings, and black pearl badging. The Collectors Edition was only available for the 1997 model year and the package was added to many of the available body colors.
  • 1997 - 4744 FZJ80 Land Cruisers were sold in the United States as "40th Anniversary Limited Edition" models. They were available in 2 colours; Antique Sage Pearl (Often referred to as Riverrock, Pewter or Grey) and Emerald Green. The 40th Anniversary models included apron badges, a serial number badge on the centre console, black pearl exterior badges, "40th Anniversary Limited Edition" embroidered floor mats, automatic climate control, two-tone tan and brown leather interiors and wheels with the "D" windows painted dark gray. Many were manufactured with the optional electric front and rear locking differentials, keyless entry, port-installed roof racks and running boards. There are some examples that did not have many of these extras. This is the last year for the electric locking front differentials.
  • 2008 - Last 80-Series vehicle was built in Venezuela which was the only country producing the vehicles after production ended in Japan in 1997.

90 Series

  • 1996 - Alongside the 70 and 80, the 90 Prado was added. The 90 Prado was made by Tahara
    Tahara, Aichi
    is a city located in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. As of August 2011, the city had an estimated population of 63,886 and a population density of 338 persons per km². The total area was 188.81 km².-Geography:...

     Plant, available as a 3-door short wheelbase
    Wheelbase
    In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels.- Road :In automobiles, the wheelbase is the horizontal distance between the center of the front wheel and the center of the rear wheel...

     and 5-door long wheelbase
    Wheelbase
    In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels.- Road :In automobiles, the wheelbase is the horizontal distance between the center of the front wheel and the center of the rear wheel...

     version with either the 5VZ-FE petrol engine (24-valve six-cylinder, 3.4 L), the 3RZ-FS (four-cylinder 2.7 L) petrol engine or the 1KZ-TE turbodiesel (four-cylinder 3.0 L) and 5.0 L diesel (four-cylinder 3.0 L).
  • 90=Short wheelbase
  • 95=Long wheelbase

100 Series

In April 1998, the 100 series Land Cruiser was introduced to replace the 8-year-old 80 series.

There are two distinct versions of the 100-series, the 100 and the 105. The two versions look very similar, but there are significant differences under the bodywork. Despite these differences and official model names, both the 100 and 105 are collectively known as the 100 series.

The 105 carried over the majority of its chassis and powertrain from the 80-series with coil suspended solid axles
Live axle
A live axle, sometimes called a solid axle, is a type of beam axle suspension system that uses the driveshafts that transmit power to the wheels to connect the wheels laterally so that they move together as a unit....

 front and rear, and straight-6 petrol and diesel engines. These models were only sold in African, Australian and South American markets.

The 100 models were fitted with a slightly wider chassis, independent front suspension
Independent suspension
Independent suspension is a broad term for any automobile suspension system that allows each wheel on the same axle to move vertically independently of each other. This is contrasted with a beam axle, live axle or deDion axle system in which the wheels are linked – movement on one side affects...

 (IFS) and two new engines. The change to IFS was a first for a Land Cruiser, and was made (in combination with rack-and-pinion steering) to improve on-road handling. However it also limited the vehicle’s off-road capability and durability, hence the decision to offer the solid axle 105 models alongside the IFS 100 models in some markets. The table below identifies the range of 100 and 105 models and their worldwide availability.

Although the 100 and 105 bodies are identical, there are some exterior visual indications between the two. The most obvious is the front end of the vehicle often appearing lower than the rear on the 100 models, due to the IFS. The other indicator is the design of the wheels. The 100 models have almost flat wheel designs, while he 105 models have dished wheels. This difference allows the two versions to retain similar wheel tracks, even though the 100 has a significantly wider axle track to allow for the IFS system.

The introduction of a V8 engine was also a first for a Land Cruiser, and was specifically intended to improve sales in the North-American market, where it was the only engine available. In Australia, the 100 V8 was initially only available in the range-topping GXV model, while entry and mid-range models were the 105 powered by the 1FZ-FE
Toyota FZ engine
The Toyota FZ engine was a 24-valve, 4.5L DOHC straight-6 internal combustion engine manufactured by Toyota to replace the F-series engine. It was used primarily in SUV's because of its large displacement, smoothness, ruggedness and torque.-Technical data:...

 I6 petrol, or 1Hz diesel engines. The new 1HD-FTE
Toyota HD engine
The Toyota HD is a series of Diesel engines produced by Toyota.-1HD-T:The 1HD-T is a 4.2 L straight-6 SOHC turbocharged diesel engine of direct injection design. Bore is 94 mm and stroke is 100 mm, with a compression ratio of 18.6:1...

 turbo-diesel 100 was added to the Australian range in October 2000 after being available in Europe and the UK since launch in 1998. The 4WD media in Australia were critical of Toyota’s decision to offer the acclaimed 1HD-FTE engine only in combination with IFS. Australian 4WD Monthly magazine said "We will never forgive Toyota for going independent at the front with the mighty 4.2 turbo-diesel".

The 100 series formed the basis for the Lexus LX 470, which was also sold in Japan as the Toyota Cygnus.

The 100 series was called the Toyota Land Cruiser Amazon in the UK and Ireland from 1998 to 2003.

In 2000, Toyota celebrated the 50th anniversary of the Land Cruiser with commemorative models offered in several countries. Total global production to date was 3.72 million vehicles.

The 100 series remained in production until late 2007, with several minor facelifts such as headlights, taillights, front grill, rear spoiler and specification changes introduced over the years.

Variants

Designation Engine Power Torque Availability
HZJ105 1HZ 4.2 L diesel I6 96 kW at 3,800 rpm 271 N·m (200 ft-lb) at 2,200 rpm Africa, Asia, Australia, Middle East, South America
FZJ105 1FZ-FE
Toyota FZ engine
The Toyota FZ engine was a 24-valve, 4.5L DOHC straight-6 internal combustion engine manufactured by Toyota to replace the F-series engine. It was used primarily in SUV's because of its large displacement, smoothness, ruggedness and torque.-Technical data:...

 4.5 L petrol I6
158 kW at 4,600 rpm 373 N·m (275 ft-lb) at 3,200 rpm Africa, Asia, Australia, Middle East, South America
FZJ100 1FZ-FE
Toyota FZ engine
The Toyota FZ engine was a 24-valve, 4.5L DOHC straight-6 internal combustion engine manufactured by Toyota to replace the F-series engine. It was used primarily in SUV's because of its large displacement, smoothness, ruggedness and torque.-Technical data:...

 4.5 L petrol I6
158 kW at 4,600 rpm 373 N·m (275 ft-lb) at 3,200 rpm Middle East
UZJ100 2UZ-FE
Toyota UZ engine
The Toyota UZ engine family is a 32-valve quad-camshaft V8 piston engine series used in Toyota's luxury offerings and sport utility vehicles. Three basic versions have been produced, the 1UZ-FE, 2UZ-FE, and 3UZ-FE...

 4.7 L petrol V8
170 kW at 4,800 rpm 410 N·m (302 ft-lb) at 3,400 rpm Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, Japan, Middle East, North America, UK
HDJ1001 1HD-T
Toyota HD engine
The Toyota HD is a series of Diesel engines produced by Toyota.-1HD-T:The 1HD-T is a 4.2 L straight-6 SOHC turbocharged diesel engine of direct injection design. Bore is 94 mm and stroke is 100 mm, with a compression ratio of 18.6:1...

 4.2 L turbodiesel I6
123 kW at 3,600 rpm 352 N·m (260 ft-lb) at 2,000 rpm Africa, South America
HDJ1002 1HD-FTE
Toyota HD engine
The Toyota HD is a series of Diesel engines produced by Toyota.-1HD-T:The 1HD-T is a 4.2 L straight-6 SOHC turbocharged diesel engine of direct injection design. Bore is 94 mm and stroke is 100 mm, with a compression ratio of 18.6:1...

 4.2 L turbodiesel I6
150 kW at 3,400 rpm 430 N·m (317 ft-lb) at 1,400 rpm Australia*, Europe, Japan, UK
  • This engine not released in Australia until 2000.

