San Diego, California
Overview
 
San Diego ˌ is the eighth-largest city in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and second-largest city in California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

. The city is located on the coast of the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south, bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, and the Americas in the east.At 165.2 million square kilometres in area, this largest division of the World...

 in Southern California
Southern California
Southern California is a megaregion, or megapolitan area, in the southern area of the U.S. state of California. Large urban areas include Greater Los Angeles and Greater San Diego. The urban area stretches along the coast from Ventura through the Southland and Inland Empire to San Diego...

, immediately adjacent to the Mexican border. The birthplace of California, San Diego is known for its mild year-round climate, its natural deep-water harbor, and its long association with the U.S.
Encyclopedia
San Diego ˌ is the eighth-largest city in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and second-largest city in California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

. The city is located on the coast of the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south, bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, and the Americas in the east.At 165.2 million square kilometres in area, this largest division of the World...

 in Southern California
Southern California
Southern California is a megaregion, or megapolitan area, in the southern area of the U.S. state of California. Large urban areas include Greater Los Angeles and Greater San Diego. The urban area stretches along the coast from Ventura through the Southland and Inland Empire to San Diego...

, immediately adjacent to the Mexican border. The birthplace of California, San Diego is known for its mild year-round climate, its natural deep-water harbor, and its long association with the U.S. Navy. The population was 1,301,617 at the 2010 census.

Historically home to the Kumeyaay
Kumeyaay
The Kumeyaay, also known as Tipai-Ipai, Kamia, or formerly Diegueño, are Native American people of the extreme southwestern United States and northwest Mexico. They live in the states of California in the US and Baja California in Mexico. In Spanish, the name is commonly spelled...

 people, San Diego was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States
West Coast of the United States
West Coast or Pacific Coast are terms for the westernmost coastal states of the United States. The term most often refers to the states of California, Oregon, and Washington. Although not part of the contiguous United States, Alaska and Hawaii do border the Pacific Ocean but can't be included in...

. Upon landing in San Diego Bay
San Diego Bay
San Diego Bay is a natural harbor and deepwater port adjacent to San Diego, California. It is 12 mi/19 km long, 1 mi/1.6 km–3 mi/4.8 km wide...

 in 1542, Juan Cabrillo claimed the entire area for Spain
New Spain
New Spain, formally called the Viceroyalty of New Spain , was a viceroyalty of the Spanish colonial empire, comprising primarily territories in what was known then as 'América Septentrional' or North America. Its capital was Mexico City, formerly Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztec Empire...

, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California
Alta California
Alta California was a province and territory in the Viceroyalty of New Spain and later a territory and department in independent Mexico. The territory was created in 1769 out of the northern part of the former province of Las Californias, and consisted of the modern American states of California,...

 200 years later. The Presidio
Presidio of San Diego
El Presidio Reál de San Diego is an historical fort established on May 14, 1769, by Commandant Pedro Fages for Spain. It was the first permanent European settlement on the Pacific Coast of the United States. As the first of the presidios and Spanish missions in California, it was the base of...

 and Mission
Mission San Diego de Alcalá
Mission Basilica San Diego de Alcalá, in San Diego, California, was the first Franciscan mission in the Las Californias Province of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. It was founded in 1769 by Spanish friar Junípero Serra in an area long inhabited by the Kumeyaay Indians...

 of San Diego, founded in 1769, were the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of newly independent Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

, and in 1850, became part of the United States following the Mexican-American War and the admission of California to the union.

The city is the county seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the San Diego–Carlsbad–San Marcos metropolitan area
San Diego Metropolitan Area
San Diego Metropolitan Area may refer to:* San Diego metropolitan area, the metropolitan area of San Diego* San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area, the extended international metropolitan region of San Diego and Tijuana...

 as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area
San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area
San Diego–Tijuana, also known as Tijuana–San Diego, is an international metropolitan area, or conurbation, on the border between the two large North American coastal cities of San Diego, California, United States and Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. The region consists of San Diego County in the...

. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, tourism, international trade, and manufacturing. The presence of the University of California, San Diego
University of California, San Diego
The University of California, San Diego, commonly known as UCSD or UC San Diego, is a public research university located in the La Jolla neighborhood of San Diego, California, United States...

 (UCSD), with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center
UCSD Medical Center
UC San Diego Health System is an academic health system in San Diego and has been in operation since 1966. It is composed of UC San Diego Medical Center, Thornton Hospital, Moores Cancer Center, Shiley Eye Center, Sulpizio Cardiovascular Center and Jacobs Medical Center , as well as other primary...

, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology
Biotechnology
Biotechnology is a field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bioproducts. Biotechnology also utilizes these products for manufacturing purpose...

.

History

The area of San Diego has been inhabited for more than 10,000 years by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was Portuguese-born
Portuguese people
The Portuguese are a nation and ethnic group native to the country of Portugal, in the west of the Iberian peninsula of south-west Europe. Their language is Portuguese, and Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion....

 explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo
Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo
Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo was a Portuguese explorer noted for his exploration of the west coast of North America on behalf of Spain. Cabrillo was the first European explorer to navigate the coast of present day California in the United States...

 sailing under the flag of Castile
Crown of Castile
The Crown of Castile was a medieval and modern state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then King Ferdinand III of Castile to the vacant Leonese throne...

. Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
The Spanish Empire comprised territories and colonies administered directly by Spain in Europe, in America, Africa, Asia and Oceania. It originated during the Age of Exploration and was therefore one of the first global empires. At the time of Habsburgs, Spain reached the peak of its world power....

 in 1542 and named the site 'San Miguel'. In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno
Sebastián Vizcaíno
Sebastián Vizcaíno was a Spanish soldier, entrepreneur, explorer, and diplomat whose varied roles took him to New Spain, the Philippines, the Baja California peninsula, the California coast and Japan.-Early career:...

 was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus
Didacus of Alcalá
Saint Didacus of Alcalá, , Saint Diego, was a lay brother of the Order of Friars Minor who died at Alcalá de Henares, Spain, November 12, 1463.-History:...

, a Spaniard more commonly known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California
Alta California
Alta California was a province and territory in the Viceroyalty of New Spain and later a territory and department in independent Mexico. The territory was created in 1769 out of the northern part of the former province of Las Californias, and consisted of the modern American states of California,...

 was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego.

In May 1769, Gaspar de Portolà
Gaspar de Portolà
Gaspar de Portolà i Rovira was a soldier, governor of Baja and Alta California , explorer and founder of San Diego and Monterey. He was born in Os de Balaguer, province of Lleida, in Catalonia, Spain, of Catalan nobility. Don Gaspar served as a soldier in the Spanish army in Italy and Portugal...

 established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River
San Diego River
The San Diego River is a river in San Diego County, California. It originates in the Cuyamaca Mountains northwest of the town of Julian, then flows to the southwest until it reaches the El Capitan Reservoir, the largest reservoir in the river's watershed at . Below El Capitan Dam, the river runs...

. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá
Mission San Diego de Alcalá
Mission Basilica San Diego de Alcalá, in San Diego, California, was the first Franciscan mission in the Las Californias Province of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. It was founded in 1769 by Spanish friar Junípero Serra in an area long inhabited by the Kumeyaay Indians...

 was founded by Franciscan
Franciscan
Most Franciscans are members of Roman Catholic religious orders founded by Saint Francis of Assisi. Besides Roman Catholic communities, there are also Old Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran, ecumenical and Non-denominational Franciscan communities....

 friars under Father Junípero Serra
Junípero Serra
Blessed Junípero Serra, O.F.M., , known as Fra Juníper Serra in Catalan, his mother tongue was a Majorcan Franciscan friar who founded the mission chain in Alta California of the Las Californias Province in New Spain—present day California, United States. Fr...

. By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper. Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real
El Camino Real (California)
El Camino Real and sometimes associated with Calle Real usually refers to the 600-mile California Mission Trail, connecting the former Alta California's 21 missions , 4 presidios, and several pueblos, stretching from Mission San Diego de Alcalá in San Diego...

. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks.

In 1821, Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

 won its independence from Spain, and San Diego became part of the Mexican state of Alta California
Alta California
Alta California was a province and territory in the Viceroyalty of New Spain and later a territory and department in independent Mexico. The territory was created in 1769 out of the northern part of the former province of Las Californias, and consisted of the modern American states of California,...

. The fort on Presidio Hill was gradually abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government, and most of the Mission lands were distributed to wealthy Californio
Californio
Californio is a term used to identify a Spanish-speaking Catholic people, regardless of race, born in California before 1848...

 settlers.

As a result of the Mexican-American War of 1846–1848, the territory of Alta California
Alta California
Alta California was a province and territory in the Viceroyalty of New Spain and later a territory and department in independent Mexico. The territory was created in 1769 out of the northern part of the former province of Las Californias, and consisted of the modern American states of California,...

, including San Diego, was ceded to the United States by Mexico. The Battle of San Pasqual
Battle of San Pasqual
The Battle of San Pasqual, also spelled San Pascual, was a military encounter that occurred during the Mexican-American War in what is now the San Pasqual Valley community of the city of San Diego, California. On December 6 and December 7, 1846, General Stephen W...

, a battle of the Mexican-American War, was fought in 1846 in the San Pasqual Valley which is now part of the city of San Diego. The state of California was admitted to the United States in 1850. That same year San Diego was designated the seat of the newly established San Diego County and was incorporated as a city. The initial city charter was established in 1889 and today's city charter was adopted in 1931.

The original town of San Diego was located at the foot of Presidio Hill, in the area which is now Old Town San Diego State Historic Park
Old Town San Diego State Historic Park
Old Town San Diego State Historic Park, located in the Old Town neighborhood of San Diego, California, is a state protected historical park in San Diego. It commemorates the early days of the town of San Diego and includes many historic buildings from the period 1820 to 1870. The park was...

. The location was not ideal, being several miles away from navigable water. In the late 1860s, Alonzo Horton
Alonzo Horton
Alonzo Erastus Horton was an American real estate developer in the nineteenth century. The Horton Plaza mall in downtown San Diego is named for him.-Early life:...

 promoted a move to "New Town", several miles south of the original settlement, in the area which became Downtown San Diego. People and businesses flocked to New Town because of its location on San Diego Bay
San Diego Bay
San Diego Bay is a natural harbor and deepwater port adjacent to San Diego, California. It is 12 mi/19 km long, 1 mi/1.6 km–3 mi/4.8 km wide...

 convenient to shipping. New Town quickly eclipsed the original settlement, known to this day as Old Town
Old Town, San Diego, California
Old Town is a neighborhood of San Diego, California. It contains and is bounded by Interstate 8 on the north, Interstate 5 on the west, Mission Hills on the east and Bankers Hill on the south. It is the oldest settled area in San Diego and is the site of the first European settlement in...

, and became the economic and governmental heart of the city.

In the early part of the 20th century, San Diego hosted two World's Fairs: the Panama-California Exposition
Panama-California Exposition (1915)
The Panama-California Exposition was an exposition held in San Diego, California between March 9, 1915 and January 1, 1917. The exposition celebrated the opening of the Panama Canal, and was meant to tout San Diego as the first U.S. port of call for ships traveling north after passing westward...

 in 1915 and the California Pacific International Exposition
California Pacific International Exposition (1935)
The California Pacific International Exposition was an exposition held in San Diego, California during May 29, 1935–November 11, 1935 and February 12, 1936–September 9, 1936...

 in 1935. Both expositions were held in Balboa Park
Balboa Park (San Diego)
Balboa Park is a urban cultural park in San Diego, California. The park is named after the Spanish maritime explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa...

, and many of the Spanish/Baroque-style buildings that were built for those expositions remain to this day as central features of the park. The buildings were intended to be temporary structures, but most remained in continuous use until they progressively fell into disrepair. Most were eventually rebuilt, using castings of the original facades to retain the architectural style. The menagerie of exotic animals featured at the 1915 exposition provided the basis for the San Diego Zoo
San Diego Zoo
The San Diego Zoo in Balboa Park, San Diego, California, is one of the most progressive zoos in the world, with over 4,000 animals of more than 800 species...

.
Significant U.S. Navy presence began in 1901 with the establishment of the Navy Coaling Station in Point Loma
Point Loma, San Diego, California
Point Loma is a seaside community of San Diego, California. Geographically it is a hilly peninsula that is bordered on the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, the east by the San Diego Bay and Old Town and the north by the San Diego River...

, and expanded greatly during the 1920s. By 1930 the city was host to Naval Base San Diego, Naval Training Center San Diego
Naval Training Center San Diego
Naval Training Center San Diego is a former United States Navy base located at the north end of San Diego Bay. The Naval Training Center site is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and many of the individual structures are designated as historic by the city of San Diego.The base...

, San Diego Naval Hospital, Camp Matthews, and Camp Kearny
Camp Kearny
Camp Kearny was a U.S. military base in San Diego, California, on the site of the current Marine Corps Air Station Miramar. It operated from 1917 to 1946.-Establishment and early years:...

 (now Marine Corps Air Station Miramar
Marine Corps Air Station Miramar
Marine Corps Air Station Miramar , formerly Naval Air Station Miramar is a United States Marine Corps installation that is home to the 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, which is the aviation element of the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force...

). The city was also an early center for aviation: as early as World War I San Diego was proclaiming itself "The Air Capital of the West." The city was home to important airplane developers and manufacturers like Ryan Airlines (later Ryan Aeronautical), founded in 1925, and Consolidated Aircraft
Consolidated Aircraft
The Consolidated Aircraft Corporation was founded in 1923 by Reuben H. Fleet, the result of the Gallaudet Aircraft Company's liquidation and Fleet's purchase of designs from the Dayton-Wright Company as the subsidiary was being closed by its parent corporation, General Motors. Consolidated became...

 (later Convair
Convair
Convair was an American aircraft manufacturing company which later expanded into rockets and spacecraft. The company was formed in 1943 by the merger of Vultee Aircraft and Consolidated Aircraft, and went on to produce a number of pioneering aircraft, such as the Convair B-36 bomber, and the F-102...

), founded in 1923. Charles A. Lindbergh's plane The Spirit of St. Louis was built in San Diego in 1927 by Ryan Airlines.

During World War II, San Diego became a major hub of military and defense activity, due to the presence of so many military installations and defense manufacturers. The city's population grew rapidly during and after World War II, more than doubling between 1930 (147,995) and 1950 (333,865). After World War II, the military continued to play a major role in the local economy, but post-Cold War
Cold War
The Cold War was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World—primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies—and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States...

 cutbacks took a heavy toll on the local defense and aerospace industries. The resulting downturn led San Diego leaders to seek to diversify the city's economy by focusing on research and science, as well as tourism.

Downtown San Diego was in decline in the 1960s and 1970s but experienced some urban renewal since the early 1980s, including the opening of Horton Plaza, the revival of the Gaslamp Quarter
Gaslamp Quarter, San Diego, California
The Gaslamp Quarter is the historic heart of San Diego, California. It is a 16½ block historical neighborhood in Downtown San Diego and is the center of downtown night life. The Quarter is home to many events and festivals, including Mardi Gras in the Gaslamp, Street Scene Music Festival, Taste of...

, and the construction of the San Diego Convention Center
San Diego Convention Center
The San Diego Convention Center is the primary convention center in San Diego, California. It is located in the Marina district of downtown San Diego near the Gaslamp Quarter, at 111 West Harbor Drive...

; Petco Park
PETCO Park
Petco Park is an open-air ballpark in downtown San Diego, California, USA. It opened in 2004, replacing Qualcomm Stadium as the home park of Major League Baseball's San Diego Padres. Before then, the Padres shared Qualcomm Stadium with the NFL's San Diego Chargers...

 opened in 2004.

Geography

The city of San Diego lies on deep canyons and hills separating its mesa
Mesa
A mesa or table mountain is an elevated area of land with a flat top and sides that are usually steep cliffs. It takes its name from its characteristic table-top shape....

s, creating small pockets of natural parkland scattered throughout the city and giving it a hilly geography. Traditionally, San Diegans have built their homes and businesses on the mesas, while leaving the canyons relatively wild. Thus, the canyons give parts of the city a segmented feel, creating gaps between otherwise proximate neighborhoods and contributing to a low-density, car-centered environment. The San Diego River
San Diego River
The San Diego River is a river in San Diego County, California. It originates in the Cuyamaca Mountains northwest of the town of Julian, then flows to the southwest until it reaches the El Capitan Reservoir, the largest reservoir in the river's watershed at . Below El Capitan Dam, the river runs...

 runs through the middle of San Diego from east to west, creating a river valley which serves to divide the city into northern and southern segments. Several reservoirs and Mission Trails Regional Park
Mission Trails Regional Park
Mission Trails Regional Park is a 5,800 acre open space preserve within the city of San Diego, California, established in 1974. It is the sixth largest municipally-owned park in the United States, and the largest in California.-Description:...

 also lie between and separate developed areas of the city.

