Schlumberger
Overview
 
Schlumberger Limited (ʃlœ̃bɛʁʒe; ˌslʌmbərˈʒeɪ) is the world's largest oilfield services company. Schlumberger employs over 110,000 people
of more than 140 nationalities working in approximately 80 countries. Its principal offices are in Houston, Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

, and the Hague
The Hague
The Hague is the capital city of the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. With a population of 500,000 inhabitants , it is the third largest city of the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam...

.
Schlumberger was founded in 1926 by French brothers Conrad and Marcel Schlumberger
Schlumberger brothers
Conrad Schlumberger and Marcel Schlumberger were brothers from the Alsace region in France...

 as the Société de Prospection Électrique . The company recorded the first-ever electrical resistivity
Resistivity logging
Resistivity logging is a method of well logging that works by characterizing the rock or sediment in a borehole by measuring its electrical resistivity. Resistivity is a fundamental material property which represents how strongly a material opposes the flow of electric current...

 well log
Well logging
Well logging, also known as borehole logging is the practice of making a detailed record of the geologic formations penetrated by a borehole. The log may be based either on visual inspection of samples brought to the surface or on physical measurements made by instruments lowered into the hole...

 in Merkwiller-Pechelbronn
Merkwiller-Pechelbronn
Merkwiller-Pechelbronn is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Alsace in north-eastern France.It is notable as the original home of oil sands mining....

, France in 1927.
Encyclopedia
Schlumberger Limited (ʃlœ̃bɛʁʒe; ˌslʌmbərˈʒeɪ) is the world's largest oilfield services company. Schlumberger employs over 110,000 people
of more than 140 nationalities working in approximately 80 countries. Its principal offices are in Houston, Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

, and the Hague
The Hague
The Hague is the capital city of the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. With a population of 500,000 inhabitants , it is the third largest city of the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam...

.

History

Schlumberger was founded in 1926 by French brothers Conrad and Marcel Schlumberger
Schlumberger brothers
Conrad Schlumberger and Marcel Schlumberger were brothers from the Alsace region in France...

 as the Société de Prospection Électrique . The company recorded the first-ever electrical resistivity
Resistivity logging
Resistivity logging is a method of well logging that works by characterizing the rock or sediment in a borehole by measuring its electrical resistivity. Resistivity is a fundamental material property which represents how strongly a material opposes the flow of electric current...

 well log
Well logging
Well logging, also known as borehole logging is the practice of making a detailed record of the geologic formations penetrated by a borehole. The log may be based either on visual inspection of samples brought to the surface or on physical measurements made by instruments lowered into the hole...

 in Merkwiller-Pechelbronn
Merkwiller-Pechelbronn
Merkwiller-Pechelbronn is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Alsace in north-eastern France.It is notable as the original home of oil sands mining....

, France in 1927. Today Schlumberger supplies the petroleum industry
Petroleum industry
The petroleum industry includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting , and marketing petroleum products. The largest volume products of the industry are fuel oil and gasoline...

 with services such as seismic acquisition and processing, formation evaluation
Formation evaluation
In petroleum exploration and development, formation evaluation is used to determine the ability of a borehole to produce petroleum. Essentially, it is the process of "recognizing a commercial well when you drill one"....

, well testing and directional drilling
Directional drilling
Directional drilling is the practice of drilling non-vertical wells. It can be broken down into three main groups: Oilfield Directional Drilling, Utility Installation Directional Drilling Directional drilling (or slant drilling) is the practice of drilling non-vertical wells. It can be broken down...

, well cementing and stimulation
Hydraulic fracturing
Considerable controversy surrounds the current implementation of hydraulic fracturing technology in the United States. Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is the process of utilizing pressurized water, or some other liquid, to fracture rock layers and release petroleum, natural gas, or other...

, artificial lift, well completions and consulting, and software and information management. The company is also involved in the groundwater
Groundwater
Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock...

 extraction and carbon capture and storage
Carbon capture and storage
Carbon capture and storage , alternatively referred to as carbon capture and sequestration, is a technology to prevent large quantities of from being released into the atmosphere from the use of fossil fuel in power generation and other industries. It is often regarded as a means of mitigating...

 industries.