Known problems and issues

The 100-series is generally considered a durable and reliable vehicle, however there have been three known issues identified, generally for vehicles operating in harsh conditions:
  • The IFS 100-series gained a reputation for front suspension failures in operating conditions where the front suspension was prone to hitting the bump stops. Several companies produce strengthened lower wishbones to eliminate cracks developing.
  • Both IFS 100 and Live-axle 105 models have been reported as suffering from broken front differential centres when driven in harsh conditions. The most common front differential failures in IFS models are reported in vehicles produced between mid 1997 and mid 1999 (i.e. the model years 1998 and 1999), when Toyota fitted the 100 Series IFS with a 2-pinion front differential (the pinion gear would flex away from the ring gear under shock loads). In 1999 (model year 2000) the IFS Landcruiser received a 4-pinion front differential that was more robust and less failures reported.
  • The 2UZ-FE (the only engine available in North America) has log-style exhaust manifolds that were prone to crack and create a "ticking" sound during a cold start. The crack is usually the size of a human hair and would subside shortly after the engine is started as the manifold heats up and closes the gap. There were enough complaints to create a TSB (Technical Service Bulletin) but not enough cases to issue a recall.

Awards

  • 1998 Australian 4WD Monthly 4×4 of the Year (FZJ105)
  • 1999 Australian 4WD Monthly 4×4 of the Year (FZJ105)
  • 2000 Australian 4WD Monthly 4×4 of the Year (FZJ105)
  • 2000 Bushdriver Magazine 4WD Wagon of the Year (HDJ100)
  • 2001 4×4 Australia Magazine 4WD of the Year (HDJ100)

200 Series

The Toyota Land Cruiser was redesigned in late 2007. Known as the 200 Series, it shares the Lexus LX 570's platform and overall design. The frame was all new, derived from the second-generation Tundra but shortened and strengthened by 20 percent. Bigger brake rotors and calipers were added and the front suspension was made heavier duty than the Land Cruiser's first effort at IFS in the 100-series and this underbelly is also protected by skid plates. Also, the roof pillars were totally redesigned to better protect occupants in the event of a rollover.

The 200 Series encountered some criticism due to its bland body restyling, with some claiming that Toyota has 'overdeveloped' the classic trademarked Land Cruiser identity in its efforts to fit the Land Cruiser into modern 21st century motoring and vehicle design. While Toyota is guilty of playing it safe with the styling, ever-increasing crash regulations and a demand for creature comforts have played their parts. Nonetheless, the Land Cruiser remains the NATO vehicle of choice and remains a very serious off-roader, though despite improvements it falls short of the Range Rover as regards interior finish and on-road dynamics.

The vehicle entered production in September 2007 and was available for sale from September or November, depending on country . It became available in Venezuela
Venezuela
Venezuela , officially called the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela , is a tropical country on the northern coast of South America. It borders Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south...

 for sale early in November under the local nickname of "Roraima" (taken from Mount Roraima in Guyana). Early reliability has proved excellent.

The 200 Series, offered numerous features and upgrades over its predecessor not limited to the cosmetic changes made to the body and interior, including:
  • Smart Entry - A sensor is triggered when the remote is brought near the vehicle, allowing the user to simply touch the door handle to open it.
  • Smart Start - Start/Stop push button for ignition; a key is not required.
  • 4-zone climate control on Sahara models, with outlet vents increased from 18 to 28
  • 10 airbag
    Airbag
    An Airbag is a vehicle safety device. It is an occupant restraint consisting of a flexible envelope designed to inflate rapidly during an automobile collision, to prevent occupants from striking interior objects such as the steering wheel or a window...

    s (VX & Sahara)
  • Stronger and lighter frame


Various driver assist technologies not offered on previous models including:
  • CRAWL; a four-wheel drive
    Four-wheel drive
    Four-wheel drive, 4WD, or 4×4 is a four-wheeled vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all four wheels to receive torque from the engine simultaneously...

     control system that operates like an off-road cruise control, automatically maintaining a low uniform vehicle speed using brakes and throttle.
  • Downhill Assist Control
  • A newly developed ABS system, the multi-terrain anti-lock braking system (ABS)
  • Kinetic Dynamic Suspension System
    Kinetic Dynamic Suspension System
    For other articles named KDSS, see KDSS .The Kinetic Dynamic Suspension System technology was employed initially in the Lexus GX 470, and subsequently the 200 Series Toyota Land Cruiser. The system was invented and developed by Kinetic Pty Ltd, a small R&D company based in Dunsborough, Western...