Notable peaks within the city limits include Cowles Mountain
Cowles Mountain
Cowles Mountain is a prominent mountain within the city limits of San Diego, California and also within Mission Trails Regional Park, in a neighborhood known as San Carlos, San Diego. The mountain is named after George A. Cowles, an early ranching pioneer in San Diego County. Its summit is the...

, the highest point in the city at 1593 feet (485.5 m); Black Mountain
Black Mountain Open Space Park
Black Mountain Open Space Park is a city park located in San Diego, California. The park covers in the Black Mountain Ranch and Rancho Peñasquitos area of northern San Diego. The park includes the 1,558 foot Black Mountain and preserves coastal sage scrub and chaparral plant communities...

 at 1558 feet (474.9 m); and Mount Soledad
Mount Soledad
Mount Soledad is a prominent landmark in the city of San Diego, California, United States. The mountaintop is the site of the Mount Soledad cross, the subject of a continuing controversy over the involvement of religion in government.- Geography :...

 at 824 feet (251.2 m). The Cuyamaca Mountains
Cuyamaca Mountains
The Cuyamaca Mountains, locally the Cuyamacas, are a mountain range in San Diego County, California. The mountains run roughly northwest to southeast. The highest elevations are Cuyamaca Peak at and Stonewall Peak at...

 and Laguna Mountains
Laguna Mountains
The Laguna Mountains are a section of the Peninsular Ranges in eastern San Diego County, California. The mountains run in a northwest/southeast alignment for approximately ....

 rise to the east of the city, and beyond the mountains are desert areas. The Cleveland National Forest
Cleveland National Forest
Cleveland National Forest encompasses 460,000 acres , mostly of chaparral, with a few riparian areas. A warm dry mediterranean climate prevails over the Forest. It is the southernmost National forest of California. It is administered by the United States Forest Service, a government agency within...

 is a half-hour drive from downtown San Diego. Numerous farms are found in the valleys northeast and southeast of the city.

Communities and neighborhoods

The city of San Diego recognizes 52 individual areas as Community Planning Areas. Within a given planning area there may be several distinct neighborhoods. Altogether the city contains more than 100 identified neighborhoods.

Downtown San Diego is located on San Diego Bay. Balboa Park
Balboa Park (San Diego)
Balboa Park is a urban cultural park in San Diego, California. The park is named after the Spanish maritime explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa...

 encompasses several mesas and canyons to the northeast, surrounded by older, dense urban communities including Hillcrest and North Park. To the east and southeast lie City Heights, the College Area, and Southeast San Diego
Southeast San Diego
Southeast San Diego is the southeastern portion of the City of San Diego, generally represented by the urban neighborhoods directly east of Downtown San Diego, bordered by Interstate 5 and south of the Martin Luther King Jr...

. To the north lies Mission Valley and Interstate 8
Interstate 8
Interstate 8 is an Interstate Highway in the southwestern United States. It runs from the southern edge of Mission Bay at Sunset Cliffs Blvd, in San Diego, California, almost at the Pacific Ocean, to the junction with Interstate 10, just southeast of Casa Grande, Arizona...

. The communities north of the valley and freeway, and south of Marine Corps Air Station Miramar
Marine Corps Air Station Miramar
Marine Corps Air Station Miramar , formerly Naval Air Station Miramar is a United States Marine Corps installation that is home to the 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, which is the aviation element of the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force...

, include Clairemont, Kearny Mesa
Kearny Mesa
-External links:***...

, Tierrasanta, and Navajo. Stretching north from Miramar are the northern suburbs of Mira Mesa, Scripps Ranch, Rancho Peñasquitos, and Rancho Bernardo. The far northeast portion of the city encompasses Lake Hodges
Lake Hodges
Lake Hodges is a lake and reservoir located in Southern California, about north of San Diego and just south of Escondido, California. When full, the reservoir has , a maximum water depth of , and of shoreline. Interstate 15 crosses Lake Hodges via the Lake Hodges Bridge...

 and the San Pasqual Valley, which holds an agricultural preserve. Carmel Valley and Del Mar Heights occupy the northwest corner of the city. To their south are Torrey Pines State Reserve
Torrey Pines State Reserve
Torrey Pines State Natural Reserve is a coastal state park located in the California community of La Jolla, San Diego, California, off North Torrey Pines Road . Although it is located within San Diego city limits, it remains one of the wildest stretches of land on the Southern California coast...

 and the business center of the Golden Triangle. Further south are the beach and coastal communities of La Jolla, Pacific Beach, and Ocean Beach. Point Loma occupies the peninsula across San Diego Bay
San Diego Bay
San Diego Bay is a natural harbor and deepwater port adjacent to San Diego, California. It is 12 mi/19 km long, 1 mi/1.6 km–3 mi/4.8 km wide...

 from downtown. The communities of South San Diego
South San Diego
South San Diego is a district in San Diego, California, within a larger region known as the South Bay.-History:Before the arrival of the Spanish explorers, area of South San Diego was largely inhabited by the Digueno people...

, such as San Ysidro and Otay Mesa, are located next to the Mexican border, and are physically separated from the rest of the city by the cities of National City
National City, California
National City is a city in San Diego County, California. The population was 58,582 at the 2010 census, up from 54,260 at the 2000 census. National City is the second oldest city in San Diego County and has a historic past.-History:...

 and Chula Vista; a narrow strip of land at the bottom of San Diego Bay connects these southern neighborhoods with the rest of the city.

Unlike some areas of Southern California, where neighborhoods and even cities may run into each other without a clear demarcation, San Diego neighborhood boundaries tend to be clearly understood by their residents based on geographical boundaries like canyons and street patterns. The city recognized the importance of its neighborhoods when it organized its 2008 General Plan around the concept of a "City of Villages".

Cityscape

San Diego was originally centered in the Old Town district, but by the late 1860s the center of focus had relocated to the bayfront in the belief that this new location would increase trade. As the "New Town" – present-day Downtown – waterfront location quickly developed, it eclipsed Old Town as the center of San Diego.

The development of skyscraper
Skyscraper
A skyscraper is a tall, continuously habitable building of many stories, often designed for office and commercial use. There is no official definition or height above which a building may be classified as a skyscraper...

s over 300 feet (91.4 m) in San Diego is attributed to the construction of the El Cortez Apartment Hotel
El Cortez Apartment Hotel
El Cortez Apartment Hotel is a landmark hotel in San Diego, California. Built from 1926 to 1927, the El Cortez was the tallest building in San Diego when it opened. It sits atop a hill at the north end of Downtown San Diego, where it dominated the city skyline for many years. From its opening in...

 in 1927, the tallest building in the city from 1927 to 1963. As time went on multiple buildings claimed the title of San Diego's tallest skyscraper, including the Union Bank of California Building
Union Bank of California Building
The Union Bank of California Building is a 27 storey skyscraper in San Diego, California, completed in 1969. For twenty years, the tower stood as the tallest building in the city, until the completion of the Symphony Towers in 1989....

 and Symphony Towers
Symphony Towers
Symphony Towers is a high-rise building in San Diego, California, and is the city's second tallest skyscraper. The tallest in San Diego is One America Plaza of while Symphony Towers is . Designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, Symphony Towers is widely seen as one of Downtown's premier...

. Currently the tallest building in San Diego is One America Plaza
One America Plaza
One America Plaza is the tallest building in San Diego, California and a prominent fixture in the waterfront district of the downtown San Diego skyline. The 34-story, , , obelisk-shaped tower was designed by Murphy/Jahn Architects and KMA Architecture...

, standing 500 feet (150 m) tall, which was completed in 1991. The downtown skyline contains no super-talls, as a regulation put in place by the Federal Aviation Administration
Federal Aviation Administration
The Federal Aviation Administration is the national aviation authority of the United States. An agency of the United States Department of Transportation, it has authority to regulate and oversee all aspects of civil aviation in the U.S...

 in the 1970s set a 500 feet (152 m) limit on the height of buildings due to the proximity of San Diego International Airport
San Diego International Airport
San Diego International Airport , sometimes referred to as Lindbergh Field, is a public airport located northwest of the central business district of San Diego, California and from the Mexico – United States border at Tijuana, Mexico...

. An iconic description of the skyline includes its skyscrapers being compared to the tools of a toolbox. Within the city limits are multiple skylines composed of high-rises and mid-rises, including University City, Rancho Bernardo, Centre City, Carmel Valley and La Jolla Village.

Climate

San Diego is one of the top-ten best climates in the Farmer's Almanac
Farmer's Almanac
Farmers' Almanac is an annual North American periodical that has been in continuous publication since 1818. Published by the Almanac Publishing Company, of Lewiston, Maine, it is famous for its long-range weather predictions and astronomical data, as well as its trademark blend of humor, trivia,...

and is one of the two best summer climates in America as scored by The Weather Channel
The Weather Channel
The Weather Channel is a US cable and satellite television network since May 2, 1982, that broadcasts weather forecasts and weather-related news, along with entertainment programming related to weather 24 hours a day...

. Under the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 system, the San Diego area straddles areas of Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
A Mediterranean climate is the climate typical of most of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, and is a particular variety of subtropical climate...

 (CSa) to the north and Semi-arid climate (BSh) to the south and east. As a result, it is often described as "arid Mediterranean" and "Semi-arid Steppe". San Diego's climate is characterized by warm, dry summers and mild winters with most of the annual precipitation falling between December and March. The city has mild, mostly dry weather, with an average of 201 days above 70 °F (21.1 °C) and low rainfall (9–13 in (22.9–33 cm) annually).

The climate in the San Diego area, like much of California, often varies significantly over short geographical distances resulting in microclimate
Microclimate
A microclimate is a local atmospheric zone where the climate differs from the surrounding area. The term may refer to areas as small as a few square feet or as large as many square miles...

s. In San Diego's case this is mainly due to the city's topography (the Bay, and the numerous hills, mountains, and canyons). Frequently, particularly during the "May gray/June gloom
June Gloom
June Gloom is a southern California term for a weather pattern that results in cloudy, overcast skies with cool temperatures during the late spring and early summer. June Gloom in southern California is caused by the marine layer effect common to the West Coast, and is enhanced by the Catalina eddy...

" period, a thick "marine layer" cloud cover will keep the air cool and damp within a few miles of the coast, but will yield to bright cloudless sunshine approximately 5 – inland. Sometimes the June gloom can last into July, causing cloudy skies over most of San Diego for the entire day. Even in the absence of June gloom, inland areas tend to experience much more significant temperature variations than coastal areas, where the ocean serves as a moderating influence. Thus, for example, downtown San Diego averages January lows of 50 °F (10 °C) and August highs of 78 °F (25.6 °C). The city of El Cajon, just 10 miles (16.1 km) inland from downtown San Diego, averages January lows of 42 °F (5.6 °C) and August highs of 88 °F (31.1 °C).

A sign of global warming
Global warming
Global warming refers to the rising average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected continuation. In the last 100 years, Earth's average surface temperature increased by about with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades...

, scientists at Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California, is one of the oldest and largest centers for ocean and earth science research, graduate training, and public service in the world...

 say the average surface temperature of the water at Scripps Pier in the California Current
California Current
The California Current is a Pacific Ocean current that moves south along the western coast of North America, beginning off southern British Columbia, and ending off southern Baja California. There are five major coastal currents affiliated with upwelling zones...

 has increased by almost 3 degrees since 1950.

Rainfall along the coast averages about 10 inches (254 mm) of precipitation annually. The average (mean) rainfall is 10.65 inches (270.5 mm) and the median is 9.6 inches (243.8 mm). Most of the rainfall occurs during the cooler months. The months of December through March supply most of the rain, with February the only month averaging 2 inches (50.8 mm) or more of rain. The months of May through September tend to be almost completely dry. Though there are few wet days per month during the rainy period, rainfall can be heavy when it does fall. Rainfall is usually greater in the higher elevations of San Diego; some of the higher elevation areas of San Diego can receive 11–15 in (279.4–381 mm) of rain a year.

Snow in the city is so rare that it has been observed only five times in the century-and-a-half that records have been kept. In 1949 and 1967, snow stayed on the ground for a few hours in higher locations like Point Loma and La Jolla. The other three occasions, in 1882, 1946, and 1987, involved flurries but no accumulation.

Official temperature record-keeping began in San Diego in 1872, although other weather records go back further. The city's first official weather station was located at Mission San Diego from 1849 to 1858. From August 1858 until 1940, the official weather station was located at a series of downtown buildings, and the station has been at Lindbergh Field since February 1940.

Ecology

Like most of southern California, the majority of San Diego's current area was originally occupied by chaparral
Chaparral
Chaparral is a shrubland or heathland plant community found primarily in the U.S. state of California and in the northern portion of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico...

, a plant community made up mostly of drought-resistant shrubs. The endangered Torrey Pine
Torrey Pine
The Torrey Pine, Pinus torreyana, is the rarest pine species in the United States, an endangered species growing only in San Diego County and on one of the Channel Islands, endemic to the coastal sage and chaparral ecoregion in the U.S...

 has the bulk of its population in San Diego in a stretch of protected chaparral along the coast. The steep and varied topography and proximity to the ocean create a number of different habitats within the city limits, including tidal marsh
Tidal marsh
A tidal marsh is a type of marsh that is found along coasts and estuaries of which the flooding characteristics are determined by the tidal movement of the adjacent estuary, sea or ocean . According to the salinity of the flooding water, freshwater, brackish and saline tidal marshes are...

 and canyons. The chaparral and coastal sage scrub
Coastal sage scrub
Coastal sage scrub is a low scrubland plant community found in the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion of coastal California and northern Baja California. It is characterized by low-growing aromatic, and drought-deciduous shrubs adapted to the semi-arid Mediterranean climate of the...

 habitats in low elevations along the coast are prone to wildfire
Wildfire
A wildfire is any uncontrolled fire in combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or a wilderness area. Other names such as brush fire, bushfire, forest fire, desert fire, grass fire, hill fire, squirrel fire, vegetation fire, veldfire, and wilkjjofire may be used to describe the same...

, and the rates of fire have increased in the 20th century, due primarily to fires starting near the borders of urban and wild areas.

San Diego's broad city limits encompass a number of large nature preserves, including Torrey Pines State Reserve
Torrey Pines State Reserve
Torrey Pines State Natural Reserve is a coastal state park located in the California community of La Jolla, San Diego, California, off North Torrey Pines Road . Although it is located within San Diego city limits, it remains one of the wildest stretches of land on the Southern California coast...

, Los Peñasquitos Canyon Preserve
Los Peñasquitos Canyon Preserve
Los Peñasquitos Canyon Preserve is an urban park in San Diego, California. Stretching approximately , the park encompasses some of both Peñasquitos and Lopez canyons, and is one of the largest urban parks in the United States. The preserve is jointly owned and administered by the City of San Diego...

, and Mission Trails Regional Park
Mission Trails Regional Park
Mission Trails Regional Park is a 5,800 acre open space preserve within the city of San Diego, California, established in 1974. It is the sixth largest municipally-owned park in the United States, and the largest in California.-Description:...

. Torrey Pines State Reserve and a coastal strip continuing to the north constitute the only location where the rare species of Torrey Pine, P. torreyana torreyana, is found.
Due to the steep topography that prevents or discourages building, along with some efforts for preservation, there are also a large number of canyons within the city limits that serve as nature preserves, including Switzer Canyon
Switzer Canyon
Switzer Canyon is a canyon in San Diego, California. It is situated to the east of Balboa Park and serves as the boundary between the neighborhoods of North Park and South Park in Central San Diego...

, Tecolote Canyon Natural Park, and Marian Bear Memorial Park in the San Clemente Canyon
San Clemente Canyon
San Clemente Canyon, California is a small open space park in San Diego, California, also known as Marian Bear Park. It is located parallel to California State Route 52....

, as well as a number of small parks and preserves.

San Diego County has one of the highest counts of animal and plant species that appear on the endangered species list
United States Fish and Wildlife Service list of endangered species
This list contains only the bird and mammal species described as endangered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. It contains species not only in the U.S. and its territories, but also species only found abroad. It does not contain fish, amphibians, reptiles, plants, or invertebrates,...

 among counties in the United States. Because of its diversity of habitat and its position on the Pacific Flyway
Pacific Flyway
The Pacific Flyway is a major north-south route of travel for migratory birds in America, extending from Alaska to Patagonia. Every year, migratory birds travel some or all of this distance both in spring and in fall, following food sources, heading to breeding grounds, or travelling to...

, San Diego County has recorded the presence of 492 bird species, more than any other region in the country. San Diego always scores very high in the number of bird species observed in the annual Christmas Bird Count
Christmas Bird Count
The Christmas Bird Count is a census of birds in the Western Hemisphere, performed annually in the early Northern-hemisphere winter by volunteer birders...

, sponsored by the Audubon Society, and it is known as one of the "birdiest" areas in the United States.

