Tiburzio di Maso
Tiburzio di Maso was a leader of an anarchic faction in Rome that briefly attempted to restore the medieval commune of the city
Commune of Rome
The Commune of Rome was an attempt to establish a government like the old Roman Republic in opposition to the temporal power of the higher nobles and the popes beginning in 1144...

, the last attempt at populist government in the States of the Church.

In the tumultuous atmosphere of the revolt against Ferrante, the Aragonese King of Naples
Ferdinand I of Naples
Ferdinand I , also called Don Ferrante, was the King of Naples from 1458 to 1494. He was the natural son of Alfonso V of Aragon by Giraldona Carlino.-Biography:...

 by the local lords who supported the claims of the House of Anjou
House of Valois-Anjou
The Valois House of Anjou, or the Younger House of Anjou, was a noble French family, deriving from the royal family, the House of Valois. They were monarchs of Naples, as well as various other territories....

, which broke out anew in 1460, Francesco Sforza had induced the Pope, Pius II
Pope Pius II
Pope Pius II, born Enea Silvio Piccolomini was Pope from August 19, 1458 until his death in 1464. Pius II was born at Corsignano in the Sienese territory of a noble but decayed family...

 to support Ferrante in the Neapolitan War
Neapolitan War
The Neapolitan War was a conflict between the Napoleonic Kingdom of Naples and the Austrian Empire. It started on 15 March 1815 when Joachim Murat declared war on Austria and ended on 20 May 1815 with the signing of the Treaty of Casalanza...

 of 1460-61. The strife in the Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of Naples
The Kingdom of Naples, comprising the southern part of the Italian peninsula, was the remainder of the old Kingdom of Sicily after secession of the island of Sicily as a result of the Sicilian Vespers rebellion of 1282. Known to contemporaries as the Kingdom of Sicily, it is dubbed Kingdom of...

 was reflected in Rome. In the absence of the Pope, who was taking the waters for his gout
Gout is a medical condition usually characterized by recurrent attacks of acute inflammatory arthritis—a red, tender, hot, swollen joint. The metatarsal-phalangeal joint at the base of the big toe is the most commonly affected . However, it may also present as tophi, kidney stones, or urate...

 in the neighborhood of his native Siena
Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the province of Siena.The historic centre of Siena has been declared by UNESCO a World Heritage Site. It is one of the nation's most visited tourist attractions, with over 163,000 international arrivals in 2008...

 in the aftermath of the disappointing Council of Mantua
Council of Mantua (1459)
The Council of Mantua of 1459, or Congress of Mantua, was a religious meeting convoked by Pope Pius II, who had been elected to the Papacy in the previous year and was engaged in planning war against the Ottoman Turks, who had taken Constantinople in 1453...

, two bands of youthful thugs competed for territory in the city of Rome. The Conservatori were inactive and the disturbances grew so great by the end of March that the Governor was forced to vacate the Lateran Palace
Lateran Palace
The Lateran Palace , formally the Apostolic Palace of the Lateran , is an ancient palace of the Roman Empire and later the main Papal residence....

 and call on Pius for military support.

The perennial anti-Papal party in Rome, at this time headed by the Savelli
thumb|300px|The Coat of Arms of the Savelli over a wall of the church of [[Santa Maria in Aracoeli]], [[Rome]].The Savelli were a rich and influential Roman aristocratic family who rose to prominence in the 13th century and became extinct in the main line with Giulio Savelli .The family, who held...

, the Colonna and the Anguillara
Anguillara were a baronal family of Latium, especially powerful in Rome and in the current province of Viterbo during the Middle Ages and the early Renaissance....

, made overtures to the condottiero Jacopo Piccinino, son of Niccolò Piccinino
Niccolò Piccinino
Niccolò Piccinino was an Italian condottiero.-Biography:He was born at Perugia, was the son of a butcher.He began his military career in the service of Braccio da Montone, who at that time was waging war against Perugia on his own account, and at the death of his chief, shortly followed by that of...

, who was fighting for René d'Anjou. Violence erupted in Rome over the rescue from the law of an abductor of a young woman, by a gang headed by the brothers Tiburzio and Valeriano di Maso, whose father, brother-in-law to Stefano Porcari
Stefano Porcari
Stefano Porcari was an Italian politician and humanist from Rome, known as the leader of a rebellion against Pope Nicholas V and the tyrannic Papal authority.-Biography:...

, had been executed for his complicity in Porcaro's plot against Nicholas V
Pope Nicholas V
Pope Nicholas V , born Tommaso Parentucelli, was Pope from March 6, 1447 to his death in 1455.-Biography:He was born at Sarzana, Liguria, where his father was a physician...

 in 1453 . The brothers, announcing that they were "throwing off the yoke of the priests" according to Stefano Infessura
Stefano Infessura
Stefano Infessura was an Italian humanist historian and lawyer. He is remembered through his municipalist Diary of the City of Rome, a partisan chronicle of events at Rome by the Colonna family's point of view. He was in a position to hear everything that circulated in informed Roman circles, for...

, and restoring the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
The Roman Republic was the period of the ancient Roman civilization where the government operated as a republic. It began with the overthrow of the Roman monarchy, traditionally dated around 508 BC, and its replacement by a government headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and...

, barricaded themselves in the Pantheon
Pantheon, Rome
The Pantheon ,Rarely Pantheum. This appears in Pliny's Natural History in describing this edifice: Agrippae Pantheum decoravit Diogenes Atheniensis; in columnis templi eius Caryatides probantur inter pauca operum, sicut in fastigio posita signa, sed propter altitudinem loci minus celebrata.from ,...

, and then, driven from stronghold to stronghold, fortified themselves in Palazzo Capranica.

Jacopo Piccinino was plundering in the Sabine Hills and threatened Rome, according to an informant who identified as Piccinino's supporters the Prince of Taranto, Everso di Anguillara, Jacopo Savelli and the Colonna, and that Tiburzio's gang would open the gates of Rome to the condottiero.

Pius finally left Siena; he gathered together at Orvieto representatives of the contending houses of Aragon and Anjou preparatory to making peace, gathered five hundred horseman at Viterbo and set out for Rome where he arrived 6 October, to public expressions of joy and relief.

In mid-October, with rumors rife of an assault on the city by Piccinino, Tiburzio made an attempt to rescue a captured ally, calling fruitlessly on the city to rise up, and was captured with some of his comrades as they attempted to flee to Palombara. On the scaffold he acknowledged that he had intended, with the aid of the Ghibelline barons and Piccinino, to overthrow the papal goverrnment, made bold by the predictions of a fortune-teller.

He was hanged on the Campidoglio, 31 October 1460. In March 1461, eleven other members of Tiburzio's gang ventured to Rome from Palombara and were captured and hanged. On 10 July 1461, Jacopo Savelli, the last genuine threat, threw himself at Pius' feet and was granted mercy.
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