Botany, plant science, or plant biology is a branch of biology that involves the scientific study of plant life. Traditionally, botany also included the study of fungi, algae and viruses...
, a stoma (also stomate; plural stomata) is a pore, found in the leaf and stem epidermis that is used for
Gas exchange is a process in biology where gases contained in an organism and atmosphere transfer or exchange. In human gas-exchange, gases contained in the blood of human bodies exchange with gases contained in the atmosphere. Human gas-exchange occurs in the lungs...
. The pore is bordered by a pair of specialized parenchyma
Parenchyma is a term used to describe a bulk of a substance. It is used in different ways in animals and in plants.The term is New Latin, f. Greek παρέγχυμα - parenkhuma, "visceral flesh", f. παρεγχεῖν - parenkhein, "to pour in" f. para-, "beside" + en-, "in" + khein, "to pour"...
cells known as guard cells
Guard cells are specialized cells located in the Leaf epidermis of plants. Pairs of guard cells surround tiny stomatal airway pores . These tiny holes in the surface of leaves are necessary for gas exchange into and out of the plant; carbon dioxide enters the plant allowing the carbon fixation...
that are responsible for regulating the size of the opening. The term stoma is also used collectively to refer to an entire stomatal complex, both the pore itself and its accompanying guard cells.