San Diego and its backcountry are subject to periodic wildfires. In October 2003, San Diego was the site of the Cedar Fire
Cedar Fire
The Cedar Fire was a human-caused wildfire that burned out of control through a large area of San Diego County, in Southern California, in October 2003...

, which has been called the largest wildfire in California over the past century. The fire burned 280000 acres (1,133.1 km²), killed 15 people, and destroyed more than 2,200 homes. In addition to damage caused by the fire, smoke resulted in a significant increase in emergency room visits due to asthma, respiratory problems, eye irritation, and smoke inhalation; the poor air quality caused San Diego County schools to close for a week. Wildfires four years later
October 2007 California wildfires
The October 2007 California wildfires were a series of wildfires that began burning across Southern California on October 20. At least 1,500 homes were destroyed and over 500,000 acres of land burned from Santa Barbara County to the U.S.–Mexico border...

 destroyed some areas, particularly within the communities of Rancho Bernardo, Rancho Santa Fe
Rancho Santa Fe, California
Rancho Santa Fe known locally as ″The Ranch″, is one of the most exclusive and affluent communities in Southern California. It is also a census-designated place in San Diego County, California and an unincorporated bedroom community of San Diego County...

, and Ramona
Ramona, California
Ramona is a census-designated place in San Diego County, California. The population was 20,292 at the 2010 census.The term Ramona also refers to an unincorporated community that includes both the Ramona CDP and the adjacent CDP of San Diego Country Estates CDP...

.

Demographics

The city had a population of 1,307,402 in 2010, according to the census that year, on a land area of 372.1 square miles (963.7 km²). The urban area of San Diego extends beyond the administrative city limits and had a total 2010 population of 2,880,000, making it the third-largest urban area in California.
As of the Census of 2010, there were 1,307,402 people living in the city of San Diego. That represents a population increase of just under 7% from the 1,223,400 people, 450,691 households, and 271,315 families reported in 2000. The estimated city population in 2009 was 1,306,300. The population density was 3,771.9 people per square mile (1,456.4/km2). The racial makeup of San Diego was 58.9% White
White American
White Americans are people of the United States who are considered or consider themselves White. The United States Census Bureau defines White people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa...

, 6.7% African American
African American
African Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have at least partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa and are the direct descendants of enslaved Africans within the boundaries of the present United States...

, 0.6% Native American
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

, 15.9% Asian
Asian American
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent. The U.S. Census Bureau definition of Asians as "Asian” refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent, including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan,...

 (5.9% Filipino
Filipino American
Filipino Americans are Americans of Filipino ancestry. Filipino Americans, often shortened to "Fil-Ams", or "Pinoy",Filipinos in what is now the United States were first documented in the 16th century, with small settlements beginning in the 18th century...

, 2.7% Chinese
Chinese American
Chinese Americans represent Americans of Chinese descent. Chinese Americans constitute one group of overseas Chinese and also a subgroup of East Asian Americans, which is further a subgroup of Asian Americans...

, 2.5% Vietnamese
Vietnamese American
A Vietnamese American is an American of Vietnamese descent. They make up about half of all overseas Vietnamese and are the fourth-largest Asian American group....

, 1.3% Indian
Indian American
Indian Americans are Americans whose ancestral roots lie in India. The U.S. Census Bureau popularized the term Asian Indian to avoid confusion with Indigenous peoples of the Americas who are commonly referred to as American Indians.-The term: Indian:...

, 1.0% Korean
Korean American
Korean Americans are Americans of Korean descent, mostly from South Korea, with a small minority from North Korea...

, 0.7% Japanese
Japanese American
are American people of Japanese heritage. Japanese Americans have historically been among the three largest Asian American communities, but in recent decades have become the sixth largest group at roughly 1,204,205, including those of mixed-race or mixed-ethnicity...

, 0.4% Laotian
Laotian American
A Laotian American is a resident of the United States who was originally from Laos, a person of Laotian descent residing in America, or a citizen born in the United States whose parents were originally from Laos. Laotian Americans are included in the larger category of Asian Americans...

, 0.3% Cambodian
Cambodian American
A Cambodian American is an American who is born, raised, or from Cambodia usually of Khmer descent but also including Chinese Cambodians, Vietnamese Cambodians, Cham people and other ethnicities of Cambodia...

, 0.1% Thai
Thai American
A Thai American is an American of whose parents or grandparents came from Thailand. Many of them may in fact be of Thai Chinese or at least part Chinese ancestry, but they are still considered to be Thais.-History in U.S.:...

). 0.5% Pacific Islander
Pacific Islander American
Pacific Islander Americans, also known as Oceanian Americans, are residents of the United States with original ancestry from Oceania. They represent the smallest racial group counted in the United States census of 2000. They numbered 874,000 people or 0.3 percent of the United States population...

, 12.3% from other races
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, and 5.1% from two or more races. Hispanic
Hispanic American
Hispanic American may refer to:*An inhabitant of one of the countries of Hispanic America *A person of Hispanic ancestry who is citizen, resident or other in the United States of America...

 or Latino of any race were 28.8%. Among the Hispanic population, 24.9% are Mexican
Mexican American
Mexican Americans are Americans of Mexican descent. As of July 2009, Mexican Americans make up 10.3% of the United States' population with over 31,689,000 Americans listed as of Mexican ancestry. Mexican Americans comprise 66% of all Hispanics and Latinos in the United States...

, and 0.6% are Puerto Rican
Puerto Rican people
A Puerto Rican is a person who was born in Puerto Rico.Puerto Ricans born and raised in the continental United States are also sometimes referred to as Puerto Ricans, although they were not born in Puerto Rico...

.
As of January 1, 2008 estimates by the San Diego Association of Governments
San Diego Association of Governments
The San Diego Association of Governments is an association of local San Diego County governments. It is the metropolitan planning organization for the County, with policy makers consisting of mayors, councilmembers, and a County Supervisors, and also has capital planning and fare setting powers...

 revealed that the household median income for San Diego rose to $66,715, up from $45,733, and that the city population rose to 1,336,865, up 9.3% from 2000. The population was 45.3% non-Hispanic whites, 27.7% Hispanics, 15.6% Asians/Pacific Islanders, 7.1% blacks, 0.4% American Indians, and 3.9% from other races. Median age of Hispanics was 27.5 years, compared to 35.1 years overall and 41.6 years among non-Hispanic whites; Hispanics were the largest group in all ages under 18, and non-Hispanic whites constituted 63.1% of population 55 and older.

In 2000 there were 451,126 households out of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.6% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.8% were non-families. Households made up of individuals account for 28.0% and 7.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.30.

The U.S. Census Bureau reported that in 2000, 24.0% of San Diego residents were under 18, and 10.5% were 65 and over. The median age was 32; two-thirds of the population was under 35. The San Diego County regional planning agency, SANDAG, provides tables and graphs breaking down the city population into 5-year age groups. In 2000, the median income for a household
Median household income
The median household income is commonly used to generate data about geographic areas and divides households into two equal segments with the first half of households earning less than the median household income and the other half earning more...

 in the city was $45,733, and the median income for a family was $53,060. Males had a median income of $36,984 versus $31,076 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,609. According to Forbes
Forbes
Forbes is an American publishing and media company. Its flagship publication, the Forbes magazine, is published biweekly. Its primary competitors in the national business magazine category are Fortune, which is also published biweekly, and Business Week...

in 2005, San Diego was the fifth wealthiest U.S. city but about 10.6% of families and 14.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.0% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over. Nonetheless, San Diego was rated the fifth-best place to live in the United States in 2006 by Money
Money (magazine)
Money is published by Time Inc. Its first issue was published in October 1972. Its articles cover the gamut of personal finance topics ranging from investing, saving, retirement and taxes to family finance issues like paying for college, credit, career and home improvement...

magazine.

Crime

According to Forbes
Forbes
Forbes is an American publishing and media company. Its flagship publication, the Forbes magazine, is published biweekly. Its primary competitors in the national business magazine category are Fortune, which is also published biweekly, and Business Week...

magazine, San Diego was the ninth-safest city in the top 10 list of safest cities in the U.S. in 2010. Like most major cities, San Diego had a declining crime rate from 1990 to 2000. Crime slightly increased in the early 2000s. In 2004, San Diego had the sixth lowest crime rate of any U.S. city with over half a million residents. From 2002 to 2006, the crime rate overall dropped 0.8%, though not evenly by category. While violent crime
Violent crime
A violent crime or crime of violence is a crime in which the offender uses or threatens to use violent force upon the victim. This entails both crimes in which the violent act is the objective, such as murder, as well as crimes in which violence is the means to an end, such as robbery. Violent...

 decreased 12.4% during this period, property crime increased 1.1%. Total property crimes per 100,000 people were lower than the national average in 2008.

Economy

The largest sectors of San Diego's economy are defense/military, tourism, international trade, and research/manufacturing, respectively.

Defense and military

The economy of San Diego is influenced by its deepwater port
Port of San Diego
The Port of San Diego is a self-supporting public benefit corporation established in 1962 by an act of the California State Legislature. In 2007, The U.S. Bureau of Transportation Statistics ranked the Port of San Diego as one of America's top 30 U.S. containership ports bringing in nearly of...

, which includes the only major submarine and shipbuilding yards on the West Coast. Several major national defense contractors were started and are headquartered in San Diego, including General Atomics
General Atomics
General Atomics is a nuclear physics and defense contractor headquartered in San Diego, California. General Atomics’ research into fission and fusion matured into competencies in related technologies, allowing the company to expand into other fields of research...

, Cubic
Cubic Corporation
Cubic Corporation is an American public corporation providing military defense equipment and automated fare collection equipment. It is headquartered in San Diego, California, with offices in North America, Europe, India, and Australia....

, and NASSCO
National Steel and Shipbuilding Company
National Steel and Shipbuilding Company, commonly referred to as NASSCO, is a shipyard in San Diego, California and Norfolk, Virginia and a division of General Dynamics. The shipyard specializes in constructing commercial cargo ships and auxiliary vessels for the US Navy and Military Sealift...

.

San Diego hosts the largest naval fleet in the world: it was in 2008 was home to 53 ships, over 120 tenant commands, and more than 35,000 sailors, soldiers, Department of Defense civilian employees and contractors. About 5 percent of all civilian jobs in the county are military-related, and 15,000 businesses in San Diego County rely on Department of Defense contracts.
Military bases in San Diego include US Navy facilities, Marine Corps bases, and Coast Guard
United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven U.S. uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, military, multi-mission service unique among the military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission and a federal regulatory agency...

 stations. Marine Corps institutions in the city of San Diego include Marine Corps Air Station Miramar
Marine Corps Air Station Miramar
Marine Corps Air Station Miramar , formerly Naval Air Station Miramar is a United States Marine Corps installation that is home to the 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, which is the aviation element of the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force...

 and Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego
Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego
Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego is a United States Marine Corps military installation in San Diego, California. It lies between San Diego Bay and Interstate 5, adjacent to San Diego International Airport and the former Naval Training Center San Diego...

. The Navy has several institutions in the city, including Naval Base Point Loma
Naval Base Point Loma
Located in Point Loma, a neighborhood of San Diego, California, Naval Base Point Loma was established on 1 October 1998 when Navy facilities in the Point Loma area of San Diego were consolidated under Commander, Navy Region Southwest...

, Naval Base San Diego (also known as the 32nd Street Naval Station), Bob Wilson Naval Hospital
Bob Wilson Naval Hospital
Naval Medical Center San Diego , also known as Bob Wilson Naval Hospital and informally referred to as "Balboa Hospital", is a technologically advanced Navy medical treatment facility. Located within the grounds of Balboa Park in San Diego, the hospital has played a role in the history of San...

, the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego
Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego
Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific is the U.S. Navy's research, development, test and evaluation, engineering and fleet support center for command, control and communication systems and ocean surveillance. SSC Pacific provides information resources to support the joint warfighter in...

 and Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command. Also near San Diego but not within the city limits are Naval Amphibious Base Coronado
Naval Amphibious Base Coronado
Naval Amphibious Base Coronado is a naval installation located across the bay from San Diego, CA. The base, situated on Silver Strand, between the San Diego Bay and the Pacific Ocean, is a major Navy shore command, supporting over 30 tenant commands, and is the West Coast focal point for special...

 and Naval Air Station North Island
Naval Air Station North Island
Naval Air Station North Island or NAS North Island is located at the north end of the Coronado peninsula on San Diego Bay and is the home port of several aircraft carriers of the United States Navy...

 (which operates Naval Auxiliary Landing Facility San Clemente Island, Silver Strand Training Complex
Silver Strand Training Complex
Silver Strand Training Complex , formerly known as the Naval Radio Receiving Facility , is the premier training facility for U.S. Special Operations Forces...

, and the Outlying Field Imperial Beach
Outlying Field Imperial Beach
Naval Outlying Landing Field Imperial Beach or NOLF Imperial Beach is a United States Navy facility for helicopters, situated on approximately south of San Diego and within the city limits of Imperial Beach, California...

). San Diego is known as the "birthplace of naval aviation
Naval aviation
Naval aviation is the application of manned military air power by navies, including ships that embark fixed-wing aircraft or helicopters. In contrast, maritime aviation is the operation of aircraft in a maritime role under the command of non-naval forces such as the former RAF Coastal Command or a...

".

The city is "home to the majority of the U.S. Pacific Fleet's surface combatants, all of the Navy's West Coast amphibious ships and a variety of Coast Guard and Military Sealift Command vessels". One Nimitz class
Nimitz class aircraft carrier
The Nimitz-class supercarriers are a class of ten nuclear-powered aircraft carriers in service with the United States Navy. With an overall length of and full-load displacements of over 100,000 long tons, they are the largest capital ships in the world...

 supercarrier
Supercarrier
Supercarrier is an unofficial descriptive term for the largest type of aircraft carrier, usually displacing over 70,000 long tons.Supercarrier is an unofficial descriptive term for the largest type of aircraft carrier, usually displacing over 70,000 long tons.Supercarrier is an unofficial...

, (the USS Carl Vinson
USS Carl Vinson (CVN-70)
The USS Carl Vinson is the third United States Navy Nimitz class supercarrier and is named after Carl Vinson, a Congressman from Georgia. Carl Vinson's callsign is "Gold Eagle". It played host to the first NCAA basketball game on an aircraft carrier on 11/11/11 between the University of North...

), five amphibious assault ships, several Los Angeles-class
Los Angeles class submarine
The Los Angeles class, sometimes called the LA class or the 688 class, is a class of nuclear-powered fast attack submarines that forms the backbone of the United States submarine fleet. With 43 submarines on active duty and 19 retired, the Los Angeles class is the most numerous nuclear powered...

 "fast attack" submarines, the Hospital Ship USNS Mercy
USNS Mercy (T-AH-19)
The third USNS Mercy is the lead ship of her class of hospital ships in the United States Navy. Her sister ship is the USNS Comfort . She was named for the virtue of compassion. In accordance with the Geneva Conventions, USNS Mercy and her crew do not carry any offensive weapons, though...

, carrier and submarine tenders, destroyers
Arleigh Burke class destroyer
The Arleigh Burke class of guided missile destroyers is the United States Navy's first class of destroyer built around the Aegis combat system and the SPY-1D multi-function phased array radar. The class is named for Admiral Arleigh "31-Knot" Burke, the most famous American destroyer officer of...

, cruisers
Ticonderoga class cruiser
The Ticonderoga class of missile cruisers is a class of warships in the United States Navy, first ordered and authorized in FY 1978. The class uses phased-array radar and was originally planned as a class of destroyers...

, frigates
Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate
The Oliver Hazard Perry class is a class of frigates named after the American Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, the hero of the naval Battle of Lake Erie...

, and many smaller ships are home-ported there. Four Navy vessels have been named USS San Diego
USS San Diego
USS San Diego may refer to:, originally the armored cruiser California , a light cruiser commissioned in 1942 in service throughout the Pacific War, and decommissioned 1946, a combat stores ship in service from 1969 to 1997, a San Antonio-class amphibious transport dock, launched in 2010...

.

Tourism

Tourism is a major industry owing to the city's climate, its beaches
Beaches in San Diego, California
Beaches in San Diego, California, USA *Torrey Pines State Beach*Black's Beach*La Jolla Shores*La Jolla Cove*Children's Pool Beach *Windansea Beach*Marine Street Beach*North Pacific Beach*Pacific Beach*Mission Bay Beaches...

, and numerous tourist attractions such as Balboa Park
Balboa Park (San Diego)
Balboa Park is a urban cultural park in San Diego, California. The park is named after the Spanish maritime explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa...

, Belmont
Belmont Park (San Diego)
Belmont Park is a historic oceanfront amusement park located in the Mission Bay area of San Diego, California. The park was developed by sugar magnate John D. Spreckels and opened on July 4, 1925 as the Mission Beach Amusement Center. In addition to providing recreation and amusement it also was...

 amusement park, San Diego Zoo
San Diego Zoo
The San Diego Zoo in Balboa Park, San Diego, California, is one of the most progressive zoos in the world, with over 4,000 animals of more than 800 species...

