SS Great Britain
Overview
 

SS Great Britain was an advanced passenger steamship
Ocean liner
An ocean liner is a ship designed to transport people from one seaport to another along regular long-distance maritime routes according to a schedule. Liners may also carry cargo or mail, and may sometimes be used for other purposes .Cargo vessels running to a schedule are sometimes referred to as...

 designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Isambard Kingdom Brunel, FRS , was a British civil engineer who built bridges and dockyards including the construction of the first major British railway, the Great Western Railway; a series of steamships, including the first propeller-driven transatlantic steamship; and numerous important bridges...

 for the Great Western Steamship Company
Great Western Steamship Company
The Great Western Steam Ship Company operated the first regular transatlantic steamer service from 1838 until 1846. Related to the Great Western Railway, the company's directors expected their new enterprise to achieve the position that was ultimately secured by the Cunard Line...

's transatlantic service between Bristol
Bristol
Bristol is a city, unitary authority area and ceremonial county in South West England, with an estimated population of 433,100 for the unitary authority in 2009, and a surrounding Larger Urban Zone with an estimated 1,070,000 residents in 2007...

 and New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

. While other ships had previously been built of iron or equipped with a screw propeller, Great Britain was the first to combine these features in a large ocean-going ship. She was the first iron steamer to cross the Atlantic, which she did in 1845, in the then-record time of 14 days (one day faster than the previous record holder, the SS Great Western
SS Great Western
SS Great Western of 1838, was an oak-hulled paddle-wheel steamship; the first purpose-built for crossing the Atlantic and the initial unit of the Great Western Steamship Company. Designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, Great Western proved satisfactory in service and was the model for all successful...

).

When launched in 1843, Great Britain was by far the largest vessel afloat.
Encyclopedia

SS Great Britain was an advanced passenger steamship
Ocean liner
An ocean liner is a ship designed to transport people from one seaport to another along regular long-distance maritime routes according to a schedule. Liners may also carry cargo or mail, and may sometimes be used for other purposes .Cargo vessels running to a schedule are sometimes referred to as...

 designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Isambard Kingdom Brunel, FRS , was a British civil engineer who built bridges and dockyards including the construction of the first major British railway, the Great Western Railway; a series of steamships, including the first propeller-driven transatlantic steamship; and numerous important bridges...

 for the Great Western Steamship Company
Great Western Steamship Company
The Great Western Steam Ship Company operated the first regular transatlantic steamer service from 1838 until 1846. Related to the Great Western Railway, the company's directors expected their new enterprise to achieve the position that was ultimately secured by the Cunard Line...

's transatlantic service between Bristol
Bristol
Bristol is a city, unitary authority area and ceremonial county in South West England, with an estimated population of 433,100 for the unitary authority in 2009, and a surrounding Larger Urban Zone with an estimated 1,070,000 residents in 2007...

 and New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

. While other ships had previously been built of iron or equipped with a screw propeller, Great Britain was the first to combine these features in a large ocean-going ship. She was the first iron steamer to cross the Atlantic, which she did in 1845, in the then-record time of 14 days (one day faster than the previous record holder, the SS Great Western
SS Great Western
SS Great Western of 1838, was an oak-hulled paddle-wheel steamship; the first purpose-built for crossing the Atlantic and the initial unit of the Great Western Steamship Company. Designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, Great Western proved satisfactory in service and was the model for all successful...

).

When launched in 1843, Great Britain was by far the largest vessel afloat. However, her protracted construction and high cost had left her owners in a difficult financial position, and they were forced out of business in 1846 after the ship was stranded by a navigation
Navigation
Navigation is the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another. It is also the term of art used for the specialized knowledge used by navigators to perform navigation tasks...

al error.

Sold for salvage
Marine salvage
Marine salvage is the process of rescuing a ship, its cargo, or other property from peril. Salvage encompasses rescue towing, refloating a sunken or grounded vessel, or patching or repairing a ship...

 and repaired, Great Britain carried thousands of immigrants
Immigration to Australia
Immigration to Australia is estimated to have begun around 51,000 years ago when the ancestors of Australian Aborigines arrived on the continent via the islands of the Malay Archipelago and New Guinea. Europeans first landed in the 17th and 18th Centuries, but colonisation only started in 1788. The...

 to Australia until converted to sail in 1881. Three years later, the vessel was retired to the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
The Falkland Islands are an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean, located about from the coast of mainland South America. The archipelago consists of East Falkland, West Falkland and 776 lesser islands. The capital, Stanley, is on East Falkland...

 where she was used as a warehouse, quarantine ship and coal hulk
Hulk (ship)
A hulk is a ship that is afloat, but incapable of going to sea. Although sometimes used to describe a ship that has been launched but not completed, the term most often refers to an old ship that has had its rigging or internal equipment removed, retaining only its flotational qualities...

 until scuttled
Scuttling
Scuttling is the act of deliberately sinking a ship by allowing water to flow into the hull.This can be achieved in several ways—valves or hatches can be opened to the sea, or holes may be ripped into the hull with brute force or with explosives...

 in 1937.

In 1970, Great Britain was returned to the Bristol dry dock
Dry dock
A drydock is a narrow basin or vessel that can be flooded to allow a load to be floated in, then drained to allow that load to come to rest on a dry platform...

 where she was first built. Now listed as part of the National Historic Fleet, Core Collection
National Historic Fleet, Core Collection
The National Historic Fleet, Core Collection is a list of museum ships located in the United Kingdom, under the National Historic Ships register.The vessels on the National Historic Fleet are distinguished by:...

, the vessel is an award-winning visitor attraction and museum ship
Museum ship
A museum ship, or sometimes memorial ship, is a ship that has been preserved and converted into a museum open to the public, for educational or memorial purposes...

 in Bristol Harbour
Bristol Harbour
Bristol Harbour is the harbour in the city of Bristol, England. The harbour covers an area of . It has existed since the 13th century but was developed into its current form in the early 19th century by installing lock gates on a tidal stretch of the River Avon in the centre of the city and...

, with between 150,000–170,000 visitors annually.

Development

After the initial success of its first liner, SS Great Western
SS Great Western
SS Great Western of 1838, was an oak-hulled paddle-wheel steamship; the first purpose-built for crossing the Atlantic and the initial unit of the Great Western Steamship Company. Designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, Great Western proved satisfactory in service and was the model for all successful...

 of 1838, the Great Western Steamship Company collected materials for a sister ship, tentatively named City of New York. The same engineering team that had collaborated so successfully on Great Western—Isambard Brunel, Thomas Guppy, Christopher Claxton and William Patterson
William Patterson (engineer)
William Patterson was a 19th century engineer and boatbuilder.Born in Arbroath, he moved to London where he learned his craft at the yard of William Evans. He then moved to Bristol where he worked for William Scott. When Scott became bankrupt, he took over his yard...

—were again assembled for the new project. This time however, Brunel, whose reputation was at its height, would come to assert overall control over design of the ship—a state of affairs that would have far-reaching consequences for the company. Construction of the vessel would be carried out in a specially adapted dry dock
Dry dock
A drydock is a narrow basin or vessel that can be flooded to allow a load to be floated in, then drained to allow that load to come to rest on a dry platform...

 in Bristol
Bristol
Bristol is a city, unitary authority area and ceremonial county in South West England, with an estimated population of 433,100 for the unitary authority in 2009, and a surrounding Larger Urban Zone with an estimated 1,070,000 residents in 2007...

, England.

Adoption of iron hull

Two chance encounters were to profoundly affect the design of Great Britain. In autumn 1838, John Laird's 213 feet (64.9 m) (English) channel
English Channel
The English Channel , often referred to simply as the Channel, is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates southern England from northern France, and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. It is about long and varies in width from at its widest to in the Strait of Dover...

 packet ship
Packet ship
A "packet ship" was originally a vessel employed to carry post office mail packets to and from British embassies, colonies and outposts. In sea transport, a packet service is a regular, scheduled service, carrying freight and passengers...

 Rainbow—the largest iron-hulled
Hull (watercraft)
A hull is the watertight body of a ship or boat. Above the hull is the superstructure and/or deckhouse, where present. The line where the hull meets the water surface is called the waterline.The structure of the hull varies depending on the vessel type...

 ship then in service—made a stop at Bristol, where the Great Western Company was preparing to build its new ship. Brunel despatched his associates Christopher Claxton and William Patterson to make a return voyage to Antwerp on Rainbow in order to assess the utility of the new building material. Both men returned as converts to iron-hulled technology, and Brunel scrapped his plans to build a wooden sister ship for Great Western and persuaded the company directors to build an iron-hulled ship instead.

Great Britains builders recognized a number of advantages of iron over the traditional wooden hull. To begin with, wood in Britain was at the time becoming more expensive, while iron was getting cheaper. Iron hulls were not subject to dry rot
Dry rot
Dry rot refers to a type of wood decay caused by certain types of fungi, also known as True Dry Rot, that digests parts of the wood which give the wood strength and stiffness...

 or woodworm
Woodworm
A woodworm is not a specific species. It is the larval stage of certain woodboring beetles including:*Ambrosia beetles *Bark borer beetle / Waney edge borer *Common furniture beetle...

 like their wooden counterparts, and they were also lighter in weight and less bulky. The chief advantage of the iron hull however, was its much greater structural strength. The practical limit on the length of a wooden-hulled ship is about 300 feet, after which the phenomenon of hogging—the flexing of the hull as waves pass beneath it—becomes too great. Iron hulls are far less subject to hogging, so that the potential size of an iron-hulled ship is much greater.

The ship's designers, led by Brunel, were initially cautious in the adaptation of their plans to iron hulled-technology. With each successive draft however, the ship grew ever larger and bolder in conception. By the fifth draft, the proposed new vessel had grown to a capacity of 3,400 tons, over 1,000 tons larger than any ship then in existence.

Adoption of screw propulsion

In the spring of 1840, a second chance encounter occurred which was to have an equally profound impact on Great Britains development—the arrival at Bristol of the revolutionary , the world's first screw-propelled
Propeller
A propeller is a type of fan that transmits power by converting rotational motion into thrust. A pressure difference is produced between the forward and rear surfaces of the airfoil-shaped blade, and a fluid is accelerated behind the blade. Propeller dynamics can be modeled by both Bernoulli's...

 steamship, completed only a few months before by F. P. Smith's
Francis Pettit Smith
Sir Francis Pettit Smith was an English inventor and, along with Frédéric Sauvage and John Ericsson, one of a number of people with a claim to having been the inventor of the screw propeller...

 Propeller Steamship Company. Brunel, who had been looking into methods of improving the performance of Great Britains paddlewheels, took an immediate interest in the new technology, and Smith, sensing a prestigious new customer for his own company, agreed to loan Archimedes to Brunel for extended tests. Over a period of several months, Smith and Brunel tested a number of different propellers on Archimedes in order to find the most efficient design, which was eventually determined to be a new four-bladed model submitted by Smith.

Having satisfied himself as to the advantages of screw propulsion, Brunel wrote to the directors of the Great Western Steamship Company to persuade them to embark on a second major design change, which in this case would entail the abandonment of the original paddlewheel engines—already half constructed—and the design of completely new engines suitable for powering a propeller.

Brunel listed the advantages of the screw propeller over the paddlewheel as follows:
  • Screw propulsion machinery was lighter in weight, thus improving fuel economy;
  • Screw propulsion machinery could be kept lower in the hull, reducing the ship's centre of gravity and making it more stable in heavy seas;
  • By taking up less room, propeller engines would allow more cargo to be carried;
  • Elimination of bulky paddle-boxes would lessen resistance through the water, and also allow the ship to manoeuvre more easily in confined waterways;
  • The depth of a paddlewheel is constantly changing, depending on the ship's cargo and the movement of waves, while a propeller stays fully submerged and at full efficiency at all times;
  • Screw propulsion machinery was cheaper.


Brunel's arguments proved persuasive, and in December 1840, the company agreed to adopt the new technology for Great Britain. The decision however would once again be a costly one for the company, setting the ship's completion date back by an additional nine months.

