Stephen Grossberg
Stephen Grossberg is a cognitive scientist
Cognitive science
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary scientific study of mind and its processes. It examines what cognition is, what it does and how it works. It includes research on how information is processed , represented, and transformed in behaviour, nervous system or machine...

, neuroscientist, biomedical engineer, mathematician, and neuromorphic technologist. He is the Wang Professor of Cognitive and Neural Systems and a Professor of Mathematics, Psychology, and Biomedical Engineering at Boston University
Boston University
Boston University is a private research university located in Boston, Massachusetts. With more than 4,000 faculty members and more than 31,000 students, Boston University is one of the largest private universities in the United States and one of Boston's largest employers...


Grossberg's work focuses upon the design principles and mechanisms that enable the behavior of individuals, or machines, to adapt autonomously in real time to unexpected environmental challenges. His research has included fields as vision and image processing
Image processing
In electrical engineering and computer science, image processing is any form of signal processing for which the input is an image, such as a photograph or video frame; the output of image processing may be either an image or, a set of characteristics or parameters related to the image...

; object and event learning and pattern recognition
Pattern recognition
In machine learning, pattern recognition is the assignment of some sort of output value to a given input value , according to some specific algorithm. An example of pattern recognition is classification, which attempts to assign each input value to one of a given set of classes...

; audition, speech and language; cognitive information processing; reinforcement learning and cognitive-emotional interactions; autonomous navigation; adaptive sensory-motor control and robotics
Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots...

; self-organizing neurodynamics; mental disorders; and neural network
Neural network
The term neural network was traditionally used to refer to a network or circuit of biological neurons. The modern usage of the term often refers to artificial neural networks, which are composed of artificial neurons or nodes...

 technology. Grossberg has published 15 books, over 450 research articles, and has 7 patents.

Grossberg has studied how brains give rise to minds since he took the introductory psychology course as a freshman at Dartmouth College
Dartmouth College
Dartmouth College is a private, Ivy League university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States. The institution comprises a liberal arts college, Dartmouth Medical School, Thayer School of Engineering, and the Tuck School of Business, as well as 19 graduate programs in the arts and sciences...

 in 1957. That began his journey in the fields of computational neuroscience
Computational neuroscience
Computational neuroscience is the study of brain function in terms of the information processing properties of the structures that make up the nervous system...

, theoretical cognitive science, and brain-inspired technology. In the 1960s, Grossberg introduced the paradigm of using nonlinear systems of differential equation
Differential equation
A differential equation is a mathematical equation for an unknown function of one or several variables that relates the values of the function itself and its derivatives of various orders...

s to show how brain mechanisms can give rise to behavioral functions. This paradigm is potentially relevant to the classical mind/body problem, and is the basic mathematical formalism that is used in many biological neural network research today.

Professional details

Grossberg founded the now-dissolved Department of Cognitive and Neural Systems at Boston University He is also the founder and Director of the Center for Adaptive Systems and he organized and is founding Director of the NSF Center of Excellence for Learning in Education, Science, and Technology (CELEST: In addition, Grossberg founded and was first President of the International Neural Network Society (INNS), which grew to 3700 members from 49 states of the United States and 38 countries during the fourteen months of his presidency. The formation of INNS soon led to the formation of the European Neural Network Society
European Neural Network Society
The European Neural Network Society is an association of scientists, engineers, students, and others seeking to learn about and advance understanding of artificial neural networks...

 (ENNS) and the Japanese Neural Network Society (JNNS). Grossberg also founded the INNS official journal, Neural Networks, which is also the archival journal of ENNS and JNNS.

Grossberg has also served on the editorial board of more than 25 other journals, including Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Cognitive Brain Research, Cognitive Science, Neural Computation, IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, IEEE Expert, and the International Journal of Humanoid Robotics
International Journal of Humanoid Robotics
The International Journal of Humanoid Robotics was launched in 2004 and is a journal published by World Scientific. It covers the development of intelligent humanoid robots, both theoretical and practical in nature, with an emphasis on future projections...

. He has organized many conferences since the 1970s.


Grossberg won the first 1991 IEEE Neural Network Pioneer Award, the 1992 INNS Leadership Award, the 1992 Boston Computer Society Thinking Technology Award, the 2000 Information Science Award of the Association for Intelligent Machinery, the 2002 Charles River Laboratories prize of the Society for Behavioral Toxicology, and the 2003 INNS Helmholtz Award. He is a 1994 Fellow of the American Psychological Association, a 1996 member of the Society of Experimental Psychologists, a 2002 Fellow of the American Psychological Society, a 2005 IEEE Fellow, and a 2008 Inaugural Fellow of the American Educational Research Association.

ART theory

With his wife Gail Carpenter
Gail Carpenter
Gail Carpenter is a cognitive scientist, neuroscientist and mathematician. She is a Professor of Cognitive and Neural Systems and a Professor of Mathematics at Boston University, and the director of the Boston University Department of Cognitive and Neural Systems Technology Lab.-Adaptive resonance...

, a mathematician, Grossberg developed the adaptive resonance theory
Adaptive resonance theory
Adaptive Resonance Theory is a theory developed by Stephen Grossberg and Gail Carpenter on aspects of how the brain processes information. It describes a number of neural network models which use supervised and unsupervised learning methods, and address problems such as pattern recognition and...

 (ART) of neural architecture
Neural network
The term neural network was traditionally used to refer to a network or circuit of biological neurons. The modern usage of the term often refers to artificial neural networks, which are composed of artificial neurons or nodes...

. The ART theory was practically demonstrated through the ART family of classifiers, and was itself based on insights in neuroscience and behaviour, which he had translated into first order differential equations that governed behaviour of neurons.

External links

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