Sandomierz
Overview
 
Sandomierz is a city in south-eastern Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

 with 25,714 inhabitants (2006). Situated in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship
Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship
Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, or Świętokrzyskie Province , is one of the 16 voivodeships into which Poland is presently divided. It is situated in central Poland, in the historical province of Lesser Poland, and takes its name from the Świętokrzyskie mountain range...

 (since 1999), previously in Tarnobrzeg Voivodeship
Tarnobrzeg Voivodeship
Tarnobrzeg Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975-1998, superseded in parts by Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship and Lublin Voivodeship. Its capital city was Tarnobrzeg....

 (1975–1998). It is the capital of Sandomierz County
Sandomierz County
Sandomierz County is a unit of territorial administration and local government in Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, south-central Poland. It came into being on January 1, 1999, as a result of the Polish local government reforms passed in 1998. Its administrative seat and largest town is Sandomierz,...

 (since 1999). Sandomierz is known for its Old Town, a major tourist attraction. Administrative borders directly Tarnobrzeg
Tarnobrzeg
Tarnobrzeg is a city in south-eastern Poland, on the east bank of the river Vistula, with 49,419 inhabitants, as of December 31, 2009. Situated in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship since 1999, it had previously been the capital of Tarnobrzeg Voivodeship...

.
The name of the city comes from Old Polish Sędomir, composed of Sędzi- (from the verb sądzić "to judge") and mir ("peace").
Encyclopedia
Sandomierz is a city in south-eastern Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

 with 25,714 inhabitants (2006). Situated in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship
Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship
Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, or Świętokrzyskie Province , is one of the 16 voivodeships into which Poland is presently divided. It is situated in central Poland, in the historical province of Lesser Poland, and takes its name from the Świętokrzyskie mountain range...

 (since 1999), previously in Tarnobrzeg Voivodeship
Tarnobrzeg Voivodeship
Tarnobrzeg Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975-1998, superseded in parts by Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship and Lublin Voivodeship. Its capital city was Tarnobrzeg....

 (1975–1998). It is the capital of Sandomierz County
Sandomierz County
Sandomierz County is a unit of territorial administration and local government in Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, south-central Poland. It came into being on January 1, 1999, as a result of the Polish local government reforms passed in 1998. Its administrative seat and largest town is Sandomierz,...

 (since 1999). Sandomierz is known for its Old Town, a major tourist attraction. Administrative borders directly Tarnobrzeg
Tarnobrzeg
Tarnobrzeg is a city in south-eastern Poland, on the east bank of the river Vistula, with 49,419 inhabitants, as of December 31, 2009. Situated in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship since 1999, it had previously been the capital of Tarnobrzeg Voivodeship...

.

History

The name of the city comes from Old Polish Sędomir, composed of Sędzi- (from the verb sądzić "to judge") and mir ("peace"). Sandomierz is one of the oldest and historically most significant cities in Poland. Archeological finds around the city indicate that humans inhabited the area since neolithic
Neolithic
The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 9500 BC in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world. It is traditionally considered as the last part of the Stone Age...

 times. The city came into existence in the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

, taking advantage of an excellent location at the junction of Vistula
Vistula
The Vistula is the longest and the most important river in Poland, at 1,047 km in length. The watershed area of the Vistula is , of which lies within Poland ....

 and San
San River
The San is a river in southeastern Poland and western Ukraine, a tributary of the Vistula River, with a length of 433 km and a basin area of 16,861 km2...

 rivers, and on the path of important trade routes. The first known historical mention of the city comes from the early 12th century, when the chronicler Gallus Anonymus
Gallus Anonymus
Gallus Anonymus is the name traditionally given to the anonymous author of Gesta principum Polonorum , composed in Latin about 1115....

 ranked it together with Kraków
Kraków
Kraków also Krakow, or Cracow , is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, cultural, and artistic life...

 and Wrocław as one of the main cities of Poland. In the testament of Bolesław Krzywousty, in which he divided Poland among his sons, Sandomierz was designated as a capital of one of the resulting principalities.

In the course of the 13th century the city suffered grievous damage during raids by Tatars
Tatars
Tatars are a Turkic speaking ethnic group , numbering roughly 7 million.The majority of Tatars live in the Russian Federation, with a population of around 5.5 million, about 2 million of which in the republic of Tatarstan.Significant minority populations are found in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan,...

 in 1241, 1259 and 1287. The old wooden buildings of the town were completely destroyed. As a result, in 1286 the city was effectively refounded by Leszek Czarny, under Magdeburg Law. The founding document is still preserved in the city archives. An important note, in 1260, as the Tartars invaded Christian Sandomir, a community of Dominicans was praying Matins while a novice read the martyrology for the next day: “the 49 martyrs of Sandomir”. When the friars realized they were being warned of their death, they spent the remainder of the night and all the next day preparing to meet the Lord. At last, after the brethren had finished praying Compline, and as they processed singing the 'Salve Regina' to Mary, the Tartars broke through the church door. While the Tartars intended to bring death to these Dominicans, they actually brought them great gifts - crowns of martyrdom. Ever since, at the death of every Dominican a song to his Beloved Mother is sung to usher him into her arm - the 'Salve Regina' (or 'Hail, Holy Queen').

After Polish lands were reunified in the 14th century, the former principality became the Sandomierz Voivodeship
Sandomierz Voivodeship
Sandomierz Voivodeship was a unit of administration and local government in Poland from the 14th century to the partitions of Poland in 1772–1795. It was part of the Little Poland region. Originally Sandomierz Voivodeship also covered the area around Lublin, but in 1474 its three eastern counties...

, incorporating large areas of southeastern Poland. At this time Sandomierz had about 3000 inhabitants and was one of the larger Polish cities. In the middle of the 14th century the city was burned again during a raid by the
Lithuanians
Lithuanians
Lithuanians are the Baltic ethnic group native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,765,600 people. Another million or more make up the Lithuanian diaspora, largely found in countries such as the United States, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Russia, United Kingdom and Ireland. Their native language...

. It was rebuilt during the rule of king Casimir III of Poland
Casimir III of Poland
Casimir III the Great , last King of Poland from the Piast dynasty , was the son of King Władysław I the Elbow-high and Hedwig of Kalisz.-Biography:...

. The layout of the city has survived practically unchanged since that time until the present day.

The following three hundred years, running until the middle of the 17th century, were quite prosperous for the city. The most important historical buildings were built during this period. This golden age came to an end in 1655 when Swedish
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

 forces captured the city in the course of the Deluge
The Deluge (Polish history)
The term Deluge denotes a series of mid-17th century campaigns in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In a wider sense it applies to the period between the Khmelnytsky Uprising of 1648 and the Truce of Andrusovo in 1667, thus comprising the Polish–Lithuanian theaters of the Russo-Polish and...

. After briefly holding out in the city, the withdrawing Swedes blew up the castle and caused heavy damage to other buildings. In the next 100 years the economy of Poland suffered a decline, which also affected the city. In 1570 an alliance of non-Catholic Polish Churches, the Lutherans, the Reformed, and the Bohemian Brethren, drew up what is known as the Consensus of Sandomir, effecting a confederation of the work in order to stave off defeat at the hands of the Roman Church. A great fire in 1757 and the First Partition of Poland
First Partition of Poland
The First Partition of Poland or First Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth took place in 1772 as the first of three partitions that ended the existence of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by 1795. Growth in the Russian Empire's power, threatening the Kingdom of Prussia and the...

 in 1772, which placed Sandomierz in Austria
Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary , more formally known as the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen, was a constitutional monarchic union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary in...

, further reduced its status. As a result Sandomierz lost its role as an administrative capital.

In 1809 the city was damaged during fighting between the forces of Austria and the Duchy of Warsaw
Duchy of Warsaw
The Duchy of Warsaw was a Polish state established by Napoleon I in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit. The duchy was held in personal union by one of Napoleon's allies, King Frederick Augustus I of Saxony...

 during the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars declared against Napoleon's French Empire by opposing coalitions that ran from 1803 to 1815. As a continuation of the wars sparked by the French Revolution of 1789, they revolutionised European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly due to...

. After 1815 it found itself in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

 (Congress Poland
Congress Poland
The Kingdom of Poland , informally known as Congress Poland , created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna, was a personal union of the Russian parcel of Poland with the Russian Empire...

). At this point it had just 2640 inhabitants.

The city again suffered damage during World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

. In 1918 it again became part of independent Poland. In the 1930s, due to the massive public works project known as Central Industrial Area, Sandomierz began to grow quickly. It was projected to become capital of the Sandomierz Voivodeship
Sandomierz Voivodeship (1939)
Sandomierz Voivodeship , , was a proposed voivodeship of the Second Polish Republic, which was never created because of the Nazi and Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939...

, and local authorities planned fast development of the city. The Greater Sandomierz was to turn in the 1940s into a city of 120 000.

In September 1939, following the German invasion of Poland, the city was occupied by Germany and made part of the General Government
General Government
The General Government was an area of Second Republic of Poland under Nazi German rule during World War II; designated as a separate region of the Third Reich between 1939–1945...

. The Jewish population of the city, consisting of about 2,500 people, perished during the Holocaust, mostly in the death camps of Bełżec and Treblinka. The city was liberated by the Soviet army in August, 1944.

No major industrial development took place in Sandomierz, thus preserving it as a charming, small city full of historical monuments among unspoiled landscape.

Twin towns — Sister cities

Sandomierz is twinned with: Newark-on-Trent
Newark-on-Trent
Newark-on-Trent is a market town in Nottinghamshire in the East Midlands region of England. It stands on the River Trent, the A1 , and the East Coast Main Line railway. The origins of the town are possibly Roman as it lies on an important Roman road, the Fosse Way...

, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...



Principal tourist attraction in Sandomierz:
  • Church of Holy Spirit
  • Church of St. Jacob where Lesser Polish Way begins
  • Church of St. Joseph
  • Church of St. Michael
  • Church of St. Paul
  • Collegium Gostomianum
    Collegium Gostomianum
    Collegium Gostomianum is a secondary school in Sandomierz, Poland. Founded in 1602, it is one of the oldest schools in Poland.-History:The building was established in 1602 by Hieronim Gostomski, voivode of Poznań for the Jesuits. The construction started in 1604 according to design by a Jesuit...

  • Jan Długosz House
  • Kamienica Oleśnickich
  • Pepper Mountains nature reserve
    Nature reserve
    A nature reserve is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research...

  • Opatowska Gate
  • Sandomierz Castle
    Sandomierz Castle
    The Sandomierz Royal Castle is a medieval structure in Sandomierz, Poland. It was built on a slope of Vistula River by Casimir III the Great and extended in the 16th century. The original building was blown up in 1656, leaving only the west wing standing...

  • Sandomierz Cathedral
    Sandomierz Cathedral
    Cathedral Basilica of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Sandomierz is a gothic cathedral constructed in 1360. Renovated in the baroque style in the 18th century, and received the rank of cathedral in 1818....

  • Sandomierz Market Square
  • Sandomierz Palace / Palace of Bishops in Sandomierz
  • Sandomierz Synagogue
    Sandomierz Synagogue
    Sandomierz Synagogue was a synagogue in Sandomierz, Poland. It was built in 1768 of bricks in baroque style. It was renovated in 1872, 1911 and 1929. The synagogue was devastated by Nazis during World War II. Since the renovation in the 1970s the building has been used as a State Archive....

  • Sandomierz Town Hall

Education

  • Wyższa Szkoła Humanistyczno-Przyrodnicza Studium Generale Sandomiriense
  • Wyższe Seminarium Duchowne w Sandomierzu
  • 1 Liceum Ogolnoksztalcace Collegium Gostomianum
  • Zespół Szkół Gastronomicznych i Hotelarskich

External links



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