Seine
Overview
 
The Seine is a 776 km (482.2 mi)-long river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin
Paris Basin (geology)
The Paris Basin is one of the major geological regions of France having developed since the Triassic on a basement formed by the Variscan orogeny.-Extent:...

 in the north of France. It rises at Saint-Seine
Saint-Seine
Saint-Seine is a commune in the Nièvre department in central France.-References:*...

 near Dijon
Dijon
Dijon is a city in eastern France, the capital of the Côte-d'Or département and of the Burgundy region.Dijon is the historical capital of the region of Burgundy. Population : 151,576 within the city limits; 250,516 for the greater Dijon area....

 in northeastern France in the Langres plateau, flowing through Paris and into the English Channel
English Channel
The English Channel , often referred to simply as the Channel, is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates southern England from northern France, and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. It is about long and varies in width from at its widest to in the Strait of Dover...

 at Le Havre
Le Havre
Le Havre is a city in the Seine-Maritime department of the Haute-Normandie region in France. It is situated in north-western France, on the right bank of the mouth of the river Seine on the English Channel. Le Havre is the most populous commune in the Haute-Normandie region, although the total...

 (and Honfleur
Honfleur
Honfleur is a commune in the Calvados department in northwestern France. It is located on the southern bank of the estuary of the Seine across from le Havre and very close to the exit of the Pont de Normandie...

 on the left bank). It is navigable by ocean-going vessels as far as Rouen
Rouen
Rouen , in northern France on the River Seine, is the capital of the Haute-Normandie region and the historic capital city of Normandy. Once one of the largest and most prosperous cities of medieval Europe , it was the seat of the Exchequer of Normandy in the Middle Ages...

, 120 km (74.6 mi) from the sea. Over 60% of its length, as far as Burgundy, is negotiable by commercial riverboats and nearly its whole length is available for recreational boating; excursion boats offer sightseeing tours of the Rive Droite
Rive Droite
La Rive Droite is most associated with the river Seine in central Paris. Here the river flows roughly westwards, cutting the city into two: looking downstream, the northern bank is to the right, and the southern bank is to the left....

and Rive Gauche
Rive Gauche
La Rive Gauche is the southern bank of the river Seine in Paris. Here the river flows roughly westward, cutting the city in two: looking downstream, the southern bank is to the left, and the northern bank is to the right....

within the city of Paris.

There are 37 bridges within Paris and dozens more spanning the river outside the city.
Encyclopedia
The Seine is a 776 km (482.2 mi)-long river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin
Paris Basin (geology)
The Paris Basin is one of the major geological regions of France having developed since the Triassic on a basement formed by the Variscan orogeny.-Extent:...

 in the north of France. It rises at Saint-Seine
Saint-Seine
Saint-Seine is a commune in the Nièvre department in central France.-References:*...

 near Dijon
Dijon
Dijon is a city in eastern France, the capital of the Côte-d'Or département and of the Burgundy region.Dijon is the historical capital of the region of Burgundy. Population : 151,576 within the city limits; 250,516 for the greater Dijon area....

 in northeastern France in the Langres plateau, flowing through Paris and into the English Channel
English Channel
The English Channel , often referred to simply as the Channel, is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates southern England from northern France, and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. It is about long and varies in width from at its widest to in the Strait of Dover...

 at Le Havre
Le Havre
Le Havre is a city in the Seine-Maritime department of the Haute-Normandie region in France. It is situated in north-western France, on the right bank of the mouth of the river Seine on the English Channel. Le Havre is the most populous commune in the Haute-Normandie region, although the total...

 (and Honfleur
Honfleur
Honfleur is a commune in the Calvados department in northwestern France. It is located on the southern bank of the estuary of the Seine across from le Havre and very close to the exit of the Pont de Normandie...

 on the left bank). It is navigable by ocean-going vessels as far as Rouen
Rouen
Rouen , in northern France on the River Seine, is the capital of the Haute-Normandie region and the historic capital city of Normandy. Once one of the largest and most prosperous cities of medieval Europe , it was the seat of the Exchequer of Normandy in the Middle Ages...

, 120 km (74.6 mi) from the sea. Over 60% of its length, as far as Burgundy, is negotiable by commercial riverboats and nearly its whole length is available for recreational boating; excursion boats offer sightseeing tours of the Rive Droite
Rive Droite
La Rive Droite is most associated with the river Seine in central Paris. Here the river flows roughly westwards, cutting the city into two: looking downstream, the northern bank is to the right, and the southern bank is to the left....

and Rive Gauche
Rive Gauche
La Rive Gauche is the southern bank of the river Seine in Paris. Here the river flows roughly westward, cutting the city in two: looking downstream, the southern bank is to the left, and the northern bank is to the right....

within the city of Paris.

There are 37 bridges within Paris and dozens more spanning the river outside the city. Examples in Paris include the Pont Louis-Philippe
Pont Louis-Philippe
The Pont Louis-Philippe is a bridge across the River Seine in Paris. It is located in the 4th arrondissement, and it links the Quai de Bourbon on the Île Saint-Louis with the Saint-Gervais neighborhood on the right bank.-History:...

 and Pont Neuf
Pont Neuf
The Pont Neuf is, despite its name, the oldest standing bridge across the river Seine in Paris, France. Its name, which was given to distinguish it from older bridges that were lined on both sides with houses, has remained....

, the latter of which dates back to 1607. Outside the city, examples include the Pont de Normandie, one of the longest cable-stayed bridge
Cable-stayed bridge
A cable-stayed bridge is a bridge that consists of one or more columns , with cables supporting the bridge deck....

s in the world, which links Le Havre to Honfleur
Honfleur
Honfleur is a commune in the Calvados department in northwestern France. It is located on the southern bank of the estuary of the Seine across from le Havre and very close to the exit of the Pont de Normandie...

.

Origin of the name

The name "Seine" comes from the Latin Sequana
Sequana
In Gallo-Roman religion, Sequana was the goddess of the river Seine, particularly the springs at the source of the Seine, and the Gaulish tribe the Sequani...

, . Some have argued that Sicauna is cognate to the name of Saône River, though an argued relationship to the River Shannon
River Shannon
The River Shannon is the longest river in Ireland at . It divides the west of Ireland from the east and south . County Clare, being west of the Shannon but part of the province of Munster, is the major exception...

 in Ireland is unlikely, given the very different forms of the two; Gaelic an tSiona, dative Sionainn is rather from Prehistoric Irish *Sinona. Another proposal has it that Sequana is the Latin version of Gaulish Issicauna Lower-Icauna, which would be the diminutive of Icauna, which was the Gaulish name of the Yonne River
Yonne River
The Yonne is a river in France, left tributary of the Seine. It is 292 km long. The river gives its name to the Yonne département. Its source is in the Nièvre département, in the Morvan hills near Château-Chinon...

. Some believe the ancient Gauls
Gauls
The Gauls were a Celtic people living in Gaul, the region roughly corresponding to what is now France, Belgium, Switzerland and Northern Italy, from the Iron Age through the Roman period. They mostly spoke the Continental Celtic language called Gaulish....

 considered the Seine to be a tributary of the Yonne, which indeed presents a greater average discharge than the Seine (the river flowing through Paris would be called Yonne if the standard rules of geography were applied).

Some identify the river Sikanos, origin (according to Thucydides
Thucydides
Thucydides was a Greek historian and author from Alimos. His History of the Peloponnesian War recounts the 5th century BC war between Sparta and Athens to the year 411 BC...

) of the Sicanoi of Sikelia (Sicily
Sicily
Sicily is a region of Italy, and is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. Along with the surrounding minor islands, it constitutes an autonomous region of Italy, the Regione Autonoma Siciliana Sicily has a rich and unique culture, especially with regard to the arts, music, literature,...

), with the river Sequana (Seine).}}

According to Pierre-Yves Lambert, a specialist of the Gaulish language, Sequana retains QV [kʷ], that is unusual in Gaulish, which is normally a P-Celtic language, but he compares with the month name EQVOS, read on the Coligny Calendar. The name of the Gaulish tribe Sequani
Sequani
Sequani, in ancient geography, were a Gallic people who occupied the upper river basin of the Arar , the valley of the Doubs and the Jura Mountains, their territory corresponding to Franche-Comté and part of Burgundy.-Etymology:...

derives from it.

The digram
Digram
Digram can refer to:*a bigram or digram, a sequence of two words, syllables, or letters*a digraph , a pair of letters used to write one speech sound*a Tai Xuan Jing Symbol with two lines...

 QV of Sequana could recover a whole syllable
Syllable
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. For example, the word water is composed of two syllables: wa and ter. A syllable is typically made up of a syllable nucleus with optional initial and final margins .Syllables are often considered the phonological "building...

, that is to say [se-ku-wa-na], like ucuetis [u-ku-we-tis], but its meaning remains unknown.

Navigation

The Seine is dredged and oceangoing vessels can dock at Rouen, 120 km (74.6 mi) from the sea. Commercial riverboats can use the river from Bar-sur-Seine
Bar-sur-Seine
Bar-sur-Seine is a commune in the Aube department in north-central France.Situated on the River Seine, it is just off the A5 autoroute. The town is famous for its castle, the Château de Bar sur Seine.-Geography:...

, 560 km (348 mi) to its mouth. At Paris, there are 37 bridges. The river is only 24 metres (80 ft) above sea level 446 km (277.1 mi) from its mouth, making it slow flowing and thus easily navigable.

The Seine Maritime, 105.7 km (65.7 mi) from the English Channel at Le Havre to Rouen, is the only portion of the Seine used by ocean going craft. The tidal section of the Seine Maritime is followed by a canalized section with four large multiple locks until the mouth of the Oise
Oise
Oise is a department in the north of France. It is named after the river Oise.-History:Oise is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790...

 River at Conflans-Sainte-Honorine
Conflans-Sainte-Honorine
Conflans-Sainte-Honorine is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France. It is located in the north-western suburbs of Paris from the center....

. Multiple locks at Bougival
Bougival
Bougival is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France. It is located in the western suburbs of Paris from the center....

 / Chatou
Chatou
Chatou is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France. It is located in the western suburbs of Paris from the center...

 and at Suresnes
Suresnes
Suresnes is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France. It is located from the center of Paris. The nearest communes are Neuilly-sur-Seine, Puteaux, Rueil-Malmaison, Saint-Cloud and Boulogne-Billancourt...

 lift the vessels to the level of the river in Paris, where the mouth of the Marne River
Marne River
The Marne is a river in France, a right tributary of the Seine in the area east and southeast of Paris. It is long. The river gave its name to the départements of Haute-Marne, Marne, Seine-et-Marne, and Val-de-Marne....

 is located. Upstream from Paris seven locks ensure navigation to Saint Mammès, where the Loing
Loing
The Loing is a 142 km long river in central France, a left tributary of the Seine. Its source is in Sainte-Colombe-sur-Loing, in the south of the Yonne département.The Loing flows into the Seine in Saint-Mammès, near Moret-sur-Loing...

 mouth is situated. Through an eighth lock the river Yonne
Yonne
Yonne is a French department named after the Yonne River. It is one of the four constituent departments of Burgundy in eastern France and its prefecture is Auxerre. Its official number is 89....

 is reached at Montereau-Fault-Yonne
Montereau-Fault-Yonne
Montereau-Fault-Yonne, or simply Montereau, is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France.-Name:...

. From the mouth of the Yonne, larger ships can continue upstream to Nogent-sur-Seine
Nogent-sur-Seine
Nogent-sur-Seine is a commune in the Aube department in north-central France.-Population:-Personalities:Camille Claudel lived in Nogent-sur-Seine with her family from 1876 to 1879....

. From there on, the river is navigable only by small craft. All navigation ends abruptly at Marcilly-sur-Seine
Marcilly-sur-Seine
Marcilly-sur-Seine is a commune in the Marne department in north-eastern France.-See also:*Communes of the Marne department...

, where the ancient Canal de la Haute-Seine
Canal de la Haute-Seine
The Canal de la Haute-Seine, also known as Upper Seine Canal is a canal in central France. It joins Paris to Montereau-Fault-Yonne. It is 101 km long with 8 locks.-See also:List of canals in France...

 used to allow vessels to continue all the way to Troyes
Troyes
Troyes is a commune and the capital of the Aube department in north-central France. It is located on the Seine river about southeast of Paris. Many half-timbered houses survive in the old town...

. This canal has been abandoned for many years.

The average depth of the Seine today at Paris is about nine and a half meters. Until locks were installed to raise the level in the 1800s, the river was much shallower within the city most of the time, and consisted of a small channel of continuous flow bordered by sandy banks (depicted in many illustrations of the period). Today the depth is tightly controlled and the entire width of the river between the built-up banks on either side is normally filled with water. The average flow of the river is very low, only a few cubic metres per second, but much higher flows are possible during periods of heavy runoff. Special reservoirs upstream help to maintain a constant level for the river through the city, but during periods of extreme runoff significant increases in river level may occur.

A very severe period of high water in January 1910 produced extensive flooding throughout the city. The Seine again rose to threatening levels in 1924, 1955, 1982 and 1999–2000. After a first-level flood alert in 2003, about 100,000 works of art were moved out of Paris, the largest relocation of art since World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. Much of the art in Paris is kept in underground storage rooms that would be flooded. A 2002 report by the French government stated the worst-case Seine flood scenario would cost 10 billion euros and cut telephone service for a million Parisians, leaving 200,000 without electricity and 100,000 without gas.

Watershed

The basin area is 78,910 square kilometres, 2% of which is forest and 78% cultivated land. In addition to Paris, three other cities with a population over 100,000 are in the Seine watershed—Le Havre, Rouen, and Rheims—with an annual urban growth rate of 0.2%. The population density is 201 per square kilometre.

Water quality

Periodically the sewerage systems of Paris experience a failure known as sanitary sewer overflow
Sanitary sewer overflow
Sanitary sewer overflow is a condition whereby untreated sewage is discharged into the environment prior to reaching treatment facilities thereby escaping wastewater treatment. When caused by rainfall it is also known as wet weather overflow. It is primarily meaningful in developed countries,...

, often in periods of high rainfall. Under these conditions untreated sewage
Sewage
Sewage is water-carried waste, in solution or suspension, that is intended to be removed from a community. Also known as wastewater, it is more than 99% water and is characterized by volume or rate of flow, physical condition, chemical constituents and the bacteriological organisms that it contains...

 has been discharged into the Seine. The resulting oxygen
Oxygen
Oxygen is the element with atomic number 8 and represented by the symbol O. Its name derives from the Greek roots ὀξύς and -γενής , because at the time of naming, it was mistakenly thought that all acids required oxygen in their composition...

 deficit is principally caused by allochthonous bacteria larger than one micrometre in size. The specific activity of these sewage bacteria is typically three to four times greater than that of the autochthonous (background) bacterial population. The pH level of the Seine at Pont Neuf has been measured to be 8.46.

In 2009, it was announced that Atlantic salmon
Atlantic salmon
The Atlantic salmon is a species of fish in the family Salmonidae, which is found in the northern Atlantic Ocean and in rivers that flow into the north Atlantic and the north Pacific....

 had returned to the Seine.

History

After Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
Saint Joan of Arc, nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" , is a national heroine of France and a Roman Catholic saint. A peasant girl born in eastern France who claimed divine guidance, she led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War, which paved the way for the...

 was burned at the stake
Execution by burning
Death by burning is death brought about by combustion. As a form of capital punishment, burning has a long history as a method in crimes such as treason, heresy, and witchcraft....

 in 1431, her ashes were thrown into the Seine from the medieval stone Mathilde Bridge, though unserious counter-claims persist.

According to his will, Napoleon, who died in 1821, wished to be buried on the banks of the Seine. His request was not granted.

At the 1900 Summer Olympics
1900 Summer Olympics
The 1900 Summer Olympics, today officially known as the Games of the II Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1900 in Paris, France. No opening or closing ceremonies were held; competitions began on May 14 and ended on October 28. The Games were held as part of...

, it hosted the rowing
Rowing at the 1900 Summer Olympics
At the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, four events in rowing were contested, marking the introduction of the sport to the Olympic program. At the inaugural 1896 Games, the rowing competition was cancelled due to strong winds.-Medal summary:...

, swimming
Swimming at the 1900 Summer Olympics
At the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, seven swimming events were contested. Only men competed in the swimming competition. There was a total of 76 participants from 12 countries competing.-Medal table:-Medal summary:-Participating nations:...

, and water polo
Water polo at the 1900 Summer Olympics
At the 1900 Summer Olympics, a water polo tournament was contested.8 teams entered the water polo event, with one withdrawing before competition. The tournament was played in a single-elimination format, with no playoff for third place. Thus, four of the seven competing teams won...

 events. Twenty-four years later
1924 Summer Olympics
The 1924 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the VIII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1924 in Paris, France...

, the river hosted the rowing
Rowing at the 1924 Summer Olympics
The rowing competition at the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris featured seven events, all for men only. The competitions were held from Sunday, July 13, 1924 to Thursday, July 17, 1924.-Medal summary:-Medal table:-References:*...

 events again at Bassin d'Argenteuil, along the Seine north of Paris.

In January 1910, the Seine flooded 20 feet (6.1 m) above normal, drowning streets throughout the city of Paris and sending thousands of Parisians fleeing to emergency shelters. The 1910 Great Flood of Paris
1910 Great Flood of Paris
The 1910 Great Flood of Paris was a catastrophe in which the Seine River, carrying winter rains from its tributaries, flooded Paris, France, and several nearby communities....

 was the worst the city had seen since 1658 when the water reached only a few centimetres higher.

Until the 1930s, a towing system using a chain on the bed of the river existed to facilitate movement of barges upriver.

The Seine River was one of the original objectives of Operation Overlord
Operation Overlord
Operation Overlord was the code name for the Battle of Normandy, the operation that launched the invasion of German-occupied western Europe during World War II by Allied forces. The operation commenced on 6 June 1944 with the Normandy landings...

 in 1944. The Allies' intention was to reach the Seine by 90 days after D-Day
D-Day
D-Day is a term often used in military parlance to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. "D-Day" often represents a variable, designating the day upon which some significant event will occur or has occurred; see Military designation of days and hours for similar...

. That objective was met. An anticipated assault crossing of the river never materialized as German resistance in France crumbled by early September 1944. However, the First Canadian Army
First Canadian Army
The First Canadian Army was the senior Canadian operational formation in Europe during the Second World War.The Army was formed in early 1942, replacing the existing unnumbered Canadian Corps, as the growing number of Canadian forces in the United Kingdom necessitated an expansion to two corps...

 did encounter resistance immediately west of the Seine and fighting occurred in the Forêt de la Londe as Allied troops attempted to cut off the escape across the river of parts of the German 7th Army in the closing phases of the Battle of Normandy.

Some of the victims of the Paris massacre of 1961
Paris massacre of 1961
The Paris massacre of 1961 was a massacre in Paris on 17 October 1961, during the Algerian War . Under orders from the head of the Parisian police, Maurice Papon, the French police attacked a demonstration of some 30,000 pro-FLN Algerians...

 drowned in the Seine after being thrown off from the Pont Saint-Michel
Pont Saint-Michel
Pont Saint-Michel is a bridge linking the Place Saint-Michel on the left bank of the river Seine to the Île de la Cité. It was named after the nearby chapel of Saint-Michel. It is near Sainte Chapelle and the Palais de Justice...

 and other locations in Paris.

Dredging in the 1960s mostly eliminated tidal bore
Tidal bore
A tidal bore is a tidal phenomenon in which the leading edge of the incoming tide forms a wave of water that travel up a river or narrow bay against the direction of the river or bay's current...

s on the river, known as “le mascaret.”

In 1991, the banks of the Seine in Paris—the Rive Gauche and Rive Droite—were added to UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

's list of World Heritage Sites in Europe.

Since 2002 Paris-Plages has been held every summer on the Paris banks of the Seine: a transformation of the paved banks into a beach with sand and facilities for sunbathing and entertainment.

The river was a popular site for suicides and the disposal of bodies of murder victims. In 2007, 55 bodies were retrieved from its waters; in February 2008, the body of supermodel-turned-activist Katoucha Niane
Katoucha Niane
Katoucha Niane was a French model. Nicknamed "The Peul Princess" , she worked, and later wrote, under the single name "Katoucha"...

 was found there. In the late 1700s and early 1800s over the space of six years 306 bodies were retrieved, the highest number in one day being 16. They were kept in the morgue for many years, and some were never identified.

During the 19th and the 20th centuries the Seine inspired many artists, including:
  • Frédéric Bazille
    Frédéric Bazille
    Jean Frédéric Bazille was a French Impressionist painter. Many of Bazille's major works are examples of figure painting in which Bazille placed the subject figure within a landscape painted en plein air....

  • Maurice Boitel
    Maurice Boitel
    Maurice Boitel Maurice Boitel Maurice Boitel (July 31, 1919 – August 11, 2007 in Audresselles (Pas-de-Calais), was a French painter.-Artistic life:Maurice Boitel belonged to the art movement called "La Jeune Peinture" ("Young Picture") of the School of Paris, with painters like Bernard Buffet, Yves...

  • Richard Parkes Bonington
    Richard Parkes Bonington
    Richard Parkes Bonington was an English Romantic landscape painter. One of the most influential British artists of his time, the facility of his style was inspired by the old masters, yet was entirely modern in its application.-Life and work:Richard Parkes Bonington was born in the town of Arnold,...

  • Eugène Boudin
    Eugène Boudin
    Eugène Boudin was one of the first French landscape painters to paint outdoors.Boudin was a marine painter, and expert in the rendering of all that goes upon the sea and along its shores...

  • Camille Corot
  • Charles-François Daubigny
    Charles-François Daubigny
    Charles-François Daubigny was one of the painters of the Barbizon school, and is considered an important precursor of Impressionism....

  • Raoul Dufy
    Raoul Dufy
    Raoul Dufy[p] was a French Fauvist painter. He developed a colorful, decorative style that became fashionable for designs of ceramics and textiles, as well as decorative schemes for public buildings. He is noted for scenes of open-air social events...

  • Othon Friesz
    Othon Friesz
    Achille-Émile Othon Friesz who later called himself just Othon Friesz , a native of Le Havre, was a French artist of the Fauvist movement....

  • Carl Fredrik Hill
    Carl Fredrik Hill
    Carl Fredrik Hill was a Swedish painter.-Early life and training:Born the son of a mathematics professor, Hill grew up in the narrowness of the university town of Lund in southern Sweden and had to strike out his career as a landscape painter against his father’s resistance. After studying at the...

  • Eugène Isabey
    Eugène Isabey
    Eugène Louis Gabriel Isabey was a French painter, draftsman, and printmaker.-Career:Born in Paris, the son of Jean-Baptiste Isabey, a painter as well, Eugène Isabey studied and worked at the Louvre Museum. Early in his career his paintings consisted of mostly watercolor landscapes...

  • Johan Barthold Jongkind
  • Raimond Lecourt
  • Albert Marquet
    Albert Marquet
    Albert Marquet was a French painter, associated with the Fauvist movement.-Life and work:Marquet was born in 1875 at Bordeaux. In 1890 he moved to Paris to attend the Ecole des Arts Decoratifs, where he met Henri Matisse. They were roommates for a time, and they influenced each other's work...

  • Henri Matisse
    Henri Matisse
    Henri Matisse was a French artist, known for his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a draughtsman, printmaker, and sculptor, but is known primarily as a painter...

  • Claude Monet
    Claude Monet
    Claude Monet was a founder of French impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein-air landscape painting. . Retrieved 6 January 2007...

  • Luis F. Pinzón
  • Camille Pissarro
    Camille Pissarro
    Camille Pissarro was a French Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist painter born on the island of St Thomas . His importance resides in his contributions to both Impressionism and Post-Impressionism, as he was the only artist to exhibit in both forms...

  • Emilio Grau Sala
    Emilio Grau Sala
    Emilio Grau Sala was a Catalan painter. He studied at the Fine Art Academy of Barcelona and came to France in 1932. He was a famous colorist and illustrator. In the French Salon "Comparaisons", he was a member of the group of Maurice Boitel.-External links:...

  • Gaston Sébire
  • Georges-Pierre Seurat
    Georges-Pierre Seurat
    Georges-Pierre Seurat was a French Post-Impressionist painter and draftsman. He is noted for his innovative use of drawing media and for devising a technique of painting known as pointillism...

  • Constant Troyon
    Constant Troyon
    Constant Troyon , French painter, was born in Sèvres, near Paris, where his father was connected with the famous manufactory of porcelain....

  • J. M. W. Turner
    J. M. W. Turner
    Joseph Mallord William Turner RA was an English Romantic landscape painter, watercolourist and printmaker. Turner was considered a controversial figure in his day, but is now regarded as the artist who elevated landscape painting to an eminence rivalling history painting...

  • Félix Vallotton
    Félix Vallotton
    Félix Edouard Vallotton was a Swiss painter and printmaker associated with Les Nabis. He was an important figure in the development of the modern woodcut.-Life and work:...

  • Édouard Vuillard
    Édouard Vuillard
    Jean-Édouard Vuillard was a French painter and printmaker associated with the Nabis.-Early years and education:...


See also

  • River Seine guide Places, ports and moorings on the river from le Havre
    Le Havre
    Le Havre is a city in the Seine-Maritime department of the Haute-Normandie region in France. It is situated in north-western France, on the right bank of the mouth of the river Seine on the English Channel. Le Havre is the most populous commune in the Haute-Normandie region, although the total...

     and Honfleur
    Honfleur
    Honfleur is a commune in the Calvados department in northwestern France. It is located on the southern bank of the estuary of the Seine across from le Havre and very close to the exit of the Pont de Normandie...

     to Paris.
  • Seine (département)
    Seine (département)
    Seine was a département of France encompassing Paris and its immediate suburbs. Its préfecture was Paris and its official number was 75. The Seine département was abolished in 1968 and its territory divided among four new départements....

    , abolished in 1968
  • Website on the Great Flood of 1910
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