Stephen III of Naples
Stephen III was the duke of Naples during an important transitionary period in its history, from 821 to his death. By the end of his reign, Naples was completely independent.

The duchy was not yet hereditary in 818, when the patrician of Sicily
Sicily is a region of Italy, and is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. Along with the surrounding minor islands, it constitutes an autonomous region of Italy, the Regione Autonoma Siciliana Sicily has a rich and unique culture, especially with regard to the arts, music, literature,...

 appointed a duke without imperial approval. He repeated this in 821, but this latter duke was chased from the city in favour of the elected Stephen III. Stephen was the first to begin striking monies with his own initials on them and not those of the Byzantine Emperor. He was not attached to the empire in any way: neither by appointment nor by any other ties except heritage of his dukedom.


  • Chalandon, Ferdinand. Histoire de la domination normande en Italie et en Sicilie. Paris
    Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

    , 1907.
  • Naples in the Dark Ages by David Taylor and Jeff Matthews.
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