Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Overview
 
The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI), is a Dublin-based medical institution, situated on St. Stephen's Green
St. Stephen's Green
St Stephen's Green is a city centre public park in Dublin, Ireland. The park is adjacent to one of Dublin's main shopping streets, Grafton Street, and to a shopping centre named for it, while on its surrounding streets are the offices of a number of public bodies and the city terminus of one of...

. The college is one of the five Recognised Colleges of the National University of Ireland
National University of Ireland
The National University of Ireland , , is a federal university system of constituent universities, previously called constituent colleges, and recognised colleges set up under the Irish Universities Act, 1908, and significantly amended by the Universities Act, 1997.The constituent universities are...

. The college dates back to 1784 and at present incorporates schools of medicine
Medicine
Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness....

, physiotherapy, pharmacy
Pharmacy
Pharmacy is the health profession that links the health sciences with the chemical sciences and it is charged with ensuring the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs...

 and nursing
Nursing
Nursing is a healthcare profession focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life from conception to death....

, providing both undergraduate and postgraduate levels of medical education.

Among medical institutions outside Ireland, the use of the term "Royal College" currently indicates an oversight body for postgraduate medical education: the RCSI performs such a function, but is also unique in still having its own undergraduate medical school.
Encyclopedia
The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI), is a Dublin-based medical institution, situated on St. Stephen's Green
St. Stephen's Green
St Stephen's Green is a city centre public park in Dublin, Ireland. The park is adjacent to one of Dublin's main shopping streets, Grafton Street, and to a shopping centre named for it, while on its surrounding streets are the offices of a number of public bodies and the city terminus of one of...

. The college is one of the five Recognised Colleges of the National University of Ireland
National University of Ireland
The National University of Ireland , , is a federal university system of constituent universities, previously called constituent colleges, and recognised colleges set up under the Irish Universities Act, 1908, and significantly amended by the Universities Act, 1997.The constituent universities are...

. The college dates back to 1784 and at present incorporates schools of medicine
Medicine
Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness....

, physiotherapy, pharmacy
Pharmacy
Pharmacy is the health profession that links the health sciences with the chemical sciences and it is charged with ensuring the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs...

 and nursing
Nursing
Nursing is a healthcare profession focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life from conception to death....

, providing both undergraduate and postgraduate levels of medical education.

Among medical institutions outside Ireland, the use of the term "Royal College" currently indicates an oversight body for postgraduate medical education: the RCSI performs such a function, but is also unique in still having its own undergraduate medical school. The RCSI is a sister institute of the royal surgical colleges of the United Kingdom (London, Glasgow and Edinburgh).

History

Since medieval times, the practice of surgery
Surgery
Surgery is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance.An act of performing surgery may be called a surgical...

 was licensed by the Barber-Surgeons' Guild
Guild
A guild is an association of craftsmen in a particular trade. The earliest types of guild were formed as confraternities of workers. They were organized in a manner something between a trade union, a cartel, and a secret society...

, also known at the time as the Guild of St. Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene was one of Jesus' most celebrated disciples, and the most important woman disciple in the movement of Jesus. Jesus cleansed her of "seven demons", conventionally interpreted as referring to complex illnesses...

. The guild chapel was in Christchurch
Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin
Christ Church Cathedral is the cathedral of the United Dioceses of Dublin and Glendalough and the cathedral of the Ecclesiastical province of the United Provinces of Dublin and Cashel in the Church of Ireland...

. Guild membership at that time was obtained by a 3 year apprenticeship
Apprenticeship
Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a skill. Apprentices or protégés build their careers from apprenticeships...

 followed by 2 years as a master. In fact the College of Surgeons maintained a mandatory period of apprenticeship to a qualified surgeon until 1828. In 1446, the Barber-Surgeons' guild was incorporated
Incorporation (business)
Incorporation is the forming of a new corporation . The corporation may be a business, a non-profit organisation, sports club, or a government of a new city or town...

 by royal decree of Henry VI
Henry VI of England
Henry VI was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453. Until 1437, his realm was governed by regents. Contemporaneous accounts described him as peaceful and pious, not suited for the violent dynastic civil wars, known as the Wars...

, becoming the first medical corporation
Livery Company
The Livery Companies are 108 trade associations in the City of London, almost all of which are known as the "Worshipful Company of" the relevant trade, craft or profession. The medieval Companies originally developed as guilds and were responsible for the regulation of their trades, controlling,...

 in the British Isles.

In 1765 Sylvester O'Halloran
Sylvester O'Halloran
Sylvester O'Halloran was an Irish surgeon with an abiding interest in Gaelic poetry and history...

, a surgeon from Limerick
Limerick
Limerick is the third largest city in the Republic of Ireland, and the principal city of County Limerick and Ireland's Mid-West Region. It is the fifth most populous city in all of Ireland. When taking the extra-municipal suburbs into account, Limerick is the third largest conurbation in the...

, had proposed a College of Surgeons along the lines of the College de St. Cosme in Paris, which had been regulating French surgeons since it had been created by Royal Charter by Louis IX
Louis IX of France
Louis IX , commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 until his death. He was also styled Louis II, Count of Artois from 1226 to 1237. Born at Poissy, near Paris, he was an eighth-generation descendant of Hugh Capet, and thus a member of the House of Capet, and the son of Louis VIII and...

 in 1255, to train and regulate surgeons. The Dublin Society of Surgeons’ was founded in 1780 at the Elephant public house on Essex street (now Parliament street). Trinity
Trinity College, Dublin
Trinity College, Dublin , formally known as the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, was founded in 1592 by letters patent from Queen Elizabeth I as the "mother of a university", Extracts from Letters Patent of Elizabeth I, 1592: "...we...found and...

 did not teach surgery
Surgery
Surgery is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance.An act of performing surgery may be called a surgical...

 as a subject until 1851, so Ireland was entirely without a school focused on surgery.

To have a separate organisation focused on providing standardised surgical education became one of the goals of the society and they lobbied for a Royal Charter, in 1781 presenting the lord lieutenant
Lord Lieutenant
The title Lord Lieutenant is given to the British monarch's personal representatives in the United Kingdom, usually in a county or similar circumscription, with varying tasks throughout history. Usually a retired local notable, senior military officer, peer or business person is given the post...

 a petition to be incorporated separately from the barbers. The awaited charter
Charter
A charter is the grant of authority or rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified...

 was granted by King George III on 11 February 1784. The governing body, including the first President Samuel Croker-King and William Dease, first professor of surgery, met in the boardroom of the Rotunda Hospital
Rotunda Hospital
The Rotunda Hospital is one of the three main maternity hospitals in the city of Dublin, the others being the The Coombe and The National Maternity Hospital...

 for the first time on 2 March. Most importantly, admission or employment was not discriminated against on sectarian grounds. Two of its chief founders, Sylvester O’Halloran and William Dease as well as eleven out of its first 57 presidents were Catholic. The college also recognised the medical qualifications given by the Catholic university from 1856, which gave legitimacy to their diplomas.

The first candidate for examination was John Birch, in August 1784.
The current location, at the corner of York Street, was acquired in September 1805, with additional land at Glover’s Alley bought in 1809. It was previously an abandoned Quaker burial ground
Friends Burial Ground, Dublin
The Friends Burial Ground is a Quaker burial ground located at Temple Hill, Blackrock, Dublin. It opened in 1860 and is the only Quaker burial ground in Dublin.-History:...

. The Duke of Bedford laid the first stone of the new building on St. Patrick’s Day, 1806 and building reached completion in March 1810.

A supplemental charter was granted by Queen Victoria in 1844, dividing medical graduates into Licentiates and Fellows. Initially, physicians were trained alongside surgeons. In 1886 these two disciplines were merged, and the medical school began operation. As a result of this historical legacy, graduates of medicine still receive Licentiate diplomas from the two Royal Colleges as well as now being awarded MB (Bachelor of Medicine) BCh (Bachelor of Surgery) and BAO (Bachelor of the Art of Obstetrics
Obstetrics
Obstetrics is the medical specialty dealing with the care of all women's reproductive tracts and their children during pregnancy , childbirth and the postnatal period...

) degrees by the National University of Ireland
National University of Ireland
The National University of Ireland , , is a federal university system of constituent universities, previously called constituent colleges, and recognised colleges set up under the Irish Universities Act, 1908, and significantly amended by the Universities Act, 1997.The constituent universities are...

.

Since the 1980s Beaumont Hospital, Dublin
Beaumont Hospital, Dublin
Beaumont Hospital, is a public hospital located in Beaumont, Dublin, Ireland. It is managed by the Irish Government's Health Service Executive and provides acute-care hospital services, including a 24-hour emergency department, for the population of Dublin. In 2008, the hospital served 149,559...

 has been the principal centre for medical training. Other affiliated hospitals include teaching hospitals such as Connolly Hospital
Connolly Hospital, Blanchardstown
Connolly Hospital Blanchardstown is a public university teaching hospital in Dublin city, Ireland. It was founded in 1955 as an asylum for tuberculosis patients. It is run by the Irish Health Service Executive and currently serves a population of over 290,000...

.

Undergraduate Faculties

  • School of Medicine (5 or 6 year programme, 4 year Graduate Entry Programme)
  • School of Pharmacy
  • School of Physiotherapy

Postgraduate Faculties

  • Faculty of Dentistry
    Faculty of Dentistry of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
    The Faculty of Dentistry of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland was Founded in 1963.The Faculty is responsible for setting standards of postgraduate training in Ireland.The Faculty has more than 1000 Fellows and Members throughout the world....

  • Faculty of Sports and Exercise Medicine
  • Faculty of Radiologists
  • Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery

Admissions

For the medical programme, there are two main entry routes: a regular scheme for secondary school students, lasting 5 or 6 years (5 years plus 1 year of premedical basic sciences); and a graduate entry scheme lasting 4 years. Entry requirements differ depending on the country of origin. The general Irish Leaving Certificate
Leaving Certificate
The Leaving Certificate Examinations , commonly referred to as the Leaving Cert is the final examination in the Irish secondary school system. It takes a minimum of two years preparation, but an optional Transition Year means that for those students it takes place three years after the Junior...

 score requirement is around 570 points. In the case of North American applicants with bachelor's degrees applying to the medical programme, MCAT scores, GPA and recommendations are used for evaluation. Similar applicants from Australia, for example, may use GAMSAT
GAMSAT
The Graduate Australian Medical School Admissions Test is a test used to select candidates applying to study medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and veterinary science at Australian, British, and Irish universities for admission to their Graduate Entry Programmes The Graduate Australian Medical School...

 results.

For the four-year Pharmacy
Pharmacy
Pharmacy is the health profession that links the health sciences with the chemical sciences and it is charged with ensuring the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs...

 programme, graduates are awarded BSc in Pharmacy. For the three-year Physiotherapy programme, graduates are awarded BSc in Physiotherapy.

Student life

Student
Student
A student is a learner, or someone who attends an educational institution. In some nations, the English term is reserved for those who attend university, while a schoolchild under the age of eighteen is called a pupil in English...

s at RCSI are encouraged to participate in extracurricular activities that promote service in the community and cultural awareness. As a side note, 80% of the student population is from outside the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

, with a significant portion coming from North America, the Middle East and Asia. A complete list of current student societies and clubs can be found on the RCSI website.

The Students' Union (SU) is an annually elected body, consisting of 7 officers. The SU is the college's bridge between faculty and the student body and is invited to most meetings, ensuring that student voices are heard on a variety of topics. The SU works closely with the Student Council, which consists of class representatives from all classes at RCSI.

International aspects and operations

As a leading international medical institution, RCSI is active in all medically related sectors of education around the globe. During the South African Apartheid, for example, RCSI provided medical education to those that were discriminated against. In 2005, RCSI Dubai
Dubai
Dubai is a city and emirate in the United Arab Emirates . The emirate is located south of the Persian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsula and has the largest population with the second-largest land territory by area of all the emirates, after Abu Dhabi...

 was founded and currently offers a master's programme in Healthcare Management.

In 2007 The Royal College of Surgeons Ireland (RCSI) in conjunction with Valentia Technologies, the Dublin Fire Brigade (DFB), and the Pre Hospital Emergency Care Council (PHECC) launched unique training initiative with the Emergency Medical Services Dubai Training Institute. The aim is to better patient care and improve response times within Dubai's emergency ambualance services.

In Malaysia, Penang Medical College
Penang Medical College
Penang Medical College is a partnership in medical education between the Penang State Government and the Irish Medical Colleges of the National University of Ireland : the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland and the University College Dublin...

 became RCSI's far east "launching pad". Established in 1995, Malaysian medical students may choose to complete their pre-clinical studies at either UCD Dublin or RCSI.

RCSI-Bahrain
RCSI-Bahrain
The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland - Bahrain is a constituent university of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. It was founded in 2004 and produced its first medical graduating class in June 2010...

 is a fully owned constituent university of RCSI and already has nearly 450 registered students. The first cohort commenced medical studies in October 2004 and graduates are entitled to an M.D. degree. In 2006 the Medical University of Bahrain established a new School of Nursing
Nursing
Nursing is a healthcare profession focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life from conception to death....

 which took its first cohort of students in September 2006. Since 2009 students can also obtain the degrees conferred upon RCSI graduates from the National University of Ireland
National University of Ireland
The National University of Ireland , , is a federal university system of constituent universities, previously called constituent colleges, and recognised colleges set up under the Irish Universities Act, 1908, and significantly amended by the Universities Act, 1997.The constituent universities are...

.

For students at the home institution of RCSI, options may be taken abroad as a result of collaborative agreements with other medical schools around the world. In 2007, these medical schools included Columbia University
Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons
Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, often known as P&S, is a graduate school of Columbia University that is located on the health sciences campus in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan...

, University of Pennsylvania
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
The Perelman School of Medicine , formerly the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, was founded in 1765, making it the oldest American medical school. As part of the University of Pennsylvania, it is located in the University City section of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is widely...

, and Tufts University
Tufts University School of Medicine
The Tufts University School of Medicine is one of the eight schools that constitute Tufts University. Located on the university's health sciences campus in the Chinatown district of Boston, Massachusetts, the medical school has clinical affiliations with thousands of doctors and researchers in the...

. There are also informal agreements with other institutions such as the Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University
The Johns Hopkins University, commonly referred to as Johns Hopkins, JHU, or simply Hopkins, is a private research university based in Baltimore, Maryland, United States...

 and Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit medical practice and medical research group specializing in treating difficult patients . Patients are referred to Mayo Clinic from across the U.S. and the world, and it is known for innovative and effective treatments. Mayo Clinic is known for being at the top of...

.

More than 60 countries from each continent are represented in the RCSI student body.

Trivia

  • United States
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

     First Lady
    First Lady
    First Lady or First Gentlemanis the unofficial title used in some countries for the spouse of an elected head of state.It is not normally used to refer to the spouse or partner of a prime minister; the husband or wife of the British Prime Minister is usually informally referred to as prime...

     Nancy Reagan
    Nancy Reagan
    Nancy Davis Reagan is the widow of former United States President Ronald Reagan and was First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989....

     visited RCSI in 1984 and liked one of the carpets used by the college. She eventually ordered a similar one for both the American embassy in Ireland and the White House
    White House
    The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the president of the United States. Located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D.C., the house was designed by Irish-born James Hoban, and built between 1792 and 1800 of white-painted Aquia sandstone in the Neoclassical...

    .

  • During the 1916 Rising, the main college building on St Stephen's Green was occupied by rebel Irish forces, led by Countess Markievicz. Bullet holes from that time are still visible in the stone facade.

  • Now defunct subjects taught include: Logic (1852–1862), Military Surgery (1851–1860), Botany
    Botany
    Botany, plant science, or plant biology is a branch of biology that involves the scientific study of plant life. Traditionally, botany also included the study of fungi, algae and viruses...

     (1792–1889) and Hygiene or Political Medicine (1841–1921, then united with chair of Medical Jurisprudence).

  • The RCSI motto
    Motto
    A motto is a phrase meant to formally summarize the general motivation or intention of a social group or organization. A motto may be in any language, but Latin is the most used. The local language is usual in the mottoes of governments...

    , "Consilio Manuque", was adopted from the College de St. Cosme in Paris, which had been afforded the motto by Louis XIV. It was originally "Consiloque Manuque", his personal motto.


  • The RCSI college council has by custom, met on Thursdays, dating to the advent of the Dublin Society of Surgeons in 1780.

  • The statues on the St. Stephen's Green facade of the college are Aesclepius in the center, with Hygeia on his left and Athena
    Athena
    In Greek mythology, Athena, Athenê, or Athene , also referred to as Pallas Athena/Athene , is the goddess of wisdom, courage, inspiration, civilization, warfare, strength, strategy, the arts, crafts, justice, and skill. Minerva, Athena's Roman incarnation, embodies similar attributes. Athena is...

     on his right. These statues represent healing, health and wisdom respectively. Over the entrance on the same side is a stone carving of Hippocrates
    Hippocrates
    Hippocrates of Cos or Hippokrates of Kos was an ancient Greek physician of the Age of Pericles , and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine...

    .

  • The Royal College of Surgeons is the first medical institution of learning
    Medical school
    A medical school is a tertiary educational institution—or part of such an institution—that teaches medicine. Degree programs offered at medical schools often include Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, Bachelor/Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Philosophy, master's degree, or other post-secondary...

     to offer a 4-year graduate entry programme for medicine in the Republic of Ireland
    Republic of Ireland
    Ireland , described as the Republic of Ireland , is a sovereign state in Europe occupying approximately five-sixths of the island of the same name. Its capital is Dublin. Ireland, which had a population of 4.58 million in 2011, is a constitutional republic governed as a parliamentary democracy,...

    .

  • The Biological Society (BioSoc) is the official student society of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) and claims to be the oldest student medical society in the world. The Widdess Lecture is one of their main annual events, where the Society invites an expert in their field (usually from outside of medicine) to speak to students and staff.

Notable alumni

  • Pat O'Callaghan
    Pat O'Callaghan
    Dr. Patrick O'Callaghan , was an Irish athlete and Olympic gold medallist. He was the first person from an independent Ireland to win an Olympic medal and is regarded as one of Ireland's greatest-ever athletes.-Early & private life:Pat O'Callaghan was born in knockanroe just outside Kanturk,...

     - Irish gold medallist at both the 1928
    1928 Summer Olympics
    The 1928 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the IX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1928 in Amsterdam, Netherlands. Amsterdam had bid for the 1920 and 1924 Olympic Games, but had to give way to war-victim Antwerp, Belgium, and Pierre de...

     and 1932
    1932 Summer Olympics
    The 1932 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the X Olympiad, was a major world wide multi-athletic event which was celebrated in 1932 in Los Angeles, California, United States. No other cities made a bid to host these Olympics. Held during the worldwide Great Depression, many nations...

     Olympic Games.
  • Professor Abraham Colles of Anatomy
    Abraham Colles
    Abraham Colles was professor of Anatomy, Surgery and Physiology at the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Descended from a Worcestershire family, some of whom had sat in Parliament, he was born to William Colles and Mary Anne Bates of Woodbroak, Co. Wexford...

     - the first person to characterize the injury that was later on known as Colles' fracture.
  • Sir William Stokes
    William Stokes (surgeon)
    Sir William Stokes was an Irish surgeon.The son of William Stokes, he was born in Dublin, studied medicine there and at Berlin, London, Paris, and Vienna. In 1864 he settled in practice in Clare St., Dublin until 1878 when he moved to his father's house in Merrion Square. In 1864 he was elected...

     - knighted for his contribution in the field of surgery.
  • Sir William Wilde
    William Wilde
    Sir William Robert Wills Wilde MD, FRCSI, was an Irish eye and ear surgeon, as well as an author of significant works on medicine, archaeology and folklore, particularly concerning his native Ireland...

     - Surgeon, Author and father of Oscar Wilde
    Oscar Wilde
    Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde was an Irish writer and poet. After writing in different forms throughout the 1880s, he became one of London's most popular playwrights in the early 1890s...

  • Ara Darzi, Baron Darzi of Denham - Professor of Surgery, Imperial College London and British Minister of Health, who is at the forefront of minimally invasive surgery research
  • Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
    Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
    Yang Berbahagia Datuk Seri Wan Azizah Wan Ismail is a Malaysian politician. She is currently the president of Parti Keadilan Rakyat and she was the Member of Parliament for Permatang Pauh from 1999 to 2008. She was also the Leader of Opposition in Dewan Rakyat from March 2008 until 31 July 2008...

     - former patron of Majlis Kanser Nasional and a Malaysian opposition politician.
  • Ian Robertson
    Ian Robertson (Gaelic footballer)
    Ian Robertson is a former Gaelic-football player for Dublin and Ballymun Kickhams. Robertson retired from inter-county football due to an injury in 2008 which dramatically affected his fluency of movement.-Playing career:...

     - Former star of the Dublin gaelic football team
    Dublin GAA
    Dublin County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association , or Dublin GAA, is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland, and is responsible for Gaelic games in County Dublin. The county board is also responsible for the Dublin inter-county teams...

  • Felipe Contepomi
    Felipe Contepomi
    Felipe Contepomi is an Argentine rugby union footballer. A fly-half and centre, he currently plays for Stade Francais of the French Top 14; he made his debut for the club in November 2009 after recovering from a torn ACL suffered in a 2008–09 Heineken Cup match with his previous club, Magners...

     - Captain of Los Pumas
    Argentina national rugby union team
    The Argentina national rugby team, nicknamed Los Pumas, represents Argentina in international rugby union matches. The team, which plays in sky blue and white jerseys, is organised by the Argentine Rugby Union .Argentina played its first international rugby match in 1910 against a touring British...

     and Toulon Rugby fly-half.
  • Nada Haffadh
    Nada Haffadh
    Nada Haffadh was Bahrain's first ever female cabinet minister when she was appointed Minister of Health in 2004, serving in the position until September 2007...

     - became Bahrain's
    Bahrain
    ' , officially the Kingdom of Bahrain , is a small island state near the western shores of the Persian Gulf. It is ruled by the Al Khalifa royal family. The population in 2010 stood at 1,214,705, including 235,108 non-nationals. Formerly an emirate, Bahrain was declared a kingdom in 2002.Bahrain is...

     first female minister when she was appointed Minister of Health in 2004
  • Surgeon Captain
    Captain (Royal Navy)
    Captain is a senior officer rank of the Royal Navy. It ranks above Commander and below Commodore and has a NATO ranking code of OF-5. The rank is equivalent to a Colonel in the British Army or Royal Marines and to a Group Captain in the Royal Air Force. The rank of Group Captain is based on the...

     Thomas Joseph Crean
    Thomas Joseph Crean
    Major Dr. Thomas Joseph Crean, VC, DSO was an Irish rugby union player, British Army soldier and doctor. During the Second Boer War, while serving with the Imperial Light Horse, he was awarded the Victoria Cross. His VC medal is displayed at the Army Medical Services Museum...

     VC
    Victoria Cross
    The Victoria Cross is the highest military decoration awarded for valour "in the face of the enemy" to members of the armed forces of various Commonwealth countries, and previous British Empire territories....

     DSO
    Distinguished Service Order
    The Distinguished Service Order is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other parts of the British Commonwealth and Empire, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat.Instituted on 6 September...

     (1873 to 1923). He later achieved the rank of Major
    Major (UK)
    In the British military, major is a military rank which is used by both the British Army and Royal Marines. The rank insignia for a major is a crown...

    .
  • Karl Mullen
    Karl Mullen
    Dr Karl Daniel Mullen was an Irish Rugby Union player and Consultant Gynaecologist who captained the Irish rugby team and captained the British Lions on their 1950 tour to Australia and New Zealand....

     Irish Rugby Union
    Rugby union
    Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

     player and captain of the Grand Slam
    Grand Slam (Rugby Union)
    In rugby union, a Grand Slam occurs when one team in the Six Nations Championship manages to beat all the others during one year's competition...

     winning Irish team in 1948.

Notable honorary fellows

  • Benjamin Bell
    Benjamin Bell
    Benjamin Bell of Hunthill FRSE FRCSE is considered by many to be the first Scottish scientific surgeon. He is commonly described as the 'father of the Edinburgh school of surgery', or the first of the Edinburgh scientific surgeons,,...

     (1784)
  • Percivall Pott
    Percivall Pott
    Sir Percivall Pott London, England) was an English surgeon, one of the founders of orthopedy, and the first scientist to demonstrate that a cancer may be caused by an environmental carcinogen.-Life:...

     (1788, posthumous)
  • John Hunter
    John Hunter (surgeon)
    John Hunter FRS was a Scottish surgeon regarded as one of the most distinguished scientists and surgeons of his day. He was an early advocate of careful observation and scientific method in medicine. The Hunterian Society of London was named in his honour...

     (1790)
  • John Abernethy
    John Abernethy (surgeon)
    John Abernethy FRS was an English surgeon, grandson of the Reverend John Abernethy.He was born in Coleman Street in the City of London, where his father was a merchant. Educated at Wolverhampton Grammar School, he was apprenticed in 1779 to Sir Charles Blicke , a surgeon at St Bartholomew's...

    , Astley Cooper
    Astley Cooper
    Sir Astley Paston Cooper, 1st Baronet was an English surgeon and anatomist, who made historical contributions to otology, vascular surgery, the anatomy and pathology of the mammary glands and testicles, and the pathology and surgery of hernia.-Life:Cooper was born at Brooke Hall in Brooke, Norfolk...

    , Antonio Scarpa
    Antonio Scarpa
    Antonio Scarpa was an Italian anatomist and professor.-Biography:Antonio was born to an impoverished family in the frazione of Lorenzaga, Motta di Livenza, Veneto. An uncle, who was a member of the priesthood, gave him instruction until the age of 15, when he passed the entrance exam for the...

    , Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring (1821)
  • Georges Cuvier
    Georges Cuvier
    Georges Chrétien Léopold Dagobert Cuvier or Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric Cuvier , known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist...

     (1831)
  • Friedrich Tiedemann
    Friedrich Tiedemann
    Friedrich Tiedemann was a German anatomist and physiologist.He was born at Cassel, the eldest son of Dietrich Tiedemann , a philosopher and psychologist of considerable repute. He graduated in medicine at Marburg in 1804, but soon abandoned practice...

     (1836)
  • Benjamin Collins Brodie (1838)
  • Richard Owen
    Richard Owen
    Sir Richard Owen, FRS KCB was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and palaeontologist.Owen is probably best remembered today for coining the word Dinosauria and for his outspoken opposition to Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection...

     (1849)
  • William Bowman (1867)
  • Samuel Haughton
    Samuel Haughton
    Samuel Haughton was an Irish scientific writer.-Biography:He was born in Carlow, the son of James Haughton ....

     (1873)
  • Hermann von Helmholtz
    Hermann von Helmholtz
    Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions to several widely varied areas of modern science...

     (1881)
  • Louis Pasteur
    Louis Pasteur
    Louis Pasteur was a French chemist and microbiologist born in Dole. He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and preventions of diseases. His discoveries reduced mortality from puerperal fever, and he created the first vaccine for rabies and anthrax. His experiments...

    , Joseph Lister
    Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister
    Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister OM, FRS, PC , known as Sir Joseph Lister, Bt., between 1883 and 1897, was a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery, who promoted the idea of sterile surgery while working at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary...

    , Thomas Henry Huxley, James Paget
    James Paget
    Sir James Paget, 1st Baronet was a British surgeon and pathologist who is best remembered for Paget's disease and who is considered, together with Rudolf Virchow, as one of the founders of scientific medical pathology. His famous works included Lectures on Tumours and Lectures on Surgical Pathology...

    , Thomas Spencer Wells
    Thomas Spencer Wells
    Sir Thomas Spencer Wells, 1st Baronet was surgeon to Queen Victoria, a medical professor and president of the Royal College of Surgeons of England.-Early life:...

     (1886)
  • John Eric Erichsen
    John Eric Erichsen
    Sir John Eric Erichsen, 1st Baronet was a British surgeon, born in Copenhagen, was the son of Eric Erichsen, a member of a well-known Danish banking family....

    , Jonathan Hutchinson
    Jonathan Hutchinson
    Sir Jonathan Hutchinson , was an English surgeon, ophthalmologist, dermatologist, venereologist and pathologist.-Life:He was born in Selby, Yorkshire, England of Quaker parents and educated in the local school...

     (1887)
  • Thomas Heazle Parke
    Thomas Heazle Parke
    Surgeon-General Thomas Heazle Parke was an Irish doctor, explorer, soldier and naturalist.Parke was born in 1857 at Clogher House in Kilmore, County Roscommon, Ireland, and was brought up in Carrick-on-Shannon, County Leitrim...

     (1889)
  • John Shaw Billings
    John Shaw Billings
    John Shaw Billings was an American librarian and surgeon best known as the modernizer of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office of the Army and as the first director of the New York Public Library.-Biography:...

    , Hermann Snellen
    Hermann Snellen
    Herman Snellen was a Dutch ophthalmologist who introduced the Snellen chart to study visual acuity . He took over directorship of the Netherlands Hospital for Eye Patients after Dr...

     (1892)
  • Thomas Joseph Crean
    Thomas Joseph Crean
    Major Dr. Thomas Joseph Crean, VC, DSO was an Irish rugby union player, British Army soldier and doctor. During the Second Boer War, while serving with the Imperial Light Horse, he was awarded the Victoria Cross. His VC medal is displayed at the Army Medical Services Museum...

     (1902)
  • Anthony Traill
    Anthony Traill (college provost)
    Anthony Traill was a provost of Trinity College Dublin.Born at Ballylough, in County Antrim, Anthony Traill matriculated at Trinity College Dublin...

     (1905)
  • Henri Hartmann
    Henri Albert Hartmann
    Henri Albert Hartmann was a French surgeon. He wrote numerous papers on a wide variety of subjects, ranging from war injuries to shoulder dislocations to gastrointestinal cancer...

    , Alfred Henry Keogh
    Alfred Keogh
    Sir Alfred Henry Keogh, GCB, GCVO, CH was a medical doctor in the British Army.Born in Dublin, the son of Henry Keogh, barrister and magistrate of Roscommon, Alfred Henry Keogh was educated at Queen's College, Galway, and Guy's Hospital, London. He received his M.D. from the Queen's University of...

    , Almoth Edward Wright
    Almroth Wright
    Sir Almroth Edward Wright, KBE, CB was a British bacteriologist and immunologist.He is notable for developing a system of anti-typhoid fever inoculation, recognizing early on that antibiotics would create resistant bacteria and being a strong advocate for preventive medicine.-Biography:Wright was...

     (1906)
  • William Macewen
    William Macewen
    Sir William Macewen, CB, FRS, was a Scottish surgeon. He was a pioneer in modern brain surgery and contributed to the development of bone graft surgery, the surgical treatment of hernia and of pneumonectomy .-Career:Macewen was born near Port Bannatyne, Isle of Bute, Scotland in 1848 and studied...

     (1912)
  • Berkley Moynihan
    Berkeley Moynihan, 1st Baron Moynihan
    Berkeley George Andrew Moynihan, 1st Baron Moynihan, KCB, KCMG, , known as Sir Berkeley Moynihan 1st Baronet, from 1922 to 1929, was a noted British abdominal surgeon....

     (1913)
  • Harvey Cushing
    Harvey Cushing
    Harvey Williams Cushing, M.D. , was an American neurosurgeon and a pioneer of brain surgery, and the first to describe Cushing's syndrome...

     (1918)
  • Arthur William Patrick Albert
    Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
    Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn was a member of the shared British and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha royal family who served as the Governor General of Canada, the 10th since Canadian Confederation.Born the seventh child and third son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and...

     (1919)
  • William Mayo
    William James Mayo
    William James Mayo, M.D. was a physician in the United States and one of the seven founders of the Mayo Clinic. He and his brother, Charles Horace Mayo, both joined their father's private medical practice in Rochester, Minnesota, USA, after graduating from medical school in the 1880s...

     and Charles Mayo
    Charles Horace Mayo
    -External links:*...

    , William Williams Keen
    William Williams Keen
    William Williams Keen was the first brain surgeon in the United States. He also saw Franklin Delano Roosevelt when his paralytic illness struck, and worked closely with six American presidents.-Biography:...

     (1921)
  • Alfred Webb-Johnson
    Baron Webb-Johnson
    Baron Webb-Johnson, of Stoke-on-Trent in the County of Stafford, was a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created on 22 June 1948 for the surgeon Sir Alfred Webb-Johnson, 1st Baronet. He had already been created a Baronet in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom in 1945...

     (1948)
  • Cecil Pembrey Grey
    Cecil Wakeley
    Sir Cecil Pembrey Grey Wakeley, 1st Baronet KBE CB was a British surgeon.-Biography:He was born the eldest son of 12 children at Meresborough House in the country near Rainham, Kent, the son of Percy Wakeley and his first wife Mary Sophia "May" Pembrey...

     (1954)
  • Seán T. O'Kelly
    Sean T. O'Kelly
    Seán Thomas O'Kelly was the second President of Ireland . He was a member of Dáil Éireann from 1918 until his election as President. During this time he served as Minister for Local Government and Minister for Finance...

     (1958)
  • Benjamin Guinness
    Benjamin Guinness, 3rd Earl of Iveagh
    Arthur Francis Benjamin Guinness, 3rd Earl of Iveagh , known as Benjamin, was the son of Arthur Onslow Edward Guinness, Viscount Elveden, and Elizabeth Cecilia Hare. He inherited the title from his grandfather Rupert in 1967....

     (1961)
  • Éamon de Valera
    Éamon de Valera
    Éamon de Valera was one of the dominant political figures in twentieth century Ireland, serving as head of government of the Irish Free State and head of government and head of state of Ireland...

    , Arthur Porritt
    Arthur Porritt, Baron Porritt
    - External links :* * *...

     (1964)
  • Michael Ellis De Bakey
    Michael E. DeBakey
    Michael Elias DeBakey was a world-renowned Lebanese-American cardiac surgeon, innovator, scientist, medical educator, and international medical statesman...

     (1967)
  • Bryan Guinness
    Bryan Guinness, 2nd Baron Moyne
    Bryan Walter Guinness, 2nd Baron Moyne , was an heir to part of the Guinness family brewing fortune, lawyer, poet and novelist...

    , Walter Mackenzie
    Walter Mackenzie
    Walter Campbell Mackenzie, OC was a Canadian surgeon and academic.He was a professor and chairman of the Department of Surgery at the University of Alberta’s Faculty of Medicine...

     (1968)
  • Denis Parsons Burkitt
    Denis Parsons Burkitt
    Denis Parsons Burkitt , surgeon, was born in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, Ireland. He was the son of James Parsons Burkitt. Aged eleven he lost his right eye in an accident. He attended Portora Royal School in Enniskillen and Dean Close School, England...

    , Francis Daniels Moore
    Francis Daniels Moore
    Francis Daniels Moore was an American surgeon who was a pioneer in numerous experimental surgical treatments...

     (1973)
  • Cearbhall O'Dalaigh
    Cearbhall Ó Dálaigh
    Cearbhall Ó Dálaigh served as the fifth President of Ireland, from 1974 to 1976. He resigned in 1976 after a clash with the government. He also had a notable legal career, including serving as Chief Justice of Ireland.- Early life :Cearbhall Ó Dálaigh, one of four children, was born on 12 February...

     (1975)
  • J. Hartwell Harrison, M.D.
    J. Hartwell Harrison, M.D.
    John Hartwell Harrison was a key member of the pioneer medical team that received the 1961 Amory Prize of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences for bringing kidney transplantation to the world....

     (1976)
  • Patrick Hillery
    Patrick Hillery
    Patrick John "Paddy" Hillery was an Irish politician and the sixth President of Ireland from 1976 until 1990. First elected at the 1951 general election as a Fianna Fáil Teachta Dála for Clare, he remained in Dáil Éireann until 1973...

     (1977)
  • Robert B. Salter
    Robert B. Salter
    Robert Bruce Salter, , was a Canadian surgeon and a pioneer in the field of pediatric orthopaedic surgery....

     (1978)
  • John W. Kirklin
    John W. Kirklin
    John Webster Kirklin was born in Muncie, Indiana, United States. After graduating from Harvard Medical School in 1942 he made several important contributions to heart surgery while practicing at the Mayo Clinic, in Rochester, Minnesota...

     (1979)
  • Daoud Hanania
    Daoud Hanania
    Daoud Anastas Hanania داود حنانيا is a Palestinian heart surgeon. Hanania is a former Lieutenant General in the Jordanian Armed Forces, he is also currently a Senator in the Jordanian Parliament.- Family Background and Education :...

     (1980)
  • Prince Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud
    Abdullah of Saudi Arabia
    Abdullah bin Abdul-Aziz Al Saud, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, is the King of Saudi Arabia. He succeeded to the throne on 1 August 2005 upon the death of his half-brother, King Fahd. When Crown Prince, he governed Saudi Arabia as regent from 1998 to 2005...

     (1988)
  • Sultan Azlan Shah of Perak (1991)
  • Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad
    Mahathir bin Mohamad
    Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad . is a Malaysian politician who was the fourth Prime Minister of Malaysia. He held the post for 22 years from 1981 to 2003, making him Malaysia's longest serving Prime Minister. His political career spanned almost 40 years.Born and raised in Alor Setar, Kedah, Mahathir...

     (1991)
  • President Mary Robinson
    Mary Robinson
    Mary Therese Winifred Robinson served as the seventh, and first female, President of Ireland from 1990 to 1997, and the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, from 1997 to 2002. She first rose to prominence as an academic, barrister, campaigner and member of the Irish Senate...

     (1994)
  • His Excellency the Emir Shaikh Isa bin Sulman Al Khalifa
    Isa ibn Salman Al Khalifah
    Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa, GCB, GCMG was the monarch or emir of Bahrain from 1961 until his death. Born in the town of Jasra, he became emir upon the death of his father, Salman ibn Hamad. On May 8, 1949, he married his only wife, Shaikha Hessa bint Salman Al Khalifa .Isa's reign saw Bahrain gain...

     (1995)
  • Mother Teresa of Calcutta
    Mother Teresa
    Mother Teresa , born Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu , was a Roman Catholic nun of Albanian ethnicity and Indian citizenship, who founded the Missionaries of Charity in Calcutta, India, in 1950...

     (1995)
  • President Nelson Mandela
    Nelson Mandela
    Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999, and was the first South African president to be elected in a fully representative democratic election. Before his presidency, Mandela was an anti-apartheid activist, and the leader of Umkhonto we Sizwe, the armed wing...

     (1996)
  • Professor Alfred Cuschieri (1996)
  • Professor Seamus Heaney
    Seamus Heaney
    Seamus Heaney is an Irish poet, writer and lecturer. He lives in Dublin. Heaney has received the Nobel Prize in Literature , the Golden Wreath of Poetry , T. S. Eliot Prize and two Whitbread prizes...

     (1998)
  • President Mary McAleese
    Mary McAleese
    Mary Patricia McAleese served as the eighth President of Ireland from 1997 to 2011. She was the second female president and was first elected in 1997 succeeding Mary Robinson, making McAleese the world's first woman to succeed another as president. She was re-elected unopposed for a second term in...

     (1998)
  • His Majesty, Sultan Azlan Shah The Yang Di Pertuan Agong IX (2000)
  • His Highness, Sheikh Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum
    Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum
    Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum , also referred to as Sheikh Maktoum was the Vice President and Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates and the emir of Dubai.-Biography:...

     (2004)
  • Taoiseach
    Taoiseach
    The Taoiseach is the head of government or prime minister of Ireland. The Taoiseach is appointed by the President upon the nomination of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas , and must, in order to remain in office, retain the support of a majority in the Dáil.The current Taoiseach is...

     Bertie Ahern
    Bertie Ahern
    Patrick Bartholomew "Bertie" Ahern is a former Irish politician who served as Taoiseach of Ireland from 26 June 1997 to 7 May 2008....

     (2006)
  • Bob Geldof
    Bob Geldof
    Robert Frederick Zenon "Bob" Geldof, KBE is an Irish singer, songwriter, author, occasional actor and political activist. He rose to prominence as the lead singer of the Irish rock band The Boomtown Rats in the late 1970s and early 1980s alongside the punk rock movement. The band had hits with his...

     (2007)
  • Former President of the United States Jimmy Carter
    Jimmy Carter
    James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr. is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States and was the recipient of the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize, the only U.S. President to have received the Prize after leaving office...

     (2007)

See also

  • Faculty of Dentistry of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
    Faculty of Dentistry of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
    The Faculty of Dentistry of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland was Founded in 1963.The Faculty is responsible for setting standards of postgraduate training in Ireland.The Faculty has more than 1000 Fellows and Members throughout the world....

  • Irish College of Ophthalmologists
    Irish College of Ophthalmologists
    The Irish College of Ophthalmologists or ICO is the recognised body for ophthalmology training in the Republic of Ireland. Founded in 1991, it represents over 200 ophthalmologists in Ireland and Europe. Its current president is Ms. Patricia Logan. Dr...

  • Royal College of Surgeons of England
    Royal College of Surgeons of England
    The Royal College of Surgeons of England is an independent professional body and registered charity committed to promoting and advancing the highest standards of surgical care for patients, regulating surgery, including dentistry, in England and Wales...

  • Royal College of Physicians of Ireland
    Royal College of Physicians of Ireland
    The Royal College of Physicians of Ireland , was founded in 1654 and is a postgraduate medical organisation comprising Members and Fellows...


External links

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