The brothers had experience conducting geophysical surveys in countries such as Romania
Romania
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

, Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, Serbia
Serbia
Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

, South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

, the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Democratic Republic of the Congo is a state located in Central Africa. It is the second largest country in Africa by area and the eleventh largest in the world...

, and the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. The new company sold electrical-measurement mapping services, and recorded the first-ever electrical resistivity
Resistivity logging
Resistivity logging is a method of well logging that works by characterizing the rock or sediment in a borehole by measuring its electrical resistivity. Resistivity is a fundamental material property which represents how strongly a material opposes the flow of electric current...

 well log
Well logging
Well logging, also known as borehole logging is the practice of making a detailed record of the geologic formations penetrated by a borehole. The log may be based either on visual inspection of samples brought to the surface or on physical measurements made by instruments lowered into the hole...

 in Merkwiller-Pechelbronn
Merkwiller-Pechelbronn
Merkwiller-Pechelbronn is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Alsace in north-eastern France.It is notable as the original home of oil sands mining....

, France in 1927. The Société quickly expanded, logging its first well in the U.S. in 1929, in Kern County, California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

. In 1935, the Schlumberger Well Surveying Corporation was founded in Houston, later evolving into Schlumberger Well Services, and finally Schlumberger Wireline & Testing. Schlumberger invested heavily in research, inaugurating the Schlumberger-Doll Research Center in Ridgefield, Connecticut
Ridgefield, Connecticut
Ridgefield is a town in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. Situated in the foothills of the Berkshire Mountains, the 300-year-old community had a population of 24,638 at the 2010 census. The town center, which was formerly a borough, is defined by the U.S...

 in 1948, contributing to the development of a number of new logging tools. In 1956 Schlumberger Limited was incorporated in Curaçao
Curaçao
Curaçao is an island in the southern Caribbean Sea, off the Venezuelan coast. The Country of Curaçao , which includes the main island plus the small, uninhabited island of Klein Curaçao , is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands...

 as a holding company
Holding company
A holding company is a company or firm that owns other companies' outstanding stock. It usually refers to a company which does not produce goods or services itself; rather, its purpose is to own shares of other companies. Holding companies allow the reduction of risk for the owners and can allow...

 for all Schlumberger businesses, which by now included American testing and production company Johnston Testers.

Over the years, Schlumberger continued to expand its operations and acquisitions. In 1960, Dowell Schlumberger (50% Schlumberger, 50% Dow Chemical), which specialized in pumping services for the oil industry, was formed. In 1962, Schlumberger Limited became listed on the New York Stock Exchange
New York Stock Exchange
The New York Stock Exchange is a stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street in Lower Manhattan, New York City, USA. It is by far the world's largest stock exchange by market capitalization of its listed companies at 13.39 trillion as of Dec 2010...

. Schlumberger purchased 50% of Forex in 1964 and merged it with 50% of Languedocienne to create the Neptune Drilling Company. The first computerized reservoir analysis, SARABAND, was introduced in 1970. The remaining 50% of Forex was acquired the following year; Neptune was renamed Forex Neptune Drilling Company. In 1979, Fairchild Camera and Instrument
Fairchild Camera and Instrument
Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corporation was a company founded by Sherman Fairchild. It was based on the East Coast of the United States, and provided research and development for flash photography equipment...

 (including Fairchild Semiconductor
Fairchild Semiconductor
Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc. is an American semiconductor company based in San Jose, California. Founded in 1957, it was a pioneer in transistor and integrated circuit manufacturing...

) became a subsidiary of Schlumberger Limited.

Schlumberger established the first international data links with e-mail in 1981. In 1983, Schlumberger opened their Cambridge Research Center in Cambridge, England.

The SEDCO drilling rig company and half of Dowell of North America were acquired in 1984, resulting in the creation of the Anadrill drilling segment, a combination of Dowell and The Analysts' drilling segments. Forex Neptune was merged with SEDCO to create the Sedco Forex Drilling Company
Transocean
Transocean Ltd. is one of the world's largest offshore drilling contractors. The company rents floating mobile drill rigs, along with the equipment and personnel for operations, to oil and gas companies at an average daily rate of US$282,700...

 the following year, when Schlumberger purchased Merlin and 50% of GECO
Geco-Prakla
Geco-Prakla was a European geophysical service company specializing in seismic surveys for petroleum exploration.-History:The company started as Geoteam-Computas Ltd. A.S. on December 13, 1972. The name was later changed to Geophysical Company of Norway or Geco. Anders Farestveit was the founder...