     (KDSS), allows for greater wheel articulation
  • An optional rear view camera (VX)
  • Leather seats are available in full option (VX)


Engine and transmission improvements include:
  • An all new optional V8 diesel engine, the Toyota VD engine
    Toyota VD engine
    -1VD-FTV:The Toyota 1VD-FTV engine is the first V8 diesel engine produced by Toyota. It is a 32-Valve DOHC, with Common Rail fuel injection and either one or two Variable geometry turbochargers.-Vehicles and Availability:...

     (a twin-turbo version of the engine used in the 70 Series since 2007).
  • Automatic transmission standard across all levels of trim of the 200 Series, 5-speed manual transmission is offered only with the 4.0 L GX models (in selected regions). A five-speed automatic gearbox is assigned to the 4.7 L petrol models, while the 4.5 L diesel models receive a six-speed automatic.


In Japan, the Land Cruiser had a minor change in 2009 when it received the 4.6 L V8 1UR-FE engine and the gearbox was replaced with a 6-speed automatic. Although the new 4608 cc 1UR-FE is smaller than the old 4663 cc 2UZ-FE engine, the power has been increased from 212 kW, torque increased from 448 to 460 N·m (330.4 to 339.3 ft-lb) and fuel consumption improved from 6.6 to 7.1 km/L (15.5 to 16.7 ) (Japan 10·15 mode measurement).

In Oceania, the 200 Series is offered in three different levels of trim: GX-R, VX and Sahara.

In North America, the Land Cruiser 200 series is offered only with the 5.7 L 3UR-FE V8 petrol engine producing 284 kW and 401 ft-lb (544 N·m) of torque channeled through a 6-speed automatic. Beige or gray leather is standard, as are 14-airbags and a 14 speaker JBL sound system. The only wheel choice is 18" allowing a lot of sidewall so the vehicle can be driven off-road without modification though a more aggressive tread pattern is advised for deep mud. It comes in only one trim level with only one major option - which is the Upgrade Package, which adds a rear screen, small spoiler and heated rear seats among other minor items. There is no Active Height Control for longevity and no xenon headlights, so the lights can be repaired by the user if necessary. The KDSS suspension allows massive amounts of wheel articulation and with automatic sway bar disconnect the Land Cruiser is able to boast an RTI
Ramp travel index
Ramp travel index or RTI, is a way of measuring a vehicle's ability to flex its suspension, a property also known as axle articulation. The RTI rating is used mainly in the off-roading industry to test and describe chassis limits of modified vehicles....

 score (550) more than 12 times that of the same-year Ford Explorer (45).

Sales numbers

Calendar year United States
2000 15,509
2001 7,591
2002 6,752
2003 6,671
2004 6,778
2005 4,870
2006 3,376
2007 3,251
2008 3,801

See also

  • Toyota Land Cruiser 40 Series
  • Toyota FJ Cruiser
    Toyota FJ Cruiser
    The Toyota FJ Cruiser is a retro style SUV with styling and off road performance reminiscent of the original Toyota FJ40 Land Cruisers. Introduced as a concept car at the February 2003 Chicago Auto Show, the FJ Cruiser was green lit after enormous consumer response and debuted at the January 2005...

  • Toyota Land Cruiser 70 Series
  • Toyota Land Cruiser Prado
    Toyota Land Cruiser Prado
    Toyota Land Cruiser Prado is a, mid-size four-wheel drive vehicle in the Toyota Land Cruiser range produced by the Japanese car maker Toyota Motor Corporation. The Prado is one of the smaller vehicles in the range...

  • Lexus LX
    Lexus LX
    The Lexus LX is a full-size sport utility vehicle sold by Lexus since 1996. Three generations of the Lexus LX have been produced, all based heavily on the long-running Toyota Land Cruiser series of SUVs. The first generation LX 450 debuted in 1996 as Lexus' first entry into the SUV market. Its...


External links

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