Roller skating
Overview
 
Roller skating is the traveling on smooth surfaces with roller skates. It is a form of recreation
Recreation
Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time. The "need to do something for recreation" is an essential element of human biology and psychology. Recreational activities are often done for enjoyment, amusement, or pleasure and are considered to be "fun"...

 as well as a sport, and can also be a form of transportation. Skates generally come in two basic varieties: quad roller skates
Roller skates
Roller skates are devices worn on the feet to enable the wearer to roll along on wheels. A first basic type of roller skate consists of a boot with four wheels with ball bearings, arranged in the same configuration as the wheels of a typical car.-History:...

 and inline skates
Inline skates
In-line skates are a type of roller skate used for inline skating. Unlike quad skates, which have two front and two rear wheels, inline skates have two, three, four, or five wheels arranged in a single line...

 or blades, though some have experimented with a single-wheeled "quintessence skate" or other variations on the basic skate design. In America, this hobby was most popular in the 1970s and the 1990s.
  • 1743: First recorded use of roller skates, in a London stage performance.
Encyclopedia
Roller skating is the traveling on smooth surfaces with roller skates. It is a form of recreation
Recreation
Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time. The "need to do something for recreation" is an essential element of human biology and psychology. Recreational activities are often done for enjoyment, amusement, or pleasure and are considered to be "fun"...

 as well as a sport, and can also be a form of transportation. Skates generally come in two basic varieties: quad roller skates
Roller skates
Roller skates are devices worn on the feet to enable the wearer to roll along on wheels. A first basic type of roller skate consists of a boot with four wheels with ball bearings, arranged in the same configuration as the wheels of a typical car.-History:...

 and inline skates
Inline skates
In-line skates are a type of roller skate used for inline skating. Unlike quad skates, which have two front and two rear wheels, inline skates have two, three, four, or five wheels arranged in a single line...

 or blades, though some have experimented with a single-wheeled "quintessence skate" or other variations on the basic skate design. In America, this hobby was most popular in the 1970s and the 1990s.

History

  • 1743: First recorded use of roller skates, in a London stage performance. The inventor of this skate is lost to history.
  • 1760: First recorded skate invention, by John Joseph Merlin
    John Joseph Merlin
    John-Joseph Merlin was a Belgian inventor and horologist.He was born Jean-Joseph Merlin in 1735 in the city of Huy, Belgium....

    , who demonstrated a primitive inline skate with metal wheels.
  • 1819: First patented roller skate design, in France by M. Petitbled. These early skates were similar to today's inline skates, but they were not very maneuverable; it was very difficult with these skates to do anything but move in a straight line and perhaps make wide sweeping turns.
  • Rest of the 19th century: inventors continued to work on improving skate design.
  • 1863: The four-wheeled turning roller skate, or quad skate, with four wheel
    Wheel
    A wheel is a device that allows heavy objects to be moved easily through rotating on an axle through its center, facilitating movement or transportation while supporting a load, or performing labor in machines. Common examples found in transport applications. A wheel, together with an axle,...

    s set in two side-by-side pairs, was first designed, in New York City by James Leonard Plimpton
    James Leonard Plimpton
    James Leonard Plimpton was an American inventor who is known for changing the skating world with his patented roller skates in 1863. Pimpton's roller skates were safer and easier to use than the existing versions, his "rocker skate" or Quad skates allowed people to steer just by leaning to the...

     in an attempt to improve upon previous designs, The skate contained a pivoting action using a rubber cushion that allowed the skater to skate a curve just by leaning to one side. It was a huge success, so much that the first public skating rink was opened in 1866 in Newport, Rhode Island
    Newport, Rhode Island
    Newport is a city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about south of Providence. Known as a New England summer resort and for the famous Newport Mansions, it is the home of Salve Regina University and Naval Station Newport which houses the United States Naval War...

     with the support of Plimpton. The design of the quad skate allowed easier turns and maneuverability, and the quad skate came to dominate the industry for more than a century.
  • 1876: William Brown in Birmingham
    Birmingham
    Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands of England. It is the most populous British city outside the capital London, with a population of 1,036,900 , and lies at the heart of the West Midlands conurbation, the second most populous urban area in the United Kingdom with a...

    , England patented a design for the wheels of roller skates. Brown's design embodied his effort to keep the two bearing surfaces of an axle
    Axle
    An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. On wheeled vehicles, the axle may be fixed to the wheels, rotating with them, or fixed to its surroundings, with the wheels rotating around the axle. In the former case, bearings or bushings are provided at the mounting points where the axle...

    , fixed and moving, apart. Brown worked closely with Joseph Henry Hughes
    Joseph Henry Hughes
    Joseph Henry Hughes was a politician in Manitoba, Canada. He was the mayor of Brandon, Manitoba in 1914....

    , who drew up the patent for a ball or roller bearing race for bicycle and carriage
    Carriage
    A carriage is a wheeled vehicle for people, usually horse-drawn; litters and sedan chairs are excluded, since they are wheelless vehicles. The carriage is especially designed for private passenger use and for comfort or elegance, though some are also used to transport goods. It may be light,...

     wheels in 1877. Hughes' patent included all the elements of an adjustable system. These two men are thus responsible for modern day roller skate and skateboard
    Skateboard
    A skateboard is typically a specially designed plywood board combined with a polyurethane coating used for making smoother slides and stronger durability, used primarily for the activity of skateboarding. The first skateboards to reach public notice came out of the surfing craze of the early 1960s,...

     wheels, as well as the ball bearing race inclusion in velocipede
    Velocipede
    Velocipede is an umbrella term for any human-powered land vehicle with one or more wheels. The most common type of velocipede today is the bicycle....

    s -- later to become motorbikes and automobiles. This was arguably, the most important advance in the realistic use of roller skates as a pleasurable pastime.

  • 1876: The toe stop was first patented. This provided skaters with the ability to stop promptly upon tipping the skate onto the toe. Toe stops are still used today on most quad skates and on some types of inline skates.
  • 1877: The Royal Skating indoor skating ring building is erected rue Veydt, Brussels.
  • 1880s: Roller skates were being mass produced in America from then. This was the sport's first of several boom periods. Micajah C. Henley
    Micajah C. Henley
    Micajah C. Henley was a Richmond, Indiana industrialist and inventor. He was a well known manufacturer of roller skates and bicycles sometimes known as "The Roller Skate King."...

     of Richmond, Indiana
    Richmond, Indiana
    Richmond is a city largely within Wayne Township, Wayne County, in east central Indiana, United States, which borders Ohio. The city also includes the Richmond Municipal Airport, which is in Boston Township and separated from the rest of the city...

     produced thousands of skates every week during peak sales. Henley skates were the first skate with adjustable tension via a screw, the ancestor of the kingbolt mechanism on modern quad skates.
  • 1884: Levant M. Richardson received a patent for the use of steel ball bearings in skate wheels to reduce friction, allowing skaters to increase speed with minimum effort.
  • 1898: Richardson started the Richardson Ball Bearing and Skate Company, which provided skates to most professional skate racers of the time, including Harley Davidson (no relation to the Harley-Davidson
    Harley-Davidson
    Harley-Davidson , often abbreviated H-D or Harley, is an American motorcycle manufacturer. Founded in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, during the first decade of the 20th century, it was one of two major American motorcycle manufacturers to survive the Great Depression...

     motorcycle brand). (Turner and Zaidman, 1997).

  • The design of the quad skate has remained essentially unchanged since then, and remained as the dominant roller skate design until nearly the end of the 20th century. The quad skate has begun to make a comeback recently due to the popularity of roller derby
    Roller derby
    Roller derby is a contact sport played by two teams of five members roller skating in the same direction around a track. Game play consists of a series of short matchups in which both teams designate a scoring player who scores points by lapping members of the opposing team...

     and jam skating
    Jam skating
    Jam skating is a combination of dance, gymnastics, and skating, performed on roller skates. The style of skating has its roots in traditional roller disco, but has been influenced by breakdancing, artistic skating, gymnastics, and modern dance...

    .
  • 1979: Scott Olson and Brennan Olson of Minneapolis, Minnesota
    Minneapolis, Minnesota
    Minneapolis , nicknamed "City of Lakes" and the "Mill City," is the county seat of Hennepin County, the largest city in the U.S. state of Minnesota, and the 48th largest in the United States...

     came across a pair of inline skates created in the 1960s by the Chicago Roller Skate Company and, seeing the potential for off-ice hockey
    Ice hockey
    Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...

     training, set about redesigning the skates using modern materials and attaching ice hockey boots. A few years later Scott Olson began heavily promoting the skates and launched the company Rollerblade, Inc.
    Rollerblade
    Rollerblade is a brand of inline skates owned by Nordica, part of the Tecnica Group of Trevignano, Treviso, Italy.The company was started by Scott Olsen and Brennan Olson in Minneapolis as Ole's Innovative Sports; when they sold the company, it became Rollerblade, Inc...

    .


During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Rollerblade-branded skates became so successful that they inspired many other companies to create similar inline skates, and the inline design became more popular than the traditional quads. The Rollerblade skates became synonymous in the minds of many with "inline skates" and skating, so much so that many people came to call any form of skating "Rollerblading," thus becoming a genericized trademark
Genericized trademark
A genericized trademark is a trademark or brand name that has become the colloquial or generic description for, or synonymous with, a general class of product or service, rather than as an indicator of source or affiliation as intended by the trademark's holder...

.

For much of the 1980s and into the 1990s, inline skate models typically sold for general public use employed a hard plastic boot, similar to ski boots. In or about 1995, "soft boot" designs were introduced to the market, primarily by the sporting goods
Sports equipment
Sports equipment is a general term for any object used for sport or exercise. Examples of sports equipment include:-Exercise equipment:Examples for exercise include swiss balls, weights, equipment for the gym...

 firm K2 Inc.
K2 Sports
K-2, Corporation. was founded in 1961 by brothers Bill and Don Kirschner on Vashon Island, near Seattle, Washington. K2 is known for pioneering fiberglass ski technology, which made skis significantly lighter and more lively than their wood and metal contemporaries...

, and promoted for use as fitness skates. Other companies quickly followed, and by the early 2000s the development of hard shell skates and skeletons became primarily limited to the Aggressive inline skating
Aggressive inline skating
Aggressive inline skating is a form of inline skating, performed on specially designed inline skates with focus on sliding stances known as grinds with a focus on new tricks, stunts and personal style. Participants refer to the activity as "'rollerblading'", "blading", "skating" or "rolling"...

 discipline and other specialized designs.

The single-wheel "quintessence skate" http://onewheelskate.tripod.com/ was made in 1988 by Miyshael F. Gailson of Caples Lake Resort, California, for the purpose of cross-country ski skating and telemark skiing
Telemark skiing
Telemark skiing is a form of skiing using the Telemark turn. Unlike alpine skiing equipment, the skis used for telemarking either have a binding that only connects the boot to the ski at the toes, just as in cross-country skiing, or may be released to only connect there.Telemark turns are led with...

 training. Other skate designs have been experimented with over the years, including two wheeled (heel and toe) inline skate frames but the vast majority of skates on the market today are either quad or standard inline design.

Artistic roller skating

Artistic roller skating
Artistic roller skating
Artistic roller skating is a sport similar to figure skating but where constestants run on roller skates instead of ice skates. Within artistic roller skating there are several disciplines:* figures...

 is a sport which consists of a number of events. These are usually accomplished on quad skates, but inline skates
Inline skates
In-line skates are a type of roller skate used for inline skating. Unlike quad skates, which have two front and two rear wheels, inline skates have two, three, four, or five wheels arranged in a single line...

 may be used for some events. Various flights of events are organized by age and ability/experience. In the US, local competitions lead to 9 regional competitions which lead to the National Championships and World Championships.

See http://www.usarollersports.org for more information.

Dance

Skaters, either solo or a team of two, dance with standardized choreography to music. They are judged on their adherence to the choreography, skill, and style.

Skaters are judged by the accuracy of steps that they skate when performing a particular dance. In addition to being judged on their edges and turns, skaters must carry themselves in an elegant manner while paying careful attention to the rhythm and timing of the music.

Freestyle

An individual event where creativity is emphasized. Includes jumps, spins and choreographed movements to music.

Precision teams

A team of skaters (usually counted in multiples of 4) creates various patterns and movements to music. Often used elements include skating in a line, skating in a box, 'splicing' (subgroups skating towards each other such that they do not contact each other), and skating in a circle. The team is judged on its choreography and the ability to skate together precisely.

Singles/pairs

A single skater or a pair of skaters present routines to music. They are judged on skating ability and creativity. Jumps are expected in these events.

Speed Skating

Inline speed skating
Inline speed skating
Inline speed skating is the sport of racing on inline skates It is often called inline racing by participants. Although it primarily evolved from racing on traditional roller skates, the sport is similar enough to ice speed skating that many competitors are now known to switch between inline and...

 is a competitive contact sport played on inline skates. Variants include indoor, track and road racing, with many different grades of skaters, so the whole family can compete.

Group skating

Among skaters not committed to a particular discipline, a popular social activity is the group skate or street skate, in which large groups of skaters regularly meet to skate together, usually on city streets. Although such touring existed among quad roller skate clubs in the 1970s and 1980s, it made the jump to inline skates in 1990 with groups in large cities throughout the United States. In some cases, hundreds of skaters would regularly participate, resembling a rolling party. In the late 1990s, the group skate phenomenon spread to Europe and east Asia. The weekly Friday night skate in Paris, France (called Pari Roller) is believed to be one of the largest repeating group skates in the world. At times, it has had as many as 35,000 skaters participating on a single night. The Sunday Skate Night in Berlin also attracts over 10,000 skaters during the summer, and Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Copenhagen is the capital and largest city of Denmark, with an urban population of 1,199,224 and a metropolitan population of 1,930,260 . With the completion of the transnational Øresund Bridge in 2000, Copenhagen has become the centre of the increasingly integrating Øresund Region...

, Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

, Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Frankfurt am Main , commonly known simply as Frankfurt, is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany, with a 2010 population of 688,249. The urban area had an estimated population of 2,300,000 in 2010...

, Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Amsterdam is the largest city and the capital of the Netherlands. The current position of Amsterdam as capital city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands is governed by the constitution of August 24, 1815 and its successors. Amsterdam has a population of 783,364 within city limits, an urban population...

, Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina, and the second-largest metropolitan area in South America, after São Paulo. It is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern coast of the South American continent...

, London, San Francisco, Los Angeles, New York, and Tokyo host other popular events. Charity skates in Paris have attracted 50,000 participants (the yearly Paris-Versailles skate).

Aggressive Inline

Aggressive inline skating is trick based skating. This is where the individual performs tricks using a slightly different skate to normal. The skate has a grind block in between two wheels and the various companies have designed the boots to take these extra strains. Also the wheels have a flat large contact surface for grip.

Aggressive inline can either take place at a skate park or on the street. Typically predominantly grinds but also air tricks such as spins and flips.

Roller hockey (quad)

Roller hockey
Roller hockey
Roller Hockey is a form of hockey played on a dry surface using skates with wheels. The term "Roller Hockey" is often used interchangeably to refer to two variant forms chiefly differentiated by the type of skate used. There is traditional "Roller Hockey," played with quad roller skates, and...

 is the overarching name for a rollersport that existed long before inline skates were invented. Roller hockey has been played on quad skates in many countries worldwide and so has many names. Roller hockey at the 1992 Summer Olympics
Roller hockey at the 1992 Summer Olympics
Roller hockey was one of three demonstration sports included in the official Olympic programme of the 1992 Summer Olympics, held in Barcelona...

 was a demonstration rollersport in the 1992 Summer Olympics
1992 Summer Olympics
The 1992 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event celebrated in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, in 1992. The International Olympic Committee voted in 1986 to separate the Summer and Winter Games, which had been held in the same...

 in Barcelona
Barcelona
Barcelona is the second largest city in Spain after Madrid, and the capital of Catalonia, with a population of 1,621,537 within its administrative limits on a land area of...

.

Skating federations

In the United States, the controlling organization is USA Roller Sports
USA Roller Sports
USA Roller Sports , formerly the United States Amateur Confederation of Roller Skating, is the national governing body of competitive roller sports in the United States...

, headquartered in Lincoln, Nebraska
Lincoln, Nebraska
The City of Lincoln is the capital and the second-most populous city of the US state of Nebraska. Lincoln is also the county seat of Lancaster County and the home of the University of Nebraska. Lincoln's 2010 Census population was 258,379....

, also home of the [National Museum of Roller Skating]http://www.rollerskatingmuseum.com. Nationals are held each summer with skaters required to qualify through regional competitions.

Roller derby

Roller derby
Roller derby
Roller derby is a contact sport played by two teams of five members roller skating in the same direction around a track. Game play consists of a series of short matchups in which both teams designate a scoring player who scores points by lapping members of the opposing team...

 is a team sport played on roller skates on an oval track. Originally a trademarked product developed out of speed skating demonstrations, the sport is currently experiencing a revival as a grass-roots-driven 5-a-side sport played mainly by women. Most roller derby leagues adopt the rules and guidelines set by the Women's Flat Track Derby Association
Women's Flat Track Derby Association
The Women's Flat Track Derby Association is an association of women's flat track roller derby leagues in the United States. The organization was founded in April 2004 as the United Leagues Coalition but was renamed in November 2005. It is registered in Raleigh, North Carolina as a 501 business...

.

Other groups

Other groups include:
  • International Roller Sports Federation
    International Roller Sports Federation
    The International Roller Sports Federation or Fédération Internationale de Roller Sports is the world governing body for roller sports, including rink hockey, inline hockey, Inline speed skating and artistic roller skating...

     (Fédération Internationale de Roller Sports)
  • British Federation of Roller Skating
    British Federation of Roller Skating
    The British Federation of Artistic Roller Skating is an institution in the United Kingdom that is dedicated to roller skating.The Federation organizes regular training courses and employs active teachers which are registered with the federation and at least two major coaching seminars are held in...

  • Skate Australia
    Skate Australia
    This organisation is the national governing body for roller sports in the country. Skate Australia recognised roller derby as a roller sport.-See also:* International Roller Sports Federation*International Roller Sports Federation - Inline...


In popular culture

  • 1971 - The song Brand New Key
    Brand New Key
    "Brand New Key" is a pop song written by folk singer Melanie, which became a novelty hit in 1971-72. Taken from Melanie's album Gather Me, it was also known as "The Rollerskate Song" due to its chorus. It was her biggest hit, reaching #1 on the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart in December 1971 and...

    by Melanie Safka uses roller skates as a theme.
  • 1979 - Roller Boogie
    Roller Boogie
    Roller Boogie is a United Artists film starring Linda Blair and introducing Jim Bray The film also stars Beverly Garland, Mark Goddard, and Kimberly Beck, and is directed by Mark L...

     with Linda Blair
  • 1980 - Xanadu
    Xanadu (film)
    Xanadu is a 1980 romantic musical fantasy film written by Marc Reid Rubel and directed by Robert Greenwald. The title is a reference to the poem "Kubla Khan, or, A Vision in a Dream: A Fragment" by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, which is quoted in the film. Xanadu is the name of the Chinese province...

    , with Olivia Newton-John, has rollerskating as a recurring theme.
  • 1980 - Heaven's Gate
    Heaven's Gate
    Heaven's Gate may refer to:* Heaven's Gate , a religious group mostly known for a mass suicide in 1997* Heaven's Gate , a 1980 American movie* Heavens Gate , a German heavy metal band...

    with Kris Kristofferson and Christopher Walken, which is set in 1890s Wyoming, features a scene in an early roller skating rink.
  • 1998 - In the Disney Channel Original Movie Brink!
    Brink!
    Brink! is a 1998 Disney Channel Original Movie set in the backdrop of casual inline skating.-Plot:Andy "Brink" Brinker and his in-line skating crew--Peter, Jordy, and Gabriella--who call themselves "Soul-Skaters" , clash with a group of sponsored skaters, Team X-Bladz--led by Val--with whom they...

    , in-line skating is presented as an extreme competition for teens in California.
  • 2005 - The plot of the film Roll Bounce
    Roll Bounce
    Roll Bounce is a 2005 American comedy-drama film written by Norman Vance Jr. and directed by Malcolm D. Lee. The film stars hip hop artist Bow Wow as the leader of a roller skating crew in 1970s Chicago. The film also stars Nick Cannon, Meagan Good, Brandon T...

    centered around a group of teenagers who compete in a rollerskating competition in the late 1970s.
  • 2006 - In the movie ATL
    ATL
    - Geography :* Atlanta, United States** Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport * Attleborough railway station, its National Rail code- Media :* ATL , a 2006 film set in the city of Atlanta, Georgia, USA...

    , set in Atlanta, the protagonist – rapper, T.I.
    T.I.
    Clifford Joseph Harris, Jr. , better known by his stage name T.I., is an American rap artist, film and music producer, actor and author. He is also the founder and co-chief executive officer of Grand Hustle Records....

     – and his friends had a great love for skating.
  • 2008 - MTV's "Americas Best Dance Crew" featured Breaksk8, a group of Hip Hop dancers on roller skates.
  • 2009 - The movie Whip It, starring Ellen Page
    Ellen Page
    Ellen Philpotts-Page , known professionally as Ellen Page, is a Canadian actress. Page received both Golden Globe and Academy Award nominations for Best Actress for her role as the title character in the film Juno...

     and Drew Barrymore
    Drew Barrymore
    Drew Blyth Barrymore is an American actress, film director, screenwriter, producer and model. She is a member of the Barrymore family of American actors and granddaughter of John Barrymore. She first appeared in an advertisement when she was 11 months old. Barrymore made her film debut in Altered...

     – Barrymore also directing – centers around a small-town girl who joins a hard core all-girl roller derby
    Roller derby
    Roller derby is a contact sport played by two teams of five members roller skating in the same direction around a track. Game play consists of a series of short matchups in which both teams designate a scoring player who scores points by lapping members of the opposing team...

     team.
  • 2011 - In the movie Skateland Skateland, starring Shiloh Fernadez and Ashley Greene
    Ashley Greene
    Ashley Michele Greene is an American actress and model, best known for playing Alice Cullen in the film adaptations of Stephenie Meyer's Twilight novels.- Personal life :...

    , which is set in the 1980s, when roller skating was very popular and many teenagers used to go to roller rinks.

See also

  • Human-powered transport
    Human-powered transport
    Human-powered transport is the transport of person and/or goods using human muscle power. Like animal-powered transport, human-powered transport has existed since time immemorial in the form of walking, running and swimming...

     
  • Inline skates
    Inline skates
    In-line skates are a type of roller skate used for inline skating. Unlike quad skates, which have two front and two rear wheels, inline skates have two, three, four, or five wheels arranged in a single line...

  • Inline speed skating
    Inline speed skating
    Inline speed skating is the sport of racing on inline skates It is often called inline racing by participants. Although it primarily evolved from racing on traditional roller skates, the sport is similar enough to ice speed skating that many competitors are now known to switch between inline and...

  • Powerslide
    Powerslide (inline skating)
    Powerslide is a braking method used in inline skating and skateboarding. It is a relatively advanced way of braking.-Advantages:* Due to its advanced nature, this move commonly impresses onlookers....

  • Rink Hockey

  • Road skating
    Road skating
    Road skating is the sport of skating on roads, much like road cycling. It shares much with Inline speed skating....

  • Roller derby
    Roller derby
    Roller derby is a contact sport played by two teams of five members roller skating in the same direction around a track. Game play consists of a series of short matchups in which both teams designate a scoring player who scores points by lapping members of the opposing team...

  • Sidesurf
    Sidesurf
    Sidesurf is the term given to inline skaters who skate by placing their heels facing each other but separated by roughly shoulder width. In the sidesurf position, a straight line can be drawn through both heels and toes with the toes pointing away from each other. The motion is similar to being on...

  • Soap shoes
    Soap shoes
    Soap is the brand name for shoes made for grinding. They were introduced by Chris Morris of Artemis Innovations Inc. with the brand name "Soap" in 1997. They have a plastic concavity in the sole, which allows the wearer to grind on objects such as pipes, handrails, and stone ledges...

  • Starlight Express
    Starlight Express
    Starlight Express is a rock musical by Andrew Lloyd Webber , Richard Stilgoe and Arlene Phillips , with later revisions by Don Black and David Yazbek . The story follows a child's dream in which his toy train set comes to life; famously the actors perform wearing roller skates...



External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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