Tejano music
Overview
 
Tejano music or Tex-Mex music (Texan-Mexican music) is the name given to various forms of folk and popular music originating among the Mexican-American populations of Central and Southern Texas
Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

. In recent years, artists such as Selena
Selena
Selena Quintanilla-Pérez , known simply as Selena, was a Mexican American singer-songwriter. She was named the "top Latin artist of the '90s" and "Best selling Latin artist of the decade" by Billboard for her fourteen top-ten singles in the Top Latin Songs chart, including seven number-one hits...

, often referred to as "The Queen of Tejano", Alicia Villarreal
Alicia Villarreal
Alicia Villarreal is a Mexican Latin Grammy award-winning singer.-Biography:...

, Elsa Garcia, Laura Canales
Laura Canales
Laura Canales was an American Tejano musician and an original inductee in the Tejano Roots Hall of Fame. Canales was born in Kingsville, Texas.-Early years:...

, La Mafia
La Mafia
La Mafia is a four-time Grammy Award-winning musical group. It has its roots in the Northside neighborhood of Houston, Texas and has charted a course as a Latin music band.- History :...

, Jay Perez
Jay Perez
Jay Perez born in San Antonio, Texas is an American Tejano musician, notable for his blending of Rhythm and Blues with traditional Tejano music . Initially a backing musician and leading vocalist for Latin Breed and then David Lee Garza y los Musicales, Perez began a solo career in the early 1990s....

, Mazz
Mazz
Mazz is a Grammy Award–winning Tejano band originating from south Texas. They were formed in Brownsville, TX, by singer/guitarists Jimmy González and Joe López, and emerged as one of the most innovative bands in their genre after adding synthesizer to combine traditional Mexican music and popular...

, and Jennifer Pena
Jennifer Peña
Jennifer Marcella Peña , is an American Latin Pop/Tejano singer and actress who has sold over 3.5 million records internationally. Peña is the third and youngest daughter of Jaime and Mary Peña with other siblings Janet and Jackie...

 have transformed Tejano music from primarily Tejano, ethnic form of music to a genre with wide appeal in people who like Tejano.
In the 1850s Europeans that came from Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 (first during Spanish time and 1830s), Poland and what is now the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

 migrated to Texas and Mexico, bringing with them their style of music and dance.
Encyclopedia
Tejano music or Tex-Mex music (Texan-Mexican music) is the name given to various forms of folk and popular music originating among the Mexican-American populations of Central and Southern Texas
Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

. In recent years, artists such as Selena
Selena
Selena Quintanilla-Pérez , known simply as Selena, was a Mexican American singer-songwriter. She was named the "top Latin artist of the '90s" and "Best selling Latin artist of the decade" by Billboard for her fourteen top-ten singles in the Top Latin Songs chart, including seven number-one hits...

, often referred to as "The Queen of Tejano", Alicia Villarreal
Alicia Villarreal
Alicia Villarreal is a Mexican Latin Grammy award-winning singer.-Biography:...

, Elsa Garcia, Laura Canales
Laura Canales
Laura Canales was an American Tejano musician and an original inductee in the Tejano Roots Hall of Fame. Canales was born in Kingsville, Texas.-Early years:...

, La Mafia
La Mafia
La Mafia is a four-time Grammy Award-winning musical group. It has its roots in the Northside neighborhood of Houston, Texas and has charted a course as a Latin music band.- History :...

, Jay Perez
Jay Perez
Jay Perez born in San Antonio, Texas is an American Tejano musician, notable for his blending of Rhythm and Blues with traditional Tejano music . Initially a backing musician and leading vocalist for Latin Breed and then David Lee Garza y los Musicales, Perez began a solo career in the early 1990s....

, Mazz
Mazz
Mazz is a Grammy Award–winning Tejano band originating from south Texas. They were formed in Brownsville, TX, by singer/guitarists Jimmy González and Joe López, and emerged as one of the most innovative bands in their genre after adding synthesizer to combine traditional Mexican music and popular...

, and Jennifer Pena
Jennifer Peña
Jennifer Marcella Peña , is an American Latin Pop/Tejano singer and actress who has sold over 3.5 million records internationally. Peña is the third and youngest daughter of Jaime and Mary Peña with other siblings Janet and Jackie...

 have transformed Tejano music from primarily Tejano, ethnic form of music to a genre with wide appeal in people who like Tejano.