, San Diego Zoo Safari Park, and SeaWorld San Diego
SeaWorld San Diego
SeaWorld San Diego is an animal theme park, oceanarium, and marine mammal park, located in San Diego, California, United States. The park is owned by SeaWorld Parks & Entertainment, a division of The Blackstone Group....

. San Diego's Spanish and Mexican heritage is reflected in the many historic sites across the city, such as Mission San Diego de Alcala
Mission San Diego de Alcalá
Mission Basilica San Diego de Alcalá, in San Diego, California, was the first Franciscan mission in the Las Californias Province of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. It was founded in 1769 by Spanish friar Junípero Serra in an area long inhabited by the Kumeyaay Indians...

 and Old Town San Diego State Historic Park
Old Town San Diego State Historic Park
Old Town San Diego State Historic Park, located in the Old Town neighborhood of San Diego, California, is a state protected historical park in San Diego. It commemorates the early days of the town of San Diego and includes many historic buildings from the period 1820 to 1870. The park was...

. Annual events in San Diego include Comic-Con
Comic-Con International
San Diego Comic-Con International, also known as Comic-Con International: San Diego , and commonly known as Comic-Con or the San Diego Comic-Con, was founded as the Golden State Comic Book Convention and later the San Diego Comic Book Convention in 1970 by Shel Dorf and a group of San Diegans...

, the Farmers Insurance Open golf tournament, the San Diego Black Film Festival
San Diego Black Film Festival
The San Diego Black Film Festival is one of the largest black film festivals in the country. It is held in southern California recognizes African American and movies and production. The festival was founded in 2003, and takes place every year during the last week of January in San Diego, California...

, and Street Scene Music Festival
Street Scene (San Diego music festival)
Street Scene was a music festival that was held each summer in San Diego, California from 1984 to 2009. Street Scene was one of America's largest annual music festivals, growing to include over 70 musical acts covering different musical genres and styles on multiple stages.-History:Beginning in...

. Transient Occupancy Taxes (TOT) create funding for the City of San Diego Commission for Arts and Culture
City of San Diego Commission for Arts and Culture
The City of San Diego Commission for Arts and Culture is the official San Diego County, California, USA arts council.The City of San Diego Commission for Arts and Culture was established in 1988 by City Ordinance to serve in an advisory capacity to the Mayor, City Council and City Manager on...

.

San Diego County hosted more than 30 million visitors in 2009, of whom approximately half stayed overnight and half were day visitors; collectively they spent an estimated $15 billion locally.
The San Diego Convention Center
San Diego Convention Center
The San Diego Convention Center is the primary convention center in San Diego, California. It is located in the Marina district of downtown San Diego near the Gaslamp Quarter, at 111 West Harbor Drive...

 hosted 68 out-of-town conventions and trade shows in 2009, attracting more than 600,000 visitors.

San Diego's cruise ship industry is the second largest in California; each cruise ship call injects an estimated $2 million (from the purchase of food, fuel, supplies, and maintenance services) into the local economy. Numerous cruise lines, including Celebrity, Crystal and Princess, operate out of San Diego. However, cruise ship business has been in steady decline since peaking in 2008, when the Port hosted over 250 ship calls and more than 900,000 passengers. By 2011 the number of ship calls had fallen to 103 (estimated). Holland America
Holland America Line
The Holland America Line is a cruise shipping company. It was founded in 1873 as the Netherlands-America Steamship Company , a shipping and passenger line. Headquartered in Rotterdam and providing service to the Americas, it became known as Holland America Line...

 and Carnival Cruises had operated weekly cruises to the Mexican Riviera, but announced that they will no longer do so after April 2012, an economic loss to the region of more than $100 million. The decline is blamed on the slumping economy as well as fear of travel to Mexico due to well-publicized violence there.

International trade

San Diego's commercial port and its location on the United States-Mexico border make international trade an important factor in the city's economy. The city is authorized by the United States government to operate as a Foreign Trade Zone
Foreign trade zone
A foreign-trade zone in the United States is a geographical area, in United States Ports of Entry Ports of Entry, where commercial merchandise, both domestic and foreign receives the same Customs treatment it would if it were outside the commerce of the United States...

.

The city shares a 15 miles (24.1 km) border with Mexico that includes two border crossings. San Diego hosts the busiest international border crossing in the world, in the San Ysidro neighborhood at the San Ysidro Port of Entry
San Ysidro Land Port of Entry Expansion Project
The San Ysidro Port of Entry is the largest land border crossing between San Diego and Tijuana, and the busiest land border crossing in the world...

. A second, primarily commercial border crossing operates in the Otay Mesa area; it is the largest commercial crossing on the California-Baja California
Baja California
Baja California officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Baja California is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is both the northernmost and westernmost state of Mexico. Before becoming a state in 1953, the area was known as the North...

 border and handles the third highest volume of trucks and dollar value of trade among all United States-Mexico land crossings.

One of the Port of San Diego's two cargo facilities is located in Downtown San Diego at the Tenth Avenue Marine Terminal. This terminal has facilities for containers, bulk cargo, and refrigerated and frozen storage, so that it can handle the import and export of perishables (including 33 million bananas every month) as well as fertilizer, cement, forest products, and other commodities. In 2009 the Port of San Diego handled 1,137,054 short tons of total trade; foreign trade accounted for 956,637 short tons while domestic trade amounted to 180,417 short tons.

Manufacturing and research

In 2010, former Governor Schwarzenegger’s
Arnold Schwarzenegger
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger is an Austrian-American former professional bodybuilder, actor, businessman, investor, and politician. Schwarzenegger served as the 38th Governor of California from 2003 until 2011....

 Office of Economic Development designated San Diego as an iHub Innovation Center for collaboration potentially between wireless and life sciences, citing the area's wireless business, pharmaceutical research and start-ups for medical devices and diagnostics.

San Diego hosts several major producers of wireless cellular technology. Qualcomm
Qualcomm
Qualcomm is an American global telecommunication corporation that designs, manufactures and markets digital wireless telecommunications products and services based on its code division multiple access technology and other technologies. Headquartered in San Diego, CA, USA...

 was founded and is headquartered in San Diego, and still is the largest private-sector technology employer (excluding hospitals) in San Diego County. Other wireless industry manufacturers headquartered here include LG Electronics
LG Electronics
LG Electronics is a global electronics and telecommunications company headquartered in Yeouido, Seoul, South Korea. The company operates its business through five divisions: mobile communications, home entertainment, home appliance, air conditioning and business solution...

, Kyocera International., and Novatel Wireless
Novatel Wireless
Novatel Wireless, Inc. is a company providing wireless broadband access solutions for use in portable personal computers, handheld computing and mobile devices. The company is perhaps best known for its MiFi line of compact wireless routers....

. According to the San Diego Business Journal, the largest software company in San Diego is security software company Websense
Websense
Websense is a San Diego-based company specializing in Web security gateway software. It enables clients to block access to chosen categories of websites.-History:Websense was founded by Phil Trubey in 1994...

 Inc. San Diego also has the U.S. headquarters for the Slovakia
Slovakia
The Slovak Republic is a landlocked state in Central Europe. It has a population of over five million and an area of about . Slovakia is bordered by the Czech Republic and Austria to the west, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east and Hungary to the south...

n security company ESET
Eset
ESET is an IT security company head-quartered in Bratislava, Slovakia that was founded in 1992 by the merger of two private companies. The company was awarded as the most successful Slovak company in 2008, 2009 and 2010...

.

The presence of the University of California, San Diego
University of California, San Diego
The University of California, San Diego, commonly known as UCSD or UC San Diego, is a public research university located in the La Jolla neighborhood of San Diego, California, United States...

 and other research institutions has helped to fuel biotechnology
Biotechnology
Biotechnology is a field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bioproducts. Biotechnology also utilizes these products for manufacturing purpose...

 growth. In June 2004, San Diego was ranked the top biotech cluster in the United States by the Milken Institute. There are more than 400 biotechnology companies in the area. In particular, the La Jolla
La Jolla, San Diego, California
La Jolla is an affluent, hilly seaside resort community, occupying of curving coastline along the Pacific Ocean in Southern California within the northern city limits of San Diego. La Jolla had the highest home prices in the nation in 2008 and 2009; the average price of a standardized...

 and nearby Sorrento Valley
Sorrento Valley, San Diego, California
Sorrento Valley is a neighborhood of San Diego, California. It is located about 15 mi north of Downtown San Diego and its main airport, Lindbergh Field...

 areas are home to offices and research facilities for numerous biotechnology companies. Major biotechnology companies like Neurocrine Biosciences
Neurocrine Biosciences
Neurocrine Biosciences is a biopharmaceutical company founded in 1992 and located in San Diego, California. The company tooks its name from the original focus on therapies for neurological and endocrine diseases and disorders....

 and Nventa Biopharmaceuticals
Nventa Biopharmaceuticals Corporation
Nventa Biopharmaceuticals Corporation was a Canadian incorporated biopharmaceutical company headquartered in San Diego, California developing therapeutics for the treatment of viral infections and cancer, focusing on diseases caused by human papillomavirus...

 are headquartered in San Diego, while many biotech and pharmaceutical companies, such as BD Biosciences
Becton Dickinson
Becton, Dickinson and Company , is an American medical technology company that manufactures and sells medical devices, instrument systems and reagents. Founded in 1897 and headquartered in Franklin Lakes, New Jersey, BD does business in nearly 50 countries and has 28,803 employees worldwide. In...

, Biogen Idec
Biogen Idec
Biogen Idec, Inc. is a biotechnology company specializing in drugs for neurological disorders, autoimmune disorders and cancer. The company was formed in 2003 by the merger of Cambridge, Massachusetts-based Biogen Inc. and San Diego, California-based IDEC Pharmaceuticals...

, Integrated DNA Technologies
Integrated DNA Technologies
Integrated DNA Technologies, Inc. , headquartered in Coralville, Iowa, is the largest supplier of custom nucleic acids in the U.S., serving the areas of academic research, biotechnology, clinical diagnostics, and pharmaceutical development...

, Merck
Merck & Co.
Merck & Co., Inc. , also known as Merck Sharp & Dohme or MSD outside the United States and Canada, is one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world. The Merck headquarters is located in Whitehouse Station, New Jersey, an unincorporated area in Readington Township...

, Pfizer
Pfizer
Pfizer, Inc. is an American multinational pharmaceutical corporation. The company is based in New York City, New York with its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut, United States...

, Élan
Élan
Élan Corporation plc is a major drugs firm based in Athlone, County Roscommon, Ireland which has major interests in the United States. In the late 1990s its value on the Irish Stock Exchange reached over €20bn. It has secondary listings on the London Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange....

, Celgene
Celgene
Celgene Corporation is a manufacturer of drug therapies for cancer and inflammatory disorders. It is incorporated in Delaware and headquartered in Summit, New Jersey...

, and Vertex, have offices or research facilities in San Diego. There are also several non-profit biotech and health care institutes, such as the Salk Institute for Biological Studies
Salk Institute for Biological Studies
The Salk Institute for Biological Studies is a premier independent, non-profit, scientific research institute located in La Jolla, California. It was founded in 1960 by Jonas Salk, the developer of the polio vaccine; among the founding consultants were Jacob Bronowski and Francis Crick. Building...

, the Scripps Research Institute
The Scripps Research Institute
The Scripps Research Institute is an American medical research facility that focuses on research in the basic biomedical sciences. Headquartered in La Jolla, California, with a sister facility in Jupiter, Florida, the institute is home to 3,000 scientists, technicians, graduate students, and...

, the West Wireless Health Institute
West Wireless Health Institute
The West Wireless Health Institute is a 501 nonprofit independent medical research organization located in San Diego, California. Founded by the Gary and Mary West Foundation with a $45 million grant in March 2009...

 and the Sanford-Burnham Institute. San Diego is also home to more than 140 contract research organization
Contract research organization
A contract research organization, also called a clinical research organization, is a service organization that provides support to the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries in the form of outsourced pharmaceutical research services...

s (CROs) that provide a variety of contract services for pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies.

Real estate

Prior to 2006, San Diego experienced a dramatic growth of real estate prices, to the extent that the situation was sometimes described as a "housing affordability crisis". Median house prices more than tripled between 1998 and 2007. According to the California Association of Realtors, in May 2007, a median house in San Diego cost $612,370. Growth of real estate prices has not been accompanied by comparable growth of household incomes: Housing Affordability Index
Housing Affordability Index
A Housing Affordability Index is an index which rates housing affordability.-US:One is published monthly by the National Association of Realtors. Below 100 indicates the median income family would need more than 50 percent of their income to "afford" an entry level home based on housing price and...

 (percentage of households that can afford to buy a median-priced house) fell below 20 percent in the early 2000s. The San Diego metropolitan area had the second worst median multiple (ratio of median house price to median household income) of all metropolitan areas in the United States. As a consequence, San Diego had experienced negative net migration since 2004, with significant numbers of people moving to Baja California
Baja California
Baja California officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Baja California is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is both the northernmost and westernmost state of Mexico. Before becoming a state in 1953, the area was known as the North...

 and Riverside County
Riverside County, California
Riverside County is a county in the U.S. state of California. One of 58 California counties, it covers in the southern part of the state, and stretches from Orange County to the Colorado River, which forms the state border with Arizona. The county derives its name from the city of Riverside,...

, with many residents commuting daily from Tijuana
Tijuana
Tijuana is the largest city on the Baja California Peninsula and center of the Tijuana metropolitan area, part of the international San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. An industrial and financial center of Mexico, Tijuana exerts a strong influence on economics, education, culture, art, and politics...

, Temecula
Temecula, California
Temecula is a city in southwestern Riverside County, California, United States with a population of 100,097 according to the 2010 United States Census, making it the lowest populated American city over 100,000 population. It was incorporated on December 1, 1989...

, and Murrieta
Murrieta, California
Murrieta has a Mediterranean climate or Dry-Summer Subtropical . Murrieta has plenty of sunshine throughout the year, with an average of 263 sunshine days and 35 days with measurable precipitation annually....

, to their jobs in San Diego. Others are leaving the state altogether and moving to more affordable regions.

San Diego home prices peaked in 2005 then declined as part of a nationwide trend. As of December 2010, home prices were 60 percent higher than in 2000, but down 36 percent from the peak in 2005. The median home price declined by more than $200,000 between 2005 and 2010, and sales dropped by 50 percent.

Top employers

According to the City's 2009 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:
Employer Number of employees
United States Navy
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

55,300
San Diego Unified School District
San Diego Unified School District
San Diego Unified School District is the school district of San Diego, California. It was founded in 1854...

21,959
University of California, San Diego
University of California, San Diego
The University of California, San Diego, commonly known as UCSD or UC San Diego, is a public research university located in the La Jolla neighborhood of San Diego, California, United States...

19,435
San Diego County
San Diego County, California
San Diego County is a large county located in the southwestern corner of the US state of California. Hence, San Diego County is also located in the southwestern corner of the 48 contiguous United States. Its county seat and largest city is San Diego. Its population was about 2,813,835 in the 2000...

17,900
Sharp HealthCare
Sharp Healthcare
Sharp HealthCare is a not-for-profit integrated regional health care delivery system located in San Diego. Sharp includes four acute-care hospitals, three specialty hospitals, two affiliated medical groups and a health plan...

14,724
City of San Diego 10,799
Kaiser Permanente
Kaiser Permanente
Kaiser Permanente is an integrated managed care consortium, based in Oakland, California, United States, founded in 1945 by industrialist Henry J. Kaiser and physician Sidney Garfield...

7,220
University of San Diego
University of San Diego
The University of San Diego is a Roman Catholic university in San Diego, California. USD offers more than sixty bachelor's, master’s, and doctoral programs...

6,086
Qualcomm
Qualcomm
Qualcomm is an American global telecommunication corporation that designs, manufactures and markets digital wireless telecommunications products and services based on its code division multiple access technology and other technologies. Headquartered in San Diego, CA, USA...

6,000
UCSD Medical Center
UCSD Medical Center
UC San Diego Health System is an academic health system in San Diego and has been in operation since 1966. It is composed of UC San Diego Medical Center, Thornton Hospital, Moores Cancer Center, Shiley Eye Center, Sulpizio Cardiovascular Center and Jacobs Medical Center , as well as other primary...

5,300

Education

Public schools in San Diego are operated by independent school district
School district
School districts are a form of special-purpose district which serves to operate the local public primary and secondary schools.-United States:...

s. The majority of the public schools in the city are served by the San Diego Unified School District
San Diego City Schools
San Diego Unified School District is the school district of San Diego, California. It was founded in 1854...

, also the second largest school district in California, which includes 11 K-8 schools, 107 elementary schools, 24 middle schools, 13 atypical and alternative schools, 28 high schools, and 45 charter school
Charter school
Charter schools are primary or secondary schools that receive public money but are not subject to some of the rules, regulations, and statutes that apply to other public schools in exchange for some type of accountability for producing certain results, which are set forth in each school's charter...

s. Several adjacent school districts which are headquartered outside the city limits serve some schools within the city; these include the Poway Unified School District
Poway Unified School District
Poway Unified School District is a school district located in Poway, California. The District operates 25 elementary schools , six middle schools , four comprehensive high schools , and one continuation high school. Twenty-one of its schools are located in the city of San Diego; eleven others in...

, Del Mar Union School District
Del Mar Union School District
The Del Mar Union School District is based in Del Mar, California, founded in 1906. For many years, the district was small, serving approximately 1,000 students in the City of Del Mar. However, in the 1990s, the district's boundaries were expanded to include the newly-developed Carmel Valley...

, San Dieguito Union High School District
San Dieguito Union High School District
San Dieguito Union High School District is a school district headquartered in Encinitas, California. The district serves students in the cities of Encinitas, Solana Beach, and Del Mar and surrounding areas.-High schools:*La Costa Canyon High School...

 and Sweetwater Union High School District
Sweetwater Union High School District
The Sweetwater Union High School District is a school district headquartered in Chula Vista, California. , the school district is the largest secondary school district in California....

. In addition, there are a number of private schools in the city.

Colleges and universities

According to education rankings released by the U.S. Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

, 40.4 percent of San Diegans ages 25 and older hold bachelor's degree
Bachelor's degree
A bachelor's degree is usually an academic degree awarded for an undergraduate course or major that generally lasts for three or four years, but can range anywhere from two to six years depending on the region of the world...

s. The census ranks the city as the ninth most educated city in the United States based on these figures.

Public colleges and universities in the city include San Diego State University
San Diego State University
San Diego State University , founded in 1897 as San Diego Normal School, is the largest and oldest higher education facility in the greater San Diego area , and is part of the California State University system...

 (SDSU), University of California, San Diego
University of California, San Diego
The University of California, San Diego, commonly known as UCSD or UC San Diego, is a public research university located in the La Jolla neighborhood of San Diego, California, United States...

 (UCSD), and the San Diego Community College District
San Diego Community College District
The San Diego Community College District is a public community college division in the city of San Diego, California. The district is one of the five community college districts in San Diego County; part of the greater California Community College system...

, which includes San Diego City College
San Diego City College
San Diego City College is a public, two-year community college located in San Diego, California. City College is part of the San Diego Community College District along with San Diego Mesa College, San Diego Miramar College and San Diego Continuing Education...

, San Diego Mesa College
San Diego Mesa College
San Diego Mesa College is a public, two-year community college perched on a mesa in the Clairemont neighborhood of San Diego, California in the United States. It is the largest community college in the city of San Diego and part of the San Diego Community College District along with San Diego City...

, and San Diego Miramar College
San Diego Miramar College
San Diego Miramar College is two-year community college located in San Diego, CA, USA. It is administered by the San Diego Community College District.-History:...

. Private colleges and universities in the city include University of San Diego
University of San Diego
The University of San Diego is a Roman Catholic university in San Diego, California. USD offers more than sixty bachelor's, master’s, and doctoral programs...

 (USD), Point Loma Nazarene University
Point Loma Nazarene University
Point Loma Nazarene University is a Christian liberal arts college. Its main campus is located on the Point Loma oceanfront in San Diego, California. It was founded in 1902 as a Bible college by the Church of the Nazarene.-History:...

 (PLNU), Alliant International University
Alliant International University
Alliant International University is a private, non-profit higher education institution based in San Diego, California. It offers programs in six California cities and four locations outside the United States...

 (AIU), National University
National University (California)
National University , founded in 1971, is a comprehensive, nonsectarian, independent, accredited, non-profit private university headquartered in La Jolla, California, United States, with academic degree programs offered at campuses located throughout the state, one in Henderson, Nevada, and...

, California International Business University
California International Business University
California International Business University was founded in 1994 as a non-profit, private university in San Diego, California, USA. The university is located in the Little Italy section of downtown San Diego. CIBU is accredited by the Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools...

 (CIBU), San Diego Christian College
San Diego Christian College
San Diego Christian College is a private, evangelical Christian college located in El Cajon, California, in suburban San Diego, affiliated with the Southern Baptist Convention.-History:In January 1970, Tim F...

, John Paul the Great Catholic University
John Paul the Great Catholic University
John Paul the Great Catholic University is located in San Diego, California. It currently offers Bachelor of Science degrees in Communications Media and Business, each with two or more concentrations offered...

, California College San Diego, Coleman University
Coleman University
Coleman University is a private, non-profit institution, centered in Information Technology education with campuses located in San Diego and San Marcos, California. Coleman has a technology-based curriculum with undergraduate, graduate, and distance education academic programs. Coleman University...

, University of Redlands
University of Redlands
The University of Redlands is a private liberal arts and sciences university located in Redlands, California. The university's campus sits on near downtown Redlands. The university was founded in 1907 and was associated with the American Baptist Church. The land for the university was donated by...

 School of Business, Design Institute of San Diego (DISD), Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising
Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising
FIDM, Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising, is a specialized for-profit private college located in California dedicated to educating students for the Fashion, Entertainment, Beauty, Interior Design, and Graphic Design industries....

's San Diego campus, NewSchool of Architecture and Design
NewSchool of Architecture and Design
NewSchool of Architecture and Design is a for-profit institution of higher education located in downtown San Diego. NSAD professional programs in architecture accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board include:...

, Pacific Oaks College
Pacific Oaks College
Pacific Oaks College is located in Pasadena, California, United States. Pacific Oaks College is a higher education institution that has full & part-time undergraduate and graduate students throughout Pacific Oaks' California campuses as well as online...

 San Diego Campus, Chapman University
Chapman University
Chapman University is a private, non-profit university located in Orange, California affiliated with the Christian Church . Known for its blend of liberal arts and professional programs, Chapman University encompasses seven schools and colleges: Lawrence and Kristina Dodge College of Film and Media...

's San Diego Campus, The Art Institute of California-San Diego, Southern States University
Southern States University
Southern States University is a for-profit American university with four locations in Southern California. The Chancellor and Chief Operating Officer is John Tucker.-History:The institution was founded in 1983, originally in Orange County, California...

 (SSU), UEI College
UEI College
UEI College is a career education school that specializes in automobile, business, computer, dental, medical, and pharmacy professions. The school was founded in 1982 as United Education Institute, and changed its name to UEI College in 2009...

, and Woodbury University
Woodbury University
Woodbury University, founded as "Woodbury Business College", is a private, non-profit, coeducational, nonsectarian university located in Burbank, California.-History:...

 School of Architecture's satellite campus.

There is one medical school in the city, the UCSD School of Medicine. There are three ABA
American Bar Association
The American Bar Association , founded August 21, 1878, is a voluntary bar association of lawyers and law students, which is not specific to any jurisdiction in the United States. The ABA's most important stated activities are the setting of academic standards for law schools, and the formulation...

 accredited law schools in the city, which include California Western School of Law
California Western School of Law
California Western School of Law, founded in 1924, is a private, non-profit law school located in San Diego, California. It is popularly known as California Western or Cal Western and formerly California Western University. The school was approved by the American Bar Association in 1962 and became...

, Thomas Jefferson School of Law
Thomas Jefferson School of Law
Thomas Jefferson School of Law, or TJSL, is an independent law school in San Diego, California. It offers a Juris Doctor, and three Master of Laws programs, including one that is exclusively online, as well as a combined J.D./M.B.A. with San Diego State University...

, and University of San Diego School of Law
University of San Diego School of Law
The University of San Diego School of Law, commonly referred to as USD Law, is a law school located on the campus of the University of San Diego in San Diego, California in the community of Linda Vista. Founded in 1954, the law school has held ABA approval since 1961...

. There is also one unaccredited law school, Western Sierra Law School
Western Sierra Law School
Western Sierra Law School is a private, independent and non-sectarian postsecondary degree granting institution located in San Diego, California.-State Bar registration:...

.

Libraries

The city-run San Diego Public Library
San Diego Public Library
The San Diego Public Library is a public library system serving the city of San Diego, California.-History:The San Diego Public Library was established on May 19, 1882, by an elected board of library trustees. The first location was rented space in the Commercial Bank building at Fifth and G...

 system is headquartered downtown and has 34 branches throughout the city. The libraries have had reduced operating hours since 2003 due to the city's financial problems. In 2006 the city increased spending on libraries by $2.1 million. In the new 2011 budget, the mayor proposed further reducing library hours to 18 hours per week.

In addition to the municipal public library system, there are nearly two dozen libraries open to the public which are run by other governmental agencies and by schools, colleges, and universities. Noteworthy among them are the Malcolm A. Love Library
Malcolm A. Love Library
Malcolm A. Love Library , opened in 1971, is the primary academic library building on the campus of San Diego State University in San Diego, California...

 at San Diego State University and the Geisel Library
Geisel Library
The Geisel Library is the main library building on the University of California, San Diego campus and contains four of the six libraries located on campus...

 at the University of California, San Diego.

Culture

Many popular museums, such as the San Diego Museum of Art
San Diego Museum of Art
The San Diego Museum of Art is a fine arts museum located in Balboa Park in San Diego, California that houses a broad collection with particular strength in Spanish art. The San Diego Museum of Art opened as The Fine Arts Gallery of San Diego on February 28, 1926, and changed its name to the San...

, the San Diego Natural History Museum
San Diego Natural History Museum
The San Diego Natural History Museum was founded in 1874 as the San Diego Society of Natural History. The present location of the museum in San Diego's Balboa Park was dedicated on January 14, 1933....

, the San Diego Museum of Man
San Diego Museum of Man
The San Diego Museum of Man is a museum of anthropology located in Balboa Park, San Diego, California and housed in several historic landmark buildings.-Exhibits:...

, and the Museum of Photographic Arts
Museum of Photographic Arts
The Museum of Photographic Arts or MoPA is a museum in San Diego’s Balboa Park. First founded in 1974, MoPA opened in 1983. MoPA is one of three museums in the US dedicated exclusively to the collection and preservation of photography, with a mission to inspire, educate and engage the broadest...

 are located in Balboa Park. The Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego
Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego
The Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego , in San Diego, California, USA, is an art museum focused on the collection, preservation, exhibition, and interpretation of works of art from 1950 to the present.-History:...

 (MCASD) is located in La Jolla and has a branch located at the Santa Fe Depot
Union Station (San Diego)
Union Station in San Diego, California, also known as the Santa Fe Depot, is a train station built by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway to replace the small Victorian-style structure erected in 1887 for the California Southern Railroad Company. The Spanish Colonial Revival style station is...

 downtown. The Columbia district
Columbia, San Diego, California
Columbia is a neighborhood located in Downtown San Diego, California. The neighborhood is largely commercial, however there are a large number of highrise condominium buildings under construction....

 downtown is home to historic ship exhibits belonging to the San Diego Maritime Museum, headlined by the Star of India
Star of India (ship)
Star of India was built in 1863 as Euterpe, a full-rigged iron windjammer ship in Ramsey, Isle of Man. After a full career sailing from Great Britain to India and New Zealand, she became a salmon hauler on the Alaska to California route...

, as well as the unrelated San Diego Aircraft Carrier Museum
San Diego Aircraft Carrier Museum
The USS Midway Museum is a maritime museum located in downtown San Diego, California at Navy Pier. The museum consists of the aircraft carrier .-History:...

 featuring the USS Midway
USS Midway (CV-41)
USS Midway was an aircraft carrier of the United States Navy, the lead ship of her class, and the first to be commissioned after the end of World War II...

 aircraft carrier.

The San Diego Symphony
San Diego Symphony
The San Diego Symphony is an American symphony orchestra, based in San Diego, California. On 6 December 1910, it gave its first concert as the San Diego Civic Orchestra.Currently, the Symphony performs over 100 concerts each season...

 at Symphony Towers performs on a regular basis and is directed by Jahja Ling
Jahja Ling
Jahja Ling is an orchestra conductor. He is of Chinese descent and is now an American citizen. He began to play the piano at age 4 and studied at the Yayasan Pendidikan Musik School of Music. At age 17, he won the Jakarta Piano Competition and, one year later, was awarded a Rockefeller grant to...

. The San Diego Opera
San Diego Opera
The San Diego Opera Association is a professional opera company located in the city of San Diego, California and is a member of OPERA America. It was founded in 1950 to present productions by San Francisco Opera in the San Diego area...

 at Civic Center Plaza, directed by Ian Campbell, was ranked by Opera America
Opera America
Opera America, officially OPERA America, is a service organization in North America promoting the creation, presentation, and enjoyment of opera...

 as one of the top 10 opera companies in the United States. Old Globe Theatre
Old Globe Theatre
The Old Globe is a professional theatre company located in Balboa Park in San Diego, California. It produces about 15 plays and musicals annually in summer and winter seasons...

 at Balboa Park produces about 15 plays and musicals annually. The La Jolla Playhouse
La Jolla Playhouse
La Jolla Playhouse is a not-for-profit, professional theatre-in-residence on the campus of the University of California, San Diego. -Background:...

 at UCSD is directed by Christopher Ashley
Christopher Ashley
Christopher Ashley is a stage director. Since 2007, he has been the artistic director of the La Jolla Playhouse.In 1997, he completed The Drama League program for directors....

. Both the Old Globe Theatre and the La Jolla Playhouse have produced the world premieres of plays and musicals that have gone on to win Tony Awards or nominations on Broadway. The Joan B. Kroc Theatre at Kroc Center's Performing Arts Center is a 600-seat state-of-the-art theatre that hosts music, dance, and theatre performances. The San Diego Repertory Theatre
San Diego Repertory Theatre
The San Diego Repertory Theatre was developed out of Indian Magique, a street theater group of actors/writers/directors/producers who were fellow theatre graduates from USIU. Founded initially in 1975 by Sam Woodhouse, Christopher R, John Lee and others, they met in the loft of the old Spreckels...

 at the Lyceum Theatres in Horton Plaza produces a variety of plays and musicals. Other professional theatrical production companies include the Lyric Opera San Diego
Lyric opera san diego
Lyric Opera San Diego is a San Diego, California based theatre company specialising in Comic opera, Operetta, and Musical theatre. The company was founded in 1979, primarily for the purpose of performing Gilbert and Sullivan operettas. At the time it was known as the San Diego Gilbert and Sullivan...

 and the Starlight Musical Theatre
Starlight Bowl (San Diego)
The Starlight Bowl is an amphitheater located in Balboa Park in San Diego, California. It was constructed for the 1935-1936 California Pacific International Exposition and seats 4,300...

. Hundreds of movies and a dozen TV shows have been filmed in San Diego, a tradition going back as far as 1898.

Sports



The National Football League
National Football League
The National Football League is the highest level of professional American football in the United States, and is considered the top professional American football league in the world. It was formed by eleven teams in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association, with the league changing...

's San Diego Chargers
San Diego Chargers
The San Diego Chargers are a professional American football team based in San Diego, California. they were members of the Western Division of the American Football Conference in the National Football League...

 play in Qualcomm Stadium
Qualcomm Stadium
Qualcomm Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium, in San Diego, California, in the Mission Valley area....

. Three NFL
National Football League
The National Football League is the highest level of professional American football in the United States, and is considered the top professional American football league in the world. It was formed by eleven teams in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association, with the league changing...

 Super Bowl
Super Bowl
The Super Bowl is the championship game of the National Football League , the highest level of professional American football in the United States, culminating a season that begins in the late summer of the previous calendar year. The Super Bowl uses Roman numerals to identify each game, rather...

 championships have been held there. Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is the highest level of professional baseball in the United States and Canada, consisting of teams that play in the National League and the American League...

's San Diego Padres
San Diego Padres
The San Diego Padres are a Major League Baseball team based in San Diego, California. They play in the National League Western Division. Founded in 1969, the Padres have won the National League Pennant twice, in 1984 and 1998, losing in the World Series both times...

 play in Petco Park
PETCO Park
Petco Park is an open-air ballpark in downtown San Diego, California, USA. It opened in 2004, replacing Qualcomm Stadium as the home park of Major League Baseball's San Diego Padres. Before then, the Padres shared Qualcomm Stadium with the NFL's San Diego Chargers...

. Parts of the World Baseball Classic
World Baseball Classic
The World Baseball Classic is an international baseball tournament sanctioned by the International Baseball Federation and created by Major League Baseball , the Major League Baseball Players Association , and other professional baseball leagues and their players associations around the world...

 were played there in 2006 and 2009.

NCAA Division I San Diego State Aztecs men's and women's basketball
College basketball
College basketball most often refers to the USA basketball competitive governance structure established by the National Collegiate Athletic Association . Basketball in the NCAA is divided into three divisions: Division I, Division II and Division III....

 games are played at Viejas Arena at Aztec Bowl on the campus of San Diego State University
San Diego State University
San Diego State University , founded in 1897 as San Diego Normal School, is the largest and oldest higher education facility in the greater San Diego area , and is part of the California State University system...

. College football
College football
College football refers to American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities, colleges, and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities...

 and soccer, basketball
College basketball
College basketball most often refers to the USA basketball competitive governance structure established by the National Collegiate Athletic Association . Basketball in the NCAA is divided into three divisions: Division I, Division II and Division III....

 and volleyball are played at the Torero Stadium
Torero Stadium
The Torero Stadium is a 6,000-seat stadium in San Diego, California that is primarily used for soccer and American football. It was built in 1961...

 and the Jenny Craig Pavilion
Jenny Craig Pavilion
Jenny Craig Pavilion is a 5,100 seat, multi-purpose arena, built in 2000 in San Diego, California, on the campus of the University of San Diego. It was named for weight-loss entrepreneur Jenny Craig. The Pavilion is sometimes affectionately known as the "Slim Gym", a punning reference to the...

 at USD.

The San Diego State Aztecs (MWC
Mountain West Conference
The Mountain West Conference , popularly known as the Mountain West, is the youngest of the college athletic conferences affiliated with the NCAA’s Division I FBS . The MWC officially began operations in July 1999...

) and the University of San Diego Toreros (WCC
West Coast Conference
The West Coast Conference is an NCAA collegiate athletics conference consisting of nine member schools across the states of California, Oregon, Utah and Washington....

) are NCAA Division I teams. The UCSD Tritons (CCAA
California Collegiate Athletic Association
The California Collegiate Athletic Association or CCAA is an intercollegiate athletic conference in the Division II of the NCAA. All of its current members are public universities, and all except for UC San Diego are members of the California State University system.It was founded in December 1938...

) are members of NCAA Division II while the Point Loma Nazarene Sea Lions
Point Loma Nazarene University
Point Loma Nazarene University is a Christian liberal arts college. Its main campus is located on the Point Loma oceanfront in San Diego, California. It was founded in 1902 as a Bible college by the Church of the Nazarene.-History:...

 and San Diego Christian College
San Diego Christian College
San Diego Christian College is a private, evangelical Christian college located in El Cajon, California, in suburban San Diego, affiliated with the Southern Baptist Convention.-History:In January 1970, Tim F...

 (GSAC
Golden State Athletic Conference
The Golden State Athletic Conference is a college athletics conference in the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics . The conference commissioner is Cliff Hamlow of Azusa Pacific University. Conference leadership is shared among the member institutions. The conference was formed in...

) are members of the NAIA
National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics
The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics is an athletic association that organizes college and university-level athletic programs. Membership in the NAIA consists of smaller colleges and universities across the United States. The NAIA allows colleges and universities outside the USA...

.

Qualcomm stadium also houses the NCAA Division I San Diego State Aztecs
SDSU Aztecs
The San Diego State Aztecs are the collegiate athletics and sports teams for San Diego State University .San Diego State has organized programs for baseball, basketball, football, soccer, golf, gymnastics, rowing , softball, tennis, track, swimming, diving, women's volleyball, and water polo.The...

, as well as local high school football
High school football
High school football, in North America, refers to the game of football as it is played in the United States and Canada. It ranks among the most popular interscholastic sports in both of these nations....

 championships, international soccer games, and supercross
Supercross
Supercross is a motorcycle racing sport involving off-road motorcycles on an artificially-made dirt tracks consisting of steep jumps and obstacles. Professional supercross contest races are held almost exclusively within professional baseball and football stadiums.-History:Supercross was derived...

 events. Two of college football
College football
College football refers to American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities, colleges, and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities...

's annual bowl games are also held there: the Holiday Bowl
Holiday Bowl
The Holiday Bowl is a post-season NCAA-sanctioned Division I-A college football bowl game that has been played annually at Qualcomm Stadium in San Diego, California, since 1978. Beginning with the 2010 playing the bowl will officially be known as the Bridgepoint Education Holiday Bowl after...

 and the Poinsettia Bowl
Poinsettia Bowl
The Poinsettia Bowl is a post-season NCAA-sanctioned Division I-A college football bowl game that was created in 2005. The game was created by the organizers of the Holiday Bowl and is played annually at Qualcomm Stadium in San Diego, California. The game is currently sponsored by the San Diego...

. Soccer, American football
American football
American football is a sport played between two teams of eleven with the objective of scoring points by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone. Known in the United States simply as football, it may also be referred to informally as gridiron football. The ball can be advanced by...

, and track and field are played in Balboa Stadium
Balboa Stadium
Balboa Stadium is a football and soccer stadium located in San Diego, California. The original stadium was built in 1914 as part of the many buildings erected for the 1915 Panama-California Exposition located in Balboa Park. Originally called City Stadium, and designed by the Quayle Brothers...

, the city's first stadium, constructed in 1914.

Rugby union
Rugby union
Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

 is a developing sport in the city. The USA Sevens
USA Sevens
The USA Sevens is an annual rugby sevens tournament held in the United States. A part of the IRB Sevens World Series, it currently takes place on Saturday and Sunday during the second weekend of February...

, a major rugby event, was held there from 2007 through 2009. San Diego is one of only 16 cities in the United States included in the Rugby Super League  represented by Old Mission Beach Athletic Club RFC
Old Mission Beach Athletic Club RFC
Old Mission Beach Athletic Club Rugby Football Club is a rugby union team based in San Diego, California. OMBAC RFC is directly affiliated with the Old Mission Beach Athletic Club...

, the home club of USA Rugby
United States national rugby union team
USA Rugby's men's national rugby union team, nicknamed the Eagles, represents the United States in the sport of rugby union. The Eagles are currently ranked 17th by the IRB World Rankings. Their highest ranking was from November 2, 2006 – September 10, 2007 at the 14th position...

's Captain Todd Clever
Todd Clever
Todd Stanger Clever is an American rugby union player. He is currently the Captain of the USA rugby union team. His current club is Suntory in Japan. In rugby Clever plays as a flanker, but while playing for the USA Sevens side he plays as a prop.-Club career:Todd joined Suntory of Japan in June...

 who plays rugby professionally in Japan's Top League
Top League
The Top League is a professional rugby union league created by the Japan Rugby Football Union to drive up the overall standard and popularity of the sport in the country and improve the results of the Japan national rugby union team. The first season was 2003-04 and featured 12 teams...

 with Suntory Sungoliath
Suntory Sungoliath
Suntory Sungoliath is owned by the Suntory beverage company and is one of the Japanese rugby union teams in the Top League. The team is based in Fuchū, Tokyo, as is their local rival Toshiba Brave Lupus...

. San Diego will participate in the Western American National Rugby League which starts in 2011.

The San Diego Surf
San Diego Surf
The San Diego Surf is a professional basketball team of the American Basketball Association based in San Diego, California which began play in 2009...

 of the American Basketball Association
American Basketball Association (2000–present)
The American Basketball Association, often abbreviated as ABA, is a semi-professional men's basketball league that was founded in 1999. The current ABA has no affiliation with the original American Basketball Association that merged with the National Basketball Association in 1976...

 is located in the city. The annual Farmers Insurance Open golf tournament (formerly the Buick Invitational) on the PGA Tour
PGA Tour
The PGA Tour is the organizer of the main men's professional golf tours in the United States and North America...

 occurs at the municipally owned Torrey Pines Golf Course
Torrey Pines Golf Course
Torrey Pines Golf Course is a municipal public golf course owned by the city of San Diego, California. It sits on the coastal cliffs overlooking the Pacific Ocean in the community of La Jolla south of Torrey Pines State Reserve. It has two famous golf courses, the North Course and the South Course....

. This course was also the site of the 2008 U.S. Open Golf Championship
2008 U.S. Open Golf Championship
The 2008 United States Open Championship was the 108th U.S. Open, played from June 12 to June 16 at Torrey Pines, north of San Diego. The U.S. Open was held at the Torrey Pines for the first time, and took place on the South Course. Tiger Woods won his third U.S...

. The San Diego Yacht Club
San Diego Yacht Club
San Diego Yacht Club is a yacht club located in San Diego Bay. Its address is 1011 Anchorage Lane, San Diego, CA 92106. It is located in Point Loma across from a spit of land known as Shelter Island.- Facilities :...

 hosted the America's Cup
America's Cup
The America’s Cup is a trophy awarded to the winner of the America's Cup match races between two yachts. One yacht, known as the defender, represents the yacht club that currently holds the America's Cup and the second yacht, known as the challenger, represents the yacht club that is challenging...

 yacht races three times during the period 1988 to 1995. The amateur beach sport Over-the-line
Over-the-line
Over-the-line is a bat-and-ball sport, a game related to baseball and softball. Like those games, you have the batter, pitcher, and fielders. Because a game requires only three people per team, it's considerably easier to get a good informal game going. Equipment consists of a rope , an...

 was invented in San Diego, and the annual world Over-the-line championships are held at Mission Bay every year.

Media

The following are published within the city: the daily newspaper, The San Diego Union-Tribune
The San Diego Union-Tribune
-Predecessors:The predecessor newspapers of the Union-Tribune were:* San Diego Sun, founded 1861 and merged with the Evening Tribune in 1939.* San Diego Union, founded October 10, 1868.* Evening Tribune, founded December 2, 1895.-Ownership:...

and its online portal, signonsandiego.com, and the alternative newsweeklies, the San Diego CityBeat
San Diego CityBeat
San Diego CityBeat is an alternative weekly newspaper in San Diego, California that focuses on local progressive politics, arts, and music. It is published every Wednesday and distributed around San Diego county, although with a focus on the city of San Diego itself, with a weekly circulation of...

and San Diego Reader
San Diego Reader
The San Diego Reader is the largest alternative press paper in the county of San Diego, distributed free in stands and private businesses throughout the county, funded by advertisements...

. Another newspaper is the North County Times
North County Times
The North County Times is a local newspaper in north San Diego County, California owned by Lee Enterprises. It is headquartered in Escondido. The current publisher is Peter York....

, which is distributed in San Diego's North County area. Voice of San Diego
Voice of San Diego
Voice of San Diego is a nonprofit news organization focused on issues affecting the San Diego region.The organization's mission is to "To consistently deliver ground-breaking investigative journalism for the San Diego region...

is a non-profit online-only news outlet covering government, politics, education, neighborhoods, and the arts. The San Diego Daily Transcript is a business-oriented daily newspaper.

San Diego led U.S. local markets with 69.6 percent broadband penetration in 2004 according to Nielsen//NetRatings
Nielsen Ratings
Nielsen ratings are the audience measurement systems developed by Nielsen Media Research, in an effort to determine the audience size and composition of television programming in the United States...

.

San Diego's first television station was KFMB
KFMB-TV
KFMB-TV is the local CBS television affiliate in San Diego, California. Its studios are located on Engineer Road in the Kearny Mesa area of San Diego along with its sister radio stations, AM 760 and FM 100.7...

, which began broadcasting on May 16, 1949. Since the Federal Communications Commission
Federal Communications Commission
The Federal Communications Commission is an independent agency of the United States government, created, Congressional statute , and with the majority of its commissioners appointed by the current President. The FCC works towards six goals in the areas of broadband, competition, the spectrum, the...

 (FCC) licensed seven television stations in Los Angeles, two VHF channels were available for San Diego because of its relative proximity to the larger city. In 1952, however, the FCC began licensing UHF channels, making it possible for cities such as San Diego to acquire more stations. Stations based in Mexico (with ITU prefix
ITU prefix
The International Telecommunication Union allocates call sign prefixes for radio and television stations of all types. They also form the basis for, but do not exactly match, aircraft registration identifiers. These prefixes are agreed upon internationally, and are a form of country code...

es of XE and XH) also serve the San Diego market. Television stations today include XHTJB
XHTJB-TV
XHTJB is the television call sign for the local Once TV repeater in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico....

 3 (Once TV
Once TV
Once TV México, Spanish for México Eleven TV is a Mexican educational broadcast television network owned by Instituto Politecnico Nacional. The network's flagship station is XEIPN channel 11 in Mexico, Distrito Federal. It broadcasts across Mexico through local television affiliates, cable...

), XETV 6 (CW
The CW Television Network
The CW Television Network is a television network in the United States launched at the beginning of the 2006–2007 television season. It is a joint venture between CBS Corporation, the former owners of United Paramount Network , and Time Warner's Warner Bros., former majority owner of The WB...

), KFMB
KFMB-TV
KFMB-TV is the local CBS television affiliate in San Diego, California. Its studios are located on Engineer Road in the Kearny Mesa area of San Diego along with its sister radio stations, AM 760 and FM 100.7...

 8 (CBS
CBS
CBS Broadcasting Inc. is a major US commercial broadcasting television network, which started as a radio network. The name is derived from the initials of the network's former name, Columbia Broadcasting System. The network is sometimes referred to as the "Eye Network" in reference to the shape of...

), KGTV
KGTV
KGTV, digital channel 10, is the ABC television affiliate in San Diego, California. The station can be seen on Cox Communications, Time Warner Cable, and AT&T U-verse on cable channel 10 in standard definition. Cox Communications and Time Warner Cable carry its high definition signal on cable...

 10 (ABC
American Broadcasting Company
The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network. Created in 1943 from the former NBC Blue radio network, ABC is owned by The Walt Disney Company and is part of Disney-ABC Television Group. Its first broadcast on television was in 1948...

), XEWT
XEWT-TV
XEWT-TV is the television call sign for the Televisa television station in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. Informally called "Tu Canal" , the channel can also be seen in most parts of the San Diego market. It is also available on Ku band via the SatMex 5 satellite at 116.8°W...

 12 (Televisa Regional
Televisa Regional
Televisa Regional refers to Televisa owned television stations that broadcast select programming from Televisa's Canal de las Estrellas, FOROtv, Canal 5, and/or Galavisión, Televisa Networks and locally produced programming...

), KPBS 15 (PBS
Public Broadcasting Service
The Public Broadcasting Service is an American non-profit public broadcasting television network with 354 member TV stations in the United States which hold collective ownership. Its headquarters is in Arlington, Virginia....

), KBNT 17 (Univision
Univision
Univision is a Spanish-language television network in the United States. It has the largest audience of Spanish language television viewers according to Nielsen ratings. Randy Falco, COO, has been in charge of the company since the departure of Univision Communications president and CEO Joe Uva...

), XHTIT 21 (Azteca 7
Azteca 7
Azteca 7 or El 7 is a network owned by TV Azteca, with affiliate stations all over Mexico all of which are owned and operated by TV Azteca. Azteca 7 uses Mexico, Distrito Federal's XHIMT as its flagship station and its channel as part of its name. Azteca 7's programming is available in HD and is...

), XHJK 27 (Azteca 13
Azteca 13
Azteca 13 is a television broadcast network owned by TV Azteca, with affiliate stations all over Mexico all of which are owned and operated by TV Azteca. Azteca 13 uses Mexico, Distrito Federal's XHDF as its flagship station and its channel as part of its name...

), KSDX-LP
KSDX-LP
KSDX-LD is a low-powered television station broadcasting as a Spanish independent in San Diego, California. It converted to digital about Oct 22, 2009. It broadcasts on channel 9 with a PSIP of 29, and is under ownership of Liberman Broadcasting....

 29 (Spanish Independent), XHAS
XHAS-TV
XHAS-TV, channel 33, is the Telemundo-affiliated television station for San Diego, California, licensed to Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, with studios and offices in San Diego, shared with KBNT-CA and XHDTV-TV...

 33 (Telemundo
Telemundo
Telemundo is an American television network that broadcasts in Spanish. The network is the second-largest Spanish-language content producer in the world, and the second-largest Spanish-language network in the United States, behind Univision....

), K35DG
K35DG
K35DG, known on-air as UCSD TV, is a U.S. Class-A Education-access television station owned by the University of California, San Diego. They broadcast on UHF channel 35 in San Diego, as well as Time Warner Cable channel 18 and Cox digital cable TV channel 135. The channel airs public lectures, as...

 35 (UCSD-TV), KDTF 36 (Telefutura
TeleFutura
TeleFutura is a U.S. Spanish-language broadcast television network owned by Univision with headquarters in Miami, Florida.-Overview:TeleFutura Is America’s #2 Spanish-Language Network in prime time...

), KNSD
KNSD
KNSD is the NBC television station based in San Diego, California. It is owned by a joint venture of NBCUniversal and LIN TV . However, because NBCUniversal has majority control, KNSD is run as an NBC owned and operated station...

 39 (NBC
NBC
The National Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network and former radio network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's Rockefeller Center with additional major offices near Los Angeles and in Chicago...

), KZSD-LP
KZSD-LP
KZSD-LP is a low-powered television station in San Diego, California, broadcasting locally on channel 41 as an affiliate of Azteca America. Initially licensed September 25, 1997 , the station is owned by McGraw-Hill along with sister station KGTV, which carries the station's digital signal over...

 41 (Azteca America
Azteca América
Azteca América is a broadcast television network marketed toward Spanish-speaking families residing in the United States. As a rapidly-growing Spanish language network, Azteca América now reaches 89% of the Hispanic households in the U.S., operating in sixty-two markets nationwide. Wholly owned by...

), KSEX-CA 43 (Infomercials), XHBJ 45 (Canal 5
Canal 5 (Televisa Network)
Canal 5 is a television network owned by Televisa, broadcasting from Mexico City and originating from its flagship station, XHGC-TV. Most programming on this station is intended for children and young people, while at night usually features foreign drama and action series, as well a movies...

), XHDTV 49 (MNTV
MyNetworkTV
MyNetworkTV is a television broadcast syndication service in the United States, owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a division of News Corporation...

), KUSI 51 (Independent), XHUAA 57 (Canal de las Estrellas
Canal de las Estrellas
Canal de las Estrellas is one of the cornerstone networks of Televisa, with affiliate stations all over Mexico, flagshipped at XEW-TV in Mexico City. Many of the programs of Canal de las Estrellas are seen in the United States on Univision, Telefutura, and Galavisión...

),and KSWB-TV
KSWB-TV
KSWB-TV, virtual channel 69, is a Fox-affiliated television station in San Diego, California. It broadcasts a 720p high definition digital signal on UHF channel 19 from a transmitter southeast of Spring Valley...

 69 (Fox
Fox Broadcasting Company
Fox Broadcasting Company, commonly referred to as Fox Network or simply Fox , is an American commercial broadcasting television network owned by Fox Entertainment Group, part of Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation. Launched on October 9, 1986, Fox was the highest-rated broadcast network in the...

). San Diego has an 80.6 percent cable penetration rate.
The radio stations in San Diego include nationwide broadcaster, Clear Channel Communications
Clear Channel Communications
Clear Channel Communications, Inc. is an American media conglomerate company headquartered in San Antonio, Texas. It was founded in 1972 by Lowry Mays and Red McCombs, and was taken private by Bain Capital LLC and Thomas H. Lee Partners LP in a leveraged buyout in 2008...

; CBS Radio
CBS Radio
CBS Radio, Inc., formerly known as Infinity Broadcasting Corporation, is one of the largest owners and operators of radio stations in the United States, third behind main rival Clear Channel Communications and Cumulus Media. CBS Radio owns around 130 radio stations across the country...

, Midwest Television, Lincoln Financial Media
Lincoln Financial Media
Lincoln Financial Media is a subsidiary of Lincoln National Corporation that owns radio stations in the United States.-History:In April 2006, Lincoln Financial acquired Jefferson-Pilot's television and radio operations, which were renamed Lincoln Financial Media. The group owns 14 radio stations in...

, Finest City Broadcasting, and many other smaller stations and networks. Stations include: KOGO AM 600, KFMB AM 760
KFMB (AM)
KFMB is a conservative talk radio station in San Diego, California, co-owned with KFMB-FM and KFMB-TV. KFMB is one of the few stations in the U.S. that increases power at night. The daytime power is limited due to KBRT , a religious-programming station with transmitters on Santa Catalina Island....

, KCEO AM 1000
KCEO
AM 1000 KCEO, Vista, California. Their typical signal strength is 2500 watts directional day, 250 watts directional at night. Transmitter is located near State Route 76, north of the city of license of Vista and is east of Oceanside. Studios are located in Carlsbad, California. This station is part...

, KCBQ AM 1170
KCBQ
KCBQ is a radio station broadcasting a News Talk Information format and is owned by Salem Communications. The station offers Conservative talk programming such as Mike Gallagher, Dennis Prager and Michael Medved...

, K-Praise
KPRZ
1210 KPRZ is owned and operated by Salem Communications and offers Christian talk such as David Jeremiah and Christian music on Saturday nights for the San Diego market. It is licensed to San Marcos, California. The three broadcast antennas are near the area in the city, which recently became a...

, KLSD AM 1360
KLSD
KLSD is a sports station based in San Diego, California. The sports programming began on November 12, 2007. Previously, KLSD's format was progressive talk radio....

 Air America
Air America Radio
Air America was an American radio network specializing in progressive talk programming...

, KFSD 1450 AM
KFSD
KFSD AM 1450 is an adult standards radio station based in North County, San Diego, California. It is owned and operated by Astor Broadcast Group...

, KPBS-FM
KPBS-FM
KPBS-FM is a non-commercial public radio station licensed to San Diego State University, broadcasting in San Diego on 89.5 MHz, 89.1 MHz K206AC in La Jolla, and on 97.7 MHz KQVO in Calexico, Imperial County. The station is affiliated with National Public Radio, with programming...

 89.5, Channel 933
KHTS-FM
KHTS-FM, also known as "Channel 933" or simply "nine-three-three", is a Contemporary Hit Radio station in San Diego, California, broadcasting in analog and digital HD Radio...

, Star 94.1
KMYI
KMYI is a commercial radio station in San Diego, California, broadcasting on 94.1 FM and in HD Radio. KMYI airs a hot adult contemporary music format branded as "Star 94.1".-History:...

, FM 94/9
KBZT
KBZT is a commercial modern rock music radio station in San Diego, California, broadcasting on 94.9 FM.-History:During the 1970s and '80s, KBZT was known as "KBest95" but in the 1980s morphed from oldies into soft rock, before being sold to Sandusky Radio and becoming "Y95" in 1987...

, FM News and Talk 95.7
KUSS
KOGO-FM is a news/talk radio station licensed to Carlsbad, California, simulcasting KOGO 600 AM San Diego. KOGO-FM is one of the seven San Diego stations owned and operated by Clear Channel Communications.-History:...

, Q96
KSIQ
KSIQ is a move-in FM radio station from Brawley to San Diego, California. The station has a main transmitter site in Campo, California, east of San Diego and West of El Centro, with a booster transmitter on Mount San Miguel...

 96.1, KyXy
KYXY
KYXY is a San Diego, California, radio station with an adult contemporary music format. Its name is pronounced Kicksy.KyXy 96.5 broadcasts in HD Radio...

 96.5, Free Radio San Diego
Free Radio San Diego
Free Radio San Diego was an unlicensed radio station located in San Diego, California. The founders claim that its creation was a reaction to Federal Communications Commission restrictions on new radio licenses. They provided a commercial-free unlicensed broadcast beginning on October 13, 2002...

 (AKA Pirate Radio
Pirate radio
Pirate radio is illegal or unregulated radio transmission. The term is most commonly used to describe illegal broadcasting for entertainment or political purposes, but is also sometimes used for illegal two-way radio operation...

 San Diego) 96.9FM FRSD, KSON
KSON
KSON is a radio station licensed to serve San Diego, California, USA. The station, founded in 1964, is owned by Lincoln Financial Media and the broadcast license is held by Lincoln Financial Media Company of California....

 97.3/92.1, KIFM
KIFM
KIFM is a commercial Smooth Jazz/Urban AC/Soft AC music radio station located in San Diego, California, broadcasting on 98.1 FM branded as 98.1 Smooth FM-History:...

 98.1, Jack-FM 100.7
KFMB-FM
KFMB-FM is a commercial radio station located in San Diego, California, broadcasting on 100.7 FM. KFMB-FM airs an adult hits music format branded as "Jack FM".-History:...

, 101.5 KGB-FM
KGB-FM
KGB-FM is a classic rock radio station in San Diego, California. It is owned and operated by Clear Channel Communications.-History:...

, KPRI
KPRI
KPRI is an AAA Station in San Diego, California, that plays blues, reggae, folk, pop, and rock music from the mid-1960s through the present....

 102.1, Rock 105.3
KIOZ
KIOZ, also known as Rock 105.3, is a Rock station in San Diego, California. It is licensed in San Diego, California, and is owned by Clear Channel Communications.- History :...

, and another Pirate Radio
Pirate radio
Pirate radio is illegal or unregulated radio transmission. The term is most commonly used to describe illegal broadcasting for entertainment or political purposes, but is also sometimes used for illegal two-way radio operation...

station at 106.9FM, as well as a number of local Spanish language radio stations.

Local government

The city is governed by a mayor and an 8-member city council. In 2006, the city's form of government changed from a "city manager
City manager
A city manager is an official appointed as the administrative manager of a city, in a council-manager form of city government. Local officials serving in this position are sometimes referred to as the chief executive officer or chief administrative officer in some municipalities...

 system" to a "strong mayor
Mayor-council government
The mayor–council government system, sometimes called the mayor–commission government system, is one of the two most common forms of local government for municipalities...

 system". The change was brought about by a citywide vote in 2004. The mayor is in effect the chief executive officer of the city, while the council is the legislative body.

The members of the city council are each elected from single member districts within the city. The mayor and city attorney are elected directly by the voters of the entire city. The mayor, city attorney, and council members are elected to four-year terms, with a two-term limit. Elections are held on a non-partisan basis per California state law; nevertheless, most officeholders do identify themselves as either Democrats or Republicans.

Although San Diego has a Republican mayor, in 2007, registered Democrats outnumbered Republicans by about 7 to 6 in the city, and Democrats currently hold a 5–3 majority in the City Council.

San Diego is part of San Diego County which is governed by a 5-member Board of Supervisors. The City of San Diego includes all or part of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th supervisorial districts, represented by Republican
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP . The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S...

 County Supervisors Greg Cox, Dianne Jacob, Pam Slater-Price and Ron Roberts.

Areas of the city immediately adjacent to San Diego Bay
San Diego Bay
San Diego Bay is a natural harbor and deepwater port adjacent to San Diego, California. It is 12 mi/19 km long, 1 mi/1.6 km–3 mi/4.8 km wide...

 ("tidelands
Tidelands
Tidelands are the territory between the high and low water tide line of sea coasts, and lands lying under the sea beyond the low-water limit of the tide, considered within the territorial waters of a nation. The United States Constitution does not specify whether ownership of these lands rests with...

") are administered by the Port of San Diego
Port of San Diego
The Port of San Diego is a self-supporting public benefit corporation established in 1962 by an act of the California State Legislature. In 2007, The U.S. Bureau of Transportation Statistics ranked the Port of San Diego as one of America's top 30 U.S. containership ports bringing in nearly of...

, a quasi-governmental agency which owns all the property in the tidelands and is responsible for its land use planning, policing, and similar functions. San Diego is a member of the regional planning agency San Diego Association of Governments
San Diego Association of Governments
The San Diego Association of Governments is an association of local San Diego County governments. It is the metropolitan planning organization for the County, with policy makers consisting of mayors, councilmembers, and a County Supervisors, and also has capital planning and fare setting powers...

 (SANDAG). Public schools within the city are managed and funded by independent school districts (see above).

State and federal

In the state legislature
California State Legislature
The California State Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of California. It is a bicameral body consisting of the lower house, the California State Assembly, with 80 members, and the upper house, the California State Senate, with 40 members...

 San Diego is located in the 36th, 38th, 39th, and 40th Senate
California State Senate
The California State Senate is the upper house of the California State Legislature. There are 40 state senators. The state legislature meets in the California State Capitol in Sacramento. The Lieutenant Governor is the ex officio President of the Senate and may break a tied vote...

 District, represented by Republicans Joel Anderson
Joel Anderson
Joel Anderson is a California politician and Republican member of the California State Senate in the 36th Senate District. Before his election to the State Senate he was a member of the California Assembly representing the 77th Assembly District, and he also served on the Padre Dam Municipal Water...

 and Mark Wyland
Mark Wyland
Mark Bryan Wyland is a U.S. Republican politician from the state of California, who represents the 38th District in the California State Senate.-Biography:...

, and Democrats
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

 Christine Kehoe
Christine Kehoe
Christine T. Kehoe is an American politician from San Diego, California. A Democrat, she has served since 2004 as a member of the California State Senate representing the 39th district...

 and Juan Vargas
Juan Vargas
Juan C. Vargas is a Senator in the State of California, 40th District. He is a Democrat and former member of the California State Assembly, San Diego City Council, and Order of the Jesuits, having fought for the poor, aged, and infirmed....

, and in the 74th, 75th, 76th, 77th, 78th, and 79th Assembly
California State Assembly
The California State Assembly is the lower house of the California State Legislature. There are 80 members in the Assembly, representing an approximately equal number of constituents, with each district having a population of at least 420,000...

 District, represented by Republicans Martin Garrick
Martin Garrick
Martin W. Garrick represents the 74th district in the California State Assembly. He was elected to the Assembly in November 2006. Garrick served in the Reagan Administration and is a small business owner.-Background:...

 and Nathan Fletcher
Nathan Fletcher
Nathan Fletcher is a Republican member of the California State Assembly in the 75th Assembly District which includes the City of Poway, portions of Escondido, La Jolla, University City, Mira Mesa, Scripps Ranch, Rancho Bernardo, Rancho Peñasquitos, and Carmel Valley, and the communities of...

, Democrat Toni Atkins
Toni Atkins
Toni G. Atkins is an American Democratic politician and a member of the California State Assembly from San Diego's 76th district. She formerly served on San Diego City Council, leaving office in December 2008 due to term limits...

, Republican Brian Jones
Brian Jones
Lewis Brian Hopkins Jones , known as Brian Jones, was an English musician and a founding member of the Rolling Stones....

 and Democrats Marty Block
Marty Block
Marty Block represents California's 78th district in the California State Assembly. Assembly District 78 includes southern San Diego, Chula Vista, Lemon Grove and...

 and Ben Hueso
Ben Hueso
Benjamin "Ben" Hueso is a Democratic politician, was elected in November 2010 to represent the 79th District in the California State Assembly of the California State Legislature. Previously, he was elected in 2005 and reelected in 2006 to represent San Diego City Council District 8. He served as...

, respectively.

Federally, San Diego is located in California's 49th
California's 49th congressional district
California's 49th congressional district is a congressional district in the U.S. state of California that currently covers much of northern San Diego County and southwestern Riverside County.The district is currently represented by Republican Darrell E...

, 50th
California's 50th congressional district
California's 50th congressional district is a congressional district in the U.S. state of California based in San Diego County. The district consists of the northern coastal region of San Diego County and includes the suburbs of San Marcos, Carlsbad, Encinitas, Solana Beach, and Escondido.The...

, 51st
California's 51st congressional district
California's 51st congressional district is a congressional district in the U.S. state of California. The district includes all of Imperial County and the extreme southern portions of San Diego County that run across the U.S.-Mexico border...

, 52nd
California's 52nd congressional district
California's 52nd congressional district is a congressional district in the U.S. state of California based in San Diego County. The district consists of many of San Diego's suburbs, including Lakeside, Poway, Ramona, La Mesa, and Spring Valley....

, and 53rd
California's 53rd congressional district
California's 53rd congressional district is a congressional district in the U.S. state of California based in San Diego County. The districtincludes the heart of the city of San Diego and stretches south to the United States–Mexico border. Continuing east is the city of Lemon Grove. Just to the...

 congressional districts, which have Cook PVIs
Cook Partisan Voting Index
The Cook Partisan Voting Index , sometimes referred to as simply the Partisan Voting Index , is a measurement of how strongly an American congressional district or state leans toward one political party compared to the nation as a whole...

 of R +10, R +5, D +7, R +9, and D +12 respectively and are represented by Republicans Darrell Issa
Darrell Issa
Darrell Edward Issa is the U.S. Representative for , and previously the 48th, serving since 2001. He is a member of the Republican Party. He was formerly a CEO of Directed Electronics, the Vista, California-based manufacturer of automobile security and convenience products...

 and Brian Bilbray
Brian Bilbray
Brian Phillip Bilbray is the U.S. Representative for , serving since 2006, and previously for the 49th district from 1995 to 2001. He is a member of the Republican Party. Bilbray is Chairman of the House Immigration Reform Caucus and a member of the influential...

, Democrat Bob Filner
Bob Filner
Robert Earl Filner is the U.S. Representative for , and previously the 50th, serving since 1993, and Chairman of the House Committee on Veterans' Affairs since 2007. He is a member of the Democratic Party...

, Republican Duncan D. Hunter
Duncan D. Hunter
Duncan Duane Hunter is the U.S. Representative for , serving since 2009. He is a member of the Republican Party. He is the son of his predecessor Duncan Hunter...

, and Democrat Susan Davis, respectively.

Major scandals

In 1916, rainmaker
Rainmaking
Rainmaking refers to the act of attempting to artificially induce or increase precipitation, usually to stave off drought.In the US, rainmaking was attempted by traveling showmen. It was practiced in the old west but may have reached a peak during the dust bowl drought of the American West and...

 Charles Hatfield
Charles Hatfield
Charles Mallory Hatfield was an American "rainmaker". He was born in Fort Scott, Kansas in 1875 or 1876. His family moved to southern California in the 1880s. As an adult, he became a salesman for the New Home Sewing Machine Company...

 was blamed for $4 million in damages and accused of causing San Diego's worst flood, during which about twenty Japanese American
Japanese American
are American people of Japanese heritage. Japanese Americans have historically been among the three largest Asian American communities, but in recent decades have become the sixth largest group at roughly 1,204,205, including those of mixed-race or mixed-ethnicity...

 farmers died.

Then-mayor Roger Hedgecock
Roger Hedgecock
Roger Allan Hedgecock is a conservative talk radio host and former mayor of San Diego, California. His show is syndicated by Radio America. Hedgecock still resides in San Diego...

 was forced to resign his post in 1985, after he was found guilty of one count of conspiracy and twelve counts of perjury, related to the alleged failure to report all campaign contributions. After a series of appeals, the twelve perjury counts were dismissed in 1990 based on claims of juror misconduct; the remaining conspiracy count was reduced to a misdemeanor and then dismissed.

A 2002 scheme to underfund pensions for city employees led to the San Diego pension scandal
San Diego Pension Scandal
The San Diego City Employee's Retirement Pension Fund was the source of a multiyear scandal and has been an ongoing financial concern for the city of San Diego, California. This scandal has been compared to a similar scandal in Bell, California...

. This resulted in the resignation of newly re-elected Mayor Dick Murphy
Dick Murphy
Richard M. Murphy is a former U.S. politician. He served as the 33rd Mayor of San Diego, California from 2000 to 2005-Early life:...

 and the criminal indictment of six pension board members. Those charges were finally dismissed by a federal judge in 2010.

On November 28, 200, U.S. Congressman Randy "Duke" Cunningham
Duke Cunningham
Randall Harold Cunningham , usually known as Randy or Duke, is United States Navy veteran, convicted felon, and former Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from California's 50th Congressional District from 1991 to 2005.Cunningham resigned from the House on November 28,...

 resigned after being convicted on federal bribery charges. He had represented California's 50th congressional district, which includes much of the northern portion of the city of San Diego. In 2006, Cunningham was sentenced to a 100-month prison sentence.

In 2005 two city council members, Ralph Inzunza
Ralph Inzunza
Ralph Inzunza was a San Diego City Council District Eight representative elected in February 2001 who resigned in 2005 along with Councilman Michael Zucchet after being involved in a corruption scandal...

 and Deputy Mayor Michael Zucchet
Michael Zucchet
Michael J. Zucchet is a San Diego-born American Democratic politician, a former member of the San Diego City Council, and a former Deputy Mayor of San Diego...

 — who briefly took over as Acting Mayor when Murphy resigned — were convicted of extortion, wire fraud
Wire fraud
Mail and wire fraud is a federal crime in the United States. Together, 18 U.S.C. §§ 1341, 1343, and 1346 reach any fraudulent scheme or artifice to intentionally deprive another of property or honest services with a nexus to mail or wire communication....

, and conspiracy to commit wire fraud for taking campaign contributions from a strip club owner and his associates, allegedly in exchange for trying to repeal the city's "no touch" laws at strip clubs. Both subsequently resigned. In 2009, a judge acquitted Zucchet on seven out of the nine counts against him, and granted his petition for a new trial on the other two charges; the remaining charges were eventually dropped.

Utilities

Water is supplied to residents by the Water Department of the City of San Diego. The city receives its water from the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California
Metropolitan Water District of Southern California
The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California is the largest supplier of treated water in the US. The name is usually shortened to the "Metropolitan Water District" or simply "MWD". It is a cooperative of 14 cities and 12 municipal water districts that indirectly provides water to 18...

.

Gas and electric utilities are provided by San Diego Gas & Electric
San Diego Gas & Electric
San Diego Gas & Electric is the utility that provides natural gas and electricity to San Diego County and southern Orange County in southwestern California, United States...

, a division of Sempra Energy
Sempra Energy
Sempra Energy is a Fortune 500 energy services holding company based in San Diego, California. It divides its interests into two broad categories: Sempra Utilities, including Pacific Enterprises/Southern California Gas Company and San Diego Gas & Electric; and Sempra Global, a holding company for...

.

Transportation

With the automobile being the primary means of transportation for over 80 percent of its residents, San Diego is served by a network of freeways and highways. This includes Interstate 5, which runs south to Tijuana
Tijuana
Tijuana is the largest city on the Baja California Peninsula and center of the Tijuana metropolitan area, part of the international San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. An industrial and financial center of Mexico, Tijuana exerts a strong influence on economics, education, culture, art, and politics...

 and runs north to Los Angeles; Interstate 8, which runs east to Imperial County and the Arizona Sun Corridor
Arizona Sun Corridor
The Arizona Sun Corridor, shortened Sun Corridor, is a megaregion, or megapolitan area, in the southern area of the U.S. state of Arizona. The Sun Corridor is equivalent to Indiana in size and population; unlike Indiana, it will add another Indiana's worth of residents by 2040...

; Interstate 15, which runs northeast through the Inland Empire
Inland Empire (California)
The Inland Empire is a region in Southern California. The region sits directly east of the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The Inland Empire most commonly is used in reference to the U.S. Census Bureau's federally-defined Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario metropolitan area, which covers more than...

 to Las Vegas; and Interstate 805, which splits from I-5 near the Mexican border and rejoins I-5 at Sorrento Valley.

Major state highways include SR 94
California State Route 94
State Route 94 in the U.S. state of California is the Martin Luther King Jr. Freeway from Interstate 5 in Downtown San Diego to the end of the freeway portion past Route 125 in Spring Valley; the non-freeway segment of SR 94 is Campo Road....

, which connects downtown with I-805, I-15 and East County; SR 163, which connects downtown with the northeast part of the city, intersects I-805 and merges with I-15 at Miramar; SR 52
California State Route 52
State Route 52 is a state highway in the U.S. state of California in San Diego County, that extends from La Jolla Parkway at Interstate 5 in La Jolla to Route 67 in Santee. Route 52 is a freeway for its entire length...

, which connects La Jolla with East County through Santee
Santee, California
Santee is a suburban city in San Diego County, California with a population of 53,413 at the 2010 census. Although it is a part of the East County region, Santee is located just from the Pacific Ocean. The city is connected to the coastline by State Route 52, a six-lane freeway that runs from...

 and SR 125
California State Route 125
State Route 125 is a state highway in the U.S. state of California that currently runs from State Route 905 in Otay Mesa near the U.S.–Mexico border to State Route 52 in Santee....

; SR 56
California State Route 56
State Route 56 runs from Interstate 5 in the Carmel Valley neighborhood of San Diego to Interstate 15. Route 56 was originally planned in 1964 to connect to the north end of State Route 125 and continue east to State Route 67, but the city of Poway worked to make sure that would not be possible...

, which connects I-5 with I-15 through Carmel Valley and Rancho Peñasquitos; SR 75
California State Route 75
State Route 75 is a short, expressway in the U.S. state of California. It is a loop route of Interstate 5 in the Barrio Logan Community in San Diego and the route ends at Interstate 5 in South San Diego near San Ysidro...

, which spans San Diego Bay
San Diego Bay
San Diego Bay is a natural harbor and deepwater port adjacent to San Diego, California. It is 12 mi/19 km long, 1 mi/1.6 km–3 mi/4.8 km wide...

 as the San Diego-Coronado Bridge
San Diego-Coronado Bridge
The San Diego-Coronado Bridge, locally referred to as the Coronado Bridge, is a "prestressed concrete/steel" girder bridge, crossing over San Diego Bay in the United States, linking San Diego with Coronado, California...

, and also passes through South San Diego
South San Diego
South San Diego is a district in San Diego, California, within a larger region known as the South Bay.-History:Before the arrival of the Spanish explorers, area of South San Diego was largely inhabited by the Digueno people...

 as Palm Avenue; and SR 905
California State Route 905
State Route 905 is a state highway in San Diego, California that connects Interstate 5 and Interstate 805 in San Ysidro to the United States – Mexico border at Otay Mesa. The portions of the route from I-5 to I-805 and from Britannia Boulevard to the International border are freeway...

, which connects I-5 and I-805 to the Otay Mesa Port of Entry
Otay Mesa Port of Entry
The Otay Mesa Port of Entry is one three ports of entry in the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan region. The port is primarily commercial in function and trucks are generally instructed to cross there as opposed to the San Ysidro Port of Entry. Commercial crossing through the port accounts for...

.

The stretch of SR 163 that passes through Balboa Park is San Diego's oldest freeway, and has been called one of America's most beautiful parkways.

San Diego's roadway system provides an extensive network of routes for travel by bicycle. The dry and mild climate of San Diego makes cycling a convenient and pleasant year-round option. At the same time, the city's hilly, canyon-like terrain and significantly long average trip distances—brought about by strict low-density zoning laws—somewhat restrict cycling for utilitarian purposes. Older and denser neighborhoods around the downtown tend to be utility cycling
Utility cycling
Utility cycling encompasses any cycling not done primarily for fitness, recreation such as cycle touring, or sport such as cycle racing, but simply as a means of transport...

 oriented. This is partly because of the grid street patterns now absent in newer developments farther from the urban core, where suburban style arterial roads are much more common. As a result, a vast majority of cycling-related activities are recreational. Testament to San Diego's cycling efforts, in 2006, San Diego was rated as the best city for cycling for U.S. cities with a population over 1 million.

A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked San Diego the eighteenth most walkable of fifty largest cities in the United States.

San Diego is served by the trolley
San Diego Trolley
The San Diego Trolley is a light rail system operating in the metropolitan area of San Diego. The operator, San Diego Trolley, Inc. , is a subsidiary of the San Diego Metropolitan Transit System ...

, bus
San Diego Metropolitan Transit System
The San Diego Metropolitan Transit System is the public transit service provider for Central, South, Northeast and Southeast San Diego County, in the United States. MTS operating subsidiaries include the San Diego Trolley, Incorporated , and San Diego Transit Corporation...

, Sprinter, Coaster, and Amtrak
Amtrak
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak , is a government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "track". It is headquartered at Union...

. The trolley primarily serves downtown and surrounding urban communities, Mission Valley, east county, and coastal south bay. A planned Mid-Coast line will operate from Old Town
Old Town, San Diego, California
Old Town is a neighborhood of San Diego, California. It contains and is bounded by Interstate 8 on the north, Interstate 5 on the west, Mission Hills on the east and Bankers Hill on the south. It is the oldest settled area in San Diego and is the site of the first European settlement in...

 to University City
University City, San Diego, California
University City is a community in San Diego, California, located in the northwestern portion of the city next to the University of California, San Diego...

 along the 5 Freeway. The Amtrak and Coaster trains currently run along the coastline and connect San Diego with Los Angeles, Orange County, Riverside, San Bernardino, and Ventura via Metrolink
Metrolink (Southern California)
Metrolink is a commuter rail system serving Los Angeles and the surrounding area of Southern California; it currently consists of six lines and 55 stations using of track....

. There are two Amtrak stations in San Diego, in Old Town and Downtown. San Diego transit information about public transportation and commuting is available on the Web and by dialing "511" from any phone in the area.

The city's primary commercial airport is the San Diego International Airport
San Diego International Airport
San Diego International Airport , sometimes referred to as Lindbergh Field, is a public airport located northwest of the central business district of San Diego, California and from the Mexico – United States border at Tijuana, Mexico...

 (SAN), also known as Lindbergh Field. It is the busiest single-runway airport in the United States, that served over 17 million passengers in 2005, and is dealing with an increasingly larger number every year. It is located on San Diego Bay three miles (4.8 km) from downtown. San Diego International Airport maintains scheduled flights to the rest of the United States including Hawaii, as well as to Mexico and Canada. It is operated by an independent agency, the San Diego Regional Airport Authority. In addition, the city itself operates two general-aviation airports, Montgomery Field
Montgomery Field
Montgomery Field is a public airport located in San Diego, California, United States, six miles north of the central business district of San Diego. The airport covers and has three runways and two helipads...

 (MYF) and Brown Field (SDM).

Several regional transportation projects have been undertaken in recent years to deal with congestion in San Diego. Notable efforts are on San Diego freeways, San Diego Airport, and the cruise terminal of the port. Freeway projects include expansion of Interstates 5 and 805 around "The Merge," a rush-hour spot where the two freeways meet. Also, an expansion of Interstate 15 through the North County is underway with the addition of high-occupancy-vehicle (HOV) "managed lanes". There is a tollway (The South Bay Expressway) connecting SR 54 and Otay Mesa, near the Mexican border. According to a 2007 assessment, 37 percent of streets in San Diego were in acceptable driving condition. The proposed budget fell $84.6 million short of bringing the city's streets to an acceptable level. Port expansions included a second cruise terminal on Broadway Pier
Broadway Pier, San Diego
Broadway Pier in Downtown San Diego, California, is located on San Diego Bay at the intersection of Broadway and North Harbor Drive. It houses one of San Diego's two cruise ship terminals....

 which opened in 2010. Airport projects include expansion of Terminal 2, currently under construction and slated for completion in 2013.

Sister cities

San Diego has 16 sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International
Sister Cities International
Sister Cities International is a nonprofit citizen diplomacy network that creates and strengthens partnerships between United States and international communities. More than 2,000 cities, states and counties are partnered in 136 countries around the world...

:
Alcalá de Henares
Alcalá de Henares
Alcalá de Henares , meaning Citadel on the river Henares, is a Spanish city, whose historical centre is one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites, and one of the first bishoprics founded in Spain...

, Spain Campinas
Campinas
Campinas is a city and municipality located in the coastal interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. is the administrative center of the meso-region of the same name, with 3,783,597 inhabitants as of the 2010 Census, consisting of 49 cities....

, Brazil Cavite
Cavite
Cavite is a province of the Philippines located on the southern shores of Manila Bay in the CALABARZON region in Luzon, just 30 kilometers south of Manila. Cavite is surrounded by Laguna to the east, Metro Manila to the northeast, and Batangas to the south...

, Philippines Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland, the second largest city in Scotland, and the eighth most populous in the United Kingdom. The City of Edinburgh Council governs one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas. The council area includes urban Edinburgh and a rural area...

, Scotland, United Kingdom Jalalabad
Jalalabad
Jalalabad , formerly called Adinapour, as documented by the 7th century Hsüan-tsang, is a city in eastern Afghanistan. Located at the junction of the Kabul River and Kunar River near the Laghman valley, Jalalabad is the capital of Nangarhar province. It is linked by approximately of highway with...

, Afghanistan Jeonju
Jeonju
Jeonju is a city in South Korea, and the capital of Jeollabuk-do, or North Jeolla Province. It is an important tourist center famous for Korean food, historic buildings, sports activities and innovative festivals.- History :...

, South Korea León
León, Guanajuato
The city of León, formally León de los Aldama is the sixth most populous city in Mexico and the first in the state of Guanajuato. It is also the seat of the municipality of León...

, Mexico Perth
Perth, Western Australia
Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia and the fourth most populous city in Australia. The Perth metropolitan area has an estimated population of almost 1,700,000....

, Australia Quanzhou
Quanzhou
Quanzhou is a prefecture-level city in Fujian province, People's Republic of China. It borders all other prefecture-level cities in Fujian but two and faces the Taiwan Strait...

, People's Republic of China Taichung City, Taiwan
Taiwan
Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

 (Republic of China) Tema
Tema
Tema is a city on the Atlantic coast of Ghana, lying east of the Ghanaian capital city, Accra, in the region of Greater Accra. As of 2005, Tema had a population of 209,000. The Greenwich Meridian passes directly through the city...

, Ghana Tijuana
Tijuana
Tijuana is the largest city on the Baja California Peninsula and center of the Tijuana metropolitan area, part of the international San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. An industrial and financial center of Mexico, Tijuana exerts a strong influence on economics, education, culture, art, and politics...

, Mexico Vladivostok
Vladivostok
The city is located in the southern extremity of Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula, which is about 30 km long and approximately 12 km wide.The highest point is Mount Kholodilnik, the height of which is 257 m...

, Russia Warsaw
Warsaw
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly from the Baltic Sea and from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population in 2010 was estimated at 1,716,855 residents with a greater metropolitan area of 2,631,902 residents, making Warsaw the 10th most...

, Poland Yantai
Yantai
Yantai is a prefecture-level city in northeastern Shandong province, People's Republic of China. Located on the southern coast of the Bohai Sea and the eastern coast of the Laizhou Bay, Yantai borders the cities of Qingdao and Weihai to the southwest and east respectively.The largest fishing...

, People's Republic of China Yokohama
Yokohama
is the capital city of Kanagawa Prefecture and the second largest city in Japan by population after Tokyo and most populous municipality of Japan. It lies on Tokyo Bay, south of Tokyo, in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshu...

, Japan

See also

  • 1858 San Diego hurricane
    1858 San Diego Hurricane
    The 1858 San Diego hurricane was a very rare California hurricane. It is the only known tropical cyclone to impact California as a hurricane, although other systems impacted California as tropical storms.-Meteorological history:...

  • List of notable San Diegans
  • List of California public officials charged with crimes, San Diego

:Category:Visitor attractions in San Diego County, California
Category: Museums in San Diego County

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK