Stinson Aircraft Company
Overview
 
The Stinson Aircraft Company was an aircraft
Aircraft
An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air, or, in general, the atmosphere of a planet. An aircraft counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines.Although...

 manufacturing
Manufacturing
Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale...

 company in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 between the 1920s and the 1950s.
The Stinson Aircraft Company was founded in Dayton, Ohio
Dayton, Ohio
Dayton is the 6th largest city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Montgomery County, the fifth most populous county in the state. The population was 141,527 at the 2010 census. The Dayton Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 841,502 in the 2010 census...

, in 1920
1920 in aviation
This is a list of aviation-related events from 1920:- Events :*Juan de la Cierva y Cordoniu invents the autogyro. His first autogyro, the Cierva C.1, fails to become airborne, but is the first aircraft to demonstrate the principle of autorotation as it taxis on the ground.*The Argentine Navy...

 by aviator Edward “Eddie” Stinson, brother to Katherine Stinson
Katherine Stinson
Katherine Stinson was an early female flier. She was the fourth woman in the United States to obtain a pilot's certificate, which she earned on July 24, 1912, at the age of 21 while residing in Pine Bluff, AR...

. After five years of business ventures, Stinson made Detroit, Michigan
Detroit, Michigan
Detroit is the major city among the primary cultural, financial, and transportation centers in the Metro Detroit area, a region of 5.2 million people. As the seat of Wayne County, the city of Detroit is the largest city in the U.S. state of Michigan and serves as a major port on the Detroit River...

 the focus for his future flying endeavors. Stinson found Detroit's business community receptive to his plans. A group of local businessmen — the Detroit Board of Commerce's Aviation Committee — supported Stinson's plans to establish the Stinson Aircraft Syndicate in 1925
1925 in aviation
This is a list of aviation-related events from 1925:-Events:* In the United Kingdom, the first Royal Auxiliary Air Force squadrons are formed....

 at a site southwest of Detroit, where today's Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport
Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport
Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport , usually called Detroit Metro Airport, Metro Airport locally, or simply DTW, is a major international airport covering in Romulus, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It is Michigan's busiest airport....

 is located, and provided $25,000 to develop a new monoplane
Monoplane
A monoplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with one main set of wing surfaces, in contrast to a biplane or triplane. Since the late 1930s it has been the most common form for a fixed wing aircraft.-Types of monoplane:...

; the SM-1 Detroiter
Stinson Detroiter
|-See also:...

 made its first flight on January 25, 1926, and became an overnight success that enabled Stinson to quickly assemble $150,000 in public capital to incorporate the Stinson Aircraft Corporation on May 4, 1926.
Encyclopedia
The Stinson Aircraft Company was an aircraft
Aircraft
An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air, or, in general, the atmosphere of a planet. An aircraft counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines.Although...

 manufacturing
Manufacturing
Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale...

 company in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 between the 1920s and the 1950s.

The Company

The Stinson Aircraft Company was founded in Dayton, Ohio
Dayton, Ohio
Dayton is the 6th largest city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Montgomery County, the fifth most populous county in the state. The population was 141,527 at the 2010 census. The Dayton Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 841,502 in the 2010 census...

, in 1920
1920 in aviation
This is a list of aviation-related events from 1920:- Events :*Juan de la Cierva y Cordoniu invents the autogyro. His first autogyro, the Cierva C.1, fails to become airborne, but is the first aircraft to demonstrate the principle of autorotation as it taxis on the ground.*The Argentine Navy...

 by aviator Edward “Eddie” Stinson, brother to Katherine Stinson
Katherine Stinson
Katherine Stinson was an early female flier. She was the fourth woman in the United States to obtain a pilot's certificate, which she earned on July 24, 1912, at the age of 21 while residing in Pine Bluff, AR...

. After five years of business ventures, Stinson made Detroit, Michigan
Detroit, Michigan
Detroit is the major city among the primary cultural, financial, and transportation centers in the Metro Detroit area, a region of 5.2 million people. As the seat of Wayne County, the city of Detroit is the largest city in the U.S. state of Michigan and serves as a major port on the Detroit River...

 the focus for his future flying endeavors. Stinson found Detroit's business community receptive to his plans. A group of local businessmen — the Detroit Board of Commerce's Aviation Committee — supported Stinson's plans to establish the Stinson Aircraft Syndicate in 1925
1925 in aviation
This is a list of aviation-related events from 1925:-Events:* In the United Kingdom, the first Royal Auxiliary Air Force squadrons are formed....

 at a site southwest of Detroit, where today's Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport
Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport
Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport , usually called Detroit Metro Airport, Metro Airport locally, or simply DTW, is a major international airport covering in Romulus, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It is Michigan's busiest airport....

 is located, and provided $25,000 to develop a new monoplane
Monoplane
A monoplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with one main set of wing surfaces, in contrast to a biplane or triplane. Since the late 1930s it has been the most common form for a fixed wing aircraft.-Types of monoplane:...

; the SM-1 Detroiter
Stinson Detroiter
|-See also:...

 made its first flight on January 25, 1926, and became an overnight success that enabled Stinson to quickly assemble $150,000 in public capital to incorporate the Stinson Aircraft Corporation on May 4, 1926. Always an aviator at heart, Eddie Stinson was still flying as a stunt pilot, earning $100,000 a year for his efforts — a huge sum in those days. Stinson Aircraft Corporation sold 10 SM-1 Detroiters in 1926. Business was steadily increasing, and Stinson delivered 121 aircraft in 1929
1929 in aviation
This is a list of aviation-related events from 1929:- Events :* Greatest number of fatal civil aircraft crashes in US history.* Cubana de Aviación begins service.* Pan American World Airways begins service.* The Canadian Siskins aerobatic team is formed....

.

Automobile
Automobile
An automobile, autocar, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor...

 mogul
Business magnate
A business magnate, sometimes referred to as a capitalist, czar, mogul, tycoon, baron, oligarch, or industrialist, is an informal term used to refer to an entrepreneur who has reached prominence and derived a notable amount of wealth from a particular industry .-Etymology:The word magnate itself...

 Errett Lobban (E.L.) Cord
Errett Lobban Cord
Errett Lobban "E. L." Cord was a leader in United States transport during the early and middle 20th century.Cord founded the Cord Corporation in 1929 as a holding company for over 150 companies he controlled, mostly in the field of transportation...

 acquired 60 percent of Stinson's stock in September 1929, and his Cord Corporation provided additional investment capital to permit Stinson to sell its aircraft at a competitive price while still pursuing new designs. At the height of the Depression in 1930
1930 in aviation
This is a list of aviation-related events from 1930:- Events :* The Surrey Aero Club inaugurates recreational flights from Gatwick Race Course .* The German airship LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin makes its first crossing of the South Atlantic....

, Stinson offered six aircraft models, ranging from the four-seat Junior to the Stinson 6000 trimotor airliner.

Eddie Stinson did not live to enjoy the success of his company. He died in an air crash in Chicago, Illinois on January 26, 1932, while on a sales trip. At the time of his death at age 38, Stinson had acquired more than 16,000 hours of flight time — more than any other pilot at the time.

The Stinson name did not last much past the end of World War II. Eddie Stinson's death accelerated the assimilation of Stinson Aircraft Corporation into larger corporate entities: first by Cord Corporation, then by Aviation Corporation (AVCO), and later by Consolidated Vultee. By 1950
1950 in aviation
This is a list of aviation-related events from 1950:- Events :* Arrow Air is founded.* The Brazilian Navy begins to reestablish an air arm of its own when an aeronautics directorate is created within the Ministry of the Navy.-January:...

 the Stinson company was sold to the Piper Aircraft Corporation, which continued to produce 108s for a limited time. Piper transformed an original Stinson design (the "Twin Stinson") into the successful Piper Apache, the world's first general aviation
General aviation
General aviation is one of the two categories of civil aviation. It refers to all flights other than military and scheduled airline and regular cargo flights, both private and commercial. General aviation flights range from gliders and powered parachutes to large, non-scheduled cargo jet flights...

 all-metal twin engine modern aircraft.

Stinson SB-1 Detroiter

The four-seat biplane Stinson SB-1 Detroiter made its first flight on January 25, 1926 — possibly the first fixed-wing aircraft with a heated, soundproof cabin, electric starter, and wheel brakes. Powered by either a Wright J-5 (SB-1) or Wright J-6 (SB-1D), the Detroiter became an overnight success with a number of airlines including Florida Airways, Wien Alaska Airways and Northwest Airways. Two were sponsored by Detroit News on an unsuccessful attempt by Wilkins to fly across the north pole
North Pole
The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is, subject to the caveats explained below, defined as the point in the northern hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface...

, though he succeeded the following year.

Stinson SM-1 Detroiter

The six-seat monoplane Stinson SM-1 Detroiter
Stinson Detroiter
|-See also:...

 was selected by Ruth Elder and Elsie Mackay
Elsie Mackay
For the American actress Elsie Mackay please see Elsie Mackay The Honourable Elsie Mackay was a British actress, interior decorator and pioneering aviatrix who died attempting to cross the Atlantic Ocean with Walter G. R...

 for their attempted trans-Atlantic crossings in 1927 and 1928, both of which failed.

Stinson SM-2 Junior

Soon after the SM-1 Detroiter hit the market, Stinson started refining the basic design in 1928 to appeal to private flyers and business owners. The SM-2 Junior, was a smaller and lower-powered three-four seat high-wing cabin monoplane of which 321 were built by 1933.

Depression-era aircraft

At the height of the Depression in 1930
1930 in aviation
This is a list of aviation-related events from 1930:- Events :* The Surrey Aero Club inaugurates recreational flights from Gatwick Race Course .* The German airship LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin makes its first crossing of the South Atlantic....

, Stinson offered six aircraft models, ranging from the four-seat Junior to the high wing T/SM-6000 trimotor airliner.

Two new Stinson designs — the 1931
1931 in aviation
This is a list of aviation-related events from 1931:- Events :* Manufacturer Airspeed Ltd founded in York, England.* Alexander Seversky founds the Seversky Aircraft Corporation....

 Model W and the 1932
1932 in aviation
This is a list of aviation-related events from 1932:- Events :* The Canadian Siskins aerobatic team is retired.* James Work founds the Brewster Aeronautical Corporation.-January:...

 Model R-2/3 — were powered by Wright or Lycoming radial engines and combined dependable performance with a luxurious cabin. These two models were the ancestors of the most famous of the Stinson line — the Reliant
Stinson Reliant
The Stinson Reliant was a popular single-engine four to five seat high-wing monoplane manufactured by the Stinson Aircraft Division of the Aviation Manufacturing Corporation of Wayne, Michigan.-Design and development:...

, first introduced in 1933
1933 in aviation
This is a list of aviation-related events from 1933:- Events :* The United States Coast Guard requests authorization to construct its first cutters with a capability of carrying aircraft.* Tokyo conducts it first blackout exercise....

.

In 1933 Stinson introduced its last trimotor airliner, the low wing Stinson Model A.

In 1933 and 1934 , The Stinson Model "O", a high-wing parasol aircraft was delivered for a military trainer. 10 were produced, five of which were sold to Honduras, three to China, and one to Brazil. The prototype remained in the U.S. as an instrument trainer in Long Beach, California
Long Beach, California
Long Beach is a city situated in Los Angeles County in Southern California, on the Pacific coast of the United States. The city is the 36th-largest city in the nation and the seventh-largest in California. As of 2010, its population was 462,257...

. It was removed from the the registry in 1945. None of the other 9 aircraft are in existence today.

The Model O was the only open cockpit aircraft built by Stinson. It is flown from the front with a gunner or second pilot/student in the rear.

Stinson SR Reliant

From 1933 to 1941
1941 in aviation
This is a list of aviation-related events from 1941:- Events :* Jackie Cochran became the first woman to fly a bomber across the Atlantic Ocean.* During the spring and summer, the Imperial Japanese Navys air arm conducts Operation 102, its second major bombing campaign against Chungking.* By early...

, Stinson delivered 1,327 Reliants—ranging from the SR-1 through the SR-10 — each variation building upon its predecessor with upgraded engines and design refinements. The Stinson Reliant SR-10, introduced in 1938
1938 in aviation
This is a list of aviation-related events from 1938:- Events :* Imperial Airways inaugurates scheduled service from London to Montreal. Pan American World Airways is banned from British airports out of fears that more advanced U.S...

, was the penultimate commercial variant, featuring leather upholstery, walnut instrument panels, and automobile-style roll-down windows.

Model 105 Voyager/L-5 Sentinel

Another popular Stinson aircraft was the Model 105 Voyager, also called the HW-75 and Model 10, a three-passenger aircraft featuring a strut-braced wing mounted on the top of the fuselage and capable of flying at about 105 miles per hour (46.9 m/s). The little HW-75 proved an immediate success attracting a flood of orders the manufacturer was hard-pressed to match. Costing $US2,995 in 1939, the Voyager featured innovations such as slotted wing flaps, and fixed wing slots for better handling at lower speeds.

By August 1939 Stinson had received more than 100 orders and the company’s plant at Wayne, Michigan was rolling out three aircraft each day. James Stewart
James Stewart (actor)
James Maitland Stewart was an American film and stage actor, known for his distinctive voice and his everyman persona. Over the course of his career, he starred in many films widely considered classics and was nominated for five Academy Awards, winning one in competition and receiving one Lifetime...

, air-minded Hollywood movie star, and Howard Hughes
Howard Hughes
Howard Robard Hughes, Jr. was an American business magnate, investor, aviator, engineer, film producer, director, and philanthropist. He was one of the wealthiest people in the world...

 were some of the more notable Voyager owners.

Introduced in 1939
1939 in aviation
This is a list of aviation-related events from 1939:-Events:* Kawasaki Heavy Industries transfers its aircraft engine production business to its subsidiary, the Kawasaki Aircraft Engineering Company Ltd....

, Stinson sold 535 Voyagers in 1939 and 1940 before World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 intervened and the Stinson aircraft line was adapted for an important mission. A few prewar Voyagers were commandeered for wartime use and designated the AT-19/L-9 (not the same as the later AT-19 which was a Stinson Reliant).

The 105 Voyager was substantially redesigned to become the U.S. Army's L-5 Sentinel
L-5 Sentinel
The Stinson L-5 Sentinel was a World War II era liaison aircraft used by all branches of the U.S. military and by the British Royal Air Force. Along with the Stinson L-1 Vigilant, the L-5 was the only other American liaison aircraft of WWII that was purpose-built for military use and had no...

, one of the most used and least recognized U.S. aircraft of the Second World War. Serving as a short field
STOL
STOL is an acronym for short take-off and landing, a term used to describe aircraft with very short runway requirements.-Definitions:There is no one accepted definition of STOL and many different definitions have been used by different authorities and nations at various times and for a myriad of...

 liaison aircraft
Liaison aircraft
A liaison aircraft is a small, usually unarmed aircraft primarily used by military forces for artillery observation or transporting commanders and messages. The concept developed before World War II and included also battlefield reconnaissance, air ambulance, column control, light cargo delivery...

, the L-5 supported missions such as artillery spotting, medical evacuation, aerial reconnaissance
Aerial reconnaissance
Aerial reconnaissance is reconnaissance that is conducted using unmanned aerial vehicles or reconnaissance aircraft. Their roles are to collect imagery intelligence, signals intelligence and measurement and signature intelligence...

, and passenger transport
Cargo aircraft
A cargo aircraft is a fixed-wing aircraft designed or converted for the carriage of goods, rather than passengers. They are usually devoid of passenger amenities, and generally feature one or more large doors for the loading and unloading of cargo...

. Stinson delivered 3,590 between November 1942
1942 in aviation
This is a list of aviation-related events from 1942:- Events :* The United States Coast Guard begins to use the national insignia for U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, and U.S. Marine Corps aircraft on its own aircraft for the first time. The practice has continued ever since.-January:* The U.S...

 and September 1945
1945 in aviation
This is a list of aviation-related events from 1945:- Events :* The probe-and-drogue aerial refueling system, in which the tanker aircraft trails a hose with a stabilizing conical drogue at its end which mates to a fixed probe mounted on the receiving aircraft, is perfected...

 under a variety of designations from L-5, L-5B, L-5C, L-5E and L-5G.

The U.S. Navy and Marine Corps received 306 Sentinels from the Army, designating their models as the OY-1 and OY-2, while two versions went to the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Formed on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world...

 as the Sentinel Mk. I and Sentinel Mk. II. After the war, most Sentinels were sold for surplus, but a number of aircraft (now designated the U-19) served in the Korean War
Korean War
The Korean War was a conventional war between South Korea, supported by the United Nations, and North Korea, supported by the People's Republic of China , with military material aid from the Soviet Union...

. A few remained in active military service until the late 1950s.

AT-19/V-77 Reliant

The SR-10 Reliant
Stinson Reliant
The Stinson Reliant was a popular single-engine four to five seat high-wing monoplane manufactured by the Stinson Aircraft Division of the Aviation Manufacturing Corporation of Wayne, Michigan.-Design and development:...

 was also impressed for use in World War II as the UC-81, used by the U.S. Army as a utility aircraft. Purpose built examples following a major redesign to military specifications were designated AT-19/V-77, and used by the U.S. Army and Royal Navy
Royal Navy
The Royal Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Founded in the 16th century, it is the oldest service branch and is known as the Senior Service...

 as a light passenger transport, instrument trainer
Trainer (aircraft)
A trainer is a class of aircraft designed specifically to facilitate in-flight training of pilots and aircrews. The use of a dedicated trainer aircraft with additional safety features—such as tandem flight controls, forgiving flight characteristics and a simplified cockpit arrangement—allows...

 and photo-reconnaissance aircraft.

Stinson 108

The last Stinson aircraft design produced was the Stinson 108
Stinson 108
-See also:-References:...

, an immediate post-World War II design that competed against designs from Piper Aircraft and Cessna
Cessna
The Cessna Aircraft Company is an airplane manufacturing corporation headquartered in Wichita, Kansas, USA. Their main products are general aviation aircraft. Although they are the most well known for their small, piston-powered aircraft, they also produce business jets. The company is a subsidiary...

.

External links

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