Surat
Overview
Surat also known as Suryapur, is the commercial capital city of the Indian state
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

 of Gujarat. Surat is India's Eighth most populous city and Ninth-most populous urban agglomeration. It is also administrative capital of Surat district
Surat district
Surat is a district in the state of Gujarat India with Surat city as the administrative headquarters of this district. It is surrounded by Bharuch, Narmada , Navsari and Dang districts. To the west is the Gulf of Cambay. It is the second-most advanced district in Gujarat...

 and one of the fastest growing cities in India. The city proper is the third cleanest city in India. Surat is Gujarat's second largest city with a population of 4.6 million.
Encyclopedia
Surat also known as Suryapur, is the commercial capital city of the Indian state
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

 of Gujarat. Surat is India's Eighth most populous city and Ninth-most populous urban agglomeration. It is also administrative capital of Surat district
Surat district
Surat is a district in the state of Gujarat India with Surat city as the administrative headquarters of this district. It is surrounded by Bharuch, Narmada , Navsari and Dang districts. To the west is the Gulf of Cambay. It is the second-most advanced district in Gujarat...

 and one of the fastest growing cities in India. The city proper is the third cleanest city in India. Surat is Gujarat's second largest city with a population of 4.6 million. Surat ranks 4th[fourth] in a global study of fastest developing cities conducted by The City Mayors Foundation, an international think tank on urban affairs. It is the fastest growing Indian city in terms of economic prosperity. The city has registered an annualised GDP growth rate of 11.5 per cent over the past seven[2001–2008] fiscal years, according to the data compiled by economic research firm Indicus Analytics.

The city is located 306 km south of state capital Gandhinagar, and is situated on the left bank of the Tapti River
Tapti River
The Tapi River ancient original name Tapi River , is a river in central India. It is one of the major rivers of peninsular India with a length of around 724 km...

 (Tapi), the centre being around 22 km (13.7 mi) from its mouth. A moat divides the older parts of the city, with its narrow streets and handsome houses, and the newer suburbs. The city is largely recognised for its textile and diamond businesses. It is also known as the diamond capital of the world and the textile capital/Manchester textile city of India, a distinction it took over from Ahmedabad. It is also known as the "Embroidery capital of India" with the highest number of embroidery machines than any other city. 92% of the world's diamonds are cut and polished in Surat. It has one of the highest GDP growth rates in India at 11.5% as of 2008. Surat was the primary port of India during the Mughal period, a distinction it lost to Bombay during the British Raj
British Raj
British Raj was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947; The term can also refer to the period of dominion...

.

History

Surat is mentioned in the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

 epic, the Mahābhārata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

, when Lord Krishna stopped there en route from Mathura to Dwarka
Dwarka
Dwarka also spelled Dvarka, Dwaraka, and Dvaraka, is a city and a municipality of Jamnagar district in the Gujarat state in India. Dwarka , also known as Dwarawati in Sanskrit literature is rated as one of the seven most ancient cities in the country...

. According to other later Sanskrit records, the area was ruled by the Western Chālukyas in 610 CE, and continued to be ruled by Hindu kings until it was captured by one of the generals of Quṭbuddīn Aibak
Qutb-ud-din Aybak
Qutb-ud-din Aibak was a Turkic king of Northwest India who ruled from his capital in Delhi where he built the Qutub Minar and the Quwwat Al Islam mosque. He was of Turkic descent from central Asia, the first Sultan of Delhi and founder of the Slave dynasty of India. He ruled for only four years,...

. The Parsi
Parsi
Parsi or Parsee refers to a member of the larger of the two Zoroastrian communities in South Asia, the other being the Irani community....

s started to settle there in the 12th century, and added greatly to its prosperity. In the early centuries during the reign of Maratha King, the port of Surat was used as the gateway to Mecca
Mecca
Mecca is a city in the Hijaz and the capital of Makkah province in Saudi Arabia. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level...

 for pilgrims of the Hajj
Hajj
The Hajj is the pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is one of the largest pilgrimages in the world, and is the fifth pillar of Islam, a religious duty that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so...

 from India's interior regions. Both the Makkai Pul and the Mughal Sarai guest house for hajjis (pilgrims) are indicators of this historical significance.

Local traditions state that the city as we know it today was founded in the last years of the fifteenth century by a Brahman named Gopi, who called it Suryapūr (City of the Sun). In 1512 and 1530 Surat was burned and ravaged by the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
The Portuguese Empire , also known as the Portuguese Overseas Empire or the Portuguese Colonial Empire , was the first global empire in history...

 who were trying to maintain influence in the area. In 1513, the Portuguese traveller, Duarte Barbosa
Duarte Barbosa
Duarte Barbosa was a Portuguese writer and Portuguese India officer between 1500 and 1516–17, with the post of scrivener in Cannanore factory and sometimes interpreter of the local language...

, described Surat as an important seaport, frequented by many ships from Malabar and various parts of the world. By 1520, the name of the city was Surat.

Surat eclipsed Khambhat
Khambhat
Khambhat , formerly known as Cambay, is a city and a municipality in Anand district in the Indian state of Gujarat. It was formerly an important trading center, although its harbour has gradually silted up, and the maritime trade has moved elsewhere...

 as the major port of western India, when Khambhat's harbour began to silt up by the end of fifteenth century. During the reigns of the Mughal
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

 emperors Akbar, Jahāngīr
Jahangir
Jahangir was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1605 until his death. The name Jahangir is from Persian جهانگیر,meaning "Conqueror of the World"...

 and Shāh Jahān
Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan, , Persian: شاه جهان) (January 5, 1592 – January 22, 1666) Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan, , Persian: شاه جهان) (January 5, 1592 – January 22, 1666) (Full title: His Imperial Majesty Al-Sultan al-'Azam wal Khaqan...

, Surat rose to become a chief commercial city of India, and an imperial mint was established there. As the major port on the west coast of India, Surat also served as the port for the Hajj
Hajj
The Hajj is the pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is one of the largest pilgrimages in the world, and is the fifth pillar of Islam, a religious duty that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so...

 to Mecca
Mecca
Mecca is a city in the Hijaz and the capital of Makkah province in Saudi Arabia. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level...

. At the end of the 16th century, the Portuguese
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 were undisputed masters of the Surat sea trade. There still is a picturesque fortress on the banks of the river built in 1540.

In 1608, ships from the British East India Company
British East India Company
The East India Company was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China...

 started docking in Surat, using it as a trade and transit point. In 1615, the British Captain Best, followed by Captain Downton, overcame Portuguese naval supremacy and obtained an imperial firman establishing a British factory at Surat following the Battle of Swally
Battle of Swally
The naval Battle of Swally took place on 29–30 November 1612 off the coast of Suvali , a village near the city of Surat, Gujarat, India, and was a victory for four English East India Company galleons over four Portuguese naus and 26 barks .-Importance:This relatively small naval battle is...

. The city was made the seat of a presidency
Presidency
The word presidency is often used to describe the administration or the executive, the collective administrative and governmental entity that exists around an office of president of a state or nation...

 under the British East India Company
British East India Company
The East India Company was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China...

 after the success of the embassy God of Wealth. In 1664 the Maratha
Maratha
The Maratha are an Indian caste, predominantly in the state of Maharashtra. The term Marāthā has three related usages: within the Marathi speaking region it describes the dominant Maratha caste; outside Maharashtra it can refer to the entire regional population of Marathi-speaking people;...

 King Shree Chhatrapati Shivaji attacked Surat
Battle of Surat
Battle of Surat was a land battle that took place on January 5, 1664 near the city of Surat, Gujarat, India between Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and Inayat Khan, a Mughal captain...

, a key Mughal
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

 power centre and a wealthy port town, which generated a million rupees in taxes. When Shivaji arrived in Surat, he demanded tribute
Tribute
A tribute is wealth, often in kind, that one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance. Various ancient states, which could be called suzerains, exacted tribute from areas they had conquered or threatened to conquer...

 from the Mughal commander of the army stationed for port security. The tribute was refused and, instead of battling the Maratha
Maratha
The Maratha are an Indian caste, predominantly in the state of Maharashtra. The term Marāthā has three related usages: within the Marathi speaking region it describes the dominant Maratha caste; outside Maharashtra it can refer to the entire regional population of Marathi-speaking people;...

s, the Mughal commander(Stationed at the Surat fort) sent an emissary to assassinate Shivaji, but in vain. Shivaji conquered the city, and forces under his command exacted their revenge. Shivaji's army sacked Surat for nearly 3 weeks, looting both the Mughal and Portuguese trading centres.

The prosperity of Surat received a fatal blow when Surat was ceded to the British as part of the dowry for Catherine of Braganza
Catherine of Braganza
Catherine of Braganza was a Portuguese infanta and queen consort of England, Scotland and Ireland as the wife of King Charles II.She married the king in 1662...

's wedding to Charles II
Charles II of England
Charles II was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.Charles II's father, King Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War...

 in 1662. Shortly afterwards, in 1668, the British East India company established a factory in Bombay (Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

) and Surat began its relative decline concurrent with the rise of British interests in Bombay.

Surat was sacked again by Shivaji in 1670. By 1687, the British East India Company had moved the presidency to Bombay. At its height, Surat's population reached an estimated 800,000, but by the middle of the 19th century the number had fallen to 80,000. The British took control of Surat again in 1759, and assumed all government powers of the city in 1800.

The city and the surrounding district remained comparatively tranquil during British rule. Even during the Revolt of 1857 (also known as the first struggle for India's independence), peace was not disturbed, owing to the largely mercantile interests of the local population.In the 19th century the Bawamia family was the wealthiest and most powerful family in the city of Surat, they were also heavily involved in the development of the city by focusing on maximising exports to increase revenue and hence increase savings which led to investment in the diamond industry.

A fire and a flood in 1837 destroyed many of buildings of Surat. Among the interesting monuments that survive that destruction are the tombs of English and Dutch merchants and their families, dating to the 17th century, including those of the Oxenden brothers.

By the early 20th century, the population had slowly climbed to 119,306 and Surat was a center of trade and manufacturing, although some of its former industries, such as shipbuilding, were extinct. There were cotton mills, factories for ginning and pressing cotton, rice-cleaning mills and paper mills. Fine cotton goods were woven on hand-looms, and there were special manufactures of silk brocade and gold embroidery (known as Jari). The chief trades were organised in guilds. Manufacturing and trading brought an eclectic mix of ethnicity to the city, making Surat's culture unique.

In 1992, violent riots took place between Hindus and Muslims, the first and worst of their kind in the modern history of Surat. In 1994, a combination of heavy rains and blocked drains led to flooding of the city. A number of dead street animals and public waste were not removed in time and a plague epidemic spread through the city, which caused a number of countries to impose travel and trade sanctions. The municipal commissioner during that time, S. R. Rao and the people of Surat worked hard in the late 1990s to clean the city.

Surat is also home to the royal descendants of the amejee family which settled in Gujarat. The family were known to have to also have lineage to the mogul emperors. The family governed the manikpur district and were later known as the Bhana family.

Old English & Dutch Cemetery

The structure of the Old English and Old Dutch cemeteries in Surat is dominated by the largest monuments of Europeans in all over India. These graves are also some of the oldest tombs which have survived from the earliest times of British and Dutch activities at Surat.

The English traders settled in Surat in 1608 followed by the Dutch in 1617. French and also Swedes – even for just a short period – commenced trading-enterprises here. However, it seems that there are no remnants of their burial culture left today.
Along with the Dutch, Armenian traders also left quite a big cemetery in Surat. Both nations share the same burial ground only separated by a wall.

Geography

Surat the second capital of Gujarat is growing much as its neighbouring metro Bombay and by 2020 it is estimated that Surat will be the largest city in Gujarat state and its urbanisation will stretch from Kosamba
Kosamba
Kosamba is a city and a municipality situated in the Mangrol Taluka in Surat district in the Indian state of Gujarat. Kosamba comes under Surat Metropolitan Region. Kosamba consists of Twin Towns of Tarsadi Nagarpalika and Kosamba Nagarpalika. Of these two municipalities, Tarasadi is larger than...

 in north to Billimora in south. Surat is a port city situated on the banks of the Tapti river (damming of the Tapti caused the original port facilities to close, the nearest port is now in the Hazira area of Surat Metropolitan Region). The city is located at 21.17°N 72.83°E.
It has an average elevation of 13 meters. The Surat district is surrounded by Bharuch
Bharuch
Bharuch , also known as Broach, is the oldest city in Gujarat, situated at the mouth of the holy river Narmada. Bharuch is the administrative headquarters of Bharuch District and a municipality of more than 1,50,000 inhabitants. As Bharuch is a major seaport city, a number of trade activities have...

, Narmada
Narmada district
Narmada district is an administrative district in the state of Gujarat in India. The district headquarters are located at Rajpipla. The district is bounded by Vadodara district in the north, by Maharashtra state in the east, by Tapi district in the south and by Bharuch district in the west...

 (North), Navsari
Navsari
Navsari is a city and municipality in the Surat Metropolitan Region and also the administrative headquarters Navsari District of Gujarat, India. Navsari is also the Twin City of Surat, and only 37 km south of Surat.-Geography:...

 and Dang (South) districts. To the west is the Gulf of Cambay. The climate is tropical and monsoon rainfall is abundant (about 2,500 mm a year).

Surat has grown in area since the early 1700s. The oldest part of the city developed in the area between the train station and the area known as Athwalines. Since the 1970s most of the new development including the most desirable location for the city's burgeoning middle and upper class is the area between Athwalines and the coast at Dumas.

Climate

Surat has a tropical savanna climate
Tropical savanna climate
Tropical savanna climate or tropical wet and dry climate is a type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification categories "Aw" and '"As."...

, moderated strongly by the Arabian Sea. The summer begins in early March and lasts till June. April and May are the hottest months, the average maximum temperature being 40 °C (104 °F). Monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

 begins in late June and the city receives about 1000 millimetres (39.4 in) of rain by the end of September, with the average maximum being 32 °C (89.6 °F) during those months. October and November see the retreat of the monsoon and a return of high temperatures till late November. Winter starts in December and ends in late February, with average temperatures of around 23 °C (73.4 °F), and little rain.

Very often heavy monsoon rain brings floods in the Tapi basin area. In last two decades, the city has witnessed major floods every four years, the worst being the flood of August 2006, perhaps the costliest in the city's history. In the second week of August 2006, a massive flood caused severe damage to the city of Surat. According to a report released by Indian Institute of Management – Ahmedabad (IIM-A), massive flood after release of water from Ukai Dam had caused major human tragedy and property damage estimated at Rs 220 billion on that day. In less than three days, at least 150 people died directly due to flood and many other due to water-borne diseases that followed. More than 1500 animal carcasses were later hauled out of the mud.

Economy

The gross domestic product of Surat metro was estimated at $10 billion in 2010. Surat is known for diamonds, textiles and recently for diamond-studded gold jewellery manufacturing. Real Estate is a new emerging business in Surat.

The City accounts for:
+ 70 % of the world’s total rough diamond cutting and polishing,
+ 90 % of the nation’s total rough diamond cutting and polishing,
+ 40 % of the nation’s total diamond exports,
+ 40 % of the nation’s total man made fabric production,
+ 28 % of the nation’s total man made fibre production
+ 18 % of the nation’s total man made fibre export, and
+ 12 % of the nation’s total fabric production.

Diamond polishing

Surat is famous for its diamond industry and textile industry, along with silk and chemicals. It is at the heart of the world's diamond-polishing industry, which in 2005 cut 92% of the world's diamond pieces and earned India $15 billion in exports. Gujarati diamond cutters emigrating from East Africa established the industry in 1901 and by the 1970s Surat-based diamond cutters began exporting stones to the US for the first time. Though much of the polishing work takes place on small weight stones, Surat's workshops have set their eyes on the lucrative market for finishing larger, pricier stones in the future.

The 18 November 2008 issue of the Wall Street Journal had an article about the diamond industry in Surat. It claims that 80% of the world's finished diamonds are cut and polished in this city. However the wages of the industry's workers remained flat for years and 250,000 workers, or one-third of the city's diamond industry workforce, has left between 2005–2008, leaving about 500,000. Only after a July 2008 strike did the workers obtain a 20% salary raise, their first in a decade. Most of diamonds are polished in Varachha area.

Textiles

Surat is known for producing world-class synthetic textiles.".

Surti households have been declared the most prosperous in the country by the National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER) and Future Capital Research's Roopa Purushothaman in their latest study. The average annual household income (AHI) in the diamond city is Rs 457,000 – the highest in the country.
The study says that Surat's AHI is almost equal to China's per capita income of 2007 and double the national per capita income. Even its GDP growth of 11.5 per cent for the many consecutive years is the fastest in the country.
Recently Surat's diamond and textile industry faced the recession due to slowdown in US economy but is recovering. Jari, the oldest business in Surat, and 80000 embroidery units make the city a major center of the embroidery industry.

Mega Industries:Hazira Zone

Surat also has many industrial Giants such as KRIBHCO
KRIBHCO
Krishak Bharati Cooperative Limited is an Indian cooperative society, that manufactures fertilizer, mainly urea. It registered under the Multi-State Cooperative Societies Act in 1985, and was promoted by the Government of India, and some agricultural co-operative societies spread all over the...

 mammoth fertiliser plant, Reliance
Reliance Industries
Reliance Industries Limited is an Indian conglomerate company headquartered at Mumbai, India. The company operates through three business segments: petrochemicals, refining, and oil and gas, other segment of the company includes textile, retail business, special economic zone development and...

 petrochemical plant, Essar's 10 million tonne steel plant, L&T
Larsen & Toubro
Larsen & Toubro Limited is an Indian multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Mumbai, India. The company has four main business sectors: technology, engineering, construction and manufacturing. L&T has an international presence, with a global spread of offices and factories, further...

's heavy engineering unit, GSEG, gas processing plant of ONGC,GAIL(Gas Authority India Ltd.), Niko Resources Ltd(MNC A Canadian based company Olpad, Surat, Gujarat Type of Project: Exploration and Production Oil & Gas), NTPC -KGPP gas based power plant, Shell
Royal Dutch Shell
Royal Dutch Shell plc , commonly known as Shell, is a global oil and gas company headquartered in The Hague, Netherlands and with its registered office in London, United Kingdom. It is the fifth-largest company in the world according to a composite measure by Forbes magazine and one of the six...

 LNG terminal All these at Hazira and ABG Shipyard
ABG Shipyard
-History:ABG Shipyard is a part of the ABG Group of companies with diversified business interests. Established in 1985, it is headquartered in Mumbai. It has ship-building operations in Surat and Dahej in Gujarat...

 (Shipbuilding Yard) and Ambuja Cement (grinding Unit) at Magdalla port where as Torrent Power
Torrent Power
Torrent Power Limited is an India-based company engaged in the electricity generation, transmission and distribution. Its current operations are in the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra. It is expanding into Uttar Pradesh starting 15 August 2009...

 has mega power plant and GIPCL has got a huge lignite power plant in kamrej area. L&T colony & Bachelor hostel and ONGC colony are situated near to the airport.

Real Estate

Housing sector is the most preferred segment in Surat too like in other parts of the country. Leading property developers are coming up with all kinds of affordable and luxury homes to woo buyers from all classes i.e. to cater to the needs of both nationals and NRIs. Though the industrial sector of the city is quite well established, expansion work is going on in full swing. Even the retail property sector is developing manifold to meet the recreation needs of its growing population with number of malls, multiplexes and retail outlets opening up across the city. Surat real estate is at its best with builders taking keen interest in developing property in the peripheries of the ‘Silk City'.

Government and politics

The Surat Municipal Corporation is responsible for the maintaining city's civic infrastructure as well as carrying out associated administrative duties. At present, BJP
Bharatiya Janata Party
The Bharatiya Janata Party ,; translation: Indian People's Party) is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Indian National Congress. Established in 1980, it is India's second largest political party in terms of representation in the parliament...

 is the ruling party with majority. Surat Municipal Corporation is one of the wealthiest municipal corporation in India. Surat has the maximum number of flyovers in India .

Air

Till September 2007 Surat was the only city in the world with a population of over 4.6 million people without a functioning airport. This city is 4th fastest growing city in the world, having largest GDP in India, this city is 2nd biggest city in Gujarat and 9th biggest city in India. The Surat Airport
Surat Airport
Surat Airport is a domestic airport , located in Magdala, 11 kilometres south-west of Surat in the Western Indian state of Gujarat. The total area of the airfield is 312 Hectares...

 was closed down due to technical reasons in 2001. The new airport finally became functional with Surat-Delhi IA flight on 6 May 2007. Currently daily flight is operated to Delhi (Except Saturday). By June 2012, Surat will get a full fledged (Not Official clearance & commitment given) International Airport which is under construction at Magdalla-Dumas near Surat. A movement for airport has begun on the social networking site "Facebook".

Rail

Surat railway station
Surat railway station
Surat Railway Station, station code ST, is the largest and very important railway station serving surat city, beside Gotahngam, Kosad, Uttran, Udhan Jn, Bhestan, Niol and Sachin railway station serving Surat city, the second largest city in the Gujarat state of India. It is under the administrative...

 is under the administrative control of the Western Railway zone of the Indian Railways
Indian Railways
Indian Railways , abbreviated as IR , is a departmental undertaking of Government of India, which owns and operates most of India's rail transport. It is overseen by the Ministry of Railways of the Government of India....

. Erection of Surat Railway Station was began in 1860 AD. It connects Surat with Bombay, Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

, Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad also known as Karnavati is the largest city in Gujarat, India. It is the former capital of Gujarat and is also the judicial capital of Gujarat as the Gujarat High Court has its seat in Ahmedabad...

, Vadodara
Vadodara
Vadodara formerly known as Baroda is the third most populated city in the Indian State of Gujarat . It is one of the four cities with the population of over 1 million...

, Indore
Indore
Indore is one of the major city in India, the largest city and commercial center of the state of Madhya Pradesh in central India. Indore is located 190 km west of the state capital Bhopal. According to the 2011 Indian census, Indore city has a population of 1,960,631...

, Jaipur
Jaipur
Jaipur , also popularly known as the Pink City, is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan. Founded on 18 November 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amber, the city today has a population of more than 3.1 million....

, Jabalpur, Satna
Satna
Satna is a city in central India and a municipal corporation in Satna district in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is the administrative headquarters of Satna District. Satna is a border city of the state and is touched by the borders of the state of UttarPradesh.-History:Satna got its name...

, Patna
Patna
Paṭnā , is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar and the second largest city in Eastern India . Patna is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world...

, Bhopal and other cities of North India
North India
North India, known natively as Uttar Bhārat or Shumālī Hindustān , is a loosely defined region in the northern part of India. The exact meaning of the term varies by usage...

. There is also a connection to the Central Railway zone through Udhana
Udhana
Udhna is a Sub-City of Surat. Located primarily on Surat-Navsari Highway in the Indian state of Gujarat. It is 7 km south of the Commercial Capital of Gujarat i.e Surat. Udhna is a Major Railway Station in Western India. Udhna is one of India's largest Textile manufacturing city...

 Railway Junction and the Tapti line which connects Surat with cities of central India namely Jalgaon, Amravati
Amravati
Amravati is a city in the state of Maharashtra, India and the seventh most populous metropolitan area in Maharashtra. It is also the administrative headquarters of the Amravati district...

 and Nagpur
Nagpur
Nāgpur is a city and winter capital of the state of Maharashtra, the largest city in central India and third largest city in Maharashtra after Mumbai and Pune...

. Passenger trains range from local trains that stop at all stations on the way to express trains like the August Kranti Rajdhani Express
August Kranti Rajdhani Express
The August Kranti Rajdhani Express which connects Mumbai to Delhi Hazrat Nizamuddin, is a sister train to the main Mumbai Rajdhani. It is named after the August Kranti Maidan formerly known as the Gowalia Tank Maidan from where the Quit India Movement was launched in August 1942.-Service:The...

 and the Mumbai Rajdhani Express
Mumbai Rajdhani Express
The 12951/12952 Mumbai Rajdhani Express connects Mumbai and Delhi. It is one of the fastest trains in India.- Service :The 12951/12952 Mumbai Rajdhani Express is the fastest train on the Mumbai - Delhi sector and the fastest Rajdhani train. It is a daily service...

. In addition, there are freight trains that move the goods produced by the city to the rest of the country and beyond, and bring supplies into the city. Surat Railway Station which was built by the British is one of its kind in India, as the railway platform is on the first floor of the railway station and the train reaches the platform through an inclined ramp.Surat railway station is situated at first floor which is highest level of railway station in India. The proposal for double laning of Surat-Hazira line has been approved and so has been the Udhana-Jalgaon line. The central railway station "Udhana" will be more in demand once the double laning of Udhana-Jalgaon line is completed.

Sea

Surat has its own port which is used for shipping freight. A plan to connect Surat with Bombay, Goa, Dubai, Bhavnagar through ferry services is moving forward. The Surat-Bhavnagar ferry service is much awaited by the citizens. This would help Surat connect with the Saurashtra region of Gujarat state, reducing commuting time by at least 6 hours.

Road

Due to heavy traffic congestion on major highways passing through Surat city New expressways are planned and will be completed by 2013. Surat has excellent roads according to Business Today
Business Today (Business Magazine)
Business Today is an Indian fortnightly business magazine published by Living Media India Limited, in publication since 1992. It had a second quarter 2010 readership of 338,000 per issue, ninth among English language magazines surveyed.-External links:...

 Magazine. Surat Municipal Corporation
Surat Municipal Corporation
Surat Municipal Corporation is the local civic body responsible for the development of Surat, Gujarat. The Surat Municipal Corporation was established on 2nd October 1966.Statistics for Surat Municipal Corporation Statistics for Surat Municipal Corporation...

 tries to improve road infrastructure of the city. The major highways passing through Surat are the Udhana-Mumbai Highway also known as Udhana-Navsari Highway, Surat-Ahmedabad Highway also kown as Varachha Main Road, Surat-Kolkata Highway also known as Dhulia Highway. Due to rapid urbanisation and to get rid of fatal accidents Surat Municipal Corporation and Surat Urban Development Authority
Surat Urban Development Authority
Surat Urban Development Authority is the urban planning agency of Surat, India. SUDA was formed in 1976, under Gujarat Town Planning and Urban Development Act - 1976, which covers SMC and 722 Kms area of 148 villages surrounding SMC...

 has planned to develop an Outer Ring Road and Middle Ring Road which are under construction to decongest the traffic from the major Highways passing through city. The city has recently seen the completion of a large number of road projects, particularly elevated roads, flyovers, in the diamond and textile zones of the city. Surat is also known as city of flyovers having the highest number of flyover in India. This has significantly cut down the commuting time for many people travelling to the diamond and textile districts. One of the very few "Multi-Layer Flyovers" in India is now in Surat over Majura Gate. The Eastern expressway also known as Varachha Flyway is one of India's longest flyover under city municipal limits in the four lane category.

The Golden Quadrilateral
Golden Quadrilateral
The Golden Quadrilateral is a highway network connecting India's four largest metropolises: Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata, thus forming a quadrilateral of sorts. Four other top ten metropolises: Bangalore, Pune, Ahmedabad, and Surat, are also served by the network...

 highway system passes through Surat. The city is connected to the National Highway 8 through a 16 km connector highway. National highway 6, also known as Surat – Kolkata Highway, starts from Hazira and passes through surat city and connects the city to Dhule
Dhule
Dhule is a city and a Municipal Corporation in Dhule district in northwestern part of Maharashtra state, India. It is one of the very few well-planned cities of India before Indian Independence.-Geography:Dhule is located at...

, Amravati
Amravati
Amravati is a city in the state of Maharashtra, India and the seventh most populous metropolitan area in Maharashtra. It is also the administrative headquarters of the Amravati district...

, Nagpur
Nagpur
Nāgpur is a city and winter capital of the state of Maharashtra, the largest city in central India and third largest city in Maharashtra after Mumbai and Pune...

, Raipur, Sambalpur
Sambalpur
Sambalpur is a city in Sambalpur district in the Indian state of Orissa.It lies at a distance of 321 km from the state capital Bhubaneswar. In the year 1876, Sambalpur was established as a municipality. It is currently the headquarters and the largest city of Sambalpur district. It is also...

, Kharagpur and Calcutta. The National Highway 228
National Highway 228 (India)
National Highway 228 connects Sabarmati Ashram at Ahmedabad to Dandi. The highway covers a distance of 374 km in the state of Gujarat.Both the places have significance in the Indian independence movement in the form of Dandi March in 1930....

, also known as Dandi Heritage highway, starts from Sabarmati in Ahmedabad and passes through Anand
Anand, Gujarat
]]Anand is the administrative centre of Anand District in the state of Gujarat, India. It is administered by Anand Municipality. It is part of the region known as Charotar, consisting of Anand and Kheda Districts....

, Kheda
Kheda
Kheda is a town and a municipality in Kheda district in the Indian state of Gujarat. Kheda, also known as Kaira, is 35 km from Ahmedabad. The National Highway no. 8 connecting Ahmedabad and Mumbai passes through Kheda...

, Ankleshwar and passes through Surat city to Navsari
Navsari
Navsari is a city and municipality in the Surat Metropolitan Region and also the administrative headquarters Navsari District of Gujarat, India. Navsari is also the Twin City of Surat, and only 37 km south of Surat.-Geography:...

 and ends up in Dandi.
Local transport
On 22 August 2008, the SMSS bus service was opened by the city Mayor Dr. Kanubhai Mavani. It is considered the best city bus services in India. These buses are CNG-fuelled and have an LCD screen in the front giving details about the journey. The conductor uses an electronic machine to print out the tickets. The bus stops are modern and comfortable. The bus service in general is relatively hi-tech and modern. Bus rapid transit system
Bus rapid transit
Bus rapid transit is a term applied to a variety of public transportation systems using buses to provide faster, more efficient service than an ordinary bus line. Often this is achieved by making improvements to existing infrastructure, vehicles and scheduling...

 is planned for the city and the project is expected to be completed by end of 2011.

Infrastructure

Surat has a computerised water distribution system and while computerised drainage system is under implementation. It has one of the best water treatment plants in India. Every part of Surat has drainage and street lights. Several government and private run hospitals are there in Surat to provide medical assistance to the citizens and the visitors. The authority has stressed on E-Governance to bring speed in the overall administration works. Numerous top grade schools and colleges enrich the education scenario of the Surat City.

Demographics

The population of Surat according to new city limits is 4,706,429.
Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Surat has an average literacy rate of 83%, higher than the national average of 79.5%: male literacy is 81%, and female literacy is 70%. Gujarati, Sindhi
Sindhi language
Sindhi is the language of the Sindh region of Pakistan that is spoken by the Sindhi people. In India, it is among 22 constitutionally recognized languages, where Sindhis are a sizeable minority. It is spoken by 53,410,910 people in Pakistan, according to the national government's Statistics Division...

, Hindi, Marvadi, Marathi
Marathi language
Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western and central India. It is the official language of the state of Maharashtra. There are over 68 million fluent speakers worldwide. Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India and is the fifteenth most...

, Telugu
Telugu language
Telugu is a Central Dravidian language primarily spoken in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India, where it is an official language. It is also spoken in the neighbouring states of Chattisgarh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa and Tamil Nadu...

, and Oriya
Oriya language
Oriya , officially Odia from November, 2011, is an Indian language, belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family. It is mainly spoken in the Indian states of Orissa and West Bengal...

 are the main languages spoken in Surat. In Surat, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age. Over 0.6 million people or about 11% hail from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Surat also has sizeable Parsi
Parsi
Parsi or Parsee refers to a member of the larger of the two Zoroastrian communities in South Asia, the other being the Irani community....

 and Jewish populations.

Dawoodi Bohra
Dawoodi Bohra
Dawoodi Bohra is a subsect of Ismāʿīlī Shīʿa Islām. While the Dawoodi Bohra is based in India, their belief system originates in Yemen, where it evolved from the Fatimid Caliphate and where they were persecuted due to their differences from mainstream Sunni Islam...

 also made Surat (1787AD onward) it's Dawat office in the era of 42nd Dai Syedna Yusuf Najmuddin
Syedna Yusuf Najmuddin
Syedna Yusuf Najmuddin Bin Syedna Zakiuddin , Surat, India) was the 42 nd Da'i al-Mutlaq of the Dawoodi Bohra sect of Musta‘lī Islam. He succeeded the 41 st Dai Syedna Abduttayyeb Zakiuddin Bin Syedna Badruddin, to the religious post.Syedna Yusuf Najmuddin became Da'i al-Mutlaq in 1200AH /1787AD...

. It continued up to the period of 51st Dai Taher Saifuddin
Taher Saifuddin
Syedna Taher Saifuddin was the 51st Dā‘ī l-Muṭlaq and led the Dawoodi Bohras community from 1915 to 1965...

 (1915-1965AD), when it was shifted to Mumbai.

Because of unauthorised residential buildings and slums, which cause difficulties in counting the residents of these areas, combined with the explosive growth in population (mostly through migration), it is generally believed that as of 2009 about 5.0 million people live within the Surat Municipal Corporation.

Culture and festivals

Surat is known for its Surti cuisine, which includes perennial favourites such as "Ghari" (a type of sweet), Locho, Undhiyu, Rasaawala Khaman, and Surti Chinese. Unlike cuisines in other parts of Gujarat, Surti cuisine is quite spicy. Roadside kiosks, called "laaris" or "rekdis", are quite popular in Surat. In the cooler winter months, Surtis converge at river Tapi's banks to eat Ponk, a roasted cereal that is available only in this part of the world.
Surat is the only major city in Gujarat which has a vibrant non-vegetarian food culture. Novel dishes made from eggs (ghotala, kheema, half fry) are specialties which are savoured with much gusto. Apart from this the traditional mutton preparation of tapela, fish(patra macchi), and lemon chicken can be relished in the old city area.

All major Indian festivals are celebrated in Surat. Navratri, Diwali
Diwali
Diwali or DeepavaliThe name of the festival in various regional languages include:, , , , , , , , , , , , , popularly known as the "festival of lights," is a festival celebrated between mid-October and mid-December for different reasons...

 and Ganesh Chaturthi
Ganesh Chaturthi
Ganesh Chaturthi , also known as Vinayaka Chaturthi is the Hindu festival of Ganesha also called Vinayagar in Tamil Nadu, the son of Shiva and Parvati, who is believed to bestow his presence on earth for all his devotees in the duration of this festival...

 are celebrated with great enthusiasm. The kite-flying festival of Uttarayan which falls on Makar Sankranti – 14 January – is very popular in the city. It is also well known for the celebration of Chandi Padvo which usually occurs around October and is a holiday unique to Surat. This day comes after one of the two biggest full moon days of the Hindu calendar year, "Sharad Purnima". On this day, Surtis buy almost 100 tons of Ghari
Ghari (sweet)
Ghari or Surati Ghari is a sweet dish from Gujarati cuisine, from the region of Surat. Ghari are made of puri batter made into round shapes with sweet filling....

 and other Surti delicacies.

Education

Schools in Surat are either municipal schools, run by the Surat Municipal Corporation or private schools, which in some cases receive financial aid from the government. The schools are affiliated to the Gujarat Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Board
Gujarat Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Board
The Gujarat Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Board or GSEB is a government of Gujarat body responsible for determining the policy-related, administrative, cognitive, and intellectual direction the state's higher educational system takes....

 (GSEB), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE) and few schools are affiliated under National Institute of Open Schooling
National Institute of Open Schooling
The National Institute of Open Schooling , is the Board of Education for open schools in India. It was established by the Ministry of Human Resource Development of the Government of India in 1989 to provide education inexpensively to remote areas...

 (NIOS). Gujarati or English are the usual languages of instruction. The government-run public schools lack many facilities, but are the only option for poorer residents who cannot afford the more expensive private schools. A majority of residents prefer private schools because of better infrastructure and the use of English as a medium of instruction. Some of the best schools in Surat are Divine Child High School, J.H. Ambani Saraswati Vidyamandir,Essar International School, Ryan International School, St.Xavier's, Metas of Seventhday Adventist and G.D. Goenka International School

Surat is the home of Shree V. T. Choksi Suryapur Sanskrit Mahavidyalaya, located in Amliran near the Kavi Narmad Chaklo.

Surat has the prestigious Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology
Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat
The Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat also known as NIT Surat or SVNIT, is an autonomous engineering and technology oriented institute of higher education established by the Government of India in 1961...

 (SVNIT), commonly known to local people as SVR from its earlier name SVREC (Sardar Vallabhbhai Regional Engineering College). It is one of the National Institutes of Technologies, which are considered premier institutes for engineering and technology education in India. With its festivals throughout the year, the college maintains a vibrant atmosphere inside as well as outside the campus. The college is favourite destination for morning joggers of the city.

There are a few other engineering colleges in Surat, namely Government Engineering College, Surat (GEC)- Dr. S. & S. S. Ghandhy College of Engineering & Technology Campus, Sarvajanik College of Engineering and Technology
Sarvajanik College of Engineering and Technology
The SCET is an engineering college which is a part of the Sarvajanik Education Society. The college was started in 1995 in Surat, Gujarat, in the AthwaLines area opposite to the Seventh-day Adventist Church School and College...

 (SCET), C K Pithawala College of Engineering and Technology
C K Pithawala College of Engineering and Technology
The C K Pithawala College of Engineering and Technology in Surat, Gujarat, India, is an engineering college, previously a part of the Veer Narmad South Gujarat University system, located on the banks of the Tapti River....

 (CKPCET), Bhagwan Mahavir College of Engineering and Technology.

The city has two medical colleges – "Government Medical College and New Civil Hospital" and "SMIMER", both awarding the degrees of MBBS and MD,MS. The city also holds one Ayurvedic college namely "Shri O.H.Nazar Ayurvedic College and Hospital", awarding BAMS degree, affiliated to Gujarat Ayurved University,Jamnagar,Gujarat,India. C. D. Pachchigar Homoeopathic (Homeopathic) Medical College and The Sarvajanik College of Physiotherapy at Rampura offer courses in homoeopathy and physiotherapy respectively.

Al Jamea tus Saifiyah
Al Jamea tus Saifiyah
Al Jamea Tus Saifiyah is an Islamic Arabic Academy located in Surat, India. It was founded as a theological University for Dawoodi Bohras in 1814 ADby the 43rd Dai Syedna Abdeali Saifuddin and named it as ‘Daras-e-Saifee”...

 is an Islamic Arabic Academy situated in the heart of Surat city, with a sister campus in the northern foothills of Karachi
Karachi
Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and the main financial centre of Pakistan, as well as the capital of the province of Sindh. The city has an estimated population of 13 to 15 million, while the total metropolitan area has a population of over 18 million...

, Pakistan. It is a leading theological University for Dawoodi Bohra
Dawoodi Bohra
Dawoodi Bohra is a subsect of Ismāʿīlī Shīʿa Islām. While the Dawoodi Bohra is based in India, their belief system originates in Yemen, where it evolved from the Fatimid Caliphate and where they were persecuted due to their differences from mainstream Sunni Islam...

s. It was founded in 1814 by the 43rd Dai Syedna Abdeali Saifuddin [R.A].

In 1920, Dawoodi Bohra
Dawoodi Bohra
Dawoodi Bohra is a subsect of Ismāʿīlī Shīʿa Islām. While the Dawoodi Bohra is based in India, their belief system originates in Yemen, where it evolved from the Fatimid Caliphate and where they were persecuted due to their differences from mainstream Sunni Islam...

's 51st Dai the late Dr Syedna Taher Saifuddin
Taher Saifuddin
Syedna Taher Saifuddin was the 51st Dā‘ī l-Muṭlaq and led the Dawoodi Bohras community from 1915 to 1965...

 transformed this institution into a university that also promoted education for Bohra girls. Present Dai Dr Syedna Mohammad Burhanuddin has expanded it with the state-of-the-art facilities including International Baccalaureate Office (IBO) which has acceptance worldwide.

Under the 10+2+3 format, students attend primary and secondary schooling during the first ten years and then may complete two years of higher secondary education, followed by three years at college for commerce, arts or science degrees.Generally, engineering degree courses take four years, while medicine takes about five and half years or more. Most colleges in the city are affiliated with the Veer Narmad South Gujarat University.

Surat is also the home to the institution, Educationam which is growing to cater not just to Chartered Accountants but also in the area of Primary & Secondary Education.

A Parsi
Parsi
Parsi or Parsee refers to a member of the larger of the two Zoroastrian communities in South Asia, the other being the Irani community....

 Theatre Academy is being opened in the Muglisara area of Surat, by Yezdi Karanjia, who has a long experience in staging Parsi plays. It is hoped that it will generate some interest among schoolgoers, and breath new cultural life into the dwindling community.

Media

Gujarat Mitra, one of the oldest and most respected dailies of the country, is the most popular daily newspaper of Surat and South Gujarat. Besides Gujarat Mitra, other dailies include Gujarat Samachar
Gujarat Samachar
Gujarat Samachar is the numero uno daily newspaper in Gujarat. It is published in Gujarati and its main office is in Ahmedabad. It has one branch in Surat as well.-External links:*...

, Sandesh
Sandesh (newspaper)
Sandesh is a Leading daily newspaper in Gujarat. It is published in Gujarati. Sandesh started its journey in the world of Journalism in 1923. Since then, it has flourished into 5 editions and has played a critical and vital role in the upliftment and welfare of five crore Gujaratis. It covers the...

, Divya Bhaskar
Divya Bhaskar
Divya Bhaskar is a Gujarati newspaper in Gujarat, India, owned by D B Corp Ltd.. It is the largest circulated Gujarati daily, with the most number of editions in Gujarat.- Launch :...

and Commodity World. Local editions of these newspapers are published in Gujarati. Loktej was the first Hindi daily published in Surat. Rajasthan Patrika
Rajasthan Patrika
Rajasthan Patrika is a Hindi language daily newspaper published from Jaipur, Jodhpur, Bikaner, Udaipur, Kota and other cities of Rajasthan and from major Indian cities such as Bhopal, Indore, Jabalpur , Raipur, Ahmedabad, Gwalior, Kolkata, Chennai, New Delhi and Bangalore.-History:Rajasthan...

and Savera are now the top Hindi daily newspapers in Surat. The national English dailies such as The Times of India
The Times of India
The Times of India is an Indian English-language daily newspaper. TOI has the largest circulation among all English-language newspaper in the world, across all formats . It is owned and managed by Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd...

, Indian Express and Mid Day are the most popular English-language newspapers. DNA-Daily News and Analysis is a new addition to the list of English dailies available in Surat. Many Marathi
Marathi language
Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western and central India. It is the official language of the state of Maharashtra. There are over 68 million fluent speakers worldwide. Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India and is the fifteenth most...

 newspapers like Loksatta
Loksatta (newspaper)
-Introduction:Launched on January 14, 1948, Loksatta has stood by its tradition of being a forum and voice of democracy in Maharashtra, India. Published by The Indian Express Group, a champion of change, Loksatta is known for its impartial coverage and nonconformist & liberal viewpoint...

, Lokmat
Lokmat
Lokmat is the largest read & circulated Marathi language newspaper. It is the fifth largest Indian daily and in Marathi, it is the largest selling daily with 1.58 million copies a day. As per IRS 2010 Q3, Lokmat has a total readership of 23.67 million...

, Sakal
Sakal
Sakal is a Marathi language daily newspaper headquartered in Pune, Maharashtra, India. Sakal is the flagship newspaper of the foundation publication, Sakal Media Group. Present newspaper circulation of Sakal is approximately 1.5 million copies per day, mainly in Maharashtra...

 are also available in Surat.

Since the city has the largest synthetic textile manufacturing center in India, there is an exclusive textile newspaper called Textile Graph.(Web site: www.textilegraphonline.com) It is published in Surat, since 1994, in Gujarati and Hindi versions. The 'Textile Directory of Surat' (5th. edition) comprising business information of textile traders and industry in and around Surat is also published by Textile Graph.

Most cable service providers have local television channels. Satellite TV DTH services are provided by DISH TV, TATA SKY,Airtel,SUN DIRECT, BIG TV. Broadband internet connections are also available in the city. Broadband service providers include BSNL, TATA Indicom, Reliance Communication, YOU Broadband and Hathway Communications. Wi-Fi connectivity is available at many cafes. Currently, Surat has four FM Radio stations – Radio City
Radio City (India radio station)
Radio City is a FM radio station in India. It broadcasts on 91.1 megahertz from Mumbai , Bangalore , Lucknow and New Delhi. It plays Hindi songs, English and regional songs. It was launched in Hyderabad in March, 2006 , in Chennai on July 7th 2006 and in Vishakapatnam October 2007...

 91.1, Radio Mirchi
Radio Mirchi
Radio Mirchi is a nationwide network of private FM radio stations in India. It is owned by the Entertainment Network India Ltd , which is one of the subsidiaries of The Times Group....

 98.3, My FM 94.3, Big FM 92.7, 93.5 Red FM
Red FM
The name Red FM refers to more than one radio station:* Red FM , a commercial radio network covering the remote areas of Western Australia* Red FM , an Indian radio brand with stations broadcasting at 93.5 MHz across the country...

 along with the national radio 101.00 Vividh Bharati.

Sports

Surat has many sports facilities, the majority of them are dedicated to cricket. The Lalbhai Contractor Stadium and the Pithawala Cricket stadiums have facilities for hosting cricket matches. In addition, Surat has an indoor stadium, used to host events like badminton and table tennis, with modern facilities and seating capacity for 7000. There are a few sports clubs which provide many types of indoor and outdoor games, including the Surat Tennis Club, Surat City Gymkhana and Rander Gymkhana (RG). Recently one of the biggest swimming pools in the city has been opened near Palanpur Patiya area. The Rander area also hosts the Royal Cricket Ground.

An annual boat race takes place in Surat, in the Tapi
Tapti River
The Tapi River ancient original name Tapi River , is a river in central India. It is one of the major rivers of peninsular India with a length of around 724 km...

 river, starting from an island in Arabian sea, sailing upstream Tapi to Magdalla
Port of Magdalla
The Port of Magdalla is a port located on the western shores of India in southern Gujarat, on the southern bank of the Tapti river. A deep water anchorage is located southwest from the port. It is connected with Udhana city GIDC and Pandesara Industrial Estate which is about away. The port is...

.

Satellite towns

Surat is a metropolitan
Metropolis
A metropolis is a very large city or urban area which is a significant economic, political and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections and communications...

 city with a metropolitan region of around 4207 km2. It has many satellite towns within 30 to 100 km radius.

These are some of the important Satellite Towns of Surat Metropolitan Region
Surat Metropolitan Region
The Surat Metropolitan Area/Surat Metropolitan Region is a metropolitan area consisting of the Indian metropolis of Surat and its satellite towns. Developing over a period of about 18 years, it consists of one municipal corporation, 7 municipalities and 6 Counter Magnets...

:
  1. Hazira
  2. Kadodara
    Kadodara
    Kadodara is a city in Surat district in the Indian state of Gujarat. Kadodra is a junction of NH 6 and NH 8 and is on the middle way on Surat-Bardoli road. The civic agency of...

  3. Bardoli
    Bardoli
    Bardoli is a city and a municipality in Surat Metropolitan Region in the state of Gujarat, India. Bardoli is the east most end of the Metropolis of Surat. Bardoli is one of the primary Satellite Towns of Surat Metropolitan Region.-Geography:...

  4. Palsana
    Palsana
    Not to be confused with the Palsana located north of Jaipur in Rajasthan.Palsana is a city and a Municipality in Surat district in Gujarat, India. It is situated on National highway-8 at a distance of 25 km from Surat. Palsana connects Surat with NH8 by Outer Ring Road also known as Hazira-Sachin...

  5. Bilimora
    Bilimora
    Bilimora is a city situated on banks of river Ambika and a municipality in Navsari district in the state of Gujarat, India. The city comes under the purview of Surat Metropolitan Region. The city is roughly 70 km south of the city of Surat and is the south most end of Surat Metropolitan...

  6. Bamroli
    Bamroli
    Bamroli was a city and a Municipality in Surat district in the Indian state of Gujarat. The town is located 15 km south of Surat near Pandesara. The city comes under Surat Metropolitan Region. The city is one of the eight amalgamated Municipalities in Surat City. Now it is a Accommodates...

  7. Sachin-Kanakpur-Kansad
  8. Navsari
    Navsari
    Navsari is a city and municipality in the Surat Metropolitan Region and also the administrative headquarters Navsari District of Gujarat, India. Navsari is also the Twin City of Surat, and only 37 km south of Surat.-Geography:...

  9. Olpad
  10. Sayan
    Sayan, India
    Sayan is a city and a Municipality in the Surat district in the Indian state of Gujarat. It is one of the primary industrial area of Surat Metropolitan Region. Sayan is located on NH 228 only 18 km from Surat. It is famous for its Sugar Factories...

  11. Kim
    Kim
    -Names:* Kim * Kim * Kim * Kim, Vietnamese form of Jin -Places:* KIM, IATA code for Kimberley Airport in South Africa* Kim, Colorado, United States* Kim, a town near Surat, Gujarat, India...

  12. Kosamba-Tarasadi
  13. Dindoli

Places of interest

The Chintamani Jain Temple – The exquisite wooden carvings and paintings are the major attractions of the temple. The temple actively maintained and visited by the city's Jains is situated in the Shahpor area and dates back to 15 century and houses some extremely rare paintings of the Jain monk Acharya Hemachandra
Acharya Hemachandra
Acharya Hemachandra was a Jain scholar, poet, and polymath who wrote on grammar, philosophy, prosody, and contemporary history. Noted as a prodigy by his contemporaries, he gained the title Kalikāl Sarvagya "all-knowing of the Kali Yuga"....

, and of the Solanki
Solanki
The Solanki was a royal Hindu Indian dynasty that ruled parts of western and central India between the 10th to 13th centuries. A number of scholars including V. A. Smith assign them Gurjar origin....

 King Kumarpal
Kumarpal
Kumarpal was a famous ruler of the Solanki dynasty of Gujarat at Anahilavada, India. During his reign, Jainism became prominent in Gujarat. He was a devoted disciple of the great Jain polymath Acharya Hemachandra. Kumarpal was responsible for restoring ruined Somnath. He also built several...

. Any visit to the city would be incomplete without a visit here especially for Jains.

Dutch Garden – The ancient Dutch gardens, the Dutch cemetery and Makaipul, the ancient original port from where the ships sailed to other parts of the world are other attractions.

"Suvali beach located near Hazira is a far away beach located in the remotest area of Surat."

"Hazira beach at Hazria village."

"Dandi beach at Dandi village."

The Surat Fort – The Old Fort was built by Britishers in the 1616 to fortify the defence against the Bhils. It is now used for municipal offices.

The Sardar Patel Museum – Established in 1898, and originally called the Winchester Museum;, this museum has a collection of over 10,000 specimens of arts and crafts.

Gaurav Path
Gaurav Path
Gaurav Path is an expressway designed and constructed by the [Surat Municipal Corporation] as a part of a plan to connect Surat City with its airport, Magdalla Sea Port and Dumas Village...

 – A well planned and well-built 6 lane road to decongest the traffic in Piplod area of the city. Dotted with multiplexes, shopping malls, show-rooms and restaurants. This road connects the city to its airport and Port of Magdalla
Port of Magdalla
The Port of Magdalla is a port located on the western shores of India in southern Gujarat, on the southern bank of the Tapti river. A deep water anchorage is located southwest from the port. It is connected with Udhana city GIDC and Pandesara Industrial Estate which is about away. The port is...

. Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology is also located on this road. Extending this road till Dumas
Dumas
Dumas is a Southern French topographic surname, with fused preposition and definite article du, for someone who lived in an isolated dwelling in the country rather than in a village, from Occitan mas 'farmstead' .- People :...

 is underway.

SHREE SARWESHVAR MANDIR DHAM- A temple near parvat patia Surat, there are almost gods and goddess statue belong Hindu samaj also shani dev mandir Shree Ramesh Jhanwar, Shree Govind Bajaj, Shree Laxminarayan Prajapati, Shree Murli prajapati, Shree Dwarka Parsad Taparia, Dr. Mahesh Patel, Shree Satishji Sharma are founder team of this temple. All Kalash Yatra is start from SHREE SARVESHWAR MANDIR DHAM for any Function and Katha Bhagwat in Parvat Patia area.

Jawaharlal Nehru Garden – Colloquially known as Chowpaty, this is the largest and one of the oldest gardens in the city. It houses a musical fountain as well. The adjoining area is one of the most famous eating spots with sequences of stalls serving Indian snacks along with Chinese and South Indian cuisines.

Saputara
Saputara
Saputara is a city and a Hill Station Municipality in the Dang District of Gujarat state in India.-Geography:This picturesque hill station is perched on a plateau in the Dang forest area of the Sahyadri Range. At an altitude of about 1000 m...

 is a hill station in the Sahyadri Hills only 170 km from Surat at an altitude of 1140 meters above sea level. Lying at a higher altitude Saputara has a cool climate.

Wilson Hills, Gujarat
Wilson Hills, Gujarat
Wilson Hills is a hill station in the Valsad district in the Indian state of Gujarat. It is near Dharampur Tahsil and is also the nearest hill station to Surat....

 is a hill station in the Sahyadri ranges of Valsad district near dharampur at an altitude of 850 meters (2700 feet) above sea level. The nearest hill station of Surat. It enjoys a cool and a serene climate throughout the year. It is only 120 km from Surat.

Vansda National Park
Vansda National Park
Vansda National Park, a protected area representing the thick woodlands of the Dangs and southern Gujarat is situated in the Navsari District of Gujarat state, India....

 – It is situated in the Navsari
Navsari
Navsari is a city and municipality in the Surat Metropolitan Region and also the administrative headquarters Navsari District of Gujarat, India. Navsari is also the Twin City of Surat, and only 37 km south of Surat.-Geography:...

 district and is home to leopards, tigers, panthers,pythons and wild boars. The best time to visit is between July and January.

Beaches – There are a number of beaches near Surat. Only 16 km away, Dumas
Dumas
Dumas is a Southern French topographic surname, with fused preposition and definite article du, for someone who lived in an isolated dwelling in the country rather than in a village, from Occitan mas 'farmstead' .- People :...

 is a popular resort with locals. Suvali is 28 km from the city and Ubhrat is 42 km out, while Tithal is 108 km away and only five km from Valsad on the Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

 to Vadodara
Vadodara
Vadodara formerly known as Baroda is the third most populated city in the Indian State of Gujarat . It is one of the four cities with the population of over 1 million...

 railway line. Suvali has two wells with water rich in iron and sulphur. Suvali beach is fringed by feathery casurina trees.

Thirty-nine kilometres south of Surat, Navsari
Navsari
Navsari is a city and municipality in the Surat Metropolitan Region and also the administrative headquarters Navsari District of Gujarat, India. Navsari is also the Twin City of Surat, and only 37 km south of Surat.-Geography:...

- The Twin city
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 of Surat has been a headquarters for the Parsi
Parsi
Parsi or Parsee refers to a member of the larger of the two Zoroastrian communities in South Asia, the other being the Irani community....

 community since the earliest days of their settlement in India. Udvada, only 10 km north of Vapi, the station for Daman
Daman District, India
Daman district is one of the two districts of the union territory of Daman and Diu on the western coast of India, surrounded by Valsad District of Gujarat state on the north, east and south and the Arabian Sea to the west. The district has an area of , and a population of 113,949 , which increased...

, has the oldest Parsi sacred fire
Sacred fire
Sacred fire or holy fire may refer to:religion*any instance of fire worship*fire personified in Indo-European religion**Atar in Zoroastrianism**Agni in Vedic religion and Hinduism*Sacred fire of Vesta in Roman polytheism...

in India. It is said that the fire was brought from Persia to Diu, on the opposite coast of the Gulf of Cambay, in AD 700. Sanjan, in the extreme south of the state, is the small port where the Parsis first landed; a pillar marks the spot.

The Dutch Cemetery – Located near Kataragam Gate, this impressive mausoleum is that of Baron Hendrik Adriaan Van Rheede tot Drakenstein, who died in 1691. A massive Dome, beautiful pillars and the huge gallery make it a very outstanding monument.

Science City – One of the best Science City in India. Developed by the Surat Municipal Corporation in City Light
City Light
City Light is a posh locality in Surat city and one of the happening places in Surat. Today City Light is one of the best developed residential areas in Surat city and also boasts of high-rise buildings and skyscrapers...

Town and is one of the most attractive places in the city.

Photo gallery

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK