Texas Medical Center
Overview
 
The Texas Medical Center is the largest medical center in the world with one of the highest densities of clinical facilities for patient care, basic science, and translational research
Translational research
Translational research is a way of thinking about and conducting scientific research to make the results of research applicable to the population under study and is practised in the natural and biological, behavioural, and social sciences...

. Located in Houston, the center contains 49 medicine-related institutions, including 14 hospitals and two specialty institutions, two medical schools, four nursing
Nursing
Nursing is a healthcare profession focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life from conception to death....

 schools, and schools of dentistry
Dentistry
Dentistry is the branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, maxillofacial area and the adjacent and associated structures and their impact on the human body. Dentistry is widely considered...

, public health
Public health
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals" . It is concerned with threats to health based on population health...

, pharmacy
Pharmacy
Pharmacy is the health profession that links the health sciences with the chemical sciences and it is charged with ensuring the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs...

, and other health-related practices. All 49 institutions are not-for-profit.
Encyclopedia
The Texas Medical Center is the largest medical center in the world with one of the highest densities of clinical facilities for patient care, basic science, and translational research
Translational research
Translational research is a way of thinking about and conducting scientific research to make the results of research applicable to the population under study and is practised in the natural and biological, behavioural, and social sciences...

. Located in Houston, the center contains 49 medicine-related institutions, including 14 hospitals and two specialty institutions, two medical schools, four nursing
Nursing
Nursing is a healthcare profession focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life from conception to death....

 schools, and schools of dentistry
Dentistry
Dentistry is the branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, maxillofacial area and the adjacent and associated structures and their impact on the human body. Dentistry is widely considered...

, public health
Public health
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals" . It is concerned with threats to health based on population health...

, pharmacy
Pharmacy
Pharmacy is the health profession that links the health sciences with the chemical sciences and it is charged with ensuring the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs...

, and other health-related practices. All 49 institutions are not-for-profit. Exceeding one thousand acres in size, the center is larger than downtown Dallas. Some member institutions are located outside of the city of Houston. The center is where one of the first and largest air ambulance services was created and where one of the first successful inter-institutional transplant programs was developed. More heart surgeries are performed in the center than anywhere else in the world.

The Texas Medical Center receives 160,000 daily visitors and over six million annual patient visits, including over 18,000 international patients. In 2010, the center employed over 93,500 people, including 20,000 physicians, scientists, researchers and
other advanced degree professionals in the life sciences.

Adjacent to the center are Rice University
Rice University
William Marsh Rice University, commonly referred to as Rice University or Rice, is a private research university located on a heavily wooded campus in Houston, Texas, United States...

, Hermann Park
Hermann Park
Hermann Park is one of Houston's most-visited public parks. Situated between Fannin Street and Cambridge Street, it is within walking distance from the Texas Medical Center, Rice University, and the Museum District, and within a few miles of the Third Ward, the historic Astrodome and Reliant Stadium...

, Reliant Park
Reliant Park
Reliant Park is a complex in Houston, Texas, USA, named after the energy company Reliant Energy. It is located on Kirby Drive at the 610 Loop...

 and the Museum District
Houston Museum District
The Houston Museum District commonly known as, “The Museum District,” is an association of museums, galleries, cultural centers and community organizations located in Houston, Texas, dedicated to promoting the arts, sciences, and cultural amenities of the area.The Houston Museum District currently...

.

Founding and early years

The Texas Medical Center was established in 1945 in part with funds endowed to the M.D. Anderson Foundation by businessman Monroe Dunaway Anderson
Monroe Dunaway Anderson
Monroe Dunaway Anderson was a banker and cotton trader from Jackson, Tennessee. With his brother-in-law, William L. Clayton, Anderson built Anderson, Clayton & Co into the world's biggest cotton company. In the event of one of their deaths, the partnership would lose a large amount of money to...

, who began the foundation two years prior to his death in 1939 to help keep his business partnership, Anderson, Clayton & Co, from dissolving due to estate taxes in the event of his death. Anderson funded the foundation with $300,000, and left an additional $19 million in his estate, making the M.D. Anderson Foundation the largest charitable fund ever created in Texas. The fund's first gift was a check of $1,000 to the Junior League
Junior League
The Association of Junior Leagues International, Inc. is a non-profit organization of 292 Junior Leagues in Canada, Mexico, United Kingdom and the United States. Junior Leagues are educational and charitable women's organizations aimed at improving their communities through volunteerism and...

 Eye Fund for eyeglasses. In 1941, the Texas State Legislature granted funds to the University of Texas for the purpose of starting a cancer research hospital. On the conditions that the hospital be established in Houston and be named after its founder, the M.D. Anderson Foundation matched the state's gift to the university by supplying funds and land.

President Roosevelt approved the purchase of 118 acre (0.47752948 km²) from the Hermann Estate in 1944 for the construction of a 1,000-bed naval
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

 hospital in Houston. The hospital, later renamed the Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, opened in 1946 and became a teaching facility for the Baylor College of Medicine
Baylor College of Medicine
Baylor College of Medicine, located in the Texas Medical Center in Houston, Texas, USA, is a highly regarded medical school and leading center for biomedical research and clinical care...

. Also in 1946, several projects were approved for inclusion in the Texas Medical Center including: Hermann Hospital
Memorial Hermann Hospital
Memorial Hermann Healthcare System is the largest not-for-profit hospital system in Houston, Texas, and consists of 11 hospitals, 7 Cancer Centers, 3 Heart & Vascular Institutes, and 27 sports medicine and rehabilitation centers, in addition to other outpatient and rehabilitation centers. It was...

, St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital
St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital
St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital serves as the lead hospital for St. Luke's Episcopal Health System, and is based at the Texas Medical Center in Houston. St. Luke's Episcopal Health System also includes St. Luke's Episcopal Health Charities, St. Luke's The Woodlands Hospital, St. Luke's Sugar Land...

, The Methodist Hospital
The Methodist Hospital
The Methodist Hospital is a hospital located in the Texas Medical Center in Houston, Texas. Established in 1919 as an outreach ministry of The United Methodist Church, Methodist is one of the most comprehensive teaching hospitals in the United States, with leading specialists in every field of...

, The Shriners Crippled Children's' Hospital (now known as Shriners Hospitals for Children
Shriners Hospitals for Children
Shriners Hospitals for Children is a network of 22 non-profit hospitals across North America. Children with orthopaedic conditions, burns, spinal cord injuries, and cleft lip and palate are eligible for care and receive all services in a family-centered environment, regardless of the patients’...

), and the Houston Academy of Medicine-Texas Medical Center Library
Houston Academy of Medicine-Texas Medical Center Library
The Houston Academy of Medicine-Texas Medical Center Library is an academic health science library located at 1133 John Freeman Blvd in the Texas Medical Center in Houston.-History:...

. The M.D. Anderson Hospital for Cancer Research
The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center is one of the nation's original three comprehensive cancer centers established by the National Cancer Act of 1971. It is both a degree-granting academic institution and a cancer treatment and research center located at the Texas Medical Center in...

 of the University of Texas began construction in 1953. Texas Children's Hospital
Texas Children's Hospital
Texas Children's Hospital is a pediatric hospital located in the Texas Medical Center in Houston, Texas.With 639 licensed beds and 465 beds in operation, Texas Children's is the largest children's hospital in the United States and is affiliated with the Baylor College of Medicine as that...

 admitted its first patient in 1954.

During the late 1950s, the Texas Institute for Rehabilitation and Research opened. The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute at Houston added the Gimbel Research Wing. Texas Woman's University Nursing Program began instruction.

In 1962, the Texas Heart Institute was chartered and became affiliated with St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital
St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital
St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital serves as the lead hospital for St. Luke's Episcopal Health System, and is based at the Texas Medical Center in Houston. St. Luke's Episcopal Health System also includes St. Luke's Episcopal Health Charities, St. Luke's The Woodlands Hospital, St. Luke's Sugar Land...

 and Texas Children's Hospital
Texas Children's Hospital
Texas Children's Hospital is a pediatric hospital located in the Texas Medical Center in Houston, Texas.With 639 licensed beds and 465 beds in operation, Texas Children's is the largest children's hospital in the United States and is affiliated with the Baylor College of Medicine as that...

. The Ben Taub General Hospital
Ben Taub General Hospital
Ben Taub General Hospital is a hospital located in Houston, Texas within the Texas Medical Center. Opening in May 1963, the hospital is owned and operated by the Harris County Hospital District and is staffed by the faculty, residents, and students from Baylor College of Medicine.Ben Taub is a...

 of the Harris County Hospital District opened in 1963.

Recent history and developments

In 1993, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center began a $248.6-million expansion project which constructed an inpatient pavilion with 512 beds, two research buildings, an outpatient clinic building, a faculty office building and a patient-family hotel. From 2005 to present, the George and Cynthia Mitchell Basic Sciences Research Building, the Ambulatory Clinical Building, the Cancer Prevention Center and a new research building on the South Campus opened. The for profit Proton
Proton
The proton is a subatomic particle with the symbol or and a positive electric charge of 1 elementary charge. One or more protons are present in the nucleus of each atom, along with neutrons. The number of protons in each atom is its atomic number....

 Therapy Center, the largest facility in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 where proton therapy
Proton therapy
Proton therapy is a type of particle therapy which uses a beam of protons to irradiate diseased tissue, most often in the treatment of cancer. The chief advantage of proton therapy is the ability to more precisely localize the radiation dosage when compared with other types of external beam...

 is used to treat cancer, opened in July 2006.

The Memorial Hermann Healthcare System
Memorial Hermann Hospital
Memorial Hermann Healthcare System is the largest not-for-profit hospital system in Houston, Texas, and consists of 11 hospitals, 7 Cancer Centers, 3 Heart & Vascular Institutes, and 27 sports medicine and rehabilitation centers, in addition to other outpatient and rehabilitation centers. It was...

 is constructing the six-floor, 165000 square feet (15,329 m²) Memorial Hermann Heart & Vascular Institute. Also recently completed is the 30-story Memorial Hermann Medical Plaza, which is now the largest medical office building in the Texas Medical Center. At night, it is recognizable by its unique rainbow lantern. The new construction is part of the system's city-wide "Century Project" initiative.

Baylor College of Medicine
Baylor College of Medicine
Baylor College of Medicine, located in the Texas Medical Center in Houston, Texas, USA, is a highly regarded medical school and leading center for biomedical research and clinical care...

 opened The Baylor Clinic on June 29, 2005 and started construction on its inpatient hospital.

Texas Children's Hospital
Texas Children's Hospital
Texas Children's Hospital is a pediatric hospital located in the Texas Medical Center in Houston, Texas.With 639 licensed beds and 465 beds in operation, Texas Children's is the largest children's hospital in the United States and is affiliated with the Baylor College of Medicine as that...

 announced the largest investment and program expansion ever by a single pediatric organization. The $1.5 billion four-year initiative is targeted for completion in 2010 and focuses on research and accessibility. Major projects include the development of the neurological research institute ($215,000,000), the formation of a maternity center ($575,000,000), and the expansion of existing research facilities ($120,000,000). Texas Children's is embarking on the development of one of the largest pediatric hospitals in a suburban setting ($220,000,000). The remainder of the expenditures is earmarked for new equipment and information systems.

In 2010, the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, including the John Sealy Hospital
John Sealy Hospital
John Sealy Hospital is a hospital that is a part of the University of Texas Medical Branch complex in Galveston, Texas, United States.Sealy opened on January 10, 1890. It was founded by the widow and brother of one of the richest citizens of Texas, John Sealy after his death...

, became the 49th member of the Texas Medical Center and the first member-institution located outside of the City of Houston.

Texas Medical Center–West Campus which will serve residents of greater west Houston and adjacent areas opened in January, 2011. Representing an initial investment of more than half a billion dollars and almost 1.2 million square feet of healthcare development, the first two facilities to open in the new campus are Texas Children’s Hospital and The Methodist Hospital West Houston. Texas Children’s West Campus is among the nation’s largest suburban pediatric hospital
Children's hospital
A children's hospital is a hospital which offers its services exclusively to children . The number of children's hospitals proliferated in the 20th century, as pediatric medical and surgical specialties separated from internal medicine and adult surgical specialties...

s.

Texas Medical Center institutions

Employment base

11% of the Texas Medical Center employees live in specific areas in northern Brazoria County and southwestern Harris County
Harris County, Texas
As of the 2010 Census, the population of the county was 4,092,459, White Americans made up 56.6% of Harris County's population; non-Hispanic whites represented 33.0% of the population. Black Americans made up 18.9% of the population. Native Americans made up 0.7% of Harris County's population...

. 42% of TMC employees live in specific areas in Brazoria, Fort Bend
Fort Bend County, Texas
Fort Bend County is a county located along the Gulf Coast region in the U.S. state of Texas within the Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown metropolitan area. In 2000 its population was 354,452, while the 2010 U.S...

, and Harris counties.

Cityscape

In a 2006 update to its 50 year master plan, the Texas Medical Center group states "TMC Faces Issues Similar to Large Cities" and compared its urban cityscape to that of the Chicago Loop
Chicago Loop
The Loop or Chicago Loop is one of 77 officially designated Chicago community areas located in the City of Chicago, Illinois. It is the historic commercial center of downtown Chicago...

 in Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

 and Lower Manhattan
Lower Manhattan
Lower Manhattan is the southernmost part of the island of Manhattan, the main island and center of business and government of the City of New York...

 in New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

.

Housing

The Texas Medical Center operates the Laurence H. Favrot Tower Apartments; only medical professionals, students, and other staff members of the Texas Medical Center and their dependents may live in the apartments.

Education

Residents of the apartments are zoned to Houston Independent School District
Houston Independent School District
The Houston Independent School District is the largest public school system in Texas and the seventh-largest in the United States. Houston ISD serves as a community school district for most of the city of Houston and several nearby and insular municipalities...

 schools.

The schools are Roberts Elementary School
Roberts Elementary School (Houston)
Oran M. Roberts Elementary School is a primary school in Houston, Texas, United States. Roberts serves grades pre-K through 5 and is a part of the Houston Independent School District...

, Ryan Middle School
Ryan Middle School (Houston)
James D. Ryan Middle School is a secondary school located in Houston, Texas, United States.Ryan, which serves grades 6 through 8, is a part of the Houston Independent School District....

, and Lamar High School
Lamar High School (Houston)
Mirabeau B. Lamar Senior High School is a secondary school located at 3325 Westheimer Road in Houston, Texas, United States, with a zip code of 77098...

.

Michael E. DeBakey High School for Health Professions, a public magnet school, is located east of the Texas Medical Center.

Infrastructure

The Texas Medical Center system is headquartered at the John P. McGovern Campus.

The area is served by Metro
Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas
The Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County is a major public transportation agency based in Houston . It operates bus, light rail, future commuter rail, and paratransit service in the city as well as most of Harris County...

 bus service and the "Red Line" of the METRORail
METRORail
METRORail is the light rail line in Houston . It is the second major light rail service in Texas following the Dallas Area Rapid Transit system. With an approximate daily ridership of 34,155, the METRORail ranks as the fourteenth most-traveled light rail system in the United States, with the...

 light rail
Light rail
Light rail or light rail transit is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems...

 system. Three METRORail
METRORail
METRORail is the light rail line in Houston . It is the second major light rail service in Texas following the Dallas Area Rapid Transit system. With an approximate daily ridership of 34,155, the METRORail ranks as the fourteenth most-traveled light rail system in the United States, with the...

 stations are located near the center: (TMC Transit Center, Dryden/TMC Station
Dryden/TMC Station
Dryden/TMC Station is an island platformed METRORail light rail station in Houston, Texas, United States. The station was opened on January 1, 2004, and is operated by the Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas . The station is located within the Texas Medical Center and is located...

, and Memorial Hermann Hospital/Houston Zoo Station
Memorial Hermann Hospital/Houston Zoo Station
Memorial Hermann Hospital/Houston Zoo Station is an island platformed METRORail light rail station in Houston, Texas, United States. The station was opened on January 1, 2004, and is operated by the Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas...

).

The United States Postal Service
United States Postal Service
The United States Postal Service is an independent agency of the United States government responsible for providing postal service in the United States...

 Medical Center Station is located at 7205 Almeda Road.

Emergency services

The Houston Fire Department
Houston Fire Department
City of Houston Fire Department is the agency that provides fire protection and emergency medical services for the city of Houston, Texas, United States, the fourth largest city in the United States...

 Station 33 Medical Center, a part of Fire District 21, is near the Texas Medical Center at 7100 Fannin at South Braeswood. The original Firehouse 33 was one of the last stations to be housed in an original volunteer fire station. The original Station 33 was the city hall/fire station of Braeswood. The City of Houston annexed the area in 1950. The current Fire Station 33 opened one block from the original station in August 2004. The city relinquished its ownership of the original fire station.

The Texas Medical Center is within the Houston Police Department
Houston Police Department
The Houston Police Department is the primary law enforcement agency serving the City of Houston, Texas, United States and some surrounding areas. Its headquarters are in 1200 Travis in Downtown Houston....

's South Central Patrol Division.

Culture

Established in November 2000, Texas Medical Center Orchestra is one of very few orchestras in the United States and the world with its origin in the health professions. Members of the orchestra include physicians, dentists, nurses, medical students, biomedical scientists, social workers and other allied health professionals. The mission of the orchestra is to "provide a fellowship in both music and medicine for its members, to contribute culturally to the community and to help raise funds for medical and other local charities through its concerts".

See also

  • Medical centers in the United States
    Medical centers in the United States
    Medical centers in the United States are conglomerations of health-care facilities including hospitals and research facilities that also either include or are closely affiliated with a medical school...



External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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