Origins

In the 1850s Europeans that came from Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 (first during Spanish time and 1830s), Poland and what is now the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

 migrated to Texas and Mexico, bringing with them their style of music and dance. They brought with them the waltz
Waltz
The waltz is a ballroom and folk dance in time, performed primarily in closed position.- History :There are several references to a sliding or gliding dance,- a waltz, from the 16th century including the representations of the printer H.S. Beheim...

, polka
Polka
The polka is a Central European dance and also a genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. It originated in the middle of the 19th century in Bohemia...

s and other popular forms of music and dance. However it was not until the Mexican Revolution
Mexican Revolution
The Mexican Revolution was a major armed struggle that started in 1910, with an uprising led by Francisco I. Madero against longtime autocrat Porfirio Díaz. The Revolution was characterized by several socialist, liberal, anarchist, populist, and agrarianist movements. Over time the Revolution...

 (1910–1917) that forced many of these Europeans to flee Mexico and into South Texas, that their musical influence was to have a major impact on Tejanos.

At the turn of the century, Tejanos were mostly involved in ranching and agriculture. The only diversion was the occasional traveling musician who would come to the ranches and farms. Their basic instruments were the flute
Flute
The flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds, a flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an opening...

, guitar
Guitar
The guitar is a plucked string instrument, usually played with fingers or a pick. The guitar consists of a body with a rigid neck to which the strings, generally six in number, are attached. Guitars are traditionally constructed of various woods and strung with animal gut or, more recently, with...

, and drum
Drum
The drum is a member of the percussion group of musical instruments, which is technically classified as the membranophones. Drums consist of at least one membrane, called a drumhead or drum skin, that is stretched over a shell and struck, either directly with the player's hands, or with a...

, and they sang songs that were passed down through the generations from songs originally sung in Mexico. One of these musicians was Lydia Mendoza
Lydia Mendoza
Lydia Mendoza was an American guitarist and singer of Tejano music. She is known as La Alondra de la Frontera ....

, who became one of the first to record Spanish language music as part of RCA's expansion of their popular race records of the 1920s. As these traveling musicos traveled into areas where the Germans, Poles and Czechs lived, they began to incorporate the oom-pah sound into their music. Narciso "El Huracan del Valle" Martinez, known as the father of Conjunto
Conjunto
Conjunto literally translates as "group," and is regionally accepted in Texas as defining a genre of music that was born out of south Texas at the end of the 19th Century, after German settlers introduced the button accordion. The bajo sexto has come to accompany the button accordion and is...

 music, defined the accordion
Accordion
The accordion is a box-shaped musical instrument of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone family, sometimes referred to as a squeezebox. A person who plays the accordion is called an accordionist....

's role in Conjunto music.

Central to the evolution of early Tejano music was the blend of traditional forms such as the Corrido
Corrido
The corrido is a popular narrative song and poetry form, a ballad, of Mexico. The songs are often about oppression, history, daily life for peasants, and other socially important information. It is still a popular form today, and was widely popular during the Mexican Revolution and Nicaraguan...

and Mariachi
Mariachi
Mariachi is a genre of music that originated in the State of Jalisco, in Mexico. It is an integration of stringed instruments highly influenced by the cultural impacts of the historical development of Western Mexico. Throughout the history of mariachi, musicians have experimented with brass, wind,...

, and Continental European styles, such as Polka
Polka
The polka is a Central European dance and also a genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. It originated in the middle of the 19th century in Bohemia...

, introduced by German and Czech
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

 settlers in the late 19th century. In particular, the accordion
Accordion
The accordion is a box-shaped musical instrument of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone family, sometimes referred to as a squeezebox. A person who plays the accordion is called an accordionist....

 was adopted by Tejano folk musicians at the turn of the 20th century, and it became a popular instrument for amateur musicians in Texas and Northern Mexico. Small bands known as orquestas, featuring amateur musicians, became a staple at community dances.

Norteño/Conjunto accordion pioneer Narciso Martínez
Narciso Martínez
Narciso Martínez , dubbed early on, El Huracan del Valle , began recording in 1936, on October 21 precisely, and is the father of conjunto music...

 learned many tunes from German and Czech brass bands and transpose them to his accordion. Narciso (1911–1992) gave the accordion
Accordion
The accordion is a box-shaped musical instrument of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone family, sometimes referred to as a squeezebox. A person who plays the accordion is called an accordionist....

 playing a new virtuosity in the 1930s, when he adopted the two button row accordion. At the same time, he formed a group with Santiago Almeida
Santiago Almeida
Santiago Almeida was a Texas musician influential in the development of the musical genres of tejano and conjunto....

, a bajo sexto
Bajo sexto
A bajo sexto is a musical instrument with 12 strings in 6 double courses, used in Mexican music. It is used primarily in norteño music of northern Mexico and across the border in the music of south Texas known as "Tex-Mex", "conjunto, or "música mexicana-tejana".A similar instrument with five...

player. Their new musical style, known as Conjunto
Conjunto
Conjunto literally translates as "group," and is regionally accepted in Texas as defining a genre of music that was born out of south Texas at the end of the 19th Century, after German settlers introduced the button accordion. The bajo sexto has come to accompany the button accordion and is...

, soon became the popular music of the working class Tejano. Flaco Jiménez
Flaco Jiménez
Leonardo "Flaco" Jiménez is a Tejano music accordionist from San Antonio, Texas. Jiménez's father, Santiago Jiménez Sr. was a pioneer of conjunto music. He began performing with his father at age seven and recording at age fifteen, as a member of Los Caporales...

 (1939-), the son of an accordionist and grandson of a man who had learned the instrument from a German immigrant, carried on Martinez's tradition of accordion virtuosity and became a fixture on the international World Music scene by the 1980s.

In the 1950s and 1960s, rock and roll
Rock and roll
Rock and roll is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s, primarily from a combination of African American blues, country, jazz, and gospel music...

 and country music
Country music
Country music is a popular American musical style that began in the rural Southern United States in the 1920s. It takes its roots from Western cowboy and folk music...

 made inroads, and electric guitar
Guitar
The guitar is a plucked string instrument, usually played with fingers or a pick. The guitar consists of a body with a rigid neck to which the strings, generally six in number, are attached. Guitars are traditionally constructed of various woods and strung with animal gut or, more recently, with...

s and drum
Drum
The drum is a member of the percussion group of musical instruments, which is technically classified as the membranophones. Drums consist of at least one membrane, called a drumhead or drum skin, that is stretched over a shell and struck, either directly with the player's hands, or with a...

s were added to conjunto combos. Also, performers such as Little Joe added both nuances of jazz
Jazz
Jazz is a musical style that originated at the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States. It was born out of a mix of African and European music traditions. From its early development until the present, jazz has incorporated music from 19th and 20th...

 and R&B, and a Chicano
Chicano
The terms "Chicano" and "Chicana" are used in reference to U.S. citizens of Mexican descent. However, those terms have a wide range of meanings in various parts of the world. The term began to be widely used during the Chicano Movement, mainly among Mexican Americans, especially in the movement's...

 political consciousness.

The 1960s and '70s brought a new fusion of cultures and the first La Onda Tejana Broadcasters. Popular Tejano musician and producer Paulino Bernal
Paulino Bernal
Paulino Bernal is an accordion player and Christian evangelist. He was a member of the Tejano Tex-Mex group Conjunto Bernal....

 of the legendary Conjunto Bernal discovered and introduced to the Tejano music scene the norteno band Los Relampagos Del Norte
Los Relámpagos del Norte
Los Relámpagos del Norte was a norteño band formed in the early 1960s by Cornelio Reyna and Ramón Ayala. The band is best known as a duo. Cornelio Reyna was the lead singer and bajo sexto player, while Ramon Ayala was the background vocalist and the accordion player. After successful careers...

 with Ramon Ayala
Ramon Ayala
Ramon Ayala is a bajo sexto player from Donna, Texas, who currently resides in the Rio Grande Valley. He is the son of Pedro Ayala. His progressive style and technique has earned him the 2009 Bajo Sexto Player of the Year Award from the South Texas Conjunto Association. In 2009 he celebrated his...

 and Cornelio Reyna
Cornelio Reyna
Cornelio Reyna was a Mexican norteño singer.Cornelio Reyna formed a partnership with the legendary Ramón Ayala to create the famous duet called Los Relampagos del Norte in 1963. The band stayed together for eight years and then in 1971, Reyna decided to pursue a solo career as a mariachi singer...

 on his Bego Records. Ramon Ayala still enjoys success on both sides of the border. Cornelio Reyna enjoyed a very successful career as an actor and singer and resurfaced in the Tejano scene with a major hit with his collaboration with Tejano artist La Mafia. He toured constantly until his recent death. In the 1960s and '70s the first La Onda Tejana broadcasting pioneers hit the airwaves including Marcelo Tafoya (first recipient of the Tejano Music Awards "Lifetime Achievement Award), Mary Rodriguez, Rosita Ornelas, and Luis Gonzalez these four were shortly followed by an influx of broadcasters including the famous Davila family of San Antonio. This central Texas support by popular broadcasters helped fuel the flames of La Onda.

"La Onda" continued to surge in the early to mid 80s with the fusion progression of tejano music coming to the forefront regionally with "tejano ballad" songs like Espejismo's hit "Somos Los Dos", written and sung by McAllen native Rudy Valdez, and La Sombra with their Tex-Mex English & Spanish brand of tejano. As the 80s faded away and ushered in the '90s, Houston based artist La Mafia
La Mafia
La Mafia is a four-time Grammy Award-winning musical group. It has its roots in the Northside neighborhood of Houston, Texas and has charted a course as a Latin music band.- History :...

, already with over a dozen Tejano Music Awards under their belt, originated a new Tejano style later to become a Tejano standard. La Mafia combined a pop-style beat to the popular Mexican-style cumbia and achieved success never before seen in the Tejano industry, becoming the first Tejano artist to sell over one million albums with "Estás Tocando Fuego" in 1992. With extensive touring from as early as 1988, they eventually opened the doors for such artists as Selena
Selena
Selena Quintanilla-Pérez , known simply as Selena, was a Mexican American singer-songwriter. She was named the "top Latin artist of the '90s" and "Best selling Latin artist of the decade" by Billboard for her fourteen top-ten singles in the Top Latin Songs chart, including seven number-one hits...

, Emilio Navaira, Jay Perez
Jay Perez
Jay Perez born in San Antonio, Texas is an American Tejano musician, notable for his blending of Rhythm and Blues with traditional Tejano music . Initially a backing musician and leading vocalist for Latin Breed and then David Lee Garza y los Musicales, Perez began a solo career in the early 1990s....

, and Grupo Mazz. Electronic instruments and synthesizers increasingly dominated the sound, and Tejano music increasingly appealed to bilingual country and rock fans. In the wake of her murder, Selena's music received attention from a mainstream American audience as well. Selena or the "Queen of Tejano Music" became the first female Tejano music artist to win a Grammy and her album Ven Conmigo
Ven Conmigo
-2002 bonus tracks:#"No Quiero Saber "#"Enamorada de Tí "# Spoken Liner Notes by the Band and Family: Intro# Spoken Liner Notes by the Band and Family: Ya Ves# Spoken Liner Notes by the Band and Family: Anque No Salga el Sol...

 became the first Tejano album by a female artist to receive a gold status.

Since 1998 Tejano music has seen a decline of Tejano radio stations across the USA, possibly due to any number of factors, perhaps the copycat sound that began after the success of Intocable; now there are so many Intocable sound-alikes that the music has become stale. As a result, many radio stations across the US especially in Texas have converted over to Norteño/Banda music. This has caused Tejano internet radio to become popular, but at the same time it stifles the growth of new Tejano fans because it is no longer in the public mainstream. Whether Tejano will keep growing is yet to be seen with the new age of internet, and a few companies promoting internet Tejano communities.

The elements of Tejano

Tejano music was born in Texas. Although it has influences from Mexico and other Latin American countries, the main influences are American. Contemporary classic Tejano artists such as Emilio and Raulito Navaira, David Lee Garza and Jay Perez
Jay Perez
Jay Perez born in San Antonio, Texas is an American Tejano musician, notable for his blending of Rhythm and Blues with traditional Tejano music . Initially a backing musician and leading vocalist for Latin Breed and then David Lee Garza y los Musicales, Perez began a solo career in the early 1990s....

 exhibit influence from rock, blues
Blues
Blues is the name given to both a musical form and a music genre that originated in African-American communities of primarily the "Deep South" of the United States at the end of the 19th century from spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts and chants, and rhymed simple narrative ballads...

, funk
Funk
Funk is a music genre that originated in the mid-late 1960s when African American musicians blended soul music, jazz and R&B into a rhythmic, danceable new form of music. Funk de-emphasizes melody and harmony and brings a strong rhythmic groove of electric bass and drums to the foreground...

, and country
Country music
Country music is a popular American musical style that began in the rural Southern United States in the 1920s. It takes its roots from Western cowboy and folk music...

.
It is important to understand that Tejano music has various categories of music and bands. Three major categories are Conjunto
Conjunto
Conjunto literally translates as "group," and is regionally accepted in Texas as defining a genre of music that was born out of south Texas at the end of the 19th Century, after German settlers introduced the button accordion. The bajo sexto has come to accompany the button accordion and is...

, Orchestra and Modern. A Conjunto band is composed of accordion, bajo sexto, bass, and drum. Examples of Conjunto Bands are Esteban "Steve" Jordan, The Hometown Boys and Jaime de Anda y Los Chamacos. An Orchestra consists of bass, drum, electric guitar, synthesizer, and a brass section on which it relies heavily for its sound. It can also have an accordion in the band at times. An example of an Orchestra is Ruben Ramos and the Texas Revolution, The Liberty Band and The Latin Breed. A Modern Tejano band consists of synthesizers, drums, electric guitar, bass and at times an accordion. It relies heavily on the synthesizer for its sound. Modern bands are La Mafia, Selena and her band Selena Y Los Dinos, Shelly Lares, Jay Perez, and Jimmy Gonzalez Y Mazz
Mazz
Mazz is a Grammy Award–winning Tejano band originating from south Texas. They were formed in Brownsville, TX, by singer/guitarists Jimmy González and Joe López, and emerged as one of the most innovative bands in their genre after adding synthesizer to combine traditional Mexican music and popular...

. Other categories consist of Progressive, Pop and Urban Tejano music. All of these categories are classified as Tejano.

With the keyboard, drum and the bajo sexto
Bajo sexto
A bajo sexto is a musical instrument with 12 strings in 6 double courses, used in Mexican music. It is used primarily in norteño music of northern Mexico and across the border in the music of south Texas known as "Tex-Mex", "conjunto, or "música mexicana-tejana".A similar instrument with five...

, a 12 string bass guitar from Mexico, Tejanos now had a sound they could begin to call their own. In the 1940s, Valerio Longoria introduced lyrics to conjunto music, further establishing the Tejano claim to this new sound. Tejano music did retain some of its roots in the old European styles. Polkas and waltzes were still popular, and also popular was the German habit of dancing in a circle around the dance floor. It can also be noted that country & western is also danced in the same manner, but only in Texas.

In the 1950s, Isidiro Lopez further revolutionized the Tejano sound by emphasizing less on the traditional Spanish that Valerio used and using the new Tex-Mex instead. This created a newer sound and took us one step closer to the sound we have today. In the 1960s and '70s Little Joe and the Latinairs, later renamed La Familia, The Latin Breed, and others infused the orchestra sound into the Tejano sound, taking their influences from the Pop, R&B and other forms of music. In the late 70s and early 80s, there was a new sound emerging with up and coming groups like McAllen's Espejismo, led by songwriter/lead singer Rudy Valdez, and more notably Brownsville natives Joe Lopez, Jimmy Gonzalez y El Grupo Mazz introduced the keyboard sound to Tejano which was influenced by the Disco sound of the era, and during that period, La Mafia
La Mafia
La Mafia is a four-time Grammy Award-winning musical group. It has its roots in the Northside neighborhood of Houston, Texas and has charted a course as a Latin music band.- History :...

 became the first Tejano band to put on Rock Style shows for their generation.

Some of the major artists and bands of the past couple of decades include Ruben Ramos
Ruben Ramos
Ruben Ramos, also known as El Gato Negro, is an award-winning American Tejano music performer. Beginning his music career in the late '60s, Ruben fame as has grown throughout the years as he formed his own distinct sound of music. In March 1998, Ruben was inducted into the Tejano Music Awards Hall...

, Selena
Selena
Selena Quintanilla-Pérez , known simply as Selena, was a Mexican American singer-songwriter. She was named the "top Latin artist of the '90s" and "Best selling Latin artist of the decade" by Billboard for her fourteen top-ten singles in the Top Latin Songs chart, including seven number-one hits...

, La Mafia
La Mafia
La Mafia is a four-time Grammy Award-winning musical group. It has its roots in the Northside neighborhood of Houston, Texas and has charted a course as a Latin music band.- History :...

, Bobby Pulido
Bobby Pulido
Roberto Pulido Jr. , better known as Bobby Pulido, is a Mexican-American Tejano music performer who was born in Edinburg, Texas.-Family:...

, Laura Canales
Laura Canales
Laura Canales was an American Tejano musician and an original inductee in the Tejano Roots Hall of Fame. Canales was born in Kingsville, Texas.-Early years:...

, David Marez, Xelencia, La Fiebre
La Fiebre
La Fiebre is a Tejano music band that made its way to the top of Latin music charts from Pasadena, Texas. The musical group La Fiebre has become one of Latin Music’s most influential bands standing with other major Tex-Mex bands such as La Mafia and La Sombra, paving the way for future Tejano...

, La Sombra
La Sombra
La Sombra de Chicago or La Sombra de Tony Guerrero is a Tejano band originally from Chicago, IL. The group was widely popular during the late 1980s and most of the 1990s, often described as "the number one show band in the U.S.A." and "the world." La Sombra is credited with over 20 major studio...

, Culturas, Elsa Garcia, Gary Hobbs, Fama, Pete Astudillo
Pete Astudillo
Pedro "Pete" Astudillo is a Mexican American songwriter.-Life:Astudillo was one of the leaders of the Tejano music scene, and from an early age followed mariachi and conjunto music. He began his musical career as a backup vocalist for the queen of Tejano, Selena, as a member of Selena y Los Dinos...

, Ram Herrera, La Diferenzia, Patsy Torres, Michael Salgado
Michael Salgado
Michael Salgado is a popular Tejano artist.Tejano singer/accordionist Michael Salgado gained prominence in the mid-1990s by looking back to the 'norteño' sound influenced by Ramon Ayala, and by susequently introducing the style to the younger generation...

, Intocable
Intocable
Intocable is a Tejano/Norteño musical group from Zapata, Texas that was started by friends Ricky Muñoz and René Martínez in the early 90's. Within a couple years as a band, Intocable had already risen to the top of the Tejano and Norteño fields with a musical signature that had fused Tejano's...

, Los Palominos
Los Palominos
Los Palominos are a tejano group from Uvalde, Texas.Los Palominos were formed in 1986 by four brothers under the name Los Tremendos Pequeños. Their repertory includes polka, rancheras, boleros, ballads, and cumbias. They signed with Sony Discos in 1994 after meeting with Armando Lichtenberger and...

, Jennifer Peña
Jennifer Peña
Jennifer Marcella Peña , is an American Latin Pop/Tejano singer and actress who has sold over 3.5 million records internationally. Peña is the third and youngest daughter of Jaime and Mary Peña with other siblings Janet and Jackie...

, Duelo
Duelo
Duelo is a Tejano band from Roma, Texas with a norteño style. The band is also known as Grupo Duelo and Duelo Norteño. The group rose to prominence in late 1990s and continues to record as of 2009, when their album Necesito Más de Tí debuted in the top slot on the Billboard Top Latin Albums...

, Los Arcos
Los Arcos
Los Arcos is a town and municipality located in the province and the autonomous community of Navarre, northern Spain.-External links:*...

, Rebecca Valadez
Rebecca Valadez
Rebecca Valadez is a Latina singer, actress, and former member of the Tejano group, Mazz. She performed on the group's 2002 Latin Grammy award-winning album, Siempre Humilde. Her solo album, Rebecca Valadez, under AMI Records latin was nominated as "Best Tejano Album" for the 2006 Grammy Awards...

, and several regional local bands.

In the last few years or so there has been an increasing Mexican influence on Tejano music resulting in a sound more like Norteno
Norteño (music)
Norteño , also norteña or conjunto, is a genre of Mexican music. The accordion and the bajo sexto are norteño's most characteristic instruments. The norteño genre is popular in both Mexico and the United States, especially among the Mexican community...

. The Accordion, while a historically popular instrument in Tejano music, has gone from a secondary or specialty instrument to a "must have" instrument. Today, groups like Jaime de Anda Y Los Chamacos, Sunny Sauceda, Eddie Gonzalez, and La Tropa F
La Tropa F
La Tropa F is a Tejano music group from San Antonio, Texas. Originally named Los Hermanos Farias, the group changed its name to La Tropa F in the 1980s...

 emphasize the accordion.

At the turn of the 21st century, the Tejano influence has declined in part due to decreased promotion, the rise in regional Mexican and other Latin music, the breakup or retirement of established performers, and the emergence of few new performers. Most Tejano artists who performed throughout the 1990s during the music's peak who are still performing today have rarely played to the same widestream attention in recent years. Regardless, today's Tejano music, while far more pop-oriented than its Depression-era roots, is still a vital regional musical style in several Tejano communities as well as in other parts of the United States.

Influence

The term Tex-Mex is also used in American rock and roll for Tejano-influenced performers
Chicano rock
Chicano rock is rock music performed by Mexican American groups or music with themes derived from Chicano culture. Chicano Rock, to a great extent, does not refer to any single style or approach. Some of these groups do not sing in Spanish at all, or use many specifically Latin instruments or sounds...

 such as the Sir Douglas Quintet
Sir Douglas Quintet
Sir Douglas Quintet was a rock band active in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Despite their British sounding name, they came out of San Antonio, Texas. Their career was established when they began working with Texas record-producer Huey P. Meaux, after which the band relocated to the West Coast...

 and the Texas Tornados
Texas Tornados
Texas Tornados is a Tejano band. Its music is a fusion of rock, country and various Mexican styles.-History:The initial combination of musicians of the Texas Tornados happened almost by chance at a concert performance of a mutual acquaintance...

 (featuring Flaco Jiménez
Flaco Jiménez
Leonardo "Flaco" Jiménez is a Tejano music accordionist from San Antonio, Texas. Jiménez's father, Santiago Jiménez Sr. was a pioneer of conjunto music. He began performing with his father at age seven and recording at age fifteen, as a member of Los Caporales...

, Freddy Fender
Freddy Fender
Freddy Fender , born Baldemar Garza Huerta in San Benito, Texas, United States, was a Mexican-American Tejano, country and rock and roll musician, known for his work as a solo artist and in the groups Los Super Seven and the Texas Tornados...

, Augie Meyers
Augie Meyers
August "Augie" Meyers is an American musician. He is best known as keyboard-player with the Sir Douglas Quintet and the Texas Tornados.-History:...

, Doug Sahm
Doug Sahm
Douglas Wayne Sahm , was an American musician from Texas. Born in San Antonio, Texas, he was a child prodigy in country music, but became a significant figure in blues rock and other genres. Today Sahm is considered one of the most important figures in what is identified as Tejano music...

); Los Super Seven
Los Super Seven
Los Super Seven is a predominantly Latin American supergroup which debuted in 1998. The group won a Grammy Award for Best Mexican/Mexican-American Album in 1999 for its self-titled album. The group's musical style has changed with each incarnation, blending sounds from Tejano, mariachi, Cuban,...

; Sam the Sham and the Pharaohs; Los Lobos
Los Lobos
Los Lobos are a multiple Grammy Award–winning American Chicano rock band from East Los Angeles, California. Their music is influenced by rock and roll, Tex-Mex, country, folk, R&B, blues, brown-eyed soul, and traditional Spanish and Mexican music such as cumbia, boleros and norteños.-History:The...

 and Latin Playboys
Latin Playboys
Latin Playboys is a musical group comprising David Hidalgo, Louie Pérez, Mitchell Froom and Tchad Blake, active in the 1990s.-History:The band began with a series of demo recordings made by Hidalgo on a home cassette tape 4-track machine...

; Sunny and the Sunliners; Louie and the Lovers; The Champs
The Champs
The Champs were an American rock and roll band, most famous for their Latin-tinged instrumental "Tequila". Formed by studio executives at Gene Autry's Challenge Records to record a B-Side for the Dave Burgess single, the intended throwaway track became more famous than its A-Side, "Train to...

; Ry Cooder
Ry Cooder
Ryland Peter "Ry" Cooder is an American guitarist, singer and composer. He is known for his slide guitar work, his interest in roots music from the United States, and, more recently, his collaborations with traditional musicians from many countries.His solo work has been eclectic, encompassing...

; Calexico; Cecilia with Viva Texas; The Mars Volta
The Mars Volta
The Mars Volta is a Grammy award winning American progressive rock band from El Paso, Texas. Founded in 2001 by guitarist Omar Rodríguez-López and vocalist Cedric Bixler-Zavala, the band incorporates various influences including progressive rock, krautrock, jazz fusion, Latin American music, and...

; Los Lonely Boys
Los Lonely Boys
Los Lonely Boys is a Chicano rock power trio from San Angelo, Texas. They play a style of music they call "Texican Rock n' Roll," combining elements of rock and roll, Texas blues, brown eyed soul, country, and Tejano....

.

Texan accordion music has also influenced Basque
Basque music
The strict classification of Basque music remains a controversial issue, complicated in part by the growing diversification of such music, but by and large it is made in the Basque Country, it reflects traits related to that society/tradition and it is devised by people from the Basque...

 trikitixa
Trikitixa
The trikiti , trikitixa or eskusoinu txiki is a two-row Basque diatonic button accordion with right-hand rows keyed a fifth apart and twelve unisonoric bass buttons...

 players.

Contemporary Swedish-American composer Sven-David Sandström
Sven-David Sandström
Sven-David Sandström is a Swedish composer best known for his compositions operas, oratorios, battets, and choral works, as well as orchestral works.Sandström studied art history and musicology at Stockholm University...

 has incorporated Tejano music stylings in his classical music
Classical music
Classical music is the art music produced in, or rooted in, the traditions of Western liturgical and secular music, encompassing a broad period from roughly the 11th century to present times...

.

Chulas Fronteras
Chulas Fronteras
Chulas Fronteras is a documentary film from 1976 which tells the story of the norteño or conjunto music which is played on both sides of the Mexico-Texas border. It was directed by Les Blank...

is a 1976 documentary about Tejano.

External links


See also

  • Chicano Rock
    Chicano rock
    Chicano rock is rock music performed by Mexican American groups or music with themes derived from Chicano culture. Chicano Rock, to a great extent, does not refer to any single style or approach. Some of these groups do not sing in Spanish at all, or use many specifically Latin instruments or sounds...

  • Conjunto/Norteno Music
    Conjunto
    Conjunto literally translates as "group," and is regionally accepted in Texas as defining a genre of music that was born out of south Texas at the end of the 19th Century, after German settlers introduced the button accordion. The bajo sexto has come to accompany the button accordion and is...

  • Johnny Canales
    Johnny Canales
    Johnny Canales is a former Tejano singer, and was host of the popular show titled "The Johnny Canales Show". Canales is credited with one of the first live performances of Selena by her thirteenth birthday. He took Selena y Los Dinos for their first concerts in Mexico...

  • Latin American music
    Latin American music
    Latin American music, found within Central and South America, is a series of musical styles and genres that mixes influences from Spanish, African and indigenous sources, that has recently become very famous in the US.-Argentina:...

  • Music of Texas
    Music of Texas
    Texas has long been a center for musical innovation. Texans have pioneered musical developments in tejano & conjunto music, Western Swing, Jazz, punk rock, mariachi, country music, electronic music, gothic and industrial music and the blues...

  • Tejano Music Awards
    Tejano Music Awards
    The Tejano Music Awards had been launched in 1980 by former art teacher and music veteran Rudy Trevino and the leader of the Latin Breed Band, Gilbert Escobedo. Only 1,500 fans turned out for the first Tejano Music Awards. Over the years, San Antonio evolved into the Nashville of Tejano music...

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK