Studebaker
Overview
 
Studebaker (ˈstjuːdəbeɪkər ) Corporation was a United States wagon
Wagon
A wagon is a heavy four-wheeled vehicle pulled by draught animals; it was formerly often called a wain, and if low and sideless may be called a dray, trolley or float....

 and automobile
Automobile
An automobile, autocar, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor...

 manufacturer based in South Bend, Indiana
South Bend, Indiana
The city of South Bend is the county seat of St. Joseph County, Indiana, United States, on the St. Joseph River near its southernmost bend, from which it derives its name. As of the 2010 Census, the city had a total of 101,168 residents; its Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 316,663...

. Founded in 1852 and incorporated in 1868 under the name of the Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company, the company was originally a producer of wagons for farmers, miners, and the military.

Studebaker entered the automotive business in 1902 with electric vehicles and in 1904 with gasoline vehicles, all sold under the name "Studebaker Automobile Company".
Encyclopedia
Studebaker (ˈstjuːdəbeɪkər ) Corporation was a United States wagon
Wagon
A wagon is a heavy four-wheeled vehicle pulled by draught animals; it was formerly often called a wain, and if low and sideless may be called a dray, trolley or float....

 and automobile
Automobile
An automobile, autocar, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor...

 manufacturer based in South Bend, Indiana
South Bend, Indiana
The city of South Bend is the county seat of St. Joseph County, Indiana, United States, on the St. Joseph River near its southernmost bend, from which it derives its name. As of the 2010 Census, the city had a total of 101,168 residents; its Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 316,663...

. Founded in 1852 and incorporated in 1868 under the name of the Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company, the company was originally a producer of wagons for farmers, miners, and the military.

Studebaker entered the automotive business in 1902 with electric vehicles and in 1904 with gasoline vehicles, all sold under the name "Studebaker Automobile Company". Until 1911, its automotive division operated in partnership with the E-M-F Company
E-M-F Company
The E-M-F Company was an early American automobile manufacturer that produced automobiles from 1909 to 1912. The name E-M-F was gleaned from the initials of the three company founders: Barney Everitt , William Metzger , and Walter Flanders .- Everitt...

 and the Garford Company
Arthur Garford
Arthur Lovett Garford was a noted industrialist, inventor and politician. Today, Garford's home serves as the Hickories Museum and home of the Lorain County Historical Society.- Biography:...

 of Elyria, Ohio
Elyria, Ohio
-Community:Elyria has an extensive, although financially burdened, community food pantry and "Hot Meals" program administered through the Second Harvest Food Bank and several churches Elyria is served by Elyria Memorial Hospital.-Recreation and parks:...

. The first gasoline cars to be fully manufactured by Studebaker were marketed in August 1912. Over the next 50 years, the company established an enviable reputation for quality and reliability. The South Bend plant ceased production on December 20, 1963, and the last Studebaker car rolled off the Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, assembly line on March 16, 1966.

German forebears

According to the official Studebaker history published in 1918, three German men named Studebecker or Staudenbecker —Peter (aged 38), Clement (36), and Henry (28)—sailed on the ship Harle from Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Rotterdam is the second-largest city in the Netherlands and one of the largest ports in the world. Starting as a dam on the Rotte river, Rotterdam has grown into a major international commercial centre...

, Holland, and disembarked at Philadelphia on September 1, 1736. They had bought their tickets in Krefeld
Krefeld
Krefeld , also known as Crefeld until 1929, is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located northwest of Düsseldorf, its centre lying just a few kilometres to the west of the River Rhine; the borough of Uerdingen is situated directly on the Rhine...

, Germany. Two of the men were accompanied by their wives. They moved on from Philadelphia to Germantown and, sixty-two years later, persons named Studebaker were recorded as paying taxes in York County, and were described as "blacksmiths and woodworkers". These were Peter Studebaker (1747–1812) —probably a son of the immigrant Clement Studebecker (1700–1762) and his wife Anna Catherine—and his son Peter Studebaker Jr.

In Albert Russel Erskine
Albert Russel Erskine
Albert Russel Erskine was an American businessman. Born in Huntsville, Alabama, he worked in a number of manufacturing industries before joining the Studebaker motor car manufacturing firm in 1911...

's official history, Peter Studebaker is reported to be the father of John [Clement] Studebaker and thus grandfather of the five Studebaker brothers of South Bend, Indiana. However, this conflicts with a genealogy
Genealogy
Genealogy is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history. Genealogists use oral traditions, historical records, genetic analysis, and other records to obtain information about a family and to demonstrate kinship and pedigrees of its members...

 produced later, in which John's father is identified as Clement Studebaker (1758–1840). In any event, John Studebaker (1799–1877) moved to Ohio
Ohio
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the United States. The 34th largest state by area in the U.S.,it is the 7th‑most populous with over 11.5 million residents, containing several major American cities and seven metropolitan areas with populations of 500,000 or more.The state's capital is Columbus...

 in 1835 with his wife Rebecca (née Mohler) (1802–1887)—and taught his five sons to make wagons. They all went into that business as it grew to gigantic proportions with the country.

The five brothers

The five sons were, in order of birth: Henry (1826–1895), Clement
Clement Studebaker
Clement Studebaker was an American wagon and carriage manufacturer. With his brother Henry, he co-founded the H & C Studebaker Company, precursor of the Studebaker Corporation, which built Pennsylvania-German Conestoga wagons and carriages during his lifetime, and automobiles after his death, in...

 (1831–1901), John Mohler
John Studebaker
John Mohler Studebaker was the German-American co-founder and later executive of what would become the Studebaker Corporation automobile company...

 (1833–1917), Peter Everst (1836–1897) and Jacob Franklin (1844–1887). The boys had five sisters. Photographs of the brothers and their parents are reproduced in the 1918 company history, which was written by Erskine after he became president, in memory of John M., whose portrait appears on the front cover.

South Bend operation

Clement and Henry Studebaker, Jr., became blacksmiths and foundry
Foundry
A foundry is a factory that produces metal castings. Metals are cast into shapes by melting them into a liquid, pouring the metal in a mold, and removing the mold material or casting after the metal has solidified as it cools. The most common metals processed are aluminum and cast iron...

men in South Bend, Indiana
South Bend, Indiana
The city of South Bend is the county seat of St. Joseph County, Indiana, United States, on the St. Joseph River near its southernmost bend, from which it derives its name. As of the 2010 Census, the city had a total of 101,168 residents; its Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 316,663...

, in February 1852. They first made metal parts for freight wagons and later expanded into the manufacture of complete wagons. At this time, John M. was making wheelbarrow
Wheelbarrow
A wheelbarrow is a small hand-propelled vehicle, usually with just one wheel, designed to be pushed and guided by a single person using two handles to the rear, or by a sail to push the ancient wheelbarrow by wind. The term "wheelbarrow" is made of two words: "wheel" and "barrow." "Barrow" is a...

s in Placerville
Placerville, California
Placerville is the county seat of El Dorado County, California. The population was 10,389 at the 2010 census, up from 9,610 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Sacramento–Arden-Arcade–Roseville Metropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:...

, California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

. The site of his business is California Historic Landmark #142.

The first major expansion in Henry and Clem's South Bend business came from their being in the right place to meet the needs of the California Gold Rush
California Gold Rush
The California Gold Rush began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California. The first to hear confirmed information of the gold rush were the people in Oregon, the Sandwich Islands , and Latin America, who were the first to start flocking to...

 that began in 1849. From his wheelbarrow enterprise at Placerville, John M. had amassed $8,000. In April 1858, he quit and moved out to apply this to financing the vehicle manufacturing of H & C Studebaker, which was already booming because of a big order to build wagons for the US Army. In 1857, they had also built their first carriage—"Fancy, hand-worked iron trim, the kind of courting buggy any boy and girl would be proud to be seen in".

That was when John M. bought out Henry's share of the business. Henry was deeply religious and had qualms about building military equipment. The Studebakers were German Baptists, a religion that viewed war as evil. Longstreet's official company history simply says "Henry was tired of the business. He wanted to farm. The risks of expanding were not for him". Expansion continued from manufacture of wagons for westward migration
Human migration
Human migration is physical movement by humans from one area to another, sometimes over long distances or in large groups. Historically this movement was nomadic, often causing significant conflict with the indigenous population and their displacement or cultural assimilation. Only a few nomadic...

 as well as for farming and general transportation. During the height of westward migration and wagon train
Wagon train
A wagon train is a group of wagons traveling together. In the American West, individuals traveling across the plains in covered wagons banded together for mutual assistance, as is reflected in numerous films and television programs about the region, such as Audie Murphy's Tumbleweed and Ward Bond...

 pioneering
Settler
A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established permanent residence there, often to colonize the area. Settlers are generally people who take up residence on land and cultivate it, as opposed to nomads...

, half of the wagons used were Studebakers. They made about a quarter of them, and manufactured the metal fittings for other builders in Missouri
Missouri
Missouri is a US state located in the Midwestern United States, bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Kansas and Nebraska. With a 2010 population of 5,988,927, Missouri is the 18th most populous state in the nation and the fifth most populous in the Midwest. It...

 for another quarter-century.

The fourth brother, Peter E, was running a successful general store at Goshen
Goshen, Indiana
Goshen is a city in and the county seat of Elkhart County, Indiana, United States. It is the smaller of the two principal cities of the Elkhart-Goshen Metropolitan Statistical Area, which in turn is part of the South Bend-Elkhart-Mishawaka Combined Statistical Area. It is located in the northern...

 which was expanded in 1860 to include a wagon distribution outlet. A major leap forward came from supplying wagons for the Union Army
Union Army
The Union Army was the land force that fought for the Union during the American Civil War. It was also known as the Federal Army, the U.S. Army, the Northern Army and the National Army...

 in the Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

 (1861–65). By 1868, annual sales had reached $350,000. That year, the three older brothers formed the Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company—Clem (president), Peter (secretary), and John M. (treasurer). By this time the factory had a spur line to the Lake Shore railroad
Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railway
The Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railway, sometimes referred to as the Lake Shore, was a major part of the New York Central Railroad's Water Level Route from Buffalo, NY to Chicago, primarily along the south shore of Lake Erie and across northern Indiana...

 and, with the Union Pacific Railroad
Union Pacific Railroad
The Union Pacific Railroad , headquartered in Omaha, Nebraska, is the largest railroad network in the United States. James R. Young is president, CEO and Chairman....

 finished, most wagons were now dispatched by rail and steamship.

World's largest vehicle house

In 1875, the youngest brother, 30-year-old Jacob, was brought into the company to take charge of the carriage factory, making sulkies and five-glass landaus. Following a great fire in 1874 which destroyed two-thirds of the entire works, they had rebuilt in solid brick, covering 20 acres (80,937.2 m²) and were now "The largest vehicle house in the world". Customers could choose from Studebaker sulkies
Sulky
A sulky is a lightweight cart having two wheels and a seat for the driver only but usually without a body, generally pulled by horses or dogs, and is used for harness races...

, broughams
Brougham (carriage)
A brougham was a light, four-wheeled horse-drawn carriage built in the 19th century. It was either invented for Scottish jurist Henry Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux, Lord Chancellor of Great Britain, or simply made fashionable by his example...

, clarences
Clarence (carriage)
A clarence or growler is a type of carriage popular in the 19th century, essentially an expanded version of the Brougham. It is a closed, four-wheeled horse-driven vehicle with a glass front and seats for four passengers inside. The driver sat at the front, outside the carriage...

, phaetons
Phaeton (carriage)
Phaeton is the early 19th-century term for a sporty open carriage drawn by a single horse or a pair, typically with four extravagantly large wheels, very lightly sprung, with a minimal body, fast and dangerous. It usually had no sidepieces in front of the seats...

, runabouts
Runabout (carriage)
A horse-drawn runabout is a four-wheeled vehicle for informal, utilitarian travel or "running about" and getting things done. Sometimes called a "driving wagon", it is essentially very light in order to be easily hitched by one person, and easily pulled over long distances by a single horse.A...

, victorias
Victoria (carriage)
The victoria was an elegant French carriage, possibly based on a phaeton made for King George IV of the United Kingdom. A victoria may be visualised as essentially a phaeton with the addition of a coachman's box-seat....

, and tandems. For $20,000 there was a four-in-hand
Four-in-hand (carriage)
A four-in-hand is a carriage drawn by a team of four horses having the reins rigged in such a way that it can be driven by a single driver. The stagecoach and the tally-ho are usually four-in-hand coaches....

 for up to a dozen passengers, with red wheels, gold-plated lamps and yellow trim.

In the 1880s, roads started to be surfaced with tar, gravel, and wooden blocks. In 1884, when times were hard, Jacob opened a carriage sales and service operation in a fine new Studebaker Building
Fine Arts Building (Chicago)
The ten-story Fine Arts Building, also known as the Studebaker Building, is located on Michigan Avenue across from Grant Park in Chicago in the Chicago Landmark Historic Michigan Boulevard District. It was built for the Studebaker company in 1884–5 by Solon Spencer Beman, and extensively remodeled...

 on Michigan Avenue, Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

. The two granite columns at the main entrance, 3 in 8 in (1.12 m) in diameter and 12 in 10 in (3.91 m) high, were said to be the largest polished monolithic shafts in the country. Three years later in 1887, Jacob died—the first death among the brothers.

In 1889, incoming President Harrison
Benjamin Harrison
Benjamin Harrison was the 23rd President of the United States . Harrison, a grandson of President William Henry Harrison, was born in North Bend, Ohio, and moved to Indianapolis, Indiana at age 21, eventually becoming a prominent politician there...

 ordered a full set of Studebaker carriages and harnesses for the White House. As the twentieth century approached, the South Bend plant "covered nearly 100 acre (0.404686 km²) with 20 big boilers, 16 dynamos, 16 large stationary engines, 1000 pulleys, 600 wood- and iron-working machines, 7 miles (11.3 km) of belting, dozens of steam pumps, and 500 arc and incandescent lamps making white light over all". The worldwide economic depression of 1893 caused a dramatic pause in sales and the plant closed down for five weeks, but industrial relations were good and the organized workforce declared faith in their employer.

Family association continues

The five brothers died between 1887 and 1917 (John Mohler was the last to die). Their sons and sons-in-law remained active in the management, most notably lawyer Fred Fish after his marriage to John M's daughter Grace in 1891. "Col. George M Studebaker, Clement Studebaker Jr, J M Studebaker Jr, and [Fred Sr's son] Frederick Studebaker Fish served apprenticeships in different departments and rose to important official positions, with membership on the board." Erskine adds sons-in-law Nelson J Riley, Charles A Carlisle, H D Johnson, and William R Innis.

In the beginning

In 1895, John M. Studebaker's son-in-law Fred Fish urged for development of 'a practical horseless carriage'. When, on Peter Studebaker's death, Fish became chairman of the executive committee in 1897, the firm had an engineer working on a motor vehicle. At first, Studebaker opted for electric (battery-powered) over gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline , or petrol , is a toxic, translucent, petroleum-derived liquid that is primarily used as a fuel in internal combustion engines. It consists mostly of organic compounds obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives. Some gasolines also contain...

 propulsion. While manufacturing its own Studebaker Electric vehicles from 1902 to 1911, the company entered into body-manufacturing and distribution agreements with two makers of gasoline-powered vehicles, Garford
Studebaker-Garford
Studebaker-Garford was an automobile produced jointly by the Garford Company of Elyria, Ohio and the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from 1904 through 1911...

 of Elyria, Ohio
Elyria, Ohio
-Community:Elyria has an extensive, although financially burdened, community food pantry and "Hot Meals" program administered through the Second Harvest Food Bank and several churches Elyria is served by Elyria Memorial Hospital.-Recreation and parks:...

, and the Everett-Metzger-Flanders
E-M-F Company
The E-M-F Company was an early American automobile manufacturer that produced automobiles from 1909 to 1912. The name E-M-F was gleaned from the initials of the three company founders: Barney Everitt , William Metzger , and Walter Flanders .- Everitt...

 (E-M-F) Company of Detroit and Walkerville, Ontario
Walkerville, Ontario
The former town of Walkerville Ontario, Canada is now a heritage precinct of Windsor Ontario. Incorporated in 1890, the town was founded by Hiram Walker, owner and producer of Canadian Club Whisky. Walker planned it as a 'model town’ ) that would be the envy of both the region and the continent...

). Studebaker began making gasoline-engined cars in partnership with Garford in 1904.

Garford

Under the agreement with Studebaker, Garford would receive completed chassis
Chassis
A chassis consists of an internal framework that supports a man-made object. It is analogous to an animal's skeleton. An example of a chassis is the underpart of a motor vehicle, consisting of the frame with the wheels and machinery.- Vehicles :In the case of vehicles, the term chassis means the...

 and drivetrains from Ohio and then mate them with Studebaker-built bodies, which were sold under the Studebaker-Garford
Studebaker-Garford
Studebaker-Garford was an automobile produced jointly by the Garford Company of Elyria, Ohio and the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from 1904 through 1911...

 brand name at premium prices. Eventually, vehicles with Garford-built engine
Engine
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert energy into useful mechanical motion. Heat engines, including internal combustion engines and external combustion engines burn a fuel to create heat which is then used to create motion...

s began to carry the Studebaker name. Garford also built cars under its own name and, by 1907, attempted to increase production at the expense of Studebaker. Once the Studebakers discovered this, John Mohler Studebaker enforced a primacy clause, forcing Garford back on to the scheduled production quotas. The decision to drop the Garford was made and the final product rolled off the assembly line
Assembly line
An assembly line is a manufacturing process in which parts are added to a product in a sequential manner using optimally planned logistics to create a finished product much faster than with handcrafting-type methods...

 by 1911, leaving Garford alone until it was acquired by John North Willys in 1913.

E-M-F

Studebaker's agreement with the E-M-F Company, made in September 1908 was a different relationship, one John Studebaker had hoped would give Studebaker a quality product without the entanglements found in the Garford relationship, but this was not to be. Under the terms of the agreement, E-M-F would manufacture vehicles and Studebaker would distribute them exclusively through its wagon dealers.

The E-M-F gasoline-powered cars proved disastrously unreliable, causing wags to say that E-M-F stood for Every Morning Fix-it, Easy Mark's Favorite, and the like. Compounding the problems was the infighting between E-M-F's principal partners, Everett, Flanders, and Metzger
William E. Metzger
William Ernest Metzger was an automotive pioneer and salesman from Detroit. He opened one of the first automobile dealerships in the United States, and participated in the early development of a number of early automobile companies, including the Cadillac Automobile Company and the E-M-F Company,...

. Eventually in mid-1909, Everitt and Metger left to start a new enterprise. Flanders also quit and joined them in 1912 but the Metzger Motor Car Co could not be saved from failure by renaming it the Flanders Motor Company.

Studebaker's president, Fred Fish, had purchased one-third of the E-M-F stock in 1908 and followed up by acquiring all the remainder from J. P. Morgan in 1910 and buying E-M-F's manufacturing plant
Factory
A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial building where laborers manufacture goods or supervise machines processing one product into another. Most modern factories have large warehouses or warehouse-like facilities that contain heavy equipment used for assembly line production...

s at Walkerville, Ontario
Walkerville, Ontario
The former town of Walkerville Ontario, Canada is now a heritage precinct of Windsor Ontario. Incorporated in 1890, the town was founded by Hiram Walker, owner and producer of Canadian Club Whisky. Walker planned it as a 'model town’ ) that would be the envy of both the region and the continent...

, Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, and across the river in Detroit.

Studebaker marque established

In 1911, it was decided to refinance and incorporate as the Studebaker Corporation. The company discontinued making electric vehicles that same year. The financing was handled by Lehman Brothers
Lehman Brothers
Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. was a global financial services firm. Before declaring bankruptcy in 2008, Lehman was the fourth largest investment bank in the USA , doing business in investment banking, equity and fixed-income sales and trading Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. (former NYSE ticker...

 and Goldman Sachs
Goldman Sachs
The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is an American multinational bulge bracket investment banking and securities firm that engages in global investment banking, securities, investment management, and other financial services primarily with institutional clients...

 who provided board representatives including Henry Goldman
Henry Goldman
Henry Goldman was an American banker, son of Marcus Goldman. He was instrumental in the making of the financial conglomerate Goldman Sachs in the early twentieth century. An innovative banker, he helped list retail companies like Sears and Woolworth, despite the firms' shortage of assets...

 whose contribution was especially esteemed.

After taking over E-M-F's facilities, Studebaker sought to remedy the customer dissatisfaction by paying mechanic
Mechanic
A mechanic is a craftsman or technician who uses tools to build or repair machinery.Many mechanics are specialized in a particular field such as auto mechanics, bicycle mechanics, motorcycle mechanics, boiler mechanics, general mechanics, industrial maintenance mechanics , air conditioning and...

s to visit each disgruntled owner and replace defective parts in their vehicles, at a total cost of US$1 million. The worst problem was rear-axle failure. Hendry comments that the frenzied testing resulted in Studebaker's aim to design 'for life'—and the consequent emergence of "a series of really rugged cars... the famous Big and Special Sixes". From that time, Studebaker's own marque was put on all new automobile
Automobile
An automobile, autocar, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor...

s produced at the former E-M-F facilities as an assurance that the vehicles were well built.

Engineering advances from WWI

The 1913 six-cylinder models were the first to employ the important advancement of monobloc engine
Monobloc engine
A monobloc or en bloc engine is an internal-combustion piston engine where some of the major components: cylinder head, cylinder block, or crankcase are formed, usually by casting, as a single integral unit, rather than being assembled later...

 casting which became associated with a production-economy drive in the years of World War I. At that time, a 28-year-old university graduate engineer, Fred M. Zeder, was appointed chief engineer. He was the first of a trio of brilliant technicians, with Owen R. Skelton and Carl Breer, who launched the successful 1918 models, and were known as "the Three Musketeers". They left in 1920 to form a consultancy, later to become the nucleus of Chrysler
Chrysler
Chrysler Group LLC is a multinational automaker headquartered in Auburn Hills, Michigan, USA. Chrysler was first organized as the Chrysler Corporation in 1925....

 Engineering. The replacement chief engineer was Guy P. Henry who introduced molybdenum
Molybdenum
Molybdenum , is a Group 6 chemical element with the symbol Mo and atomic number 42. The name is from Neo-Latin Molybdaenum, from Ancient Greek , meaning lead, itself proposed as a loanword from Anatolian Luvian and Lydian languages, since its ores were confused with lead ores...

 steel, an improved clutch design and presided over the six-cylinders-only policy favored by new president Albert Russel Erskine
Albert Russel Erskine
Albert Russel Erskine was an American businessman. Born in Huntsville, Alabama, he worked in a number of manufacturing industries before joining the Studebaker motor car manufacturing firm in 1911...

 who replaced Fred Fish in July 1915.

John M. Studebaker had always viewed the automobile as complementary to the horse-drawn wagon, pointing out that the expense of maintaining a car might be beyond the resources of a small farmer. As a result, the manufacture of horse-drawn vehicles was not wholly ceased until Erskine ordered removal of the last wagon gear in 1919. To the cars, Studebaker added a truck
Pickup truck
A pickup truck is a light motor vehicle with an open-top rear cargo area .-Definition:...

 line, which later replaced the horse-drawn wagons. Buses, fire engines, and even small rail locomotives were produced using the same powerful six-cylinder engines.

First auto proving ground

In 1925, the corporation's most successful distributor and dealer Paul G. Hoffman
Paul G. Hoffman
Paul Gray Hoffman was an American automobile company executive, statesman and global development aid administrator.Hoffman was born in Western Springs, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago...

 came to South Bend as vice-president in charge of sales. In 1926, Studebaker became the first automobile manufacturer in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 to open a controlled outdoor proving ground
Bendix Woods
Bendix Woods County Park is the name of a park located in Olive Township, St. Joseph County, Indiana, south of New Carlisle. The park is under the control of the St. Joseph County Parks and Recreation Department....

 on which, in 1937, would be planted 5,000 pine trees in a pattern that spelled "STUDEBAKER" when viewed from the air. Also in 1926, the last of the Detroit plant was moved to South Bend under the control of Harold S Vance
Harold Sines Vance
Harold Sines Vance was an American automobile company executive and government official, notable for being chairman and president of the Studebaker Corporation and for a four-year term on the Atomic Energy Commission, where he encouraged the industrial use of nuclear energy.-Biography:Vance was...

, vice-president in charge of production and engineering. That year, a new small car, the Erskine Six
Erskine (automobile)
The Erskine was an American automobile brand produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana, USA, from 1926 to 1930. The marque was named after Albert Russel Erskine , Studebaker's president at the time....

 was launched in Paris, resulting in 26,000 sales abroad and many more in America. By 1929, the sales list had been expanded to 50 models and business was so good that 90 per cent of earnings were being paid out as dividends to shareholders in a highly competitive environment. However, the end of that year ushered in the Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

 that saw many layoffs and massive national unemployment for several years.

Facilities in the 1920s

Studebaker's total plant area was 225 acre (0.9105435 km²), spread over three locations, with buildings occupying seven-and-a-half million square feet of floor space. Annual production capacity was 180,000 cars, requiring 23,000 employees.

The original South Bend vehicle plant continued to be used for small forgings, springs, and making some body parts. Separate buildings totaling over one million square feet were added in 1922–23 for the Light, Special, and Big Six models. At any one time, 5,200 bodies were in process. South Bend's Plant 2 made chassis for the Light Six and had a foundry of 575000 sq ft (53,419.2 m²), producing 600 tons of castings daily.

Plant 3 at Detroit made complete chassis for Special and Big Six models in over 750000 sq ft (69,677.3 m²) of floor space. Plant 5 was the service parts store and shipping facility, plus the executive offices of various technical departments. All of the Detroit facilities were moved to South Bend in 1926.

Plant 7 was at Walkerville, Canada, where complete cars were assembled from South Bend, Detroit, and locally-made components for the Canadian and British Empire (right-hand-drive) trade. By locating it there, Studebaker could advertise the cars as "British-built" and qualify for reduced tariffs. This manufacturing facility had been acquired from E-M-F in 1910 (see above). By 1929, it had been the subject of $1.25 million investment and was providing employment that supported 500 families.

Impact of the 1930s depression

Few if any industrialists were prepared for the Wall Street Crash
Wall Street Crash of 1929
The Wall Street Crash of 1929 , also known as the Great Crash, and the Stock Market Crash of 1929, was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its fallout...

 of October 1929. Though Studebaker's production and sales had been booming, the market collapsed and plans were laid for a new, small, low-cost car—the Rockne
Rockne
The Rockne was an American automobile brand produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from 1931-1933. The brand was named for University of Notre Dame football coach Knute Rockne....

. However, times were too bad to sell even inexpensive cars. Within a year, the firm was cutting wages and laying off workers, but not quickly enough. Erskine maintained faith in the Rockne and rashly had the directors declare huge dividends in 1930 and 1931. He also acquired 95% of the White Motor Company
White Motor Company
White Motor Company was an American automobile and truck manufacturer from 1900 until 1980. The company also produced bicycles, roller skates, automatic lathes, and sewing machines. Before World War II, the company was based in Cleveland, Ohio.-History:...

's stock at inflated price and in cash. By 1933, the banks were owed $6 million, though current assets exceeded that figure. Instead of reorganizing in receivership, Erskine committed suicide, leaving it to successors Harold Vance and Paul Hoffman
Paul Hoffman
Paul Hoffman is a prominent author and host of the PBS television series Great Minds of Science. He was editor in chief of Discover, in a ten-year tenure with that magazine, and served as president and publisher of Encyclopædia Britannica before returning full-time to writing and consulting work....

 to deal with the problems.

By December 1933, the company was back in profit with $5.75 million working capital and 224 new Studebaker dealers. With the substantial aid of Lehman Brothers
Lehman Brothers
Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. was a global financial services firm. Before declaring bankruptcy in 2008, Lehman was the fourth largest investment bank in the USA , doing business in investment banking, equity and fixed-income sales and trading Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. (former NYSE ticker...

, full refinancing and reorganization was achieved on March 9, 1935. A new car was put on the drawing boards under chief engineer Delmar "Barney" Roos
Delmar "Barney" Roos
Delmar G. "Barney" Roos was an American automotive engineer who served as Studebaker's head of engineering from 1926 to 1936, specialising in straight-eight engines. He later worked for the British Rootes Group in the design of Humber, Hillman and Sunbeam Talbot cars...

—the Studebaker Champion
Studebaker Champion
The Studebaker Champion is an automobile which was produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from the beginning of the 1939 model year until 1958....

. Its final styling was designed by Virgil Exner
Virgil Exner
Virgil Max "Ex" Exner, Sr. was an automobile designer for numerous American companies, notably Chrysler and Studebaker. He is known for his "Forward Look" design on the 1955-1963 Chrysler products and his fondness of fins on cars for both aesthetic and aerodynamic reasons.-Early life:Born in Ann...

 and Raymond Loewy
Raymond Loewy
Raymond Loewy was an industrial designer, and the first to be featured on the cover of Time Magazine, on October 31, 1949. Born in France, he spent most of his professional career in the United States...

. The Champion doubled the company's previous-year sales when it was introduced in 1939.

World War II

From the 1920s to the 1930s, the South Bend company had originated many style and engineering milestone
Milestone
A milestone is one of a series of numbered markers placed along a road or boundary at intervals of one mile or occasionally, parts of a mile. They are typically located at the side of the road or in a median. They are alternatively known as mile markers, mileposts or mile posts...

s, including the Light Four
Studebaker Light Four
The Studebaker Light Four was an automobile produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana in 1918 and 1919. The car was officially designated Model SH Series 19 and available as a touring car, sedan and roadster....

, Light Six
Studebaker Light Six
The Studebaker Light Six was a car built by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from 1918-1927.- Light Six :The Light Six originaly came out in 1918.-Studebaker Standard Six:...

, Special Six
Studebaker Special Six
The Studebaker Special Six was a car built by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from 1918-1927.While in production, the Special Six represented Studebaker's mid-range model...

, Big Six
Studebaker Big Six
The Studebaker Big Six was an automobile produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana between 1918 and 1926, being designated the Model EG , the EK and the EP...

 models, the record-breaking Commander
Studebaker Commander
The Studebaker Commander is the model-name of a long succession of automobiles produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana and Studebaker of Canada Ltd of Walkerville and, later, Hamilton, Ontario . Studebaker began using the Commander name in 1927 and continued to use it until...

 and President
Studebaker President
The Studebaker President was the premier automobile model manufactured by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from 1926-1942. The nameplate was reintroduced in 1955 and used until the end of the 1958 model when the name was retired....

, followed by the 1939 Champion
Studebaker Champion
The Studebaker Champion is an automobile which was produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from the beginning of the 1939 model year until 1958....

. During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, Studebaker produced the Studebaker US6
Studebaker US6
The Studebaker US6 is a class of 2.5-ton trucks manufactured by Studebaker during World War II, produced in the United States from 1941-1945 and in the Soviet Union beginning in 1942.-Specifications:...

 truck in great quantity and the unique M29 Weasel
M29 Weasel
The M29 Weasel was a World War II tracked vehicle, built by Studebaker, designed for operation in snow.-Design and development:The idea for the Weasel came from the work of British inventor Geoffrey Pyke in support of his proposals to attack Axis forces and industrial installations in Norway...

 cargo and personnel carrier. After cessation of hostilities, Studebaker returned to building automobiles that appealed to average Americans
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

.

Post-WWII styling

Studebaker prepared well in advance for the anticipated post-war market and launched the slogan First by far with a post-war car. This advertising premise was substantiated by Virgil Exner
Virgil Exner
Virgil Max "Ex" Exner, Sr. was an automobile designer for numerous American companies, notably Chrysler and Studebaker. He is known for his "Forward Look" design on the 1955-1963 Chrysler products and his fondness of fins on cars for both aesthetic and aerodynamic reasons.-Early life:Born in Ann...

's designs, notably the 1947 Studebaker Starlight
Studebaker Starlight
The Starlight coupe was a unique 2-door body style offered by Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from 1947-1952 in its Champion and Commander model series...

 coupé, which introduced innovative styling features that influenced later cars, including the flatback "trunk" instead of the tapered look of the time, and a wrap-around rear window. Exner's concepts were spread through a line of models like the 1950 Studebaker Champion
Studebaker Champion
The Studebaker Champion is an automobile which was produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from the beginning of the 1939 model year until 1958....

 Starlight coupe The new trunk design prompted a running joke that one could not tell if the car was coming or going.

Hamilton, Ontario plant

See also Studebaker Canada Ltd.
Studebaker Canada Ltd.
Studebaker of Canada Ltd. was the name given to Studebaker Corporation's Canadian manufacturing arm.While Studebaker produced cars in Canada prior to World War II, Studebaker's first modern automobile factory was established at Hamilton, Ontario in 1947, in an anti-aircraft gun plant purchased from...



On August 18, 1948, surrounded by more than 400 employees and a battery of reporters, the first vehicle, a blue Champion four-door sedan, rolled off of the Studebaker assembly line in Hamilton
Hamilton, Ontario
Hamilton is a port city in the Canadian province of Ontario. Conceived by George Hamilton when he purchased the Durand farm shortly after the War of 1812, Hamilton has become the centre of a densely populated and industrialized region at the west end of Lake Ontario known as the Golden Horseshoe...

, Ontario
Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

, Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

. The company was located in the former Otis-Fenson military
Military
A military is an organization authorized by its greater society to use lethal force, usually including use of weapons, in defending its country by combating actual or perceived threats. The military may have additional functions of use to its greater society, such as advancing a political agenda e.g...

 weapon
Weapon
A weapon, arm, or armament is a tool or instrument used with the aim of causing damage or harm to living beings or artificial structures or systems...

s factory off Burlington Street on Victoria Avenue North
Victoria Avenue (Hamilton, Ontario)
Victoria Avenue, is a Lower City arterial road in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. It starts off as a ramp and part of a Mountain-access road, the Claremont Access, on Hunter Street East in the Stinson neighbourhood...

, which was built in 1941. Having previously operated its British Empire export assembly plant at Walkerville, Ontario
Walkerville, Ontario
The former town of Walkerville Ontario, Canada is now a heritage precinct of Windsor Ontario. Incorporated in 1890, the town was founded by Hiram Walker, owner and producer of Canadian Club Whisky. Walker planned it as a 'model town’ ) that would be the envy of both the region and the continent...

, Studebaker settled on Hamilton as a post-war Canadian manufacturing site because of the city's centrality to the Canadian steel industry.

Industry price war brings on crisis

Studebaker's strong post-war management team including president Paul G Hoffman and Roy Cole (vice-president, engineering) had gone by 1949 and was replaced by more cautious executives who failed to meet the competitive challenge brought on by Henry Ford II
Henry Ford II
Henry Ford II , commonly known as "HF2" and "Hank the Deuce", was the son of Edsel Ford and grandson of Henry Ford...

 and his Whiz Kids. Massive discounting in a price war between Ford
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker based in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. The automaker was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. In addition to the Ford and Lincoln brands, Ford also owns a small stake in Mazda in Japan and Aston Martin in the UK...

 and General Motors
General Motors
General Motors Company , commonly known as GM, formerly incorporated as General Motors Corporation, is an American multinational automotive corporation headquartered in Detroit, Michigan and the world's second-largest automaker in 2010...

 could not be equalled by the independent carmakers, for whom the only hope was seen as a merger of Studebaker, Packard
Packard
Packard was an American luxury-type automobile marque built by the Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit, Michigan, and later by the Studebaker-Packard Corporation of South Bend, Indiana...

, Hudson
Hudson Motor Car Company
The Hudson Motor Car Company made Hudson and other brand automobiles in Detroit, Michigan, from 1909 to 1954. In 1954, Hudson merged with Nash-Kelvinator Corporation to form American Motors. The Hudson name was continued through the 1957 model year, after which it was dropped.- Company strategy...

, and Nash
Nash Motors
Also see: Kelvinator and American Motors CorporationNash Motors was an automobile manufacturer based in Kenosha, Wisconsin, in the United States from 1916 to 1938. From 1938 to 1954, Nash was the automotive division of the Nash-Kelvinator Corporation...

 into a third giant combine. This had been unsuccessfully attempted by George W. Mason
George W. Mason
George Walter Mason was an American industrialist. During his career Mason served as the Chairman and CEO of the Kelvinator Corporation , Chairman and CEO of the Nash-Kelvinator Corporation , and Chairman and CEO of American Motors Corporation .- Early life :George W. Mason was born in Valley...

. In this scheme, Studebaker had the disadvantage that its South Bend location would make centralization difficult. Its labor costs were also the highest in the industry.

Losses lead to merger with Packard

Ballooning labor costs (the company had never had an official United Auto Workers
United Auto Workers
The International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, better known as the United Auto Workers , is a labor union which represents workers in the United States and Puerto Rico, and formerly in Canada. Founded as part of the Congress of Industrial...

 [UAW] strike and Studebaker workers and retirees were among the highest paid in the industry), quality control
Quality control
Quality control, or QC for short, is a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production. This approach places an emphasis on three aspects:...

 issues, and the new-car sales war between Ford
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker based in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. The automaker was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. In addition to the Ford and Lincoln brands, Ford also owns a small stake in Mazda in Japan and Aston Martin in the UK...

 and General Motors in the early 1950s wreaked havoc on Studebaker's balance sheet
Balance sheet
In financial accounting, a balance sheet or statement of financial position is a summary of the financial balances of a sole proprietorship, a business partnership or a company. Assets, liabilities and ownership equity are listed as of a specific date, such as the end of its financial year. A...

. Professional financial
FINANCIAL
FINANCIAL is the weekly English-language newspaper with offices in Tbilisi, Georgia and Kiev, Ukraine. Published by Intelligence Group LLC, FINANCIAL is focused on opinion leaders and top business decision-makers; It's about world’s largest companies, investing, careers, and small business. It is...

 managers stressed short-term earnings rather than long-term vision. There was enough momentum to keep going for another ten years, but stiff competition and price
Price
-Definition:In ordinary usage, price is the quantity of payment or compensation given by one party to another in return for goods or services.In modern economies, prices are generally expressed in units of some form of currency...

-cutting by the Big Three
Big Three automobile manufacturers
The Big Three, when used in relation to the automotive industry, most generally refers to the three major American automotive companies:Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler...

 doomed the enterprise.

From 1950, Studebaker declined rapidly and, by 1954, was losing money. It negotiated a strategic takeover by Packard
Packard
Packard was an American luxury-type automobile marque built by the Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit, Michigan, and later by the Studebaker-Packard Corporation of South Bend, Indiana...

, a smaller but less financially troubled car manufacturer
Automotive industry
The automotive industry designs, develops, manufactures, markets, and sells motor vehicles, and is one of the world's most important economic sectors by revenue....

. However, the cash position was worse than it had led Packard to believe and, by 1956, the company (renamed Studebaker-Packard Corporation
Studebaker-Packard Corporation
The Studebaker-Packard Corporation was the entity created by the purchase of the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana, by the Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit, Michigan, in 1954.Packard acquired Studebaker in the transaction...

 and under the guidance of CEO James J. Nance
James J. Nance
James J. Nance was an American industrialist who became president of Studebaker Packard. Later, he was chief executive of the Central National Bank of Cleveland, chairman of the executive committee of Montgomery Ward and chairman of the board of trustees of Cleveland State University and a major...

) was nearly bankrupt, though it continued to make and market both Studebaker and Packard cars until 1958. The "Packard" element was retained until 1962, when the name reverted to "Studebaker Corporation".

Contract with Curtiss-Wright

A three-year management contract was made by Nance with aircraft
Aircraft
An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air, or, in general, the atmosphere of a planet. An aircraft counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines.Although...

 maker Curtiss-Wright
Curtiss-Wright
The Curtiss-Wright Corporation was the largest aircraft manufacturer in the United States at the end of World War II, but has evolved to largely become a component manufacturer, specializing in actuators, aircraft controls, valves, and metalworking....

 in 1956 with the aim of improving finances. C-W's president, Roy T. Hurley, attempted to cure Studebaker's ruinously lax employment policies. Under C-W's guidance, Studebaker-Packard also sold the old Detroit Packard plant and returned the then-new Packard plant to its lessor, Chrysler. The company became the American importer for Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of automobiles, buses, coaches, and trucks. Mercedes-Benz is a division of its parent company, Daimler AG...

, Auto Union
Auto Union
Auto Union was an amalgamation of four German automobile manufacturers, founded in 1932 and established in 1936 in Chemnitz, Saxony, during the Great Depression. The company has evolved into present day Audi, as a subsidiary of Volkswagen Group....

, and DKW
DKW
DKW is a historic German car and motorcycle marque. The name derives from Dampf-Kraft-Wagen .In 1916, the Danish engineer Jørgen Skafte Rasmussen founded a factory in Zschopau, Saxony, Germany, to produce steam fittings. In the same year, he attempted to produce a steam-driven car, called the DKW...

 automobiles and many Studebaker dealers sold those brands as well. C-W gained the use of idle car plants and tax relief on their aircraft profits while Studebaker-Packard received further working capital to continue car production.

Last automobiles produced

The automobiles that came after the diversification process began, including the redesigned compact
Compact car
A compact car , or small family car , is a classification of cars which are larger than a supermini but smaller than or equal to a mid-size car...

 Lark
Studebaker Lark
The Studebaker Lark is a "compact car" which was produced by Studebaker from 1959 to 1966.From its introduction in early 1959 until 1962, the Lark was a product of the Studebaker-Packard Corporation. In mid-1962, the company dropped "Packard" from its name and reverted to its pre-1954 name, the...

 (1959) and the Avanti
Studebaker Avanti
See also Avanti cars The Studebaker Avanti was a sports coupé built by the Studebaker Corporation at the direction of its president Sherwood Egbert between June 1962 and December 1963...

 sports car
Sports car
A sports car is a small, usually two seat, two door automobile designed for high speed driving and maneuverability....

 (1962), were based on old chassis and engine designs. The Lark, in particular, was based on existing parts to the degree that it even utilized the central body section of the company's 1953–58 cars, but was a clever enough design to be popular in its first year, selling over 130,000 units and delivering a $28.6 million profit
Profit (accounting)
In accounting, profit can be considered to be the difference between the purchase price and the costs of bringing to market whatever it is that is accounted as an enterprise in terms of the component costs of delivered goods and/or services and any operating or other expenses.-Definition:There are...

 to the automaker. "S-P rose from 56,920 units in 1958 to 153,844 in 1959."

However, Lark sales began to drop precipitously after the big three manufacturers introduced their own compact models in 1960, and the situation became critical once the so-called "senior compacts" debuted for 1961. The Lark had provided a temporary reprieve, but nothing proved enough to stop the financial bleeding.

There was a labor strike at the South Bend plant starting on January 1, 1962 and lasting 38 days. The strike came to an end after an agreement was reached between company president Sherwood H. Egbert
Sherwood Egbert
Sherwood Harry Egbert , born Easton, Kittitas County, Washington, July 24, 1920, a burly former U.S. marine, served as president of the Studebaker-Packard Corporation and Studebaker Corporation from February 1, 1961, to November 24, 1963.-History:...

 and Walter P. Reuther, president of the UAW. Despite a sales uptick in 1962, continuing media reports that Studebaker was about to leave the auto business became a self-fulfilling prophecy as buyers shied away from the company's products for fear of being stuck with an "orphan". NBC
NBC
The National Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network and former radio network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's Rockefeller Center with additional major offices near Los Angeles and in Chicago...

 reporter Chet Huntley
Chet Huntley
Chester Robert "Chet" Huntley was an American television newscaster, best known for co-anchoring NBC's evening news program, The Huntley-Brinkley Report, for 14 years beginning in 1956.-Early life:...

 made a television program called "Studebaker—Fight for Survival" which aired on May 18, 1962. By 1963, all of the company's automobiles and trucks were selling poorly.

Exit from auto business

Closure of South Bend plant, 1963
After continued poor sales of the 1964 models and the ousting of president Sherwood Egbert, the company announced the closure of the South Bend plant on December 9, 1963, and produced its last car in South Bend on December 20. The engine foundry remained open to supply the Canadian plant until the end of the 1964 model year, after which it was also shuttered. The Avanti
Studebaker Avanti
See also Avanti cars The Studebaker Avanti was a sports coupé built by the Studebaker Corporation at the direction of its president Sherwood Egbert between June 1962 and December 1963...

 model name, tooling, and plant space were sold off to Leo Newman and Nate Altman, who owned a Studebaker dealership in South Bend. They revived the car in 1965 under the brand name "Avanti II". (See main article Avanti cars (non-Studebaker)
Avanti cars (non-Studebaker)
See also Studebaker AvantiAfter the closure of Studebaker's South Bend factory on 20 December 1963, cars bearing the name of its celebrated Avanti sports coupé continued to be produced by a series of entrepreneurs, initially from left-over Studebaker components and later from General Motors and...

.) They likewise purchased the rights and tooling for Studebaker's trucks, along with the company's vast stock of parts and accessories. Trucks ceased to be built after Studebaker fulfilled its remaining orders in early 1964.

Closure of Hamilton plant, 1966

Limited automotive production was consolidated
Consolidation (business)
Consolidation or amalgamation is the act of merging many things into one. In business, it often refers to the mergers and acquisitions of many smaller companies into much larger ones. In the context of financial accounting, consolidation refers to the aggregation of financial statements of a group...

 at the company's last remaining production facility in Hamilton, Ontario
Hamilton, Ontario
Hamilton is a port city in the Canadian province of Ontario. Conceived by George Hamilton when he purchased the Durand farm shortly after the War of 1812, Hamilton has become the centre of a densely populated and industrialized region at the west end of Lake Ontario known as the Golden Horseshoe...

, Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, which had always been profitable and where Studebaker produced cars until March 1966 under the leadership of Gordon Grundy. It was projected that the Canadian operation could break even on production of about 20,000 cars a year, and Studebaker's announced goal was 30,000–40,000 1965 models. While 1965 production was just shy of the 20,000 figure, the company's directors felt that the small profits were not enough to justify continued investment. Rejecting Grundy's request for funds to tool up for 1967 models, Studebaker left the automobile business on March 16, 1966 after an announcement on March 4. A turquoise and white Cruiser sedan was the last of fewer than 9,000 1966 models manufactured. In reality, the move to Canada had been a tactic by which production could be slowly wound down and remaining dealer franchise obligations honored.

The closure adversely affected not only the plant's 700 employees, who had developed a sense of collegiality around group benefits such as employee parties and day trips, but the city of Hamilton as a whole; Studebaker had been Hamilton's tenth largest employer.

Network and other assets
Many of Studebaker's dealers either closed, took on other automakers' product lines, or converted to Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of automobiles, buses, coaches, and trucks. Mercedes-Benz is a division of its parent company, Daimler AG...

 dealerships following the closure of the Canadian plant. Studebaker's General Products Division, which built vehicles to fulfill defense contracts, was acquired by Kaiser Industries, which built military and postal vehicles in South Bend. In 1970, American Motors
American Motors
American Motors Corporation was an American automobile company formed by the 1954 merger of Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and Hudson Motor Car Company. At the time, it was the largest corporate merger in U.S. history.George W...

 (AMC) purchased the division, which still exists today as AM General
AM General
AM General is an American heavy vehicle manufacturer based in South Bend, Indiana. It is best known for the civilian Hummer and the military Humvee, that is assembled in Mishawaka, Indiana...

.

Studebaker's proving ground
Proving ground
A proving ground is the US name for a military installation or reservation where weapons or other military technology are experimented or tested, or where military tactics are tested...

s were acquired by its former supplier, Bendix Corporation
Bendix Corporation
The Bendix Corporation was an American manufacturing and engineering company which during various times in its 60 year existence made brake systems, aeronautical hydraulics, avionics, aircraft and automobile fuel control systems, radios, televisions and computers, and which licensed its name for...

, which later donated
Donation
A donation is a gift given by physical or legal persons, typically for charitable purposes and/or to benefit a cause. A donation may take various forms, including cash, services, new or used goods including clothing, toys, food, and vehicles...

 the grounds for use as a park to the St. Joseph County, Indiana
St. Joseph County, Indiana
As of the census of 2000, there were 265,559 people, 100,743 households, and 66,792 families residing in the county. The population density was 581 people per square mile . There were 107,013 housing units at an average density of 234 per square mile...

, parks department. As a condition of the donation
Donation
A donation is a gift given by physical or legal persons, typically for charitable purposes and/or to benefit a cause. A donation may take various forms, including cash, services, new or used goods including clothing, toys, food, and vehicles...

, the new park was named Bendix Woods
Bendix Woods
Bendix Woods County Park is the name of a park located in Olive Township, St. Joseph County, Indiana, south of New Carlisle. The park is under the control of the St. Joseph County Parks and Recreation Department....

. The grove of 5,000 tree
Tree
A tree is a perennial woody plant. It is most often defined as a woody plant that has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or trunk with clear apical dominance. A minimum height specification at maturity is cited by some authors, varying from 3 m to...

s planted in 1937 that spelled out the Studebaker company name still stands and has proven to be a popular topic on such satellite photography sites as Google Earth
Google Earth
Google Earth is a virtual globe, map and geographical information program that was originally called EarthViewer 3D, and was created by Keyhole, Inc, a Central Intelligence Agency funded company acquired by Google in 2004 . It maps the Earth by the superimposition of images obtained from satellite...

. Today, the former proving ground is owned by Robert Bosch GmbH
Robert Bosch GmbH
Robert Bosch GmbH is a multinational engineering and electronics company headquartered in Gerlingen, near Stuttgart, Germany. It is the world's largest supplier of automotive components...

 and it continues to be active some 80 years after it was built.

After 1966, Studebaker and its diversified units were acquired by Wagner Electric in 1967. Subsequently, Studebaker was then merged with the Worthington Corporation to form Studebaker-Worthington. The Studebaker name disappeared from the American business scene in 1979, when McGraw-Edison acquired Studebaker-Worthington. McGraw-Edison was itself purchased in 1985 by Cooper Industries
Cooper Industries
Cooper Industries is a former US-based company that in 2009 switched its incorporation office from Bermuda to Ireland, maintaining its chief operational offices in Houston, Texas. It produces transformers, tools and electrical equipment, employing 29,000 staff around the world. Revenue in 2007 was...

, which sold off its auto-parts divisions to Federal-Mogul
Federal-Mogul
Federal-Mogul Corporation is a global automotive supplier based in Southfield, Michigan, USA. It is one of the leading engine-parts suppliers in the United States, including engine bearings, pistons, piston pins, piston rings, cylinder liners, valve seats and guides, transmission products and...

 some years later. As detailed above, some vehicles were assembled from left-over parts and identified as Studebakers by the purchasers of the Avanti
Studebaker Avanti
See also Avanti cars The Studebaker Avanti was a sports coupé built by the Studebaker Corporation at the direction of its president Sherwood Egbert between June 1962 and December 1963...

 brand and surplus material from Studebaker at South Bend. (See article Avanti cars (non-Studebaker)
Avanti cars (non-Studebaker)
See also Studebaker AvantiAfter the closure of Studebaker's South Bend factory on 20 December 1963, cars bearing the name of its celebrated Avanti sports coupé continued to be produced by a series of entrepreneurs, initially from left-over Studebaker components and later from General Motors and...

.)

Non-auto activities

By the early 1960s, Studebaker had begun to diversify away from automobiles. Numerous companies were purchased, bringing Studebaker into such diverse fields as the manufacture of tire studs and missile components.

The company's 1963 annual report listed the following divisions:
  • Clarke – Floor Machine Division, Muskegon, Michigan
    Muskegon, Michigan
    Muskegon is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 38,401. The city is the county seat of Muskegon County...

  • CTL – Missile/Space Technology Division, Cincinnati, Ohio
    Cincinnati, Ohio
    Cincinnati is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio. Cincinnati is the county seat of Hamilton County. Settled in 1788, the city is located to north of the Ohio River at the Ohio-Kentucky border, near Indiana. The population within city limits is 296,943 according to the 2010 census, making it Ohio's...

  • Franklin – Appliance Division, Minneapolis, Minnesota
    Minneapolis, Minnesota
    Minneapolis , nicknamed "City of Lakes" and the "Mill City," is the county seat of Hennepin County, the largest city in the U.S. state of Minnesota, and the 48th largest in the United States...

     (home office; other locations also in Minnesota, Iowa, and Ontario). Manufactured private label kitchen and laundry appliances for major retailers until sold to White Consolidated Industries
    White Sewing Machine Company
    White Sewing Machine Company was a sewing machine company founded in 1858 in Templeton, Massachusetts by Thomas H. White and based in Cleveland, Ohio since 1866. Founded as the White Manufacturing Company it took the White Sewing Machine Company name when it was incorporated in 1876.The company...

    .
  • Gravely Tractor
    Gravely Tractor
    Gravely, of Brillion, Wisconsin is a manufacturer of powered lawn and garden implements which it describes as "walk-behind, zero turn and outfront mowers".-Foundation:...

     – Tractors Division, Dunbar, West Virginia
    Dunbar, West Virginia
    Dunbar is a city in Kanawha County, West Virginia, along the Kanawha River. The population was 7,907 at the 2010 census estimate. Dunbar was incorporated on April 19, 1921, by an Act of the West Virginia Legislature, and named for Dunbar Baines, a prominent area banker.-History:Located at Dunbar is...

    , and Albany, Georgia
    Albany, Georgia
    Albany is a city in and the county seat of Dougherty County, Georgia, United States, in the southwestern part of the state. It is the principal city of the Albany, Georgia metropolitan area and the southwest part of the state. The population was 77,434 at the 2010 U.S. Census, making it the...

  • International – South Bend, Indiana (handled business matters for all divisions doing business overseas)
  • Onan – Engine/Generator Division, Minneapolis, Minnesota
    Minneapolis, Minnesota
    Minneapolis , nicknamed "City of Lakes" and the "Mill City," is the county seat of Hennepin County, the largest city in the U.S. state of Minnesota, and the 48th largest in the United States...

  • Paxton Automotive
    Paxton Automotive
    Paxton Automotive is a United States-based manufacturer of superchargers for automotive use. The company is the major proponent of the centrifugal type supercharger. Early products were offered under the McCulloch name. Some Paxton superchargers have been factory fitted, but most units sold have...

     – automobile supercharger
    Supercharger
    A supercharger is an air compressor used for forced induction of an internal combustion engine.The greater mass flow-rate provides more oxygen to support combustion than would be available in a naturally aspirated engine, which allows more fuel to be burned and more work to be done per cycle,...

    s
  • STP
    STP (motor oil company)
    STP is an American brand and trade name for the automotive additives, lubricants and performance division of Armored AutoGroup.Founded in 1953 in Saint Joseph, Missouri, the company’s name, STP, was derived from “Scientifically Treated Petroleum”...

     – Scientifically Treated Products Division, Des Plaines, Illinois
    Des Plaines, Illinois
    Des Plaines is a city in Cook County, Illinois, United States. It has adopted the official nickname of "City of Destiny." As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 58,720. It is a suburb of Chicago, and is next to O'Hare International Airport...

    , and Santa Monica, California
    Santa Monica, California
    Santa Monica is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, California, US. Situated on Santa Monica Bay, it is surrounded on three sides by the city of Los Angeles — Pacific Palisades on the northwest, Brentwood on the north, West Los Angeles on the northeast, Mar Vista on the east, and...

    . Produced automotive engine additives.
  • Schaefer
    Schaefer
    Schaefer is an alternative spelling and cognate for the German word "Schäfer", meaning shepherd, which itself descends from the Old High German scāphare....

     – Commercial Refrigeration Division, Minneapolis, Minnesota
    Minneapolis, Minnesota
    Minneapolis , nicknamed "City of Lakes" and the "Mill City," is the county seat of Hennepin County, the largest city in the U.S. state of Minnesota, and the 48th largest in the United States...

    , and Aberdeen, Maryland
    Aberdeen, Maryland
    As of the census of 2000, there were 13,842 people, 5,475 households, and 3,712 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,166.2 people per square mile . There were 5,894 housing units at an average density of 922.4 per square mile...

  • Studebaker of Canada
    Studebaker Canada Ltd.
    Studebaker of Canada Ltd. was the name given to Studebaker Corporation's Canadian manufacturing arm.While Studebaker produced cars in Canada prior to World War II, Studebaker's first modern automobile factory was established at Hamilton, Ontario in 1947, in an anti-aircraft gun plant purchased from...

     – Automotive Manufacturing, Hamilton, Ontario
    Hamilton, Ontario
    Hamilton is a port city in the Canadian province of Ontario. Conceived by George Hamilton when he purchased the Durand farm shortly after the War of 1812, Hamilton has become the centre of a densely populated and industrialized region at the west end of Lake Ontario known as the Golden Horseshoe...

  • SASCO – Studebaker Automotive Sales Corp., South Bend, Indiana
    South Bend, Indiana
    The city of South Bend is the county seat of St. Joseph County, Indiana, United States, on the St. Joseph River near its southernmost bend, from which it derives its name. As of the 2010 Census, the city had a total of 101,168 residents; its Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 316,663...

    .
  • Studegrip – Tire Stud Division, South Bend, Indiana
    South Bend, Indiana
    The city of South Bend is the county seat of St. Joseph County, Indiana, United States, on the St. Joseph River near its southernmost bend, from which it derives its name. As of the 2010 Census, the city had a total of 101,168 residents; its Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 316,663...

    , Jefferson, Iowa
    Jefferson, Iowa
    Jefferson is a city in Greene County, Iowa, United States, along the North Raccoon River. The population was 4,626 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Greene County. It is the home of the Mahanay Memorial Bell Tower, tall, located on the town square, and visible for miles. The tower is...

    , and Minneapolis, Minnesota
    Minneapolis, Minnesota
    Minneapolis , nicknamed "City of Lakes" and the "Mill City," is the county seat of Hennepin County, the largest city in the U.S. state of Minnesota, and the 48th largest in the United States...

  • Trans International Airlines
    Trans International Airlines
    Trans International Airlines was an airline which offered charter service from and within the United States. It offered scheduled service operating as Transamerica Airlines in its last decade...

     – founded by Kirk Kerkorian
    Kirk Kerkorian
    Kerkor "Kirk" Kerkorian is an American businessman who is the president/CEO of Tracinda Corporation, his private holding company based in Beverly Hills, California. Kerkorian is known as one of the important figures in shaping Las Vegas and, with architect Martin Stern, Jr...



Having built the Wright R-1820
Wright R-1820
|-See also:-References:* Bridgman, L, Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II. Crescent. ISBN 0-517-67964-7* Eden, Paul & Soph Moeng, The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. Amber Books Ltd. Bradley's Close, 74-77 White Lion Street, London, NI 9PF, 2002, ISBN 0-7607-3432-1), 1152...

 under license during World War II, Studebaker also attempted to build what would perhaps have been the largest aircraft piston engine ever built. With 24 cylinders in an "H" configuration
H engine
An H engine is an engine configuration in which the cylinders are aligned so that if viewed from the front, they appear to be in a vertical or horizontal letter H....

, a bore of 8 in (203 mm) and stroke of 7.75 in (197 mm), displacement would have been 9349 cubic inches (153.3 l), hence the H-9350 designation. It was not completed.

Corporate survivor

The remains of the automaker still exist as Studebaker-Worthington Leasing, a subsidiary of Main Street Bank – Kingwood Texas, which provides leasing
Lease
A lease is a contractual arrangement calling for the lessee to pay the lessor for use of an asset. A rental agreement is a lease in which the asset is tangible property...

 services for manufacturers and resellers of business and industrial products.

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Studebaker automobile models

  • Studebaker Electric
    Studebaker Electric (automobile)
    The Studebaker Electric was an automobile produced by the Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company of South Bend, Indiana, a forerunner of the Studebaker Corporation. The battery-powered cars were sold from 1902 to 1912....

     (1902–1912)
  • Studebaker-Garford
    Studebaker-Garford
    Studebaker-Garford was an automobile produced jointly by the Garford Company of Elyria, Ohio and the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from 1904 through 1911...

     (1904–1911)
  • Studebaker Six monobloc-engine models (1911–1918)
  • Studebaker Light Four
    Studebaker Light Four
    The Studebaker Light Four was an automobile produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana in 1918 and 1919. The car was officially designated Model SH Series 19 and available as a touring car, sedan and roadster....

     (1918–1920)
  • Studebaker Big Six
    Studebaker Big Six
    The Studebaker Big Six was an automobile produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana between 1918 and 1926, being designated the Model EG , the EK and the EP...

     (1918–1927)
  • Studebaker Special Six
    Studebaker Special Six
    The Studebaker Special Six was a car built by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from 1918-1927.While in production, the Special Six represented Studebaker's mid-range model...

     (1918–1927)
  • Studebaker Light Six
    Studebaker Light Six
    The Studebaker Light Six was a car built by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from 1918-1927.- Light Six :The Light Six originaly came out in 1918.-Studebaker Standard Six:...

     (includes Standard Six model) (1918–1927)
  • Studebaker Commander
    Studebaker Commander
    The Studebaker Commander is the model-name of a long succession of automobiles produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana and Studebaker of Canada Ltd of Walkerville and, later, Hamilton, Ontario . Studebaker began using the Commander name in 1927 and continued to use it until...

     (1927–35, 1937–58, 1964–66)
  • Studebaker President
    Studebaker President
    The Studebaker President was the premier automobile model manufactured by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from 1926-1942. The nameplate was reintroduced in 1955 and used until the end of the 1958 model when the name was retired....

     (1928–42, 1955–58)
  • Studebaker Dictator
    Studebaker Dictator
    The Studebaker Dictator was an automobile produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from 1927-1937. Model year 1928 was the first full year of Dictator production.In the mid-1920s, Studebaker began renaming its vehicles...

     (1927–37)
  • Studebaker Champion
    Studebaker Champion
    The Studebaker Champion is an automobile which was produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from the beginning of the 1939 model year until 1958....

     (1939–58)
  • Studebaker Land Cruiser
    Studebaker Land Cruiser
    The Studebaker Land Cruiser was an automobile produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from 1934-1954. The Land Cruiser debuted at the World's Fair alongside the Silver Arrow, a product of Studebaker's former premium make Pierce-Arrow.The Land Cruiser was introduced at the...

     (1934–54)
  • Studebaker Conestoga
    Studebaker Conestoga
    The Studebaker Conestoga was an all-steel station wagon produced in 1954 and 1955 by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana . The company chose the name Conestoga as an homage to its wagon business that company produced from the 1850s into the early 20th century.The Conestoga station...

     (1954–55)
  • Studebaker Speedster
    Studebaker Speedster
    The Studebaker Speedster was an automobile produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana during the 1955 model year. The vehicle is considered Studebaker’s halo model for the 1955 season...

     (1955)
  • Studebaker Scotsman
    Studebaker Scotsman
    The Scotsman was an automobile series produced by the Studebaker Packard Corporation of South Bend, Indiana, during model years 1957 and 1958, and a low-priced series of pickup trucks in 1958 and 1959...

     (1957–58)
  • Hawk series
    Studebaker-Packard Hawk series
    The Studebaker-Packard Hawk series were cars produced by the merged Studebaker-Packard corporation between 1956 and 1964. All but the 1958 Packard Hawk were badged Studebaker. Described by the company as "family sports cars", they were all two-door, four-seat coupes and hardtops...

    :
    • Studebaker Golden Hawk
      Studebaker Golden Hawk
      The Studebaker Golden Hawk is a two-door pillarless hardtop coupe type car produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana between 1956 and 1958.-Styling:...

       (1956–58)
    • Studebaker Silver Hawk
      Studebaker Silver Hawk
      The Studebaker Silver Hawk was an automobile produced between 1957 and 1959 by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana. The Hawk was also produced in 1956. There were four versions, pillared Flight Hawk and Power Hawk, and hardtop Sky Hawk and Golden Hawk. The Silver Hawk model was not...

       (1957–59)
    • Studebaker Sky Hawk
      Studebaker Sky Hawk
      The Studebaker Sky Hawk was a pillarless two-door hardtop coupe produced by the Studebaker-Packard Corporation for the 1956 model year only. The Sky Hawk was considered part of the Studebaker President series. One of four models of Hawks available that year, the Sky Hawk was positioned between the...

       (1956)
    • Studebaker Flight Hawk
      Studebaker Flight Hawk
      The Studebaker Flight Hawk was the lowest-priced model in the four-model Hawk family sports car line introduced by Studebaker in 1956.-Styling:...

       (1956)
    • Studebaker Power Hawk
      Studebaker Power Hawk
      The Studebaker Power Hawk was a two-door pillared coupe manufactured by the Studebaker-Packard Corporation for the 1956 model year only. The Power Hawk was technically part of the Studebaker Commander series, and featured the Commander's 259 cubic inch V-8, which generated with two-barrel...

       (1956)
    • Studebaker Hawk (1960–61)
    • Studebaker Gran Turismo Hawk
      Studebaker Gran Turismo Hawk
      The Studebaker Gran Turismo Hawk , a sporty coupe sold between 1962 and 1964, was the final development of the Studebaker Hawk series that began with the Golden Hawk of 1956.-Redesigning the Hawk:...

       (1962–64)
  • Studebaker Lark
    Studebaker Lark
    The Studebaker Lark is a "compact car" which was produced by Studebaker from 1959 to 1966.From its introduction in early 1959 until 1962, the Lark was a product of the Studebaker-Packard Corporation. In mid-1962, the company dropped "Packard" from its name and reverted to its pre-1954 name, the...

     (1959–1966) (Includes the Lark-based 1964–66 Cruiser, Daytona, Commander, and Challenger)
  • Studebaker Avanti
    Studebaker Avanti
    See also Avanti cars The Studebaker Avanti was a sports coupé built by the Studebaker Corporation at the direction of its president Sherwood Egbert between June 1962 and December 1963...

     (1962–64)
  • Studebaker Wagonaire
    Studebaker Wagonaire
    The Studebaker Wagonaire was a station wagon produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana, from 1963-1966. It featured a retractable sliding rear roof section that allowed the vehicle to carry items that would otherwise be too tall for a conventional station wagon of the era.-...

     (1963–66)

Studebaker trucks

  • Studebaker Coupe Express
    Studebaker Coupe Express
    The Studebaker Coupe Express was a coupe utility, produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana, between 1937 and 1939. Unlike other concurrent pick-up trucks, the coupe express mated Studebaker's passenger car styling to a full size truck bed....

     (1937–1939)
  • Studebaker US6
    Studebaker US6
    The Studebaker US6 is a class of 2.5-ton trucks manufactured by Studebaker during World War II, produced in the United States from 1941-1945 and in the Soviet Union beginning in 1942.-Specifications:...

     (1941–45)
  • Studebaker M29 Weasel (1942–45)
  • Studebaker 2R Series(1949–1953)
  • Studebaker Transtar
    Studebaker Transtar
    Transtar was the model name given to the line of trucks produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana, from 1956-1958 and 1960-1963. The Transtar name was first introduced for the 1956 model year in 1/2-ton, 3/4-ton, 1-ton, 2-ton, and 2-ton heavy duty capacities. The three smaller...

     (1959–1963)
  • Studebaker Champ
    Studebaker Champ
    The Studebaker Champ was a light-duty pickup truck produced by the Studebaker Corporation from 1960-1964.Designed at a time when Studebaker's truck line hadn't seen major upgrading in over 10 years, the company, which had endured years of declining sales, was forced to use a number of existing...

     (1960–1964)
  • Studebaker M series (1940–1948)
  • M35 2-1/2 ton cargo truck
    M35 2-1/2 ton cargo truck
    The M35 family of trucks is a long-lived vehicle initially deployed by the United States Army, and subsequently utilized by many nations around the world. A truck in the 2½ ton weight class, it was one of many vehicles in U.S...

    (early 1950s)

Studebaker body styles

  • Studebaker Starlight
    Studebaker Starlight
    The Starlight coupe was a unique 2-door body style offered by Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from 1947-1952 in its Champion and Commander model series...

     (1947–55, 1958)
  • Starliner
  • Coupe Express
    Studebaker Coupe Express
    The Studebaker Coupe Express was a coupe utility, produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana, between 1937 and 1939. Unlike other concurrent pick-up trucks, the coupe express mated Studebaker's passenger car styling to a full size truck bed....


Affiliated automobile marques

  • E-M-F
    E-M-F Company
    The E-M-F Company was an early American automobile manufacturer that produced automobiles from 1909 to 1912. The name E-M-F was gleaned from the initials of the three company founders: Barney Everitt , William Metzger , and Walter Flanders .- Everitt...

     Independent auto manufacturer that marketed cars through Studebaker wagon dealers 1909–1912
  • Erskine (automobile)
    Erskine (automobile)
    The Erskine was an American automobile brand produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana, USA, from 1926 to 1930. The marque was named after Albert Russel Erskine , Studebaker's president at the time....

     Brand of automobile produced by Studebaker
  • Packard
    Packard
    Packard was an American luxury-type automobile marque built by the Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit, Michigan, and later by the Studebaker-Packard Corporation of South Bend, Indiana...

     1954 merger partner of Studebaker
  • Pierce-Arrow
    Pierce-Arrow
    Pierce-Arrow was an American automobile manufacturer based in Buffalo, New York, which was active from 1901-1938. Although best known for its expensive luxury cars, Pierce-Arrow also manufactured commercial trucks, fire trucks, camp trailers, motorcycles, and bicycles.-Early history:The forerunner...

     Acquired by Studebaker in the late 1920s
  • Rockne
    Rockne
    The Rockne was an American automobile brand produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from 1931-1933. The brand was named for University of Notre Dame football coach Knute Rockne....

     Brand of automobile produced by Studebaker in the early 1930s
  • Mercedes-Benz
    Mercedes-Benz
    Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of automobiles, buses, coaches, and trucks. Mercedes-Benz is a division of its parent company, Daimler AG...

     Distributed through Studebaker dealers 1958–1966
  • Studebaker-Garford
    Studebaker-Garford
    Studebaker-Garford was an automobile produced jointly by the Garford Company of Elyria, Ohio and the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from 1904 through 1911...

    , Studebaker-bodied cars
  • Tincher
    Tincher
    The Tincher was a brand of automobile produced from 1903-1908 in Chicago, Illinois, and from 1908-1909 in South Bend, Indiana. The car was named after its developer, Thomas Luther Tincher, but built by the Chicago Coach and Carriage Company using components and body sections fabricated by the...

     An early independent builder of luxury cars financed by Studebaker investment

See also

  • Automotive industry
    Automotive industry
    The automotive industry designs, develops, manufactures, markets, and sells motor vehicles, and is one of the world's most important economic sectors by revenue....

  • Studebaker Canada Ltd.
    Studebaker Canada Ltd.
    Studebaker of Canada Ltd. was the name given to Studebaker Corporation's Canadian manufacturing arm.While Studebaker produced cars in Canada prior to World War II, Studebaker's first modern automobile factory was established at Hamilton, Ontario in 1947, in an anti-aircraft gun plant purchased from...

  • Studebaker National Museum
    Studebaker National Museum
    The Studebaker National Museum is a museum in South Bend, Indiana, USA that displays a variety of automobiles, wagons, carriages, and military vehicles related to the Studebaker Corporation and other aspects of American history.-Layout:...

  • List of defunct United States automobile manufacturers
  • Tippecanoe Place
    Tippecanoe Place
    Tippecanoe Place is a house in South Bend, Indiana, United States. Built in 1868, it was the residence of Clement Studebaker, a co-founder of the Studebaker vehicle manufacturing firm. Studebaker lived in the house from 1889 until his 1901 death. The house remained in his family for many years....

  • Story Monument
    Story Monument
    Story Monument, is a public artwork by American artist William Galloway, located at the intersection of State Road 135 South and Elkinsville Road in Story, Indiana, United States. Story Monument was originally surveyed as part of the Smithsonian's Save Outdoor Sculpture! survey in 1993...

  • Charles Brady King
    Charles Brady King
    ]]Charles Brady King was an American engineer & entrepreneur remembered as an automotive pioneer, artist, etcher, musician, poet, architect, mystic, industrialist and inventor....


Further reading


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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