Reporting on the ship's arrival in New York, in its first issue Scientific American
Scientific American
Scientific American is a popular science magazine. It is notable for its long history of presenting science monthly to an educated but not necessarily scientific public, through its careful attention to the clarity of its text as well as the quality of its specially commissioned color graphics...

 opined, "If there is any thing objectionable in the construction or machinery of this noble ship, it is the mode of propelling her by the screw propeller; and we should not be surprised if it should be, ere long, superseded by paddle wheels at the sides."

Launch

The launching or, more accurately, the "floating out" took place on 19 July 1843. Conditions were generally favourable but diarists recorded that, after a dull start, the weather brightened later on with only a few intermittent showers. The atmosphere of the day can best be gauged from a report published the following day in The Bristol Mirror. The reporter recorded that:

Large crowds started to gather early in the day including many people who had travelled to Bristol to see the spectacle. There was a general atmosphere of anticipation as the Royal Emblem was unfurled. The processional route had been cleaned and Temple Street decorated with flags, banners, flowers and ribbons. Boys of the City School and girls of Red Maids were stationed in a neat orderly formation down the entire length of the Exchange. The route was a mass of colour and everybody was out on the streets as it was a public holiday. The atmosphere of gaiety even allowed thoughts to drift away from the problems of political dissension in London.


Prince Albert arrived at 10am at the Great Western Railway Terminus. The royal train
British Royal Train
The Royal Train is a set of railway carriages dedicated for the use of the British Monarch, other members of the Royal Family, and their staff. The train enables members of the Royal Family to carry out busy schedules over an extended period, in a secure environment which minimises disruption and...

, conducted by Brunel himself, had taken two hours and forty minutes from London. There was a guard of honour
Guard of honour
A guard of honour is a ceremonial event practice in military and sports as a mark of respect.-Military:In the military a guard of honour is a ceremonial practice to honour visiting foreign dignitaries, or the fallen in war, or a ceremony for public figures who have died.The commander is three paces...

, consisting of members of the police force, soldiers and dragoons and, as the Prince stepped from the train, the band of the Life Guards played works by Labitsky and a selection from the "Ballet of Alma". Two sections of the terminus platform were boarded off for the reception and it was noted by The Bristol Mirror that parts were covered with carpets from the Council House. The Prince Consort, dressed as a private gentleman, was accompanied by his equerry
Equerry
An equerry , and related to the French word "écuyer" ) is an officer of honour. Historically, it was a senior attendant with responsibilities for the horses of a person of rank. In contemporary use, it is a personal attendant, usually upon a Sovereign, a member of a Royal Family, or a national...

-in-waiting, personal secretary, the Marquis of Exeter, and Lords Warncliffe, Liverpool, Lincoln and Wellesley.

Introductions were made, followed by the "Address to His Royal Highness the Prince Albert", by the town clerk, D.Burgess. Honours were then bestowed on him by the Society of Merchant Venturers
Society of Merchant Venturers
The Society of Merchant Venturers is a private entrepreneurial and charitable organisation in the English city of Bristol, which dates back to the 13th century...

, and there were speeches from members of the Bristol clergy. The royal party then had breakfast and, after twenty minutes, reappeared to board horse-drawn carriages.

At noon, the Prince arrived at the Great Western Steamship yard only to find the ship already "launched" and waiting for the royal inspection. Prince Albert boarded the ship, took refreshments in the elegantly decorated lounge and then commenced his tour of inspection. He was then received in the ship's banqueting room where all the local dignitaries and their ladies were gathered.

After the banquet and the toasts, His Royal Highness left for the naming ceremony. It had already been decided that the actual christening would be performed by Mrs Clarissa Miles (1790–1868), wife of Philip John Miles (1773–1845) and mother of Bristol's MP, Philip William Skinner Miles (1816–1881), a Director of the Company. When the appropriate time came, she stepped forward, grasped the champagne bottle and swung it towards the bows. Unfortunately the steam packet Avon had started to tow the ship into the harbour and the bottle fell about 10 feet (3 m) short of its target and dropped unbroken into the water. A second bottle was rapidly obtained and the Prince himself hurled this against the iron hull of Great Britain. In her haste, Avon had also started her work before the shore warps had been released. The tow rope snapped and, due to the resultant delay, the Prince was obliged to return to the railway station and miss the end of the programme.

Another extended delay

Following the launch ceremony, the builders had planned to have Great Britain towed to the Thames for her final fitting out. Unfortunately, the Harbour authorities, with responsibility for widening the dock, had failed to carry out the necessary modifications to their facilities in a timely manner. Exacerbating the problem was the fact that the ship itself had been widened beyond the original plans to accommodate the propeller engines, and also that her designers had made a belated decision to fit the engines prior to launch, which resulted in the vessel having a deeper than originally planned initial draught.

This dilemma was to result in another costly delay for the company, as Brunel's negotiations with the Bristol Dock Board dragged on for months. It was only through the intervention of the Board of Trade that the Harbour authorities finally agreed to the lock modifications, which were begun in autumn 1844.

After being trapped in the harbour for more than a year, Great Britain was at last floated out in December 1844, but not before causing more anxiety for her proprietors. After passing successfully through the first set of lock gates, she jammed on her passage through the second which led to the River Avon. Only the seamanship of Captain Claxton enabled her to be pulled back and severe structural damage avoided. The following night, an army of workmen under the direct supervision of Brunel, taking advantage of the slightly higher tide, removed coping stones and lock gate platforms from the Junction Lock, allowing the tug
Tugboat
A tugboat is a boat that maneuvers vessels by pushing or towing them. Tugs move vessels that either should not move themselves, such as ships in a crowded harbor or a narrow canal,or those that cannot move by themselves, such as barges, disabled ships, or oil platforms. Tugboats are powerful for...

 Samson to tow the ship safely into the Avon.

General description

When completed in 1845, Great Britain was a revolutionary vessel—the first ship to combine an iron hull with screw propulsion, and at 322 ft (98.1 m) in length and with a 3,400-ton displacement, more than 100 ft (30.5 m) longer and 1,000 tons larger than any ship previously built. Her beam was 50 in 6 in (15.39 m) and her height from keel to main deck, 32 in 6 in (9.91 m). She had four decks, including the spar (upper) deck, a crew of 120, and was fitted to accommodate a total of 360 passengers, along with 1,200 tons of cargo and 1,200 tons of coal
Coal
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure...

 for fuel.

Like most steamships of the era, Great Britain was provided with secondary sail power, consisting in Great Britains case of one square-rigged and five schooner
Schooner
A schooner is a type of sailing vessel characterized by the use of fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts with the forward mast being no taller than the rear masts....

-rigged masts—a relatively simple sail plan designed to reduce the number of crew required. The masts were of iron, fastened to the spar deck with iron joints, and with one exception, hinged to allow their lowering as a means of reducing wind resistance in the event of a strong headwind. Similarly, all the rigging was of iron cable instead of the traditional hemp
Hemp
Hemp is mostly used as a name for low tetrahydrocannabinol strains of the plant Cannabis sativa, of fiber and/or oilseed varieties. In modern times, hemp has been used for industrial purposes including paper, textiles, biodegradable plastics, construction, health food and fuel with modest...

, again with a view to reducing wind resistance. Another innovative feature was the lack of traditional heavy bulwarks around the main deck; instead, the builders opted for a light iron railing, which both reduced weight and allowed water shipped in heavy weather to run unimpeded back to sea.

The ship's hull
Hull (watercraft)
A hull is the watertight body of a ship or boat. Above the hull is the superstructure and/or deckhouse, where present. The line where the hull meets the water surface is called the waterline.The structure of the hull varies depending on the vessel type...

 and single funnel
Chimney
A chimney is a structure for venting hot flue gases or smoke from a boiler, stove, furnace or fireplace to the outside atmosphere. Chimneys are typically vertical, or as near as possible to vertical, to ensure that the gases flow smoothly, drawing air into the combustion in what is known as the...

 amidships were both finished in black paint, with a single white stripe running the length of the hull highlighting a row of false gunports. The hull was flat-bottomed, with no external keel
Keel
In boats and ships, keel can refer to either of two parts: a structural element, or a hydrodynamic element. These parts overlap. As the laying down of the keel is the initial step in construction of a ship, in British and American shipbuilding traditions the construction is dated from this event...

, and with bulges low on each side amidships which continued toward the stern
Stern
The stern is the rear or aft-most part of a ship or boat, technically defined as the area built up over the sternpost, extending upwards from the counter rail to the taffrail. The stern lies opposite of the bow, the foremost part of a ship. Originally, the term only referred to the aft port section...

 in an unusual implementation of tumblehome
Tumblehome
In ship designing, the tumblehome is the narrowing of a ship's hull with greater distance above the water-line. Expressed more technically, it is present when the beam at the uppermost deck is less than the maximum beam of the vessel....

—a result of the late decision to install propeller engines, which were wider at the base than the originally planned paddlewheel engines.

Brunel, anxious to ensure the avoidance of hogging in a vessel of such unprecedented size, designed the hull to be massively redundant in strength. Ten longitudinal iron girders were installed along the keel, running from beneath the engines and boiler to the forward section. The ship's iron ribs were 6 by 3 in (15.2 by 7.6 cm) in diameter. The iron keel plates were an inch thick, and the hull seams were lapped and double rivet
Rivet
A rivet is a permanent mechanical fastener. Before being installed a rivet consists of a smooth cylindrical shaft with a head on one end. The end opposite the head is called the buck-tail. On installation the rivet is placed in a punched or pre-drilled hole, and the tail is upset, or bucked A rivet...

ed in many places. Safety features, which also contributed to the structural strength of the vessel, included a double bottom
Double bottom
A double bottom is a ship hull design and construction method where the bottom of the ship has two complete layers of watertight hull surface: one outer layer forming the normal hull of the ship, and a second inner hull which is somewhat higher in the ship, perhaps a few feet, which forms a...

 and five watertight iron bulkheads
Bulkhead (partition)
A bulkhead is an upright wall within the hull of a ship or within the fuselage of an airplane. Other kinds of partition elements within a ship are decks and deckheads.-Etymology:...

. The total amount of iron which went into the building of the ship, including the engines and machinery, was 1,500 tons.

Machinery

At the heart of the great ship, installed amidships, and with a combined weight of 340 tons, were the two giant propeller engines, built to a modified patent of Brunel's father Marc
Marc Isambard Brunel
Sir Marc Isambard Brunel, FRS FRSE was a French-born engineer who settled in England. He preferred the name Isambard, but is generally known to history as Marc to avoid confusion with his more famous son Isambard Kingdom Brunel...

. The engines, which rose from the keel through the three lower decks to a height just below the main deck, were of the direct-acting type, with twin 88-inch bore (220 cm), 6 feet (1.8 m) stroke cylinders
Cylinder (engine)
A cylinder is the central working part of a reciprocating engine or pump, the space in which a piston travels. Multiple cylinders are commonly arranged side by side in a bank, or engine block, which is typically cast from aluminum or cast iron before receiving precision machine work...

 inclined upward at a 60° angle, capable of developing a total of 1000 hp at 18 rpm. Steam power was provided by three 34 feet (10.4 m) by 22 feet (6.7 m) by 10 feet (3 m), 5 psi (34,473.8 Pa) "square" saltwater boiler
Boiler
A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications.-Materials:...

s, located forward of the engines, with eight furnaces each – four at each end.

In considering the gearing arrangement, Brunel had no precedent to serve as a guide. The gearing for the only existing propeller-driven ship of the time, Archimedes, which was of the spur-and-pinion type, had proven almost unbearably noisy, and would not be suitable for a passenger ship. Brunel's solution was to install a chain drive
Chain drive
Chain drive is a way of transmitting mechanical power from one place to another. It is often used to convey power to the wheels of a vehicle, particularly bicycles and motorcycles...

. On the crankshaft between Great Britains two engines, he installed a huge 26 feet (7.9 m) primary gearwheel, which by means of a set of four massive inverted-tooth or "silent" chains, operated the smaller secondary gear near the ship's keel which turned the propeller shaft. Brunel's chain-drive system was the first commercial use of silent chain technology, and the individual silent chains installed in Great Britain are thought to have been the largest ever constructed.

Great Britains main propeller shaft, built by the Mersey Iron Works, was the largest single piece of machinery in the ship. 68 feet long and 28 inches in diameter, the shaft was bored through its length with a 10 inches (254 mm) hole, reducing its weight and allowing cold water to be pumped through to reduce heat. At each end of the main propeller shaft were two secondary coupling shafts: a 28 feet (8.5 m), 16 inches (406.4 mm) shaft beneath the engine, and a screw shaft of 25 ft (7.6 m) and diameter 16 inches (40.6 cm) at the stern. Total length of the three shafts was 130 ft (39.6 m), and the total weight 38 tons. The shaft was geared upward at a ratio of 1 to 3, so that at the engines' normal operating speed of 18 rpm, the propeller turned at a speed of 54 rpm. The initial propeller installed was a six-bladed "windmill" model of Brunel's own design, 16 ft (4.9 m) in diameter and with pitch of 25 ft (7.6 m).

Interior

The interior of the ship was divided into three decks, the upper two of which were used for passenger accommodations and the lower for cargo. The two passenger decks were in turn divided into forward and aft compartments, separated by the engines and boiler amidships.

In the after section of the ship, the upper passenger deck contained the after or principal saloon, 110 ft (33.5 m) long by 48 ft (14.6 m) wide, which ran from just aft of the engine room to the stern. On each side of the saloon were corridors leading to 22 individual passenger berths, arranged two deep, making a total of 44 berths for the saloon as a whole. The forward part of the saloon, nearest the engine room, contained two 17 by 14 ft (5.2 by 4.3 m) ladies' boudoirs or private sitting rooms, which could be accessed directly—without entering the saloon itself—from the twelve nearest passenger berths, reserved for females. The opposite end of the saloon opened onto the stern windows. Broad iron staircases at both ends of the saloon ran to the main deck above and the dining saloon below. The saloon was painted in "delicate tints", furnished along its length with fixed chairs of oak
Oak
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus , of which about 600 species exist. "Oak" may also appear in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus...

, and supported by twelve decorated pillars.

Beneath the after saloon was the main or dining saloon, 98 in 6 in (30.02 m) long by 30 ft (9.1 m) wide, and fitted with dining tables and chairs capable of accommodating up to 360 people at one sitting. On each side of the saloon, seven corridors opened onto four berths each, for a total number of berths per side of 28, or 56 altogether. The forward end of the saloon was connected to a stewards' galley, while the opposite end contained several tiers of sofas. This saloon was apparently the ship's most impressive. Columns of white and gold, 24 in number, with "ornamental capitals of great beauty", were arranged down its length and along the walls, while eight Arabesque
Arabesque
The arabesque is a form of artistic decoration consisting of "surface decorations based on rhythmic linear patterns of scrolling and interlacing foliage, tendrils" or plain lines, often combined with other elements...

 pilaster
Pilaster
A pilaster is a slightly-projecting column built into or applied to the face of a wall. Most commonly flattened or rectangular in form, pilasters can also take a half-round form or the shape of any type of column, including tortile....

s, decorated with "beautifully painted" oriental flowers and birds, enhanced the aesthetic effect. The archways of the doors were "tastefully carved and gilded" and surmounted with medallion heads. Mirrors around the walls added an illusion of spaciousness, and the walls themselves were painted in a "delicate lemon-tinted hue" with highlights of blue and gold.

The two forward saloons were arranged in a similar plan to the after saloons, with the upper "promenade" saloon having 36 berths per side, and the lower, 30, for a total number of berths in the forward passenger section of 132. Further forward still, separate from the passenger saloons, were the crew quarters. The overall finish of the passenger quarters was unusually restrained for its time, a probable reflection of the proprietors' diminishing capital reserves. Total cost of the ship's construction, not including the £53,000 cost of plant and equipment acquired to build her, was £117,000—£47,000 more than her original projected price tag of £70,000.

Transatlantic service

On 26 July 1845—seven years after the Great Western Steamship Company had decided to build a second ship, and five years overdue—Great Britain embarked on her maiden voyage, from Liverpool
Liverpool
Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. It was founded as a borough in 1207 and was granted city status in 1880...

 to New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

, with a complement of 45 passengers. The ship made the passage in 14 days and 21 hours, at an average speed of 9.25 knots (5 m/s) – almost 1.5 knot (0.8166 m/s) slower than the prevailing record. She made the return trip in 13½ days, again an unexceptional time.

Brunel, who prior to the ship's commencement of service had substituted Smith's proven four-bladed propeller design with a six-bladed "windmill" design of his own, now decided to try and improve the vessel's speed by riveting an extra two inches of iron to each propeller blade. On her next crossing to New York, carrying 104 passengers, the ship ran into heavy weather, losing a mast and three propeller blades. After repairs in New York, she set out again for Liverpool, this time with only 28 passengers, and again lost four propeller blades during the crossing. By this time, another design flaw had become evident. The ship rolled heavily, especially in calm weather without the steadying influence of sail, causing great discomfort to the passengers.

The long-suffering shareholders of the company dipped into their pockets once more to try and solve the problems. The six-bladed propeller was dispensed with and a four-bladed cast iron model, similar to that originally chosen for the ship, substituted. The third mast was removed, and the iron rigging, which had proven unsatisfactory, was replaced with conventional rigging. Additionally, in a major alteration, two 110 feet (33.5 m) bilge keel
Bilge keel
A bilge keel is used to reduce the hull's tendency to roll. Bilge keels are employed in pairs . A ship may have more than one bilge keel per side, but this is rare. Bilge keels increase hydrodynamic resistance to rolling, making the ship roll less...

s were added to each side of the ship in an effort to lessen her tendency to roll. These repairs and alterations together were to delay Great Britains return to service until the following year.
In her second season of service in 1846, Great Britain successfully completed two round trips to New York and back at an acceptable speed, but was then laid up again, for repairs to one of her chain drums which showed an unexpected degree of wear. Embarking on her third passage of the season to New York, Great Britains captain made a series of navigational errors which resulted in the ship being run hard aground in Dundrum Bay on the northeast coast of Ireland
Ireland
Ireland is an island to the northwest of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth...

. There was no formal inquiry but it has been recently suggested that it was mainly due to the captain not having updated charts, so that he mistook the new St John's light for the Calf light on the Isle of Man.

The vessel remained aground for almost a year, protected by temporary measures organized by Brunel. In August 1847, she was finally floated free at a cost of £34,000 and taken back to Liverpool, but this final expense exhausted the company's remaining reserves. After languishing at the North Dock for some time, Great Britain, completed only a few years earlier at a cost of £117,000, was sold to Gibbs, Bright & Co., former agents of the Great Western Steamship Company, for a mere £25,000.

Refit and return to service

The new owners of Great Britain decided not merely to repair the vessel but to give her a total refit. The ship's keel, badly damaged during the recent grounding, was completely renewed along a length of 150 feet, and the owners took the opportunity to further strengthen the hull. The old keelsons were replaced, and ten new ones laid, which ran the entire length of the keel. Both the bow and stern were also strengthened by heavy frames of double angle iron.

Reflecting the rapid advances in propeller engine technology since Great Britains development, the original engines were removed and replaced with a pair of smaller, lighter and more modern oscillating
Marine steam engine
A marine steam engine is a reciprocating steam engine that is used to power a ship or boat. Steam turbines and diesel engines largely replaced reciprocating steam engines in marine applications during the 20th century, so this article describes the more common types of marine steam engine in use...

 engines, with 82+1/2 in cylinders and 6-foot stroke, built by John Penn & Sons
John Penn (engineer)
John Penn FRS, was a marine engineer, whose firm was pre-eminent in the middle of the nineteenth century due to his innovations in engine and propeller systems, which led his firm to be the major supplier to the Royal Navy as it made the transition from sail to steam power...

 of Greenwich
Greenwich
Greenwich is a district of south London, England, located in the London Borough of Greenwich.Greenwich is best known for its maritime history and for giving its name to the Greenwich Meridian and Greenwich Mean Time...

. The engines were also provided with more support at the base, and supported further by the addition of both iron and wood beams running transversely across the hull, which had the added benefit of reducing engine vibration.

The cumbersome chain-drive gearing was removed, and replaced with a simpler and by now proven cog-wheel arrangement, although the gearing of the engines to the propeller shaft remained at a ratio of one to three. The three large boilers were also replaced, with six smaller ones, operating at 10 psi (68,947.6 Pa) or twice the pressure of their predecessors. Along with a new 300 feet (91.4 m) cabin on the main deck, the smaller boilers allowed the ship's cargo capacity to be almost doubled, from 1,200 to 2,200 tons.

The four-bladed propeller was replaced by a slightly smaller, three-bladed model, and the bilge keels, previously added to reduce the ship's tendency to roll, were removed and substituted by the addition of a heavy external oak keel, intended to serve the same purpose. Finally, the five-masted schooner sail plan was dispensed with, and replaced by four masts, two of which were square-rigged.

With the refit complete, Great Britain went back into service on the New York run, but after only one further round trip across the Atlantic, the ship was sold again, to Antony Gibbs & Sons, who planned to place her into England-Australia service.

Australian service

Antony Gibbs & Sons may only have intended to employ Great Britain to exploit a temporary demand for passenger service to the Australian gold fields following the discovery of gold in Australia in 1851
Victorian gold rush
The Victorian gold rush was a period in the history of Victoria, Australia approximately between 1851 and the late 1860s. In 10 years the Australian population nearly tripled.- Overview :During this era Victoria dominated the world's gold output...

, but the ship was to find long-term employment on this route. For her new role, Great Britain was given a third refit. Her passenger accommodations were increased from 360 to 730, and her sail plan altered again, to a traditional three-masted, square-rigged pattern. She was also fitted with a removable propeller, which could be hauled up onto deck by means of chains in order to reduce drag when the vessel was operating under sail power alone.

In 1852, Great Britain made her first voyage to Melbourne
Melbourne
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city in the state of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia. The Melbourne City Centre is the hub of the greater metropolitan area and the Census statistical division—of which "Melbourne" is the common name. As of June 2009, the greater...

, Australia, carrying 630 emigrants
Emigration
Emigration is the act of leaving one's country or region to settle in another. It is the same as immigration but from the perspective of the country of origin. Human movement before the establishment of political boundaries or within one state is termed migration. There are many reasons why people...

. She excited great interest there, with 4,000 people paying a shilling each to inspect her. She would continue to operate on the England–Australia route for almost thirty years, interrupted only by two relatively brief sojourns as a troopship
Troopship
A troopship is a ship used to carry soldiers, either in peacetime or wartime...

—first during the Crimean War
Crimean War
The Crimean War was a conflict fought between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the French Empire, the British Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Sardinia. The war was part of a long-running contest between the major European powers for influence over territories of the declining...

 and later during the Indian Mutiny. Gradually, she came to earn a reputation for herself as the most reliable of the emigrant ships to Australia.

An 1862 source preserves some statistics of a typical trip during this period. The ship put out from Liverpool
Liverpool
Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. It was founded as a borough in 1207 and was granted city status in 1880...

 on 21 October 1861, carrying a crew of 143, 544 passengers (including the first English cricket
History of cricket
The game of cricket has a known history spanning from the 16th century to the present day, with international matches played since 1844, although the official history of international Test cricket began in 1877...

 team ever to visit Australia), a cow, 36 sheep, 140 pigs, 96 goats and a total of 1114 chickens, ducks, geese and turkeys. The journey to Melbourne (her ninth) occupied 64 days, during which the best day's run was 354 miles and the worst 108. With favourable winds the ship travelled under sail alone, the screw being withdrawn from the water. Three passengers died en route. The captain was John Gray, a Scot, who had held the post since before the Crimean War.

On Thursday 8 October 1868 The Argus (Melbourne) reported 'To-day, at daylight, the fine steamship Great Britain will leave her anchorage in Hobson's Bay, for Liverpool direct. On this occasion she carries less than her usual complement of passengers, the season not being a favourite one with colonists desiring to visit their native land. The Great Britain, however, has a full cargo, and carries gold to the value of about £250,000. As she is in fine trim, we shall probably have, in due time, to congratulate Captain Gray on having achieved another successful voyage.'

Later history

In 1882 Great Britain was converted into a sailing ship
Sailing ship
The term sailing ship is now used to refer to any large wind-powered vessel. In technical terms, a ship was a sailing vessel with a specific rig of at least three masts, square rigged on all of them, making the sailing adjective redundant. In popular usage "ship" became associated with all large...

 to transport bulk coal
Coal
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure...

, but after a fire on board in 1886 she was found on arrival at Port Stanley in the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
The Falkland Islands are an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean, located about from the coast of mainland South America. The archipelago consists of East Falkland, West Falkland and 776 lesser islands. The capital, Stanley, is on East Falkland...

 to be damaged beyond repair. She was sold to the Falkland Islands Company and used, afloat, as a storage hulk
Hulk (ship)
A hulk is a ship that is afloat, but incapable of going to sea. Although sometimes used to describe a ship that has been launched but not completed, the term most often refers to an old ship that has had its rigging or internal equipment removed, retaining only its flotational qualities...

 (coal bunker) until 1937, when she was towed to Sparrow Cove, 3.5 miles from Port Stanley, scuttled and abandoned. In her role as coal bunker, she served to refuel the South Atlantic fleet that defeated Admiral Graf Maximilian von Spee's fleet, in the First World War Battle of the Falkland Islands
Battle of the Falkland Islands
The Battle of the Falkland Islands was a British naval victory over the Imperial German Navy on 8 December 1914 during the First World War in the South Atlantic...

. In the Second World War, some of her iron was scavenged to repair HMS Exeter
HMS Exeter (68)
HMS Exeter was a York class heavy cruiser of the Royal Navy that served in World War II. She was laid down on 1 August 1928 at the Devonport Dockyard, Plymouth, Devon. She was launched on 18 July 1929 and completed on 27 July 1931...

, one of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
The Royal Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Founded in the 16th century, it is the oldest service branch and is known as the Senior Service...

 ships that fought the Graf Spee and was badly damaged during the Battle of the River Plate
Battle of the River Plate
The Battle of the River Plate was the first naval battle in the Second World War. The German pocket battleship had been commerce raiding since the start of the war in September 1939...

.

Recovery and restoration

The salvage operation, made possible by several large donations, including one from Sir Jack Hayward
Jack Hayward
Sir Jack Arnold Hayward, OBE is an English businessman, property developer, philanthropist and president of Premier League football club Wolverhampton Wanderers.-Biography:...

, and the late Sir Paul Getty
Paul Getty
Sir John Paul Getty KBE , born Eugene Paul Getty, was a wealthy American-born British philanthropist and book collector. He was the elder son of Jean Paul Getty, Sr...

, was organised by 'the SS Great Britain Project', a group chaired by Richard Goold-Adams. Ewan Corlett conducted a naval architect's survey on the ship, reporting that in his opinion the ship could be refloated. A submersible pontoon
Pontoon (boat)
A pontoon is a flotation device with buoyancy sufficient to float itself as well as a heavy load. A pontoon boat is a flattish boat that relies on pontoons to float. Pontoons may be used on boats, rafts, barges, docks, floatplanes or seaplanes. Pontoons may support a platform, creating a raft. A...

, Mulus III, was chartered in February 1970. A German tug, Varius II, was chartered, reaching Port Stanley on 25 March. By 13 April, after some concern about a crack in the hull, the ship was mounted successfully on the pontoon and the following day the tug, pontoon and the SS Great Britain sailed to Port Stanley harbour for preparations for the transatlantic voyage. The voyage (code name "Voyage 47") began on 24 April, stopped in Montevideo
Montevideo
Montevideo is the largest city, the capital, and the chief port of Uruguay. The settlement was established in 1726 by Bruno Mauricio de Zabala, as a strategic move amidst a Spanish-Portuguese dispute over the platine region, and as a counter to the Portuguese colony at Colonia del Sacramento...

 from 2 May to 6 May for inspection, then across the Atlantic, arriving at Barry Docks, west of Cardiff
Cardiff
Cardiff is the capital, largest city and most populous county of Wales and the 10th largest city in the United Kingdom. The city is Wales' chief commercial centre, the base for most national cultural and sporting institutions, the Welsh national media, and the seat of the National Assembly for...

 on 22 June. ("Voyage 47" was chosen as the code name because it was on her 47th voyage from Penarth
Penarth
Penarth is a town and seaside resort in the Vale of Glamorgan , Wales, 5.2 miles south west from the city centre of the Welsh capital city of Cardiff and lying on the north shore of the Severn Estuary at the southern end of Cardiff Bay...

, in 1886, during a tempest that SS Great Britain had sought for shelter in The Falklands
Falkland Islands
The Falkland Islands are an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean, located about from the coast of mainland South America. The archipelago consists of East Falkland, West Falkland and 776 lesser islands. The capital, Stanley, is on East Falkland...

.) Bristol-based tugs then took over and towed the ship, still on her pontoon, to Avonmouth Docks
Avonmouth Docks
The Avonmouth Docks are part of the Port of Bristol, in England. They are situated on the northern side of the mouth of the River Avon, opposite the Royal Portbury Dock on the southern side, where the river joins the Severn estuary, within Avonmouth....

.

The ship was then taken off the pontoon, in preparation for her re-entry into Bristol, now truly afloat. On Saturday 5 July, amidst considerable media interest, the ship was towed up the River Avon
River Avon, Bristol
The River Avon is an English river in the south west of the country. To distinguish it from a number of other River Avons in Britain, this river is often also known as the Lower Avon or Bristol Avon...

 to Bristol. Perhaps the most memorable moment for the crowds that lined the final few miles was her passage under the Clifton Suspension Bridge
Clifton Suspension Bridge
Brunel died in 1859, without seeing the completion of the bridge. Brunel's colleagues in the Institution of Civil Engineers felt that completion of the Bridge would be a fitting memorial, and started to raise new funds...

, another Brunel design. She then waited a further two weeks in the Cumberland Basin
Cumberland Basin (Bristol)
The Cumberland Basin is the main entrance to the docks of the city of Bristol, England. It separates the areas of Hotwells from the tip of Spike Island.The River Avon never flowed through the Cumberland Basin...

, until a high enough tide occurred that would get her back through the locks to Bristol's Floating Harbour, back to her birthplace, the dry dock in the Great Western Dockyard in which she had been built (now a grade II* listed building, it had been disused since bomb damage during the Second World War).
The original intent was to restore her to her 1843 state. However, the philosophy of the project changed in recent years and the conservation of all surviving pre-1970 material became the aim.

In the meantime, the historic ship was featured in several television specials, such as the award-winning Arts and Entertainment
Arts and Entertainment
Arts and Entertainment may refer to:* A&E Network, an American cable and satellite television network* A&E Television Networks, the cable network's parent company* Arts and Entertainment, a hip hop album by American rappers Masta Ace and Edo G....

 two part mini-series program Floating Palaces in 1997. The special documented the history of the ocean liner age from 1819 to the present time and the historic significance of Brunel and his three ships, as well as including expert commentary and a walking tour of the Great Britain in Bristol while showcasing her restored interiors. The 2001 production of the PBS documentary and drama Victoria's Empire
Victoria's Empire
Victoria's Empire is a three part British travel series that was first broadcast on BBC One in 2007. It was fronted by comedienne and actress Victoria Wood. Wood travelled around the world in search of the history, cultural impact and customs which the British Empire placed on the parts of the...

 was the most noted one, in which the ship is featured as an accomplishment of Brunel's skills at the time and is also used as a period set for scenes showing Prince Albert
Prince Albert
Prince Albert was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria.Prince Albert may also refer to:-Royalty:*Prince Albert Edward or Edward VII of the United Kingdom , son of Albert and Victoria...

 boarding her for his inspection tour, actors playing Victorian Era passengers and crew, and with cargo seen set up in the foreground.

By 1998, an extensive survey discovered that the hull was continuing to corrode in the humid atmosphere of the dock and estimates gave her 20 years before she corroded away.
Extensive conservation work began which culminated in the installation of a glass plate across the dry dock at the level of her water line, with two dehumidifiers, keeping the space beneath at 22% relative humidity, sufficiently dry to preserve the surviving material of the hull.
This was completed, the ship was "re-launched" in July 2005, and visitor access to the dry dock was restored.

A BBC West documentary called 'When Brunel's Ship Came Home' tells the story of the salvage operation and was broadcast on BBC One in the West of England on July 12, 2010. The programme includes the personal memories of many of the people who were involved.

Awards

The engineers Fenton Holloway won the IStructE Award for Heritage Buildings in 2006 for the restoration of the SS Great Britain. In May of that year the ship won the prestigious Gulbenkian Prize
Gulbenkian Prize
The Art Fund Prize, formerly known as the Gulbenkian Prize, is an annual prize awarded to a museum or gallery in the United Kingdom for a "track record of imagination, innovation and excellence"...

 for museums and galleries, the chairman of the judging panel Professor Robert Winston
Robert Winston
Robert Maurice Lipson Winston, Baron Winston is a British professor, medical doctor, scientist, television presenter and politician.-Early life and education :...

 commented,

SS Great Britain got our unanimous vote for being outstanding at every level. It combines a truly groundbreaking piece of conservation, remarkable engineering and fascinating social history plus a visually stunning ship above and below the water line. Most importantly, the SS Great Britain is accessible and highly engaging for people of all ages.


The project won The Crown Estate Conservation Award in 2007. and the European Museum of the Year Award’s Micheletti Prize for 'Best Industrial or Technology Museum'. In 2008 the educational value of the project was honoured by the Sandford Award for Heritage Education.

In fiction

In Stephen Baxter
Stephen Baxter
Stephen Baxter is a prolific British hard science fiction author. He has degrees in mathematics and engineering.- Writing style :...

's novel, Ring, Great Britain still exists in AD 3953 and is carried aboard the GUT starship Great Northern throughout its unusual voyage. The ship is preserved under a layer of plastic that preserves and nourishes it.

Dimensions

  • Length: 322 ft (98.15 m)
  • Beam (width): 50 ft 6 in (15.39 m)
  • Height (main deck to keel): 32 ft 6 in (9.91 m)
  • Weight unladen: 1,930 long ton
    Long ton
    Long ton is the name for the unit called the "ton" in the avoirdupois or Imperial system of measurements, as used in the United Kingdom and several other Commonwealth countries. It has been mostly replaced by the tonne, and in the United States by the short ton...

    s (2,161 short ton
    Short ton
    The short ton is a unit of mass equal to . In the United States it is often called simply ton without distinguishing it from the metric ton or the long ton ; rather, the other two are specifically noted. There are, however, some U.S...

    s, 1,961 tonne
    Tonne
    The tonne, known as the metric ton in the US , often put pleonastically as "metric tonne" to avoid confusion with ton, is a metric system unit of mass equal to 1000 kilograms. The tonne is not an International System of Units unit, but is accepted for use with the SI...

    s)
  • Displacement: 3,018 long tons (3,380 short tons, 3,066 tonnes)


Engine
  • Actual Rated Horse Power: 1,000 H.P
  • Total weight: 340 tons
  • Cylinders: 4 x inverted 'V' 88 inches (223.5 cm) diameter
  • Stroke: 72 inches (182.9 cm)
  • RPM: Max. 20 RPM
  • Main Crankshaft: 17 feet (5.18 m) long and 28 inches (71.1 cm) diameter


Propeller
  • Diameter: 15'6"
  • Weight: 77 cwts (3,912 kg)
  • Speed: 55 RPM


Other data
  • Fuel capacity: 1,100 tons of coal
  • Water capacity: 200 tons
  • Cargo capacity: 1,200 tons
  • Cost of construction: £117,295

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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