.

In the 1970s, its top executives in North America were relocated to New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

.

In 1987, Schlumberger completed their purchases of Neptune (North America), Bosco and Cori (Italy), and Allmess (Germany). That same year, National Semiconductor
National Semiconductor
National Semiconductor was an American semiconductor manufacturer, that specialized in analog devices and subsystems,formerly headquartered in Santa Clara, California, USA. The products of National Semiconductor included power management circuits, display drivers, audio and operational amplifiers,...

 acquired Fairchild Semiconductor from Schlumberger for $122 million. In 1991, Schlumberger acquired PRAKLA-SEISMOS, and pioneered the use of geosteering
Geosteering
In the process of drilling a borehole, geosteering is the act of adjusting the borehole position on the fly to reach one or more geological targets...

 to plan the drill path in horizontal wells.

Schlumberger acquired the software company GeoQuest Systems
GeoQuest Systems
GeoQuest Systems supplies geology software, systems integration, and information-management services and software to the oil and gas industry.- History :...

 in 1992. With the purchase came the conversion of SINet to TCP/IP and www capability. In the 1990s Schlumberger bought out the petroleum division, AEG meter, and ECLIPSE reservoir study team Intera Technologies Corp. A joint venture between Schlumberger and Cable & Wireless
Cable & Wireless
Cable & Wireless Worldwide PLC is a global telecommunications company headquartered in Bracknell, United Kingdom. Cable & Wireless specialises in providing communication networks and services to large corporates, governments, carrier customers and resellers...

 resulted with the creation of Omnes, which then handled all of Schlumberger's internal IT business. Oilphase and Camco International were also purchased.

In 1999, Schlumberger and Smith International
Smith International
Smith International was a Fortune 500 company headquartered in the Greenspoint district and in unincorporated Harris County, Texas. Smith International ceased to exist as an independent company following the merger with Schlumberger. This company supplies products to gas and oil production and...

 created a joint venture, M-I L.L.C., the world's largest drilling fluids (or mud) company. The company consists of 60% Smith International, and 40% Schlumberger. Since the joint venture was prohibited by a 1994 antitrust consent decree barring Smith from selling or combining their fluids business with certain other companies, including Schlumberger, the U.S. District Court in Washington, D.C. found Smith International Inc. and Schlumberger Ltd. guilty of criminal contempt and fined each company $750,000 and placed each company on five years probation. Both companies also agreed to pay a total of $13.1 million, representing a full disgorgement of all of the joint venture's profits during the time the companies were in contempt.

In 2000, the Geco-Prakla
Geco-Prakla
Geco-Prakla was a European geophysical service company specializing in seismic surveys for petroleum exploration.-History:The company started as Geoteam-Computas Ltd. A.S. on December 13, 1972. The name was later changed to Geophysical Company of Norway or Geco. Anders Farestveit was the founder...

 division was merged with Western Geophysical
Western Geophysical
Western Geophysical was a company founded in California in 1933 by Henry Salvatori for the purpose of using reflection seismology to explore for petroleum....

 to create the seismic contracting company WesternGeco
WesternGeco
WesternGeco is a geophysical services company. It is headquartered in the Schlumberger House on the property of London Gatwick Airport in Crawley, West Sussex, in Greater London.-Background:...

, of which Schlumberger held a 70% stake, the remaining 30% belonging to competitor Baker Hughes
Baker Hughes
Baker Hughes Baker Hughes provides the world's oil & gas industry with products and services for drilling, formation evaluation, completion, production and reservoir consulting. Baker Hughes operates in over 90 countries worldwide mainly based in countries with a mature petroleum industry as is...

. Sedco Forex was spun off, and merged with Transocean Drilling company in 2000.

In 2001, Schlumberger acquired the IT consultancy company Sema plc
Sema Group
Sema Group plc was an Anglo-French IT services company. It was listed on the London Stock Exchange and was a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index but was acquired by Schlumberger in 2001.-History:...

 for $5.2 billion. The company was an Athens 2004 Summer Olympics partner, but Schlumberger's venture into IT consultancy did not pay off, and divestiture of Sema to Atos Origin
Atos Origin
Atos S.A. is an international information technology corporation which operates in 42 countries worldwide, with over 78,500 employees...

 was completed that year for $1.5 billion. The Cards division was divested through an IPO to form Axalto
Axalto
Axalto has been a smart card manufacturer, that during its brief independent existence, with over 4,500 employees in 60 countries, was one of the world's leading providers of microprocessor cards and also a major supplier of point of sale terminals.Axalto's business covered the telecommunications,...

, which later merged with Gemplus
Gemplus International
Acquired by the Texas Pacific Group in 2000, Luxemburg-based Gemplus International SA was a provider of smart cards and related technologies, until its June 2, 2006 merger with rival Axalto; the combined entity is known as Gemalto....

 to form Gemalto
Gemalto
Gemalto is an international digital security company, providing secure personal devices such as smart cards and tokens in addition to software applications and managed services. The company was formed in June 2006 by the combination of two companies Axalto and Gemplus International...

, and the Messaging Solutions unit was spun off and merged with Taral Networks to form Airwide Solutions
Airwide Solutions
Airwide Solutions was a privately held United States-based mobile messaging and wireless internet infrastructure company. It was acquired by Mavenir Systems in May 2011....

. In 2003, the Automated Test Equipment group, part of the 1979 Fairchild Semiconductor
Fairchild Semiconductor
Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc. is an American semiconductor company based in San Jose, California. Founded in 1957, it was a pioneer in transistor and integrated circuit manufacturing...

 acquisition, was spun off to NPTest Holding, which later sold it to Credence.

In 2004, Schlumberger Business Consulting was launched. Based in Paris, it is the company's management consultancy
Management consulting
Management consulting indicates both the industry and practice of helping organizations improve their performance primarily through the analysis of existing organizational problems and development of plans for improvement....

 arm.
In 2005, Schlumberger purchased Waterloo Hydrogeologic
Waterloo Hydrogeologic
Waterloo Hydrogeologic, Inc. is a company that specializes with groundwater modelling software, training, and consulting services. The company was started by Nilson Guiguer and Thomas Franz, whom were developing software for their research at the University of Waterloo in 1988. The company was...

, which was followed by several other groundwater
Groundwater
Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock...

 industry related companies, such as Westbay Instruments, and Van Essen Instruments. Also that year, Schlumberger relocated its U.S. corporate offices from New York to Houston.

In 2006, Schlumberger purchased the remaining 30% of WesternGeco from Baker Hughes
Baker Hughes
Baker Hughes Baker Hughes provides the world's oil & gas industry with products and services for drilling, formation evaluation, completion, production and reservoir consulting. Baker Hughes operates in over 90 countries worldwide mainly based in countries with a mature petroleum industry as is...

 for US$2.4 billion. Also that year, the Schlumberger-Doll Research center was relocated to a newly built research facility in Cambridge, Massachusetts
Cambridge, Massachusetts
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States, in the Greater Boston area. It was named in honor of the University of Cambridge in England, an important center of the Puritan theology embraced by the town's founders. Cambridge is home to two of the world's most prominent...

 to replace the Ridgefield, Connecticut
Ridgefield, Connecticut
Ridgefield is a town in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. Situated in the foothills of the Berkshire Mountains, the 300-year-old community had a population of 24,638 at the 2010 census. The town center, which was formerly a borough, is defined by the U.S...

 research center. The new facility joins the other research centers operated by the company in Cambridge, England; Moscow, Russia; Stavanger, Norway; and Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

In 2010, the acquisition of Smith International
Smith International
Smith International was a Fortune 500 company headquartered in the Greenspoint district and in unincorporated Harris County, Texas. Smith International ceased to exist as an independent company following the merger with Schlumberger. This company supplies products to gas and oil production and...

 in an all stock deal valued at $11.3 billion was announced. The sale price is 45.84-a-share price was 37.5 percent higher than Smith closing price on 18 February 2010. The deal is the biggest acquisition in Schlumberger history. The merger was completed on August 27, 2010. Also announced in 2010 were Schlumberger plans to acquire Geoservices, a French-based company specializing in energy services, in a deal valued at $1.1 billion, including debt.

Environmental record

In 2010, the Aberdeen Sheriff court fined Schlumberger Oilfield UK £300000 for losing a radioactive source on the rig floor on the Ensco 101 mobile drilling rig in the North Sea for 4 hours. Schlumberger admitted to breaching health and safety legislation following the incident in April, 2008.

In 2009, the state Department of Environmental Protection fined Chesapeake Appalachia LLC and Schlumberger Technology Corp. more than $15,500 each for a hydrochloric acid spill in February 2009 at Chesapeake's Chancellor natural gas well site in Asylum Twp., Bradford County. Officials said the leak did not contaminate groundwater.

In 2009, Newsweek
Newsweek
Newsweek is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City. It is distributed throughout the United States and internationally. It is the second-largest news weekly magazine in the U.S., having trailed Time in circulation and advertising revenue for most of its existence...

 released their "Green Rankings" a ranking of the 500 largest corporations on track records on a number of environmental issues. Schlumberger was ranked 118th out of 500 overall, and 3rd out of 31 in their industry. Newsweek remarked that to mitigate global warming Schlumberger has invested in carbon sequestration which involves long-term storage of CO2 and that the company’s seismic survey ships are 20% to 25% more fuel-efficient than those of other seismic contractors from using fuels that emit less pollution and towing equipment that creates less drag on the vessels.

In 2006, as the current owner of a facility in Pickens, South Carolina
Pickens, South Carolina
Pickens, formerly called Pickens Courthouse, is a city in Pickens County, South Carolina, United States. The population was 3,012 at the 2000 census, at which time it was listed as a town; the change to a city was made in 1998, but not reported to the Census Bureau until 2001. It is the county seat...

, Schlumberger agreed to pay $11.8 million to federal and state agencies for a problem caused by the previous owner, Sangamo-Weston, a capacitor manufacturing plant. The cause of the problem was from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) released into the environment by Sangamo-Weston from 1955 to 1987. According to the Justice Department's Environment and Natural Resources Division, an additional agreement by Schlumberger to purchase and remove dams will directly improve the Twelvemile Creek, South Carolina ecosystem
Ecosystem
An ecosystem is a biological environment consisting of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as all the nonliving , physical components of the environment with which the organisms interact, such as air, soil, water and sunlight....

 and provide significant environmental benefits for the affected communities.

In 2006, a radioactive canister imported by Schlumberger was recovered in the Western Australian outback desert. The canister had been lost in November 2005 by the company’s transport partner, when the improperly secured container fell off the trailer it was being transported on.

Deepwater Horizon

Schlumberger performed wireline logging on the Deepwater Horizon
Deepwater Horizon
Deepwater Horizon was an ultra-deepwater, dynamically positioned, semi-submersible offshore oil drilling rig owned by Transocean. Built in 2001 in South Korea by Hyundai Heavy Industries, the rig was commissioned by R&B Falcon, which later became part of Transocean, registered in Majuro, Marshall...

 oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
The Gulf of Mexico is a partially landlocked ocean basin largely surrounded by the North American continent and the island of Cuba. It is bounded on the northeast, north and northwest by the Gulf Coast of the United States, on the southwest and south by Mexico, and on the southeast by Cuba. In...

 in 2010. A Schlumberger standby crew had been released by BP
BP
BP p.l.c. is a global oil and gas company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the third-largest energy company and fourth-largest company in the world measured by revenues and one of the six oil and gas "supermajors"...

 and left the rig earlier on the same day of the Deepwater Horizon explosion
Deepwater Horizon explosion
The Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion refers to the April 20, 2010 explosion and subsequent fire on the Deepwater Horizon semi-submersible Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit , which was owned and operated by Transocean and drilling for BP in the Macondo Prospect oil field about southeast of the...

. Schlumberger has not been accused of contributing to the accident.

See also



External links

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