Rochester, New York
Overview
Rochester is a city in Monroe County, New York
Monroe County, New York
Monroe County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 744,344. It is named after James Monroe, fifth President of the United States of America. Its county seat is the city of Rochester....

, south of Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is bounded on the north and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south by the American state of New York. Ontario, Canada's most populous province, was named for the lake. In the Wyandot language, ontarío means...

 in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. Known as The World's Image Centre, it was also once known as The Flour City, and more recently as The Flower City. It is the county seat for Monroe County.

Rochester's city population according to the 2010 census is approximately 210,565, making it New York's third most populous city after New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

 and Buffalo
Buffalo, New York
Buffalo is the second most populous city in the state of New York, after New York City. Located in Western New York on the eastern shores of Lake Erie and at the head of the Niagara River across from Fort Erie, Ontario, Buffalo is the seat of Erie County and the principal city of the...

. It is at the center of a larger Metropolitan Area
Rochester, New York metropolitan area
The Rochester, New York Metropolitan Statistical Area , as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of five counties in Western New York, anchored by the city of Rochester...

 which encompasses and extends beyond Monroe County
Monroe County, New York
Monroe County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 744,344. It is named after James Monroe, fifth President of the United States of America. Its county seat is the city of Rochester....

 and includes Genesee County
Genesee County, New York
Genesee County is a county located in Western New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 60,079. Its name is from the Seneca Indian word Gen-nis'-hee-yo meaning "The Beautiful Valley." Its county seat is Batavia.- History :...

, Livingston County
Livingston County, New York
As of the census of 2000, there were 64,328 people, 22,150 households, and 15,349 families residing in the county. The population density was 102 people per square mile . There were 24,023 housing units at an average density of 38 per square mile...

, Ontario County
Ontario County, New York
As of the census of 2000, there were 100,224 people, 38,370 households, and 26,360 families residing in the county. The population density was 156 people per square mile . There were 42,647 housing units at an average density of 66 per square mile...

, Orleans County
Orleans County, New York
As of the census of 2000, there were 44,171 people, 15,363 households, and 10,846 families residing in the county. The population density was 113 people per square mile . There were 17,347 housing units at an average density of 44 per square mile...

 and Wayne County
Wayne County, New York
Wayne County is a county located in the US state of New York. It is part of the Rochester, New York Metropolitan Statistical Area and lies on the south shore of Lake Ontario, forming part of the northern border of the United States with Canada. The name honors General Anthony Wayne, an American...

.
Encyclopedia
Rochester is a city in Monroe County, New York
Monroe County, New York
Monroe County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 744,344. It is named after James Monroe, fifth President of the United States of America. Its county seat is the city of Rochester....

, south of Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is bounded on the north and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south by the American state of New York. Ontario, Canada's most populous province, was named for the lake. In the Wyandot language, ontarío means...

 in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. Known as The World's Image Centre, it was also once known as The Flour City, and more recently as The Flower City. It is the county seat for Monroe County.

Rochester's city population according to the 2010 census is approximately 210,565, making it New York's third most populous city after New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

 and Buffalo
Buffalo, New York
Buffalo is the second most populous city in the state of New York, after New York City. Located in Western New York on the eastern shores of Lake Erie and at the head of the Niagara River across from Fort Erie, Ontario, Buffalo is the seat of Erie County and the principal city of the...

. It is at the center of a larger Metropolitan Area
Rochester, New York metropolitan area
The Rochester, New York Metropolitan Statistical Area , as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of five counties in Western New York, anchored by the city of Rochester...

 which encompasses and extends beyond Monroe County
Monroe County, New York
Monroe County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 744,344. It is named after James Monroe, fifth President of the United States of America. Its county seat is the city of Rochester....

 and includes Genesee County
Genesee County, New York
Genesee County is a county located in Western New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 60,079. Its name is from the Seneca Indian word Gen-nis'-hee-yo meaning "The Beautiful Valley." Its county seat is Batavia.- History :...

, Livingston County
Livingston County, New York
As of the census of 2000, there were 64,328 people, 22,150 households, and 15,349 families residing in the county. The population density was 102 people per square mile . There were 24,023 housing units at an average density of 38 per square mile...

, Ontario County
Ontario County, New York
As of the census of 2000, there were 100,224 people, 38,370 households, and 26,360 families residing in the county. The population density was 156 people per square mile . There were 42,647 housing units at an average density of 66 per square mile...

, Orleans County
Orleans County, New York
As of the census of 2000, there were 44,171 people, 15,363 households, and 10,846 families residing in the county. The population density was 113 people per square mile . There were 17,347 housing units at an average density of 44 per square mile...

 and Wayne County
Wayne County, New York
Wayne County is a county located in the US state of New York. It is part of the Rochester, New York Metropolitan Statistical Area and lies on the south shore of Lake Ontario, forming part of the northern border of the United States with Canada. The name honors General Anthony Wayne, an American...

. This area, which is part of the Western New York
Western New York
Western New York is the westernmost region of the state of New York. It includes the cities of Buffalo, Rochester, Niagara Falls, the surrounding suburbs, as well as the outlying rural areas of the Great Lakes lowlands, the Genesee Valley, and the Southern Tier. Some historians, scholars and others...

 region, had a population of 1,037,831 people at the time of the 2000 Census. As of April 1, 2010, the 2010 Census indicated that this population rose to 1,054,322 .

Rochester was ranked as the sixth 'most livable city' among 379 U.S. metropolitan areas
United States metropolitan area
In the United States a metropolitan statistical area is a geographical region with a relatively high population density at its core and close economic ties throughout the area. Such regions are not legally incorporated as a city or town would be, nor are they legal administrative divisions like...

 in the 25th edition (2007) of the Places Rated Almanac. The Rochester area
Rochester, New York metropolitan area
The Rochester, New York Metropolitan Statistical Area , as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of five counties in Western New York, anchored by the city of Rochester...

 also received the top ranking for overall quality of life among U.S. metros with populations of more than 1 million in a 2007 study by Expansion Management magazine. In the same study, Expansion Management rated the area's public schools as sixth best nationwide. In 2010 Forbes
Forbes
Forbes is an American publishing and media company. Its flagship publication, the Forbes magazine, is published biweekly. Its primary competitors in the national business magazine category are Fortune, which is also published biweekly, and Business Week...

rated Rochester as the 3rd best place to raise a family.

Rochester is an international center of higher education, as well as medical and technological development. The region is known for many acclaimed universities, and several of them (notably the University of Rochester
University of Rochester
The University of Rochester is a private, nonsectarian, research university in Rochester, New York, United States. The university grants undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees. The university has six schools and various interdisciplinary programs.The...

 and the Rochester Institute of Technology
Rochester Institute of Technology
The Rochester Institute of Technology is a private university, located within the town of Henrietta in metropolitan Rochester, New York, United States...

) are nationally renowned for their research programs. In addition, Rochester has been and continues to be the site of many important inventions and innovations in consumer products. The Rochester area is currently home to corporations such as Kodak, Bausch & Lomb
Bausch & Lomb
Bausch & Lomb, an American company based in Rochester, New York, is one of the world's leading suppliers of eye health products, such as contact lenses and lens care products today. In addition to this main activity, in recent years the area of medical technology has been developed...

 and Xerox
Xerox
Xerox Corporation is an American multinational document management corporation that produced and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies...

 that conduct extensive research and manufacturing in the fields of industrial and consumer products. The Rochester metropolitan area is the second largest regional economy in New York State according to the U.S. Internal Revenue Service
Internal Revenue Service
The Internal Revenue Service is the revenue service of the United States federal government. The agency is a bureau of the Department of the Treasury, and is under the immediate direction of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue...

, after the New York City metropolitan area.

Founding and early history

Development of modern Rochester followed the American Revolution
American Revolution
The American Revolution was the political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break free from the British Empire, combining to become the United States of America...

, and forced cession of their territory by the Iroquois
Iroquois
The Iroquois , also known as the Haudenosaunee or the "People of the Longhouse", are an association of several tribes of indigenous people of North America...

 after the defeat of Great Britain. Allied with the British, four major Iroquois tribes were essentially forced from New York.

On November 8, 1803, Col. Nathaniel Rochester
Nathaniel Rochester
Nathaniel Rochester was an American Revolutionary War soldier and land speculator, most noted for founding the settlement which would become Rochester, New York.-Early years:...

 (1752–1831), Maj. Charles Carroll, and Col. William Fitzhugh, Jr. (1761–1839), all of Hagerstown, Maryland
Hagerstown, Maryland
Hagerstown is a city in northwestern Maryland, United States. It is the county seat of Washington County, and, by many definitions, the largest city in a region known as Western Maryland. The population of Hagerstown city proper at the 2010 census was 39,662, and the population of the...

, purchased a 100-acre (ca. 40 ha
Hectare
The hectare is a metric unit of area defined as 10,000 square metres , and primarily used in the measurement of land. In 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the are was defined as being 100 square metres and the hectare was thus 100 ares or 1/100 km2...

) tract from the state in Western New York along the Genesee River
Genesee River
The Genesee River is a North American river flowing northward through the Twin Tiers of Pennsylvania and New York. The river provided the original power for the Rochester area's 19th century mills and still provides hydroelectric power for downtown Rochester....

. They chose the site because its three cataracts on the Genesee offered great potential for water power. Beginning in 1811, and with a population of 15, the three founders surveyed the land and laid out streets and tracts. In 1817, the Brown brothers and other landowners joined their lands with the Hundred Acre Tract to form the village of Rochesterville.

By 1821, Rochesterville was the seat of Monroe County. In 1823, Rochesterville consisted of 1012 acres (4 km²) and 2,500 residents, and the Village of Rochesterville became known as Rochester. Also in 1823, the Erie Canal
Erie Canal
The Erie Canal is a waterway in New York that runs about from Albany, New York, on the Hudson River to Buffalo, New York, at Lake Erie, completing a navigable water route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. The canal contains 36 locks and encompasses a total elevation differential of...

 aqueduct over the Genesee River
Genesee River
The Genesee River is a North American river flowing northward through the Twin Tiers of Pennsylvania and New York. The river provided the original power for the Rochester area's 19th century mills and still provides hydroelectric power for downtown Rochester....

 was completed, and the Erie Canal east to the Hudson River
Hudson River
The Hudson is a river that flows from north to south through eastern New York. The highest official source is at Lake Tear of the Clouds, on the slopes of Mount Marcy in the Adirondack Mountains. The river itself officially begins in Henderson Lake in Newcomb, New York...

 was opened. (In the early 20th century, after the advent of railroad
Rail transport
Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles merely run on a prepared surface, rail vehicles are also directionally guided by the tracks they run on...

s, the presence of the canal in the center city was an obstacle; it was re-routed south of Rochester.) By 1830, Rochester's population was 9,200 and in 1834, it was re-chartered as a city.

Rochester was first known as "The Young Lion of the West", and then as the "Flour City". By 1838, Rochester was the largest flour-producing city in the United States. Having doubled its population in only ten years, Rochester became America's first "boomtown
Boomtown
A boomtown is a community that experiences sudden and rapid population and economic growth. The growth is normally attributed to the nearby discovery of a precious resource such as gold, silver, or oil, although the term can also be applied to communities growing very rapidly for different reasons,...

".

By the mid-19th century, as the center of the wheat-processing industry moved west with population and agriculture, the city became home to an expanding nursery business, giving rise to the city's second nickname
Nickname
A nickname is "a usually familiar or humorous but sometimes pointed or cruel name given to a person or place, as a supposedly appropriate replacement for or addition to the proper name.", or a name similar in origin and pronunciation from the original name....

, the "Flower City." Large and small nurseries ringed the city, the most famous of which was started in 1840 by immigrants George Ellwanger from Germany and Patrick Barry from Ireland.

In 1847, Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass was an American social reformer, orator, writer and statesman. After escaping from slavery, he became a leader of the abolitionist movement, gaining note for his dazzling oratory and incisive antislavery writing...

 founded the abolitionist
Abolitionism
Abolitionism is a movement to end slavery.In western Europe and the Americas abolitionism was a movement to end the slave trade and set slaves free. At the behest of Dominican priest Bartolomé de las Casas who was shocked at the treatment of natives in the New World, Spain enacted the first...

 newspaper The North Star in Rochester. Douglass, a former slave and an antislavery speaker and writer, gained a circulation of over 4,000 readers in the United States, Europe and the Caribbean. The North Star served as a forum for abolitionist views. The Douglass home burnt down in 1872, but a marker for it can be found in Highland Park off South Avenue. The city was also home to Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony
Susan Brownell Anthony was a prominent American civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in the 19th century women's rights movement to introduce women's suffrage into the United States. She was co-founder of the first Women's Temperance Movement with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as President...

, an abolitionist who became active in the women's rights
Women's rights
Women's rights are entitlements and freedoms claimed for women and girls of all ages in many societies.In some places these rights are institutionalized or supported by law, local custom, and behaviour, whereas in others they may be ignored or suppressed...

 movement. At the end of the 19th century, anarchist Emma Goldman
Emma Goldman
Emma Goldman was an anarchist known for her political activism, writing and speeches. She played a pivotal role in the development of anarchist political philosophy in North America and Europe in the first half of the twentieth century....

 lived and worked in Rochester for several years, where she championed the cause of labor in Rochester sweatshops.

After the Civil War, Rochester had an expansion of new industries in the late 19th century, founded by migrants to the city, such as inventor and entrepreneur George Eastman
George Eastman
George Eastman was an American innovator and entrepreneur who founded the Eastman Kodak Company and invented roll film, helping to bring photography to the mainstream...

, who founded Eastman Kodak
Eastman Kodak
Eastman Kodak Company is a multinational imaging and photographic equipment, materials and services company headquarted in Rochester, New York, United States. It was founded by George Eastman in 1892....

, and German immigrants John Jacob Bausch
John Jacob Bausch
John Jacob Bausch was a German-American maker of optical instruments who co-founded Bausch & Lomb ....

 and Henry Lomb, who combined technical and financial expertise to launch Bausch & Lomb
Bausch & Lomb
Bausch & Lomb, an American company based in Rochester, New York, is one of the world's leading suppliers of eye health products, such as contact lenses and lens care products today. In addition to this main activity, in recent years the area of medical technology has been developed...

 in 1861. Not only did they create new industries and thousands of jobs, but Eastman became a major philanthropist
Philanthropist
A philanthropist is someone who engages in philanthropy; that is, someone who donates his or her time, money, and/or reputation to charitable causes...

, developing and endowing the University of Rochester
University of Rochester
The University of Rochester is a private, nonsectarian, research university in Rochester, New York, United States. The university grants undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees. The university has six schools and various interdisciplinary programs.The...

, its Eastman School of Music
Eastman School of Music
The Eastman School of Music is a music conservatory located in Rochester, New York. The Eastman School is a professional school within the University of Rochester...

 and other local institutions. He also supported the development of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. MIT has five schools and one college, containing a total of 32 academic departments, with a strong emphasis on scientific and technological education and research.Founded in 1861 in...

 (MIT) and Tuskegee University
Tuskegee University
Tuskegee University is a private, historically black university located in Tuskegee, Alabama, United States. It is a member school of the Thurgood Marshall Scholarship Fund...

 in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

In the early 20th century, Rochester became a center of the garment industry, particularly men's fashions. It was the base of enterprises such as Bond Clothing Stores
Bond Clothing Stores
Bond Clothing Stores, Bond Clothes, Bond Clothiers, or Bond Stores, was a men's clothing manufacturing company and retailer. The company catered to the middle-class consumer.-History:...

, Fashion Park Clothes
Fashion Park Clothes
Fashion Park Clothes was a Rochester, New York-based manufacturer of men's tailored suits and apparel. They operated from the 1910s into the 1960s. In 1928, another Rochester-based clothing manufacturer, Stein-Bloch & Co., merged with Fashion Park....

, Hickey Freeman
Hickey Freeman
Hickey Freeman is a manufacturer of suits for men and boys, based in Rochester, New York, and founded in 1899. The Hartmarx Corporation bought the company in 1964. In August 2009, India's leading textile and apparel company, SKNL, bought Hartmarx in bankruptcy procedings.The Hickey-Freeman Co...

, and Stein-Bloch & Co. The carriage
Carriage
A carriage is a wheeled vehicle for people, usually horse-drawn; litters and sedan chairs are excluded, since they are wheelless vehicles. The carriage is especially designed for private passenger use and for comfort or elegance, though some are also used to transport goods. It may be light,...

 maker James Cunningham and Sons founded a pioneer automobile
Automobile
An automobile, autocar, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor...

 company - Cunningham.

The population reached 62,386 in 1870, 162,608 in 1900 and 295,750 in 1920. By 1950, the population had reached a high of 332,488. With industrial restructuring in the later 20th century, and the decline of industry and jobs in the area, by 2010, the population had declined to 210,565 in the city, although the metropolitan area was considerably larger.

Geography and climate

Rochester is at 43°9′56"N 77°36′41"W (43.165496, -77.611504). The city is east of Buffalo
Buffalo, New York
Buffalo is the second most populous city in the state of New York, after New York City. Located in Western New York on the eastern shores of Lake Erie and at the head of the Niagara River across from Fort Erie, Ontario, Buffalo is the seat of Erie County and the principal city of the...

, west of Syracuse
Syracuse, New York
Syracuse is a city in and the county seat of Onondaga County, New York, United States, the largest U.S. city with the name "Syracuse", and the fifth most populous city in the state. At the 2010 census, the city population was 145,170, and its metropolitan area had a population of 742,603...

 and sits on Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is bounded on the north and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south by the American state of New York. Ontario, Canada's most populous province, was named for the lake. In the Wyandot language, ontarío means...

's southern shore. The Genesee River
Genesee River
The Genesee River is a North American river flowing northward through the Twin Tiers of Pennsylvania and New York. The river provided the original power for the Rochester area's 19th century mills and still provides hydroelectric power for downtown Rochester....

 bisects the city.

According to the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

, the city has a total area of 37.1 square miles (96.1 km²), of which 35.8 square miles (92.7 km²) of it is land and 1.3 square miles (3.4 km²) of it (3.42%) is water.

Rochester's geography was formed by the ice sheet
Ice sheet
An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km² , thus also known as continental glacier...

s during the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
The Pleistocene is the epoch from 2,588,000 to 11,700 years BP that spans the world's recent period of repeated glaciations. The name pleistocene is derived from the Greek and ....

 epoch. The retreating ice sheets reached a standstill at what is now the southern border of the city, melting at the same rate as they were advancing, depositing sediment along the southern edge of the ice mass. This created a line of hills, including (from west to east) Mt. Hope, the hills of Highland Park, Pinnacle Hill, and Cobb's Hill. Because the sediment of these hills was deposited into a proglacial lake, they are stratified and classified as a "kame delta
Kame
A kame is a geological feature, an irregularly shaped hill or mound composed of sand, gravel and till that accumulates in a depression on a retreating glacier, and is then deposited on the land surface with further melting of the glacier...

". A brief retreat and readvance of the ice sheet onto the delta deposited unstratified material there, creating a rare hybrid structure called a "kame moraine
Moraine
A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris which can occur in currently glaciated and formerly glaciated regions, such as those areas acted upon by a past glacial maximum. This debris may have been plucked off a valley floor as a glacier advanced or it may have...

".

The ice sheets also created Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is bounded on the north and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south by the American state of New York. Ontario, Canada's most populous province, was named for the lake. In the Wyandot language, ontarío means...

 (one of the five fresh-water Great Lakes
Great Lakes
The Great Lakes are a collection of freshwater lakes located in northeastern North America, on the Canada – United States border. Consisting of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario, they form the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth by total surface, coming in second by volume...

), the Genesee River
Glacial geology of the Genesee River
The Genesee River flows northward from its source in northern Pennsylvania to enter Lake Ontario at Rochester, New York.The present river valley has been modified extensively from preglacial river valleys...

 with its waterfall
Waterfall
A waterfall is a place where flowing water rapidly drops in elevation as it flows over a steep region or a cliff.-Formation:Waterfalls are commonly formed when a river is young. At these times the channel is often narrow and deep. When the river courses over resistant bedrock, erosion happens...

s and gorge
Canyon
A canyon or gorge is a deep ravine between cliffs often carved from the landscape by a river. Rivers have a natural tendency to reach a baseline elevation, which is the same elevation as the body of water it will eventually drain into. This forms a canyon. Most canyons were formed by a process of...

s, Irondequoit Bay
Irondequoit Bay
Irondequoit Bay is a large body of water located in northeastern Monroe County, New York. The bay, roughly wide and in length, is fed by Irondequoit Creek to the south and flows into Lake Ontario at its northern end...

, Sodus Bay
Sodus Bay
Sodus Bay is a bay on the south shore of Lake Ontario, one of the Great Lakes. Sodus Bay is located in Wayne County, New York, USA. Most of the bay is in the Town of Huron, but the western part is in the Town of Sodus....

, Braddock Bay
Braddock Bay
Braddock Bay is a small bay of Lake Ontario, located northwest of Rochester, New York, United States. Braddock Bay is renowned for being an excellent bird-watching location, as raptors and other birds congregate when migrating north in Spring...

, Mendon Ponds
Mendon Ponds Park
Mendon Ponds Park is a county park located southeast of Rochester, New York, within the suburban towns of Mendon and Pittsford. At over 2500 acres , it is the largest park in Monroe County...

, numerous local streams and ponds, the Ridge, and the nearby Finger Lakes
Finger Lakes
The Finger Lakes are a pattern of lakes in the west-central section of Upstate New York in the United States. They are a popular tourist destination. The lakes are long and thin , each oriented roughly on a north-south axis. The two longest, Cayuga Lake and Seneca Lake, are among the deepest in...

.

According to the City of Rochester, the city has 537 miles (864.2 km) of public streets, 585 miles (941.5 km) of water mains, 44 vehicular and eight pedestrian bridges, 11 public libraries, two police stations (one for the east side, one for the west), and 15 firehouses. The principal source of water is Hemlock Lake
Hemlock Lake
Hemlock Lake is one of the minor Finger Lakes. It is mostly located in Livingston County, New York, south of Rochester, with a portion overlapping into Ontario County....

, which, with its watershed, is owned by the state of New York. Other water sources include Canadice Lake
Canadice Lake
Canadice Lake is one of the minor Finger Lakes of western New York in the USA.Canadice Lake has a shoreline 6.5 miles long and a maximum depth of 95 feet . Because the lake is a water source of Rochester, New York, no houses are permitted on its shore and boats are limited to 16 feet in length...

 and Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is bounded on the north and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south by the American state of New York. Ontario, Canada's most populous province, was named for the lake. In the Wyandot language, ontarío means...

. The 30-year annual average snowfall is 95 inches (241.3 cm). The mean July temperature is 71.3 °F (21.8 °C) and the mean February temperature is 23.6 °F (-4.7 °C). The high amount of snow that Rochester receives can be accounted for by the city's proximity to Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is bounded on the north and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south by the American state of New York. Ontario, Canada's most populous province, was named for the lake. In the Wyandot language, ontarío means...

 (see lake effect).

Rochester lies in the Humid continental climate
Humid continental climate
A humid continental climate is a climatic region typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters....

 zone (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Dfb) and has four distinct seasons, with often cold and snowy winters. Autumn features brilliant foliage colors, and summer sees generally comfortable temperatures that usually stay in the 80-85 °F (upper 20s °C) range accompanied by moderate to high humidity. Heatwaves are not uncommon during a typical summer. Precipitation is plentiful year round.

Demographics

According to the 2010 Census, the city's population was 43.7% White (37.6% non-Hispanic White alone), 41.7% Black or African American (38.8% non-Hispanic Black or African American alone), 0.5% American Indian and Alaska Native, 3.1% Asian, 0.0% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 6.6% from some other race and 4.4% from two or more races. 16.4% of the total population were Hispanic or Latino of any race, mostly made up of Puerto Ricans.

In the census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

of 2000, there were 219,773 people (210,565 counted in the census of 2010), 88,999 households, and 47,169 families residing in the city. The population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 was 6,132.9 people per square mile (2,368.3/km²). There were 99,789 housing units at an average density of 2,784.7 per square mile (1,075.3/km²). The racial makeup was 48.30% White, 38.55% African American, 0.47% Native American, 2.25% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 6.58% from other races, and 3.81% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12.75% of the population. Ancestries include: German
German American
German Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry and comprise about 51 million people, or 17% of the U.S. population, the country's largest self-reported ancestral group...

 (10.9%), Italian
Italian American
An Italian American , is an American of Italian ancestry. The designation may also refer to someone possessing Italian and American dual citizenship...

 (10.0%), Irish
Irish American
Irish Americans are citizens of the United States who can trace their ancestry to Ireland. A total of 36,278,332 Americans—estimated at 11.9% of the total population—reported Irish ancestry in the 2008 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau...

 (9.6%), English
English American
English Americans are citizens or residents of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England....

 (5.8%), and Polish
Polish American
A Polish American , is a citizen of the United States of Polish descent. There are an estimated 10 million Polish Americans, representing about 3.2% of the population of the United States...

 (2.7%).

As of 1997, Rochester had the largest per capita deaf population in the United States.

There were 88,999 households of which 30.0% had children under 18 living with them, 25.1% were married couples
Marriage
Marriage is a social union or legal contract between people that creates kinship. It is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually intimate and sexual, are acknowledged in a variety of ways, depending on the culture or subculture in which it is found...

 living together, 23.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 47.0% were non-families. 37.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone 65 or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 3.19.

Web site ePodunk estimates that Rochester has approximately 60% more gay males and lesbians per capita than the national average.

The city population was 28.1% under 18, 11.6% from 18 to 24, 32.2% from 25 to 44, 18.1% from 45 to 64, and 10.0% who were 65 or older. The median age was 31. For every 100 females there were 91.6 males. For every 100 females 18 and over, there were 87.3 males.

The median income for a city household was $27,123, and the median family income was $31,257. Males had a median income of $30,521, versus $25,139 for females. The per capita income
Per capita income
Per capita income or income per person is a measure of mean income within an economic aggregate, such as a country or city. It is calculated by taking a measure of all sources of income in the aggregate and dividing it by the total population...

 for the city was $15,588. About 23.4% of families and 25.9% of the population were below the poverty line
Poverty threshold
The poverty threshold, or poverty line, is the minimum level of income deemed necessary to achieve an adequate standard of living in a given country...

, including 37.5% of those under age 18 and 15.4% of those age 65 or over.

Crime

In 2006 Rochester had 1259.6 reported violent crimes per 100,000 residents, compared to a national rate of 553.5. For 2006, Rochester had 827 personal crime incidents per 100,000 and 7,173 property crime incidents per 100,000.

With 100 being the national average, Rochester scores the following:

Personal Crime Risk - 170
Property Crime Risk - 134

In 2008, Rochester reported 42 murders (20.5 per 100,000 people), 98 sexual assaults, 1,059 robberies, 1,103 assaults, 2,808 burglaries, 7,060 larceny thefts, and 1,262 auto thefts.

Economy

Rochester is home to a number of international businesses, including Fortune 1000
Fortune 1000
Fortune 1000 is a reference to a list maintained by the American business magazine Fortune. The list is of the 1000 largest American companies, ranked on revenues alone...

 company Eastman Kodak
Eastman Kodak
Eastman Kodak Company is a multinational imaging and photographic equipment, materials and services company headquarted in Rochester, New York, United States. It was founded by George Eastman in 1892....

, as well as several national and regional companies, such as Bausch and Lomb. Xerox
Xerox
Xerox Corporation is an American multinational document management corporation that produced and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies...

 was founded in Rochester in 1906 as The Haloid Company, and retains a significant presence in Rochester, although its headquarters are now located in Norwalk, Connecticut
Norwalk, Connecticut
Norwalk is a city in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the population of the city is 85,603, making Norwalk sixth in population in Connecticut, and third in Fairfield County...

. The Gannett
Gannett Company
Gannett Company, Inc. is a publicly-traded media holding company headquartered in Tysons Corner, Virginia, United States, near McLean. It is the largest U.S. newspaper publisher as measured by total daily circulation. Its assets include the national newspaper USA Today and the weekly USA Weekend...

 newspaper company and Western Union
Western Union
The Western Union Company is a financial services and communications company based in the United States. Its North American headquarters is in Englewood, Colorado. Up until 2006, Western Union was the best-known U.S...

 were founded in the Rochester area by Frank Gannett
Frank Gannett
Frank Ernest Gannett is the founder of Gannett media corporation.-Biography:Gannett was born in South Bristol, New York, United States, graduated from Bolivar High School , Bolivar, NY in 1893, and graduated from Cornell University. At the age of 30, he purchased his first newspaper, the Elmira...

 and Hiram Sibley
Hiram Sibley
Hiram Sibley , was an industrialist, entrepreneur, and philanthropist.Sibley was born in North Adams, Massachusetts, and later resided in Rochester, New York. He became interested in the work of Samuel Morse involving the telegraph.In 1840, he joined with Morse and Ezra Cornell to create a...

 respectively but have since moved to other cities.

Because of the high prevalence of imaging and optical science among the industry and the universities, Rochester is known as the world capital of imaging. The Institute of Optics
The Institute of Optics
The Institute of Optics is a department and research center at the University of Rochester in Rochester, New York. The Institute grants degrees at the bachelors, masters and doctoral levels through the University of Rochester School of Engineering and Applied Sciences...

 of the University of Rochester
University of Rochester
The University of Rochester is a private, nonsectarian, research university in Rochester, New York, United States. The university grants undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees. The university has six schools and various interdisciplinary programs.The...

 and the Rochester Institute of Technology
Rochester Institute of Technology
The Rochester Institute of Technology is a private university, located within the town of Henrietta in metropolitan Rochester, New York, United States...

 in nearby Henrietta both have imaging programs. In 2006, the University of Rochester became the largest employer in the Rochester area, surpassing Kodak.

Food and beverage

One food product that Rochester calls its own is the "white hot
White Hot
The white hot is a variation on the hot dog found in Rochester, New York, and the upstate area. It is composed of some combination of uncured and unsmoked pork, beef, and veal; the lack of smoking or curing allows the meat to retain a naturally white color...

", a variant of the hot dog
Hot dog
A hot dog is a sausage served in a sliced bun. It is very often garnished with mustard, ketchup, onions, mayonnaise, relish and/or sauerkraut.-History:...

 made by the local Zweigle's
Zweigle's
Zweigles Inc. is a food manufacturer of hot dogs, sausages, and deli products. The company is based in Rochester, New York and was founded in 1880 by C. Whilehem Zweigle. It is most well known for its brand of white hots.-References:...

 company and other companies. Another local specialty is the "garbage plate," first served at Nick Tahou Hots
Nick Tahou Hots
Nick Tahou Hots, originally known as Hots and Potatoes, is a Rochester, New York, landmark restaurant featuring a dish called the Garbage Plate. The restaurant was founded in 1918 by Alex Tahou, the grandfather of the current owner , and named for Nick Tahou, the founder's son, who operated the...

 and traditionally includes cube fries, mac salad, meat sauce, onions, mustard and choice of hot dog or hamburger. Many area restaurants feature copies or variations of the "garbage plate" but cannot call it such because of trademarks. Instead the term "plate" is used to indicate it as such. Rochester was home to French's
French's
French's is an American manufacturer of prepared mustard condiment. Created by Robert Timothy French, French's mustard debuted to the world at the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair. By 1921, French's Mustard had adopted its trademark pennant and begun advertising to the general public.-History:Brothers...

 Mustard, whose address was 1 Mustard Street.

Genesee Brewing Company, maker of the Genesee beers, Honey Brown, Dundee Ales & Lagers and Labatt Blue Lime also calls Rochester home.

The Ragú
Ragú
Ragú is a brand name, for an Italian-style sauce. It is not directly related to the Italian sauce ragù, which is meat based. The Ragú brand was first sold in 1937 - and is currently one of many consumer brands in the portfolio of Anglo-Dutch food giant Unilever. It is the best selling U.S. brand...

 brand of pasta sauce was originally produced in Rochester.

Other local franchises include: Bill Gray's
Bill Gray's
Bill Gray's is a chain of fast food restaurants based in Webster, New York that currently has 15 restaurants opened in the Rochester and Buffalo areas in western New York; six of these locations also sell Abbott's Frozen Custard.In 1938, Bill and Alberta Gray began selling hot dogs in Webster...

 (a hamburger/hot dog joint that lays claim to having "The World's Greatest Cheeseburger"), Tom Wahl's
Tom Wahl's
Tom Wahl's is a chain of fast-food restaurants based in the Rochester, New York area that currently has several restaurants around the Finger Lakes region. USA Today named it one of "51 great burger joints across the USA" in 2010.Tom Wahl, Sr...

, DiBella's
Dibella's
Dibella's Old Fashioned Submarines shop is a restaurant chain based in Rochester, New York, United States. They have locations in Rochester, Buffalo, Pittsburgh, Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio, which opened on May 4th, 2011, plus two locations in Michigan: Ann Arbor and Auburn Hills which opened on...

, Cam's Pizzeria and Abbott's Frozen Custard
Abbott's Frozen Custard
Abbott's Frozen Custard is a frozen custard franchise founded and based in Rochester, New York. The franchise has stores throughout New York state along with four stores in Florida and one store in Massachusetts....

. Dinosaur Bar-b-que
Dinosaur Bar-b-que
Dinosaur Bar-B-Que is a restaurant, blues venue, and biker bar chain in New York. Opened in 1988 on Willow Street in downtown Syracuse, it specializes in authentic barbecue, using a wood-fueled barbecue pit...

, which originated in Syracuse
Syracuse, New York
Syracuse is a city in and the county seat of Onondaga County, New York, United States, the largest U.S. city with the name "Syracuse", and the fifth most populous city in the state. At the 2010 census, the city population was 145,170, and its metropolitan area had a population of 742,603...

, also operates their second franchise downtown in the former Lehigh Valley Railroad
Lehigh Valley Railroad
The Lehigh Valley Railroad was one of a number of railroads built in the northeastern United States primarily to haul anthracite coal.It was authorized April 21, 1846 in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania and incorporated September 20, 1847 as the Delaware, Lehigh, Schuylkill and Susquehanna Railroad...

 station on the Genesee River
Genesee River
The Genesee River is a North American river flowing northward through the Twin Tiers of Pennsylvania and New York. The river provided the original power for the Rochester area's 19th century mills and still provides hydroelectric power for downtown Rochester....

.

Major shopping centers

  • Rochester Public Market
  • The Mall at Greece Ridge
    The Mall at Greece Ridge
    The Mall at Greece Ridge is located in Greece, a suburb of Rochester, New York, and managed by Wilmorite Management Group LLC. It contains 140 stores and restaurants in the main complex, with 10 big box retailers including Dick's Sporting Goods, Bed Bath & Beyond, Barnes & Noble, Michaels,...

  • The Marketplace Mall
    The Marketplace Mall
    The Marketplace Mall is managed by Wilmorite and located in the heart of the Rochester, New York metropolitan area on Hylan Drive, in the suburb of Henrietta....

  • Eastview Mall
    Eastview Mall
    Eastview Mall, located in Victor, New York and managed by Mike Kauffman, is an indoor shopping center owned and operated by Wilmorite Management Group, LLC ....

  • Village Gate Square

Former shopping centers

  • Midtown Plaza
    Midtown Plaza (Rochester)
    Midtown Plaza was an indoor shopping mall in downtown Rochester, New York, the first urban indoor mall in the United States.-History:...

     (Closed as of July 29, 2008)

Tallest structures

As of February 2008, the top ten tallest buildings in the city are:
Building name Height
ft m
Xerox Tower
Xerox Tower
Xerox Tower is a skyscraper in downtown Rochester, New York standing at tall. When it was built in 1967, it was the tallest building made of poured-in-place exposed aggregate concrete. It is the tallest building in Rochester, as well as the third tallest building in New York outside of New York...

443135
Bausch & Lomb Place
Bausch & Lomb Place
Bausch & Lomb Place is a skyscraper located in Rochester, New York. It is the second tallest building in Rochester, standing at 401 feet with 20 floors. It is used as the world headquarters for the eye-care company Bausch & Lomb....

401122.2
Chase Tower
Chase Tower (Rochester)
The Chase Tower, also known as Lincoln First Bank , is a skyscraper located in Rochester, New York, USA. It is the third tallest skyscraper in Rochester, standing at . It has 27 floors and was constructed in 1973. The architect responsible for designing the building was John Graham & Company. It...

392119.5
Kodak Tower
Kodak Tower
Kodak Tower, built in 1914, is a skyscraper in Rochester, New York. It serves as the world headquarters for Eastman Kodak. Originally constructed with 16 stories and a flat roof, it was Rochester's tallest building at the time. However, it lost this status in the 1920s following the addition of a...

360109.7
First Federal Plaza
First Federal Plaza
First Federal Plaza is a high-rise building located in Rochester, New York. It is the fifth tallest building in Rochester, standing at 309 feet with 21 floors. Architect Corgan, Balestiere and Leaper 1976...

30994.2
One HSBC Plaza
One HSBC Plaza
One HSBC Plaza is a high-rise building located in Rochester, New York, United States. It is the sixth tallest building in Rochester, standing at with 21 floors....

28486.6
Hyatt Regency Hotel
Hyatt Regency Rochester
The Hyatt Regency Rochester is a Hyatt hotel and skyscraper located in Rochester, New York. Standing at 271 feet tall with 25 floors, it is the seventh tallest building in Rochester....

27182.6
Times Square Building
Times Square Building (Rochester)
The Times Square Building is a skyscraper designed by Ralph Thomas Walker of the firm Voorhees, Gmelin, and Walker located in Rochester, New York. At , it is the eighth tallest building in Rochester, with 14 floors...

26079.2
Midtown Tower
Midtown Plaza (Rochester)
Midtown Plaza was an indoor shopping mall in downtown Rochester, New York, the first urban indoor mall in the United States.-History:...

25176.5
St. Michael's Church
Saint Michael's Church (Rochester)
Saint Michael's of Rochester is a Christian-Catholic church located in Rochester, New York. Standing at , it is the 10th tallest building in Rochester....

24675

Companies

Several companies have corporate headquarters in Rochester.
  • Abbott's Frozen Custard
    Abbott's Frozen Custard
    Abbott's Frozen Custard is a frozen custard franchise founded and based in Rochester, New York. The franchise has stores throughout New York state along with four stores in Florida and one store in Massachusetts....

     - Ice cream franchise
  • Ambrosia Software
    Ambrosia Software
    Ambrosia Software is a predominantly Macintosh software company located in Rochester, New York. Ambrosia produces utilities and games. Its products are distributed as shareware; demo versions can be downloaded and used for up to 30 days....

     - Software firm
  • Bausch & Lomb
    Bausch & Lomb
    Bausch & Lomb, an American company based in Rochester, New York, is one of the world's leading suppliers of eye health products, such as contact lenses and lens care products today. In addition to this main activity, in recent years the area of medical technology has been developed...

     - Contact lens care & eye health
  • Carestream Health
    Carestream Health
    Carestream Health, formerly Eastman Kodak Company's Health Group, is an independent subsidiary of Onex Corporation, Toronto, Canada. Onex is one of Canada's largest corporations....

     - Health equipment and technology
  • Co-Operative Foundry Company - a defunct foundry that made the Red Cross stove
    Red Cross stove
    The Red Cross stove is a kitchen stove used for cooking and heating a home of the late 19th and early 20th-century. The reason for the name "Red Cross" was because of the advertising logo used in promoting the product, which had a red Gothic cross.-History:...

    .
  • Eastman Kodak
    Eastman Kodak
    Eastman Kodak Company is a multinational imaging and photographic equipment, materials and services company headquarted in Rochester, New York, United States. It was founded by George Eastman in 1892....

     - Photography and Printing
  • ESL Federal Credit Union
    ESL Federal Credit Union
    ESL Federal Credit Union is a credit union headquartered in Rochester, New York, chartered and regulated under the authority of the National Credit Union Administration . As of 2009, ESL had $3.8 billion in assets and approximately 298,000 members...

     - New York State's largest credit union in assets
  • Genesee Brewing Company - Brewery
  • Gleason Corporation
    Gleason Corporation
    Gleason Corporation is a prominent machine tool company based in Rochester, New York, USA. It has manufacturing plants in the USA, Britain, India, and Germany, and sales offices in those and additional countries....

     - Gear equipment manufacturer
  • Hickey Freeman
    Hickey Freeman
    Hickey Freeman is a manufacturer of suits for men and boys, based in Rochester, New York, and founded in 1899. The Hartmarx Corporation bought the company in 1964. In August 2009, India's leading textile and apparel company, SKNL, bought Hartmarx in bankruptcy procedings.The Hickey-Freeman Co...

     - handmade suits and clothing, including the Bobby Jones
    Bobby Jones (golfer)
    Robert Tyre "Bobby" Jones Jr. was an American amateur golfer, and a lawyer by profession. Jones was the most successful amateur golfer ever to compete on a national and international level...

     line
  • Home Properties
    Home Properties
    Home Properties, Inc. is a publicly traded apartment real estate investment trust that owns, operates, develops, acquires and rehabilitates apartment communities primarily in selected Northeast and Mid-Atlantic markets. It operates over 38,000 apartment units. The company is headquartered in...

     - Apartment and Properties firm
  • Monro Muffler Brake - Auto care chain
  • North American Breweries
    North American Breweries
    North American Breweries is a new parent corporation established by New York City investment firm KPS Capital Partners to manage its brewery acquisitions: Genesee Brewing Company, Dundee Brewing Company, Pyramid, Magic Hat, and MacTarnahan's. The company also manages Labatt USA, which imports...

     - Alcoholic beverage company
  • Rochester Midland Corporation
    Rochester Midland Corporation
    Rochester Midland Corporation is a closely held specialty chemical manufacturing company headquartered in Rochester, New York. With sales and operations in nearly seventy countries, production facilities in Rochester, New York, Aurora, Illinois and Oakville, Ontario, Rochester Midland Corporation...

     - Chemical manufacturing
  • Rohrbach Brewing Company - Microbrewery
  • Wegmans Food Markets
    Wegmans Food Markets
    Wegmans Food Markets, Inc. is a family-owned U.S. regional supermarket chain headquartered in Gates, New York, near Rochester. Wegmans has more than 75 stores spread across the mid-Atlantic region, in New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Virginia, Maryland and Massachusetts...

     - Grocery


Locally founded corporations that have since moved their headquarters to other states include French's
French's
French's is an American manufacturer of prepared mustard condiment. Created by Robert Timothy French, French's mustard debuted to the world at the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair. By 1921, French's Mustard had adopted its trademark pennant and begun advertising to the general public.-History:Brothers...

, Gannett
Gannett Company
Gannett Company, Inc. is a publicly-traded media holding company headquartered in Tysons Corner, Virginia, United States, near McLean. It is the largest U.S. newspaper publisher as measured by total daily circulation. Its assets include the national newspaper USA Today and the weekly USA Weekend...

, Western Union
Western Union
The Western Union Company is a financial services and communications company based in the United States. Its North American headquarters is in Englewood, Colorado. Up until 2006, Western Union was the best-known U.S...

, Champion
Champion (sportswear)
Champion is a manufacturer of clothing, specializing in sportswear. The brand is a subsidiary of HanesBrands Inc. , which was spun off by the Sara Lee Corporation....

 and Xerox
Xerox
Xerox Corporation is an American multinational document management corporation that produced and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies...

. Humor website eBaum's World
EBaum's World
eBaum's World is a website based in Rochester, New York featuring entertainment media such as videos, Flash cartoons and web games. It is controversial for many reasons, primarily because much of the content on the website is taken from other sources without permission and rebranded with the...

 was also started in Rochester. Companies that moved their headquarters from the city of Rochester to the suburbs include Wegmans (Gates, NY
Gates, New York
Gates is a town in Monroe County, New York. The town is named after General Horatio Gates. The population was 28,400 at the 2010 census. Gates-North Gates census-designated place is located within the town's boundaries....

) and Paychex
Paychex
Paychex, Inc. is a payroll and human resource service company which serves approximately 572,000 businesses in the US. The company is headquartered in Penfield, New York and has more than 100 locations across the country...

 (Penfield, NY
Penfield, New York
Penfield is a town in Monroe County, New York, United States. The population was 36,242 at the 2010 census.The town was incorporated in 1810 by the proprietor, Daniel Penfield, who purchased the town lands in 1795 and moved to the area in 1809. Penfield is a suburb of Rochester, New York...

).

Government

Rochester is governed by a "strong mayor" serving as chief executive of city government and a city council consisting of 4 district members and 5 at-large members. Mayor Thomas Richards
Thomas Richards (mayor)
Thomas S. Richards is an American lawyer, business executive and politician.From 1972 until 1991 Richards worked in the law firm Nixon, Hargrave, Devans & Doyle where he specialized in civil litigation and served at various times as the managing partner and chairman of the management committee....

, a Democrat, was elected in a special city-wide election on March 29, 2011 after the two-term elected mayor, Robert Duffy was elected Lieutenant Governor of New York State in November 2010.

The city's police department is the Rochester Police Department, currently headed by Chief of Police James Sheppard.

Neighborhood Empowerment Team

Enforcement of property code violations in Rochester is handled by the Neighborhood Empowerment Team, or NET. Rather than utilizing a centralized code enforcement office, each neighborhood in Rochester is assigned its own NET office. Some have complained about the lack of consistency in the resulting manner and severity of enforcement. On July 16, 2008, the city announced that two of the NET offices would be closed and another relocated, due to what it had found to be the high cost and low value of operating the decentralized network.

Principal suburbs

Suburbs of the city include: Brighton
Brighton, Monroe County, New York
Brighton is a town in Monroe County, New York, USA. The population was 36,609 at the 2010 census.-History:The Town of Brighton, located on the southeast border of the city of Rochester, was originally settled approximately 1790, and formally established in 1814—earning it recognition as one...

, Brockport
Brockport, New York
Brockport is a village located in the Town of Sweden in Monroe County, New York, USA. The population was 8,103 at the 2000 census. The name is derived from Hiel Brockway, an early settler....

, Chili
Chili, New York
Chili is a town in Monroe County, New York, USA. The population was 28,625 at the 2010 census. It is a suburb of the city of Rochester.The Town of Chili was established in 1822 from part of the Town of Riga....

, Churchville
Churchville, New York
Churchville is a village in Monroe County, New York, United States. According to the 2000 census, the population is 1,887. The village is named after Samuel Church, an early settler....

, East Rochester
East Rochester, New York
East Rochester is a coterminous town and village located southeast of the City of Rochester in Monroe County, New York. The village, home to about 6,587 people, is bounded by Pittsford to the west and south and Perinton to the north and east. The southern boundary is delimited by New York State...

, Fairport
Fairport, New York
Fairport is a village located in the town of Perinton which is part of Monroe County, New York. Fairport is a suburb east of Rochester. It is also known as the "Crown Jewel of the Erie Canal"...

, Gates
Gates, New York
Gates is a town in Monroe County, New York. The town is named after General Horatio Gates. The population was 28,400 at the 2010 census. Gates-North Gates census-designated place is located within the town's boundaries....

, Greece
Greece (town), New York
Greece is a town in Monroe County, New York, United States. As of the 2010 United States census, the town had a total population of 96,095. The town motto is "Discover the Promise."...

, Hamlin
Hamlin, New York
Hamlin is a town in Monroe County, New York, United States. The population was 9,045 at the 2010 census.The Town of Hamlin is in the northwest part of the county and is the second largest town in area in the county.- History :...

, Henrietta
Henrietta, New York
Henrietta is a town in Monroe County, New York, United States. It is a suburb of Rochester. The population was 42,581 at the 2010 census. Established in 1818, the town is named after Henrietta Laura Pulteney, Countess of Bath, daughter of Sir William Pulteney, 5th Baronet, a major British...

, Hilton
Hilton, New York
Hilton is a village in Monroe County, New York, United States. The population was 5,856 at the 2000 census. The community was named for the Rev. Charles A. Hilton.The Village of Hilton is within the Town of Parma.-History:...

, Irondequoit
Irondequoit, New York
Irondequoit is a town in Monroe County, New York, USA. As of the 2010 census, the coterminous town-CDP had a total population of 51,692...

, Mendon
Mendon, New York
Mendon is a town in Monroe County, New York, United States, and an affluent suburb of Rochester, New York. The population was 9,152 at the 2010 census.The Town of Mendon is on the south border of the county...

, Ogden
Ogden, New York
Ogden is a town in Monroe County, New York, USA. The population was 19,856 at the 2010 census.The Erie Canal passes through the Town of Ogden.-Geography:...

, Parma
Parma, New York
Parma is a town in Monroe County, New York, United States. The population was 15,633 at the 2010 census.The Town of Parma, then in Genesee County, was organized in 1808, named after Parma in Italy.-Geography:...

, Penfield
Penfield, New York
Penfield is a town in Monroe County, New York, United States. The population was 36,242 at the 2010 census.The town was incorporated in 1810 by the proprietor, Daniel Penfield, who purchased the town lands in 1795 and moved to the area in 1809. Penfield is a suburb of Rochester, New York...

, Pittsford
Pittsford (village), New York
Pittsford is a village in Monroe County, New York, United States. The population was 1,418 at the 2000 census. It is named after Pittsford, Vermont, the native town of a founding father....

, Riga
Riga, New York
Riga is a town in Monroe County, New York, United States. The population was 5,590 at the 2010 census.The Town of Riga is southwest of the City of Rochester on the western border of the county...

, Rush
Rush, New York
Rush is a town in Monroe County, New York, United States. The population was 3,478 at the 2010 census.The Town of Rush is a suburb of Rochester located in the southwest part of the county.-Geography:...

, Scottsville
Scottsville, New York
Scottsville is a village in southwestern Monroe County, New York, United States, and is in the northeastern part of the Town of Wheatland. The population was 2,128 at the 2000 census. The village is named after an early settler, Isaac Scott...

, Spencerport
Spencerport, New York
Spencerport is a village in Monroe County, New York, United States, and a suburb of Rochester, New York. The population count was 3,559 at the 2000 census.The Village of Spencerport is within the Town of Ogden and is a village on the Erie Canal....

, Webster
Webster (town), New York
Webster is a town in the northeast corner of Monroe County, New York, United States. The town is named after orator and statesman Daniel Webster. The population was 42,641 at the 2010 census....

, Victor
Victor, New York
Victor is a town in Ontario County, New York, USA. The population was 9,977 at the 2000 census. The town is named after Claudius Victor Boughton, a hero of the War of 1812.The Town of Victor contains a village, also called Victor...

 and Wheatland
Wheatland, New York
Wheatland is a town in Monroe County, New York, United States. The population was 4,775 at the 2010 census. The town is home to Genesee Country Village and Museum.The Town of Wheatland is located in the southwest part of the county....

.

Neighborhoods

Rochester has a number of neighborhoods, including the 19th Ward http://www.19wca.org/, 14621 Community http://www.group14621.com/, Beechwood http://www.beechwood14609.com/, Browncroft http://www.browncroftna.org/, Cascade District, Cobbs Hill, Charlotte, Corn Hill http://www.cornhill.org/, Dewey, Dutchtown, Edgerton, Ellwanger-Barry, German Village, Grove Place http://www.groveplace.org/, High Falls District, Highland park http://www.highlandparkrochester.org/, Lyell-Otis, Dutchtown Maplewood http://www.maplewood.org/(10th ward), Marketview Heights http://www.marketviewheights.org/, Mt. Read, Northern edge http://www.northedge.org/, Otis-Lyell http://www.lyellotis.com/, Park Avenue, Plymouth-Exchange, Southwest, East End, South Wedge, Swillburg http://www.swillburg.com/, Susan B. Anthony http://www.susanbanthonyneighborhood.org/, University-Atlantic, Upper Monroe http://www.uppermonroeavenue.org/, and more are all recognized communities with various neighborhood associations. There are also living spaces in Downtown Rochester
Downtown Rochester
Downtown Rochester is the economic center of Rochester, New York, and the largest in Upstate New York, employing over 50,000 people, and housing close to 5,000...

.

Browncroft

The Browncroft neighborhood is built on the former nursery grounds of the Brown Brothers nursery. The business district situated on Winton Rd has a mix of restaurants and shops. The neighborhood borders the nearby Tryon and Ellison Parks. The Browncroft Historic District
Browncroft Historic District
The Browncroft Historic District is a national historic district located in the Browncroft Neighborhood of Rochester, New York. The district contains 518 contributing buildings, two contributing sites, two contributing objects, and two contributing structures over 116 acres...

 was listed on the National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation...

 in 2004.

14621 community

Extending across much of the north-central cityscape of Rochester, now including parts of the old Hudson Avenue and North Clinton neighborhoods, is the 14621 community. Today this neighborhood is predominantly African American and Hispanic, this community suffered being the center of the 1964 riots. The riots did produce some benefits in the long run: the north-central area has been the site of ongoing urban renewal projects since the late 1960s, and, as noted by "JULY ’64" filmmakers Carvin Eison and Chris Christopher, inspired the developent of such important African American organizations such as The Urban League of Rochester as well as Rochester’s first anti-poverty organization (Action for a Better Community), and black community activist organization Freedom, Integration, God, Honor, Today (F.I.G.H.T.). (F.I.G.H.T.) was founded by Rev. Franklin Florence and Deleon McEwen, who would become the first president of (F.I.G.H.T). The establishment of this program came the assistance of Saul Alinsky. However, the neighborhood is still considered the most dangerous part of Rochester and is blighted by crime, drugs and gang activity.

Lyell Avenue

Once an Italian-American neighborhood, there have recently been efforts by to improve the quality of life in this neighborhood. It is known largely for its crime, especially instances of prostitution and drug sales.

19th Ward

The 19th Ward is a southwest neighborhood bordered by Genesee Street, West Avenue, the Erie Canal, and is across the river from the University of Rochester. Now known by its slogan "Urban by Choice," in the early 19th century the area was known as Castle Town, after Castle Inn, a tavern run by Colonel
Colonel
Colonel , abbreviated Col or COL, is a military rank of a senior commissioned officer. It or a corresponding rank exists in most armies and in many air forces; the naval equivalent rank is generally "Captain". It is also used in some police forces and other paramilitary rank structures...

 Isaac Castle. By the early 1820s however, the area became overshadowed by developments in the north that would later become downtown Rochester. Due to a tumultuous bend in the Genesee river, the area was home to skilled boatsmen that assisted boats traveling north to Rochester and the area was consequently known during this time as "The Rapids". In the 1890s, as Rochester expanded, the area became a prosperous residential area that thrived as the city grew. By 1930 it was a booming residential area for doctors, lawyers, and skilled workers; it includes the still prestigious Sibley Tract development. Homes in the originally upper-class neighborhood typically have gumwood trim, leaded glass, fireplaces, hardwood floors, and open porches. In the 1960s, property values declined as the population of Rochester did, the area experienced white flight
White flight
White flight has been a term that originated in the United States, starting in the mid-20th century, and applied to the large-scale migration of whites of various European ancestries from racially mixed urban regions to more racially homogeneous suburban or exurban regions. It was first seen as...

 accelerated by school busing, blockbusting
Blockbusting
Blockbusting is a business practice of U.S. real estate agents and building developers meant to encourage white property owners to sell their houses at a loss, by implying that racial, ethnic, or religious minorities — Blacks, Hispanics, Jews et al. — were moving into their previously racially...

, and race riots downtown, and crime increased, with violence, drug use
Drug abuse
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, refers to a maladaptive pattern of use of a substance that is not considered dependent. The term "drug abuse" does not exclude dependency, but is otherwise used in a similar manner in nonmedical contexts...

, and neglected property further diminishing property values.

The 19th Ward has had an active community association since 1965, and is known for its ethnic, class, and cultural diversity. The current "Brooks Landing" development is successfully bringing new economic development to the community including an 88-room hotel, 20000 square feet (1,858.1 m²) office building, 11000 square feet (1,021.9 m²) of new retail, and Boulder Coffee shop.

Charlotte

Charlotte
Charlotte, Rochester, New York
Charlotte is a neighborhood in Rochester, New York located at the mouth of the Genesee River along Lake Ontario. It is the home of the Port of Rochester and Charlotte High School.-Early Settlers:...

 (shar-LOT) is a lake front community in Rochester bordering Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is bounded on the north and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south by the American state of New York. Ontario, Canada's most populous province, was named for the lake. In the Wyandot language, ontarío means...

. It is home to Ontario Beach Park, commonly known as Charlotte Beach, which is a popular summer destination for Rochesterians. A new terminal was built in 2004 for the Rochester-to-Toronto ferry service and was later sold after the ferry ceased operations in 2005. The Port of Rochester terminal still exists and has since been completely revamped. It now houses a popular high-end restaurant and event facility—Pier 45 at The Port, the restaurant Cheeburger Cheeburger, the restaurant California Rollin', a coffee shop named The Nutty Bavarian, and an Abbott's Frozen Custard.

Corn Hill

The Corn Hill neighborhood near downtown is one of the nation's best preserved Victorian neighborhoods and a center for art. It is also home to Corn Hill Landing, a shopping and housing strip located on the Genesee River. The annual Corn Hill Art Festival, a two day event held the weekend after the 4th of July, is one of the city's most popular gatherings for art display.

Upper Monroe

Located less than one and one-half miles from downtown, Upper Monroe encompasses 17 streets with 1400 households and approximately 3300 residents. Cobbs Hill Park, with its beautiful reservoir, tennis courts and athletic fields, forms the southeastern boundary of this neighborhood. Highland Park, world-renowned for its annual Lilac Festival, also is within walking distance. The Upper Monroe Neighborhood Association (UMNA) is a not-for-profit advocacy group representing the residents and property owners of the Upper Monroe neighborhood. Their goals are to ascertain the needs and concerns of the neighborhood and take positive action to address those needs and concerns. The neighborhood is also home to a number of small, local businesses including: Hardpact, Huey's Hair Company, Monty's Krown, Jeremiah's Tavern, and Park Ave. Pets.

East End

The East End is a residential neighborhood in Downtown Rochester but also the main nightlife district. The Eastman Theatre
Eastman Theatre
The Eastman Theatre is the main building of the Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester, located in downtown Rochester, New York....

 and the Eastman School of Music
Eastman School of Music
The Eastman School of Music is a music conservatory located in Rochester, New York. The Eastman School is a professional school within the University of Rochester...

 are in the East End, along with the Little Theatre, an independent film theatre and many clubs, bars and high-end restaurants.

Maplewood

Maplewood is a northwest neighborhood located south of Eastman Business Park and between the Genesee River
Genesee River
The Genesee River is a North American river flowing northward through the Twin Tiers of Pennsylvania and New York. The river provided the original power for the Rochester area's 19th century mills and still provides hydroelectric power for downtown Rochester....

 and Dewey Avenue. Much of the area's charm comes from the use of parkways as well as parks and greenspace bordering the river. These features are the result of plans designed by Frederick Law Olmsted
Frederick Law Olmsted
Frederick Law Olmsted was an American journalist, social critic, public administrator, and landscape designer. He is popularly considered to be the father of American landscape architecture, although many scholars have bestowed that title upon Andrew Jackson Downing...

. The Maplewood Rose Garden is the second largest Rose Test Garden in the United States. The Maplewood Historic District
Maplewood Historic District
Maplewood Historic District is a national historic district located at Rochester in Monroe County, New York. The district is distinguished as having landscape designs, including Maplewood Park, originally laid out by Frederick Law Olmsted....

 was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1997.

Park Avenue and the Neighborhood of the Arts

Lining the streets of Park Avenue are cafes, shops, pubs and restaurants. In a broader view, the total area surrounding University Avenue—known as the Neighborhood of the Arts—is one of the most culture and art-rich sections of the city. Located here are the Village Gate, Memorial Art Gallery, Rochester Museum and Science Center
Rochester Museum and Science Center
The Rochester Museum and Science Center, or RMSC, is a museum in Rochester, New York that features many exhibits related to science. These include AdventureZone, the newly expanded Expedition Earth, How Things Work, and other traveling interactive exhibits, in addition to the permanent historical...

, Rochester Public Market, ARTWalk, George Eastman House
George Eastman House
The George Eastman House is the world's oldest museum dedicated to photography and one of the world's oldest film archives, opened to the public in 1949 in Rochester, New York, USA. World-renowned for its photograph and motion picture archives, the museum is also a leader in film preservation and...

, and high-end residential streets such as Granger Place, East Boulevard, Douglas Road, Westminster Road, and Berkeley Street.

Plymouth-Exchange

Also known by the abbreviation PLEX, the Plymouth-Exchange neighborhood provides affordable housing for lower income families. Also home to many University of Rochester
University of Rochester
The University of Rochester is a private, nonsectarian, research university in Rochester, New York, United States. The university grants undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees. The university has six schools and various interdisciplinary programs.The...

 students, both grad and undergrad, it has a richly knit community and an active neighborhood association.

South Wedge

The South Wedge neighborhood dates back to 1827, prior to the incorporation of Rochester as a city. The area is bordered by Byron street in the north, South Clinton avenue and Interstate 490
Interstate 490 (New York)
Interstate 490 is an auxiliary Interstate Highway that serves the city of Rochester, New York, in the United States. It acts as a northerly alternate route to the New York State Thruway , leaving it at exit 47 in the town of Le Roy and rejoining the highway at exit 45 in the town of...

 on its east, Highland Park on its south, and The Genesee River on the west. Construction of the Erie Canal
Erie Canal
The Erie Canal is a waterway in New York that runs about from Albany, New York, on the Hudson River to Buffalo, New York, at Lake Erie, completing a navigable water route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. The canal contains 36 locks and encompasses a total elevation differential of...

 (the old canal bed which went by the neighborhood is now used by Interstate 490) brought workers to the area, who set up camps for the months that it took to complete this section of the canal. This racially integrated neighborhood is one of the neighborhoods in Rochester currently undergoing the process of gentrification, partially due to a recent increase in homeownership in the area.
A lot of young people live in this area. The Linden-South Historic District
Linden-South Historic District
Linden-South Historic District is a national historic district located in the South Wedge neighborhood of Rochester in Monroe County, New York. The district consists of 136 contributing buildings, including 82 residential buildings, 53 outbuildings, and one church...

 in South Wedge was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2009.

Susan B. Anthony Neighborhood

This neighborhood is a Preservation District on the National Register of Historic Places, known as the Madison Square-West Main Street Historic District
Madison Square-West Main Street Historic District
Madison Square-West Main Street Historic District is a national historic district located in the Susan B. Anthony Neighborhood of Rochester in Monroe County, New York. The district consists of 102 contributing structures and two contributing sites. Sixty five of the contributing structures are...

. It encompasses a three-and-one-half block area within walking distance from downtown Rochester, and comprises residential, commercial and industrial buildings. The center of the residential area is Susan B. Anthony Square, a 0.84 acres (3,399.4 m²) park shown on city map
City map
A city map is a large-scale thematic map of a city created to enable the fastest possible orientation in an urban space. The graphic representation of objects on a city map is therefore usually greatly simplified, and reduced to generally understood symbology.Depending upon its target group or...

s from 1839, which was designed by the famous Olmstead Brothers. Also within the neighborhood is the Susan B. Anthony House
Susan B. Anthony House
Susan B. Anthony House, in Rochester, New York, was the home of Susan B. Anthony while she was a national figure in the women's rights movement....

, which was the suffragist’s residence for the last decades of her life, now a museum, as well as the Cunningham Carriage factory built in 1848 on Canal Street. James Cunningham Son & Co. sold more carriages in the United States in the 1880s than all other manufacturers combined. The Canal Street property, which still stands, remained Cunningham's headquarters for more than 100 years.

Swillburg

This wedge-shaped piece of the city is bordered by S. Clinton Avenue, Field St, and Interstate 490. The neighborhood received its moniker when a 19th century Rochester pig farmer utilized the area to collect swill for his swine. The neighborhood association humorously honors its roots by using street signs featuring the Swillburg Pig. The area has one of the highest rates of homeownership in the city and is currently undergoing gentrification as well.

The local elementary school is #35, Field Street, which often sponsors a community garden in its courtyard on Pinnacle Street.

Marketview Heights

Running east from Union Street just north of Main Street, Marketview Heights is best known as the location of the Public Market, which offers a variety of groceries and other goods from marketeers from farms and shops from surrounding areas, primarily on the week-ends.

Homestead Heights

Homestead Heights is located in north-east Rochester. It is bordered on the west by Goodman Street, on the north by Clifford Avenue, on the south by Bay Street, and on the east by Culver Road, which is also the border between the city and the town of Irondequoit. The neighborhood is a mix of residential and commercial. Real estate values are higher on the eastern end of the neighborhood near the Irondequoit border. The neighborhood is approximately 2–2 miles west of the Irondequoit Bay
Irondequoit Bay
Irondequoit Bay is a large body of water located in northeastern Monroe County, New York. The bay, roughly wide and in length, is fed by Irondequoit Creek to the south and flows into Lake Ontario at its northern end...

.

Education

The City of Rochester is served by the Rochester City School District
Rochester City School District
The Rochester City School District is a public school district that serves approximately 32,000 children and 10,000 adults in the city of Rochester, New York, with over 6,000 employees and a 2010–2011 operating budget of $693.7 million .The average class size ranges from 18 to 25 students...

 which encompasses all public primary and secondary education. The district is governed by a popularly elected seven-member Board of Education. There are also parochial and private primary and secondary schools located within the city. Rochester City Schools consistently post below-average results when compared to the rest of New York State, although on-time graduation rates have improved significantly during the past three years.

Colleges and universities

There are four institutions of higher learning within the city limits of Rochester:
  • Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School
    Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School
    Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School is a theological college of Baptist origins. The present day school, which sits on the top of a hill in the beautiful setting of Highland Park in Rochester, New York is a product of several mergers....

  • Monroe Community College
    Monroe Community College
    Monroe Community College is a two-year college of the State University of New York, located in Monroe County, New York. The college has two campuses, one in the town of Brighton and another, the Damon City Campus, in the City of Rochester...

     Damon City Campus
  • St. Bernard's School of Theology and Ministry
    St. Bernard's School of Theology and Ministry
    St. Bernard's School of Theology and Ministry is a Roman Catholic theological school in Rochester, New York. It was founded in 1893 as a seminary, and was one of the first US seminaries to accept laity. It is the official repository for the writings and papers of the noted evangelist and author,...

  • University of Rochester
    University of Rochester
    The University of Rochester is a private, nonsectarian, research university in Rochester, New York, United States. The university grants undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees. The university has six schools and various interdisciplinary programs.The...

     (including the Eastman School of Music
    Eastman School of Music
    The Eastman School of Music is a music conservatory located in Rochester, New York. The Eastman School is a professional school within the University of Rochester...

    )


Roberts Wesleyan College
Roberts Wesleyan College
Roberts Wesleyan College is a Christian liberal arts college located in North Chili, New York. It is the first educational institution established for Free Methodists in North America...

 also located in Rochester is just eight miles (13 km) west of downtown. Additionally, St. John Fisher College and Nazareth College (New York)
Nazareth College (New York)
Nazareth College of Rochester, NY, is a private liberal arts college in Pittsford, New York, a suburb of Rochester.-History:Nazareth was founded in 1924 by the Sisters of St. Joseph. The first class, comprising 25 young women, began their studies in a large mansion on Lake Avenue in Rochester, New...

 are located in the nearby suburb of Pittsford.

The Rochester Institute of Technology
Rochester Institute of Technology
The Rochester Institute of Technology is a private university, located within the town of Henrietta in metropolitan Rochester, New York, United States...

 (RIT) was founded in 1829 in Rochester but moved to Henrietta
Henrietta, New York
Henrietta is a town in Monroe County, New York, United States. It is a suburb of Rochester. The population was 42,581 at the 2010 census. Established in 1818, the town is named after Henrietta Laura Pulteney, Countess of Bath, daughter of Sir William Pulteney, 5th Baronet, a major British...

 in 1968.

University of Rochester

The University of Rochester
University of Rochester
The University of Rochester is a private, nonsectarian, research university in Rochester, New York, United States. The university grants undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees. The university has six schools and various interdisciplinary programs.The...

 (U of R), was ranked as the 37th-best university in the nation by U.S. News & World Report
U.S. News & World Report
U.S. News & World Report is an American news magazine published from Washington, D.C. Along with Time and Newsweek it was for many years a leading news weekly, focusing more than its counterparts on political, economic, health and education stories...

for 2011 and was deemed "one of the new Ivies" by Newsweek. The nursing school has received many awards and honors and the Simon School of Business
William E. Simon Graduate School of Business Administration
The University of Rochester Simon Graduate School of Business is the business school located on the University's River Campus in Rochester, New York. It was renamed after William E. Simon , the 63rd United States Secretary of the Treasury, in 1986...

 is also ranked in the top 30 in many categories.

The university is also home to the Eastman School of Music
Eastman School of Music
The Eastman School of Music is a music conservatory located in Rochester, New York. The Eastman School is a professional school within the University of Rochester...

, which was ranked the number one music school in America. It was founded and endowed by George Eastman
George Eastman
George Eastman was an American innovator and entrepreneur who founded the Eastman Kodak Company and invented roll film, helping to bring photography to the mainstream...

 in his years as a philanthropist
Philanthropist
A philanthropist is someone who engages in philanthropy; that is, someone who donates his or her time, money, and/or reputation to charitable causes...

. He also contributed greatly to the University of Rochester from wealth based on the success of Eastman Kodak
Eastman Kodak
Eastman Kodak Company is a multinational imaging and photographic equipment, materials and services company headquarted in Rochester, New York, United States. It was founded by George Eastman in 1892....

.

Culture and recreation

The city of Rochester is home to numerous cultural institutions. These include the Garth Fagan
Garth Fagan
Gawain Garth Fagan, CD is a Jamaican modern dance choreographer. He is the founder and artistic director of Garth Fagan Dance, a modern dance company based in Rochester, New York.-Early years:...

 Dance, the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra
Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra
The Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra is an American orchestra based in the city of Rochester, Monroe County, New York. Its primary concert venue is the Eastman Theatre at the Eastman School of Music....

, George Eastman House
George Eastman House
The George Eastman House is the world's oldest museum dedicated to photography and one of the world's oldest film archives, opened to the public in 1949 in Rochester, New York, USA. World-renowned for its photograph and motion picture archives, the museum is also a leader in film preservation and...

 International Museum of Photography and Film, Memorial Art Gallery
Memorial Art Gallery
The Memorial Art Gallery is the civic art museum of Rochester, New York. Founded in 1913, it is part of the University of Rochester and occupies the southern half of the University's former Prince Street campus...

, Rochester Contemporary Art Center
Rochester Contemporary Art Center
Rochester Contemporary Art Center is a non-profit located in Rochester, New York, that exhibits and supports contemporary art of all forms. Founded as Pyramid Arts Center in 1977 by Tony Petracca and Gina Mosesson, the gallery was located in several different storefronts and warehouse spaces around...

, Rochester Museum & Science Center, Strong National Museum of Play, the Strasenburgh Planetarium
Strasenburgh Planetarium
The Strasenburgh Planetarium is a public planetarium located at 663 East Avenue in the city of Rochester, New York. It is named after its benefactors, Edwin and Clara Strasenburgh. It is a department of the Rochester Museum and Science Center. The Planetarium was dedicated on September 14, 1968....

, Hochstein School of Music and Dance, and numerous arts organizations. Geva Theatre Center
Geva Theatre Center
Geva Theatre Center is Rochester's leading professional theatre, operating in the Naval Armory-Convention Hall. It is the birthplace of many new and popular works such as Gregg Coffin's Convenience and Five Course Love. Geva is an abbreviation of Genesee Valley Arts Foundation...

 is the city's largest professional theatre.

Nightlife

Rochester's East End district, located downtown, is well known as the center of the city's nightlife. It is the stopping point for East Avenue, which along with the surrounding streets is crowded with nightclubs, lounges, coffee shops, bars, and high-end restaurants. The Eastman School of Music
Eastman School of Music
The Eastman School of Music is a music conservatory located in Rochester, New York. The Eastman School is a professional school within the University of Rochester...

, one of the top musical institutes in the nation, and its auditorium are also located within the neighborhood. The Eastman Theatre
Eastman Theatre
The Eastman Theatre is the main building of the Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester, located in downtown Rochester, New York....

 now plays host to the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra and other musical/drama events.

There are other, smaller enclaves of after-hours activity scattered across the city. Southeast is the heart of Rochester's thriving arts scene, particularly in and around the Park Avenue neighborhood (which is known for its many coffee shops, cafes, bistros and boutique shopes). Nearby on University Avenue can be found several plazas like the Village Gate which give space to trendy bars, restaurants and art galleries that stay open late into the night. Monroe Avenue, several streets over, is packed with pubs, small restaurants, smoke shops, theaters and several clubs as well as cigar bars and hookah lounges. All of these neighborhoods are home to many artists, musicians, students and Rochester's large LGBT community.

The South Wedge district, located directly below downtown, has seen significant gentrification in recent years and now is the site of many trendy cafes and bars that serve the student community attending the University of Rochester
University of Rochester
The University of Rochester is a private, nonsectarian, research university in Rochester, New York, United States. The university grants undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees. The university has six schools and various interdisciplinary programs.The...

 several blocks away from the heart of the neighborhoods. The wedge is quickly becoming one of the most vibrant areas within the city limits, its numerous nightspots keeping the streets busy with college students and young professionals (many of whom live there due to the abundance of affordable housing, thriving nightlife and proximity to many of the region's major hospitals, parks and colleges)

Park lands

Rochester is known for its parks, including Highland, Cobb's Hill, Durand-Eastman
Durand-Eastman Park
Durand-Eastman Park is a large park located partly in Rochester, New York, and partly in Irondequoit, New York. It is administered by the Monroe County Parks Department under agreements with the City of Rochester and the Town of Irondequoit.- Geography :...

, Genesee Valley
Genesee Valley Park
Genesee Valley Park is located in the south side of Rochester, New York along the shores of the Genesee River. The New York State Barge Canal crosses the Genesee River within the park...

, Maplewood, Edgerton, Seneca, and Ontario Beach; four of these were designed by famed landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted
Frederick Law Olmsted
Frederick Law Olmsted was an American journalist, social critic, public administrator, and landscape designer. He is popularly considered to be the father of American landscape architecture, although many scholars have bestowed that title upon Andrew Jackson Downing...

. The city's Victorian-era Mt. Hope Cemetery
Mount Hope Cemetery, Rochester
Mount Hope Cemetery in Rochester, New York, founded in 1838, is the United States' first municipal rural cemetery. Situated on 196 acres of land adjacent to the University of Rochester on Mount Hope Avenue, the cemetery is the permanent resting place of over 350,000 people...

 includes the final resting places of Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony
Susan Brownell Anthony was a prominent American civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in the 19th century women's rights movement to introduce women's suffrage into the United States. She was co-founder of the first Women's Temperance Movement with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as President...

, Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass was an American social reformer, orator, writer and statesman. After escaping from slavery, he became a leader of the abolitionist movement, gaining note for his dazzling oratory and incisive antislavery writing...

, and George B. Selden. Other scenic sites are Holy Sepulchre
Holy Sepulchre Cemetery (Rochester, New York)
Holy Sepulchre Cemetery is a Catholic cemetery in Rochester, NY. The cemetery is across Lake Avenue from Riverside Cemetery.- Notable Burials :...

 and neighboring Riverside Cemetery
Riverside Cemetery (Rochester, New York)
Riverside Cemetery in Rochester, New York was founded in 1892 to serve the growing population in the northern part of the city. Situated on 123 acres of land between Lake Avenue and the Genesee River, the cemetery is the permanent resting place of over 250,000 people...

.

The city has 13 full-time recreation centers, 19 swimming programs, 3 artificial ice rinks, 66 softball/baseball fields, 47 tennis courts, 5 football fields, 7 soccer fields, and 43 outdoor basketball courts. As a legacy of its time as "The Flower City", Rochester hosts a Lilac Festival for ten days every May, when nearly 400 varieties of lilacs bloom, and 100,000 visitors arrive.

Festivals

Rochester has many festivals in late spring and summer, including the Rochester International Jazz Festival
Rochester International Jazz Festival
Established in 2002, the Rochester International Jazz Festival takes place in June of each year, in Rochester, New York. It is produced by John Nugent, Artistic Director and Marc Iacona, Executive Director...

 established in 2002, the Corn Hill Festival (arts, crafts, and food in this Third Ward neighborhood), the Rochester-High Falls International Film Festival
Rochester-High Falls International Film Festival
The 360 | 365 Film Festival is an annual film festival held each spring in Rochester, New York. The executive director of the festival was Rosie Taravella from 2006-2009...

 held at the George Eastman House
George Eastman House
The George Eastman House is the world's oldest museum dedicated to photography and one of the world's oldest film archives, opened to the public in 1949 in Rochester, New York, USA. World-renowned for its photograph and motion picture archives, the museum is also a leader in film preservation and...

's Dryden Theatre
Dryden Theatre
The Dryden Theatre is located within the George Eastman House, in Rochester, New York in the United States.The theatre is the primary exhibition space for showcasing the museum's collection of motion pictures, recent preservations as well as travelling exhibitions, and premiers of new foreign, and...

 and the Little Theatre downtown), ImageOut, The Rochester Lesbian & Gay Film & Video Festival held at the Little Theatre, Clothesline Art Festival (artists from the region display their works on the grounds of the Memorial Art Gallery
Memorial Art Gallery
The Memorial Art Gallery is the civic art museum of Rochester, New York. Founded in 1913, it is part of the University of Rochester and occupies the southern half of the University's former Prince Street campus...

), Park Avenue Merchants Festival, Lilac Festival at Highland Park, St. Patrick's Day parade (March), Rose Festival at Maplewood Park, Irish festival (September), two Greek festivals - one on East Avenue (in June) and one on South Avenue (in September), Gay Pride Festival (July), Puerto Rican Festival(August), Rochester Music Festival, and the Cold Rush Winter Celebration (celebrating winter sports in the Rochester area). In the summer, especially on the Fourth of July
Independence Day (United States)
Independence Day, commonly known as the Fourth of July, is a federal holiday in the United States commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain...

, downtown after dark is lit with fireworks and a laser show at the High Falls
High Falls, Rochester New York
The High Falls are one of three voluminous waterfalls on the Genesee River, that flow through the cityof Rochester in New York. The High Falls are located about 2 miles upstream from the...

 venue. The most popular of these is undoubtably the Lilac Festival, which attracts many from areas outside of Rochester and draws on average 500,000 people every year.

Media

The Democrat and Chronicle
Democrat and Chronicle
The Democrat and Chronicle is the most widely circulated daily newspaper in the greater Rochester, New York area. Located at 55 Exchange Boulevard in downtown Rochester, the Democrat and Chronicle operates under the ownership of Gannett. The paper's production facility is located in the town of...

is Rochester's main daily newspaper. The Daily Record, a legal, real estate and business daily, has published Monday through Friday since 1908. Insider magazine (owned by the Democrat and Chronicle), "City
City Newspaper
City Newspaper is the alternative weekly newspaper of Rochester, New York. It has been published since 1972 and its current circulation makes it the second-largest newspaper in the greater Rochester region....

" newspaper and the "Freetime" entertainment magazine are free, weekly publications. Rochester Business Journal is the weekly business paper of record. "The Good Life Magazine" is a free bi-monthly publication. There is also a grassroots, democratically run, Independent Media Center called Rochester Indymedia. Media addressing the needs of Rochester's large African American population include "About... time", and "Minority Report", which has an associated news journal for the area's Latin American population, "La Voz".

Rochester has eight broadcast television stations:
  • CBS
    CBS
    CBS Broadcasting Inc. is a major US commercial broadcasting television network, which started as a radio network. The name is derived from the initials of the network's former name, Columbia Broadcasting System. The network is sometimes referred to as the "Eye Network" in reference to the shape of...

    : WROC
    WROC-TV
    WROC-TV, virtual channel 8, is a CBS affiliate based in Rochester, New York, USA, owned and operated by Nexstar Broadcasting Group. WROC-TV operates Fox affiliate WUHF through a shared services agreement. The two share studios on Humboldt Street in Rochester...

     8 (cable 8)
  • NBC
    NBC
    The National Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network and former radio network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's Rockefeller Center with additional major offices near Los Angeles and in Chicago...

    : WHEC
    WHEC-TV
    WHEC-TV, channel 10, is an NBC-affiliated television station located in Rochester, New York, USA. WHEC-TV is owned by Saint Paul, Minnesota-based Hubbard Broadcasting, and broadcasts from a studio/office facility on East Avenue in Downtown Rochester...

     10 (cable 10)
  • ABC
    American Broadcasting Company
    The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network. Created in 1943 from the former NBC Blue radio network, ABC is owned by The Walt Disney Company and is part of Disney-ABC Television Group. Its first broadcast on television was in 1948...

    : WHAM
    WHAM-TV
    WHAM-TV is the ABC-affiliated television station for Rochester, New York. It broadcasts a high definition digital signal on VHF channel 13 from a transmitter on Pinnacle Hill on the border between Rochester and Brighton. The station can also be seen on Time Warner channel 13 and in high definition...

     13 (cable 13)
  • PBS
    Public Broadcasting Service
    The Public Broadcasting Service is an American non-profit public broadcasting television network with 354 member TV stations in the United States which hold collective ownership. Its headquarters is in Arlington, Virginia....

    : WXXI
    WXXI-TV
    WXXI is a public television station which operates on Channel 21 in Rochester, New York, and is the PBS member station for that city and the surrounding metro area...

     21 (cable 11)
  • Fox
    Fox Broadcasting Company
    Fox Broadcasting Company, commonly referred to as Fox Network or simply Fox , is an American commercial broadcasting television network owned by Fox Entertainment Group, part of Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation. Launched on October 9, 1986, Fox was the highest-rated broadcast network in the...

    : WUHF
    WUHF
    WUHF is the Fox-affiliated television station for Rochester, New York. It broadcasts a high definition digital signal on UHF channel 28 from a transmitter on Pinnacle Hill on the border between Rochester and Brighton. The station can also be seen on Time Warner channel 7 and in high definition on...

     31 (cable 7)
  • MyNetworkTV
    MyNetworkTV
    MyNetworkTV is a television broadcast syndication service in the United States, owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a division of News Corporation...

    : WBGT
    WBGT-CA
    WBGT-CA is the Class A MyNetworkTV-affiliated television station for Rochester, New York. It broadcasts a low-powered analog signal on UHF channel 40 from a transmitter in the city's Northwest Quadrant. The station can also be seen on Time Warner Cable channel 18...

     40/26 (cable 18)
  • CW
    The CW Television Network
    The CW Television Network is a television network in the United States launched at the beginning of the 2006–2007 television season. It is a joint venture between CBS Corporation, the former owners of United Paramount Network , and Time Warner's Warner Bros., former majority owner of The WB...

     CW-WHAM (13-2) (cable 16)
  • Rochester Community TV (RCTV cable 15)


Rochester has multiple AM and FM radio stations including
WXXI (Public Radio; AM News and Talk, FM Classical and Fine Arts),
WCMF (Rock and Roll),
WBEE (Country),
WPXY (Contemporary Hit Radio),
WLGZ (Classic Hits),
WROC (Sports),
WRMM (Adult Contemporary),
WDKX (Urban Contemporary Radio),
WJZR (smooth jazz),
WBER (alternative, independent, and local),
WRUR (adult album alternative),
WZNE (modern rock), and
WHAM (News and Talk Radio),
among others.

Time Warner Cable
Time Warner Cable
Time Warner Cable is an American cable television company that operates in 28 states and has 31 operating divisions...

 provides Rochester with cable-fed internet service, digital and standard cable television
Cable television
Cable television is a system of providing television programs to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted to televisions through coaxial cables or digital light pulses through fixed optical fibers located on the subscriber's property, much like the over-the-air method used in traditional...

, and YNN Rochester, a 24-hour local news channel.

Former newspapers

Rochester was served by the Rochester Post Express published by the Post Express Print Company from 1882 to 1923. In 1923 the paper merged with the Rochester News Corporation's Rochester Evening Journal to become Rochester Evening Journal and The Post Express and served the area from 1923 through 1937.

Rochester's evening paper for many years was the Times-Union
Rochester Times-Union
The Times-Union was a widely circulated daily newspaper in the greater Rochester, New York area for 79 years. It was published as an afternoon daily counterpart to the morning Democrat and Chronicle under the ownership of Gannett when it ceased operations in 1997...

, which merged operations with the Democrat and Chronicle in 1992, going defunct five years later.

Points of interest

  • Blue Cross Arena at the War Memorial
    Blue Cross Arena
    The Blue Cross Arena at the War Memorial is a multi-purpose indoor arena, located in Rochester, New York. Its maximum seating capacity is 13,000...

  • Cobbs Hill Park and Reservoir
  • Eastman Business Park
  • Ellwanger Garden
    Ellwanger Garden
    Ellwanger Garden is a historical garden located at 625 Mt. Hope Avenue, Rochester, New York. It is open only during the Lilac Festival , Peony Weekend , and by appointment....

  • Frederick Douglass
    Frederick Douglass
    Frederick Douglass was an American social reformer, orator, writer and statesman. After escaping from slavery, he became a leader of the abolitionist movement, gaining note for his dazzling oratory and incisive antislavery writing...

     Monument
  • Frontier Field
    Frontier Field
    Frontier Field is a baseball stadium located at One Morrie Silver Way in downtown Rochester, New York. The park opened in 1996, replacing Silver Stadium in northern Rochester, which had been home to professional baseball in Rochester since 1929...

  • George Eastman House
    George Eastman House
    The George Eastman House is the world's oldest museum dedicated to photography and one of the world's oldest film archives, opened to the public in 1949 in Rochester, New York, USA. World-renowned for its photograph and motion picture archives, the museum is also a leader in film preservation and...

  • Geva Theatre Center
    Geva Theatre Center
    Geva Theatre Center is Rochester's leading professional theatre, operating in the Naval Armory-Convention Hall. It is the birthplace of many new and popular works such as Gregg Coffin's Convenience and Five Course Love. Geva is an abbreviation of Genesee Valley Arts Foundation...

  • High Falls and the High Falls Entertainment District
  • Highland Park
  • Liberty Pole
  • Little Theatre, one of the oldest art-house movie theaters in the country
  • Maplewood Park Rose Garden
  • Midtown Plaza
    Midtown Plaza (Rochester)
    Midtown Plaza was an indoor shopping mall in downtown Rochester, New York, the first urban indoor mall in the United States.-History:...

    , the nation's first downtown shopping mall
  • Mount Hope Cemetery, Rochester
    Mount Hope Cemetery, Rochester
    Mount Hope Cemetery in Rochester, New York, founded in 1838, is the United States' first municipal rural cemetery. Situated on 196 acres of land adjacent to the University of Rochester on Mount Hope Avenue, the cemetery is the permanent resting place of over 350,000 people...

    , the nation's first Victorian cemetery
  • Nick Tahou Hots
    Nick Tahou Hots
    Nick Tahou Hots, originally known as Hots and Potatoes, is a Rochester, New York, landmark restaurant featuring a dish called the Garbage Plate. The restaurant was founded in 1918 by Alex Tahou, the grandfather of the current owner , and named for Nick Tahou, the founder's son, who operated the...

     featuring the Garbage Plate and a charity run in its name
  • Ontario Beach Park and the Port of Rochester at Charlotte
    Charlotte, Rochester, New York
    Charlotte is a neighborhood in Rochester, New York located at the mouth of the Genesee River along Lake Ontario. It is the home of the Port of Rochester and Charlotte High School.-Early Settlers:...

  • The Public Market
  • The Rochester Auditorium
  • Rochester Contemporary Art Center
  • Rochester Riverside Convention Center
  • St. Joseph's Church and Rectory (Rochester, New York)
  • Seneca Park Zoo
    Seneca Park Zoo
    Seneca Park Zoo is a zoo located in Rochester, New York. The Zoo is home to about 300 animals, and is accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums . The zoo is run by Monroe County, New York and supported by the Seneca Park Zoo Society. Larry Sorel is the Director of the Zoo and Rachel...

    , one of the top three family attractions in the area
  • Strong National Museum of Play, nation's second-largest children's museum housing the National Toy Hall of Fame
    National Toy Hall of Fame
    The National Toy Hall of Fame is an American hall of fame that recognizes the contributions of toys and games that have sustained their popularity for many years...

  • Strasenburgh Planetarium
    Strasenburgh Planetarium
    The Strasenburgh Planetarium is a public planetarium located at 663 East Avenue in the city of Rochester, New York. It is named after its benefactors, Edwin and Clara Strasenburgh. It is a department of the Rochester Museum and Science Center. The Planetarium was dedicated on September 14, 1968....

    , part of the Rochester Museum & Science Center
  • Susan B. Anthony
    Susan B. Anthony
    Susan Brownell Anthony was a prominent American civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in the 19th century women's rights movement to introduce women's suffrage into the United States. She was co-founder of the first Women's Temperance Movement with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as President...

     House
  • Times Square Building
    Times Square Building (Rochester)
    The Times Square Building is a skyscraper designed by Ralph Thomas Walker of the firm Voorhees, Gmelin, and Walker located in Rochester, New York. At , it is the eighth tallest building in Rochester, with 14 floors...

    , noted for its "Wings of Victory" statue.
  • University Avenue and Park Avenue Artistic Districts
  • University of Rochester
    University of Rochester
    The University of Rochester is a private, nonsectarian, research university in Rochester, New York, United States. The university grants undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees. The university has six schools and various interdisciplinary programs.The...

  • University of Rochester Arboretum
    University of Rochester Arboretum
    The University of Rochester Arboretum is an arboretum located across the River Campus of the University of Rochester, 612 Wilson Boulevard, Rochester, New York, USA....

  • University of Rochester
    University of Rochester
    The University of Rochester is a private, nonsectarian, research university in Rochester, New York, United States. The university grants undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees. The university has six schools and various interdisciplinary programs.The...

    's Eastman School of Music
    Eastman School of Music
    The Eastman School of Music is a music conservatory located in Rochester, New York. The Eastman School is a professional school within the University of Rochester...

     and Eastman Theatre
    Eastman Theatre
    The Eastman Theatre is the main building of the Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester, located in downtown Rochester, New York....

  • Water Street Music Hall
    Water Street Music Hall
    Water Street Music Hall is a concert hall in Rochester, New York, located in the St. Paul Quarter entertainment district of Rochester, NY - conveniently located directly off Interstate 490. It opened in 1977 as the Country Warehouse, and has since been The Warehouse, The Horizontal Boogie Bar and...


Sports

Rochester was named the top minor league sports market in the country by Street & Smith's Sports Business Journal in July 2005, the number 10 "best golf city" in America by Golf Magazine in 2007, and the fifth-best "sports town" in the country by Scarborough Research
Scarborough Research
Scarborough is a United States based market research company that measures shopping patterns, media usage across platforms, and lifestyle trends of adults. Specializing in local and national consumer research, Scarborough measures over 100 local markets in the United States...

 in September 2008.

Professional sports

Although Rochester is home territory to the Buffalo Bills
Buffalo Bills
The Buffalo Bills are a professional football team based in Buffalo, New York. They are currently members of the East Division of the American Football Conference in the National Football League...

 and the Buffalo Sabres
Buffalo Sabres
The Buffalo Sabres are a professional ice hockey team based in Buffalo, New York. They are members of the Northeast Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League .-Founding and early success: 1970-71—1980-81:...

, Rochester has several professional sports teams of its own:
Club Sport Began play League Venue League championships Championship years
Rochester Red Wings
Rochester Red Wings
The Rochester Red Wings are a minor league baseball team based in Rochester, New York. The team plays in the International League and is the Triple-A affiliate of the Minnesota Twins major-league club. The Red Wings play in Frontier Field, located in downtown Rochester.The Red Wings were an...

Baseball
Baseball
Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each. The aim is to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four bases arranged at the corners of a ninety-foot diamond...

1899 International League
International League
The International League is a minor league baseball league that operates in the eastern United States. Like the Pacific Coast League and the Mexican League, it plays at the Triple-A level, which is one step below Major League Baseball. It was so named because it had teams in both the United States...

Frontier Field
Frontier Field
Frontier Field is a baseball stadium located at One Morrie Silver Way in downtown Rochester, New York. The park opened in 1996, replacing Silver Stadium in northern Rochester, which had been home to professional baseball in Rochester since 1929...

20 1899, 1901, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1939, 1940, 1952, 1955, 1956, 1964, 1971, 1974, 1988, 1990, 1997
Rochester Americans
Rochester Americans
The Rochester Americans are a professional ice hockey team in the American Hockey League, and a top affiliate of the Buffalo Sabres. The team plays its home games in Rochester, New York, at the Blue Cross Arena at the War Memorial...

Ice hockey
Ice hockey
Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...

1956 AHL
American Hockey League
The American Hockey League is a 30-team professional ice hockey league based in the United States and Canada that serves as the primary developmental circuit for the National Hockey League...

Blue Cross Arena
Blue Cross Arena
The Blue Cross Arena at the War Memorial is a multi-purpose indoor arena, located in Rochester, New York. Its maximum seating capacity is 13,000...

6 1964-65, 1965–66, 1967–68, 1982–83, 1986–87, 1995–96
Rochester Knighthawks
Rochester Knighthawks
The Rochester Knighthawks are a professional lacrosse team in the National Lacrosse League. They play in Rochester, New York at the Blue Cross Arena at the War Memorial. The Knighthawks were previously members of the Major Indoor Lacrosse League from 1995 to 1997...

Indoor lacrosse
Box lacrosse
Box lacrosse, also known as indoor lacrosse and sometimes shortened to boxla, LAX or simply box, is an indoor version of lacrosse played mostly in North America. The game originated in Canada, where it is the most popular version of the game played in contrast to the traditional field lacrosse game...

1995 NLL
National Lacrosse League
The National Lacrosse League is a men's professional indoor lacrosse league in North America. It currently has nine teams; three in Canada and six in the United States. Unlike other lacrosse leagues which play in the summer, the NLL plays its games in the winter and spring. Each year, the playoff...

Blue Cross Arena 2 1997, 2007
Rochester Rhinos Soccer 1996 USL Pro
USL Pro
The USL Professional Division, commonly known as USL Pro , is a professional men's soccer league in the United States that began its inaugural season in 2011....

Sahlen's Stadium 3 1998, 2000, 2001
Rochester Rattlers
Rochester Rattlers
The Rochester Rattlers are a Major League Lacrosse professional men's field lacrosse team based in Rochester, New York. They are a charter member of the MLL. From their inaugural season in 2001 to 2005, they were in the National Division. From 2006 to 2008, they were a member of the Eastern...

Outdoor lacrosse 2001
(2011)
MLL
Major League Lacrosse
Major League Lacrosse, or MLL, is a professional men's field lacrosse league that is made up of five teams in the United States and one team in Canada.- History :...

Sahlen's Stadium 1 2008
Rochester Razorsharks
Rochester Razorsharks
The Rochester Razorsharks are a professional basketball team based in Rochester, New York. They are members of the Premier Basketball League and play their home games at the Blue Cross Arena in downtown Rochester. The Razorsharks were founded in 2005 as a member of the American Basketball...

Basketball
Basketball
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

2005 PBL
Premier Basketball League
The Premier Basketball League, often abbreviated to the PBL, is a men's professional basketball minor league in the United States that began play in January 2008. The league had ten teams for the 2008 season and thirteen teams for the 2009 season. Nine teams from Canada and the United States...

Blue Cross Arena 4 2005-06, 2008, 2009, 2011
Rochester Raiders
Rochester Raiders
The Rochester Raiders are a professional indoor football team based in the Rochester, New York area. They are currently a member of the Indoor Football League and play their home games at the Dome Arena in the suburb of Henrietta...

Indoor football 2006 IFL
Indoor Football League
The Indoor Football League began in 1999 as an offshoot of the troubled Professional Indoor Football League. Keary Ecklund, the owner of the Green Bay Bombers and Madison Mad Dogs, left the PIFL after its first, financially-troubled, season to start his own league. Unlike the PIFL, the IFL was an...

Dome Arena
The Dome Center
The Dome Center is a fair and convention complex located in Henrietta, New York, USA. It is the site of the annual Monroe County Fair and comprises the following:...

 (Henrietta
Henrietta, New York
Henrietta is a town in Monroe County, New York, United States. It is a suburb of Rochester. The population was 42,581 at the 2010 census. Established in 1818, the town is named after Henrietta Laura Pulteney, Countess of Bath, daughter of Sir William Pulteney, 5th Baronet, a major British...

)
2 2007, 2008
Western New York Flash Soccer 2011 WPS
Women's Professional Soccer
Women's Professional Soccer is the top level professional women's soccer league in the United States. It began play on March 29, 2009. The league was composed of seven teams for its first two seasons and fielded 6 teams for the 2011 season, with continued plans for future expansion...

Sahlen's Stadium 1 2011
Rochester Lancers
Rochester Lancers (2010)
The Rochester Lancers are an indoor soccer team in the Major Indoor Soccer League. The team is named in honor of the Rochester Lancers of the North American Soccer League....

Indoor soccer 2011 MISL Blue Cross Arena


Among cities in North America with at least seven current professional teams, Rochester was determined in 2007 to be the only one whose teams all had cumulative winning regular season records.

The Rochester Red Wings
Rochester Red Wings
The Rochester Red Wings are a minor league baseball team based in Rochester, New York. The team plays in the International League and is the Triple-A affiliate of the Minnesota Twins major-league club. The Red Wings play in Frontier Field, located in downtown Rochester.The Red Wings were an...

 baseball club, the AAA affiliate of the Minnesota Twins
Minnesota Twins
The Minnesota Twins are a professional baseball team based in Minneapolis, Minnesota. They play in the Central Division of Major League Baseball's American League. The team is named after the Twin Cities area of Minneapolis and St. Paul. They played in Metropolitan Stadium from 1961 to 1981 and the...

, play in the International League
International League
The International League is a minor league baseball league that operates in the eastern United States. Like the Pacific Coast League and the Mexican League, it plays at the Triple-A level, which is one step below Major League Baseball. It was so named because it had teams in both the United States...

. The Rochester Americans
Rochester Americans
The Rochester Americans are a professional ice hockey team in the American Hockey League, and a top affiliate of the Buffalo Sabres. The team plays its home games in Rochester, New York, at the Blue Cross Arena at the War Memorial...

 ice hockey
Ice hockey
Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...

 team, the AHL
American Hockey League
The American Hockey League is a 30-team professional ice hockey league based in the United States and Canada that serves as the primary developmental circuit for the National Hockey League...

 affiliate for the NHL
National Hockey League
The National Hockey League is an unincorporated not-for-profit association which operates a major professional ice hockey league of 30 franchised member clubs, of which 7 are currently located in Canada and 23 in the United States...

 Buffalo Sabres
Buffalo Sabres
The Buffalo Sabres are a professional ice hockey team based in Buffalo, New York. They are members of the Northeast Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League .-Founding and early success: 1970-71—1980-81:...

, are known as the "Amerks". The Rochester Rhinos soccer club have played for many years in the USL First Division
USL First Division
The United Soccer Leagues First Division was a professional men's soccer league in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico....

, which is the second-highest level American soccer league.
Lacrosse
Lacrosse
Lacrosse is a team sport of Native American origin played using a small rubber ball and a long-handled stick called a crosse or lacrosse stick, mainly played in the United States and Canada. It is a contact sport which requires padding. The head of the lacrosse stick is strung with loose mesh...

 has seen some popularity in Rochester. The Rochester Knighthawks
Rochester Knighthawks
The Rochester Knighthawks are a professional lacrosse team in the National Lacrosse League. They play in Rochester, New York at the Blue Cross Arena at the War Memorial. The Knighthawks were previously members of the Major Indoor Lacrosse League from 1995 to 1997...

 play box lacrosse
Box lacrosse
Box lacrosse, also known as indoor lacrosse and sometimes shortened to boxla, LAX or simply box, is an indoor version of lacrosse played mostly in North America. The game originated in Canada, where it is the most popular version of the game played in contrast to the traditional field lacrosse game...

 in the National Lacrosse League
National Lacrosse League
The National Lacrosse League is a men's professional indoor lacrosse league in North America. It currently has nine teams; three in Canada and six in the United States. Unlike other lacrosse leagues which play in the summer, the NLL plays its games in the winter and spring. Each year, the playoff...

 during winter and spring. In outdoor lacrosse, the Rochester Rattlers
Rochester Rattlers
The Rochester Rattlers are a Major League Lacrosse professional men's field lacrosse team based in Rochester, New York. They are a charter member of the MLL. From their inaugural season in 2001 to 2005, they were in the National Division. From 2006 to 2008, they were a member of the Eastern...

 were a charter member of Major League Lacrosse
Major League Lacrosse
Major League Lacrosse, or MLL, is a professional men's field lacrosse league that is made up of five teams in the United States and one team in Canada.- History :...

, but the franchise was transferred to the new Toronto Nationals
Toronto Nationals
The Hamilton Nationals are a Major League Lacrosse professional men's field lacrosse team based in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. They began play in the 2009 season from Toronto, Ontario as the Toronto Nationals, becoming the first-ever Canadian team in MLL history...

 (MLL) in 2009; the Rattlers will be re-established in 2011 with the transfer of the Chicago Machine
Chicago Machine
The Chicago Machine is a mens field lacrosse team that plays in Major League Lacrosse that was based in Chicago, Illinois until the franchise left after the 2009 season to be a travel team in 2010. The team then transferred its roster to the reborn Rochester Rattlers on November 23, 2010 when it...

 franchise. Also during the summer months, the Rochester Greywolves, comprising mostly local talent, play box lacrosse in the semi-pro CanAm Lacrosse League.

Two newer but very successful teams are the Rochester Razorsharks
Rochester Razorsharks
The Rochester Razorsharks are a professional basketball team based in Rochester, New York. They are members of the Premier Basketball League and play their home games at the Blue Cross Arena in downtown Rochester. The Razorsharks were founded in 2005 as a member of the American Basketball...

 (of the Premier Basketball League
Premier Basketball League
The Premier Basketball League, often abbreviated to the PBL, is a men's professional basketball minor league in the United States that began play in January 2008. The league had ten teams for the 2008 season and thirteen teams for the 2009 season. Nine teams from Canada and the United States...

) and Rochester Raiders
Rochester Raiders
The Rochester Raiders are a professional indoor football team based in the Rochester, New York area. They are currently a member of the Indoor Football League and play their home games at the Dome Arena in the suburb of Henrietta...

 (Indoor Football League
Indoor Football League
The Indoor Football League began in 1999 as an offshoot of the troubled Professional Indoor Football League. Keary Ecklund, the owner of the Green Bay Bombers and Madison Mad Dogs, left the PIFL after its first, financially-troubled, season to start his own league. Unlike the PIFL, the IFL was an...

); both have dominated their competition, despite some instability in their leagues, and both have championship trophies already. There is also an ownership group looking into bringing indoor soccer
Indoor soccer
Indoor soccer or arena soccer, or six-a-side football in the United Kingdom, is a game derived from association football adapted for play in an indoor arena such as a turf-covered hockey arena or skating rink. The most important difference in play is that the indoor field is surrounded by a wall...

 to Rochester starting in 2011.

In women's sports, Rochester is the home of the Western New York Flash in Women's Professional Soccer
Women's Professional Soccer
Women's Professional Soccer is the top level professional women's soccer league in the United States. It began play on March 29, 2009. The league was composed of seven teams for its first two seasons and fielded 6 teams for the 2011 season, with continued plans for future expansion...

. In prior years, the Rochester Ravens
Rochester Ravens
The Rochester Ravens are an American women’s soccer team, founded in 2009 . The team is a member of the United Soccer Leagues W-League, the second tier of women’s soccer in the United States and Canada...

 have competed in the semi-pro W-League under a few different names. The Filarets
Filarets
The Filarets was a women's basketball team in Rochester, New York that played in the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s. They were a regional and national powerhouse, winning a record 211 consecutive games between 1940 and 1944.-History:...

 was a notable women's basketball team that played in the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s.

The city also has an independent pro-wrestling league: NWA Upstate.

USA Cycling
USA Cycling
USA Cycling or USAC, based in Colorado Springs, Colorado, is the national governing body for bicycle racing in the United States. It covers the disciplines of road, track, mountain bike, cyclo-cross, BMX and collegiate racing...

 has an annual tour stop in Rochester; the Rochester Omnium
Tour de New York
The Tour de New York is an annual professional bicycle racing event on the USA Cycling tour, held in the Finger Lakes region of New York State, centered in Rochester. It started in 2004 as the Rochester Twilight Criterium, a fast race on a short loop along downtown streets...

 is newly expanded to a three-day professional cycling event featuring the Rochester Twilight Criterium.

The absence of a major pro sports team has not always been the case. From 1920 to 1925, Rochester was home to the Rochester Jeffersons
Rochester Jeffersons
The Rochester Jeffersons from Rochester, New York played in the National Football League from 1920 to 1925.Formed as an amateur outfit by a rag-tag group of Rochester-area teenagers after the turn of the century , the team became known as the Jeffersons in reference to the locale of their playing...

, a charter member of the National Football League
National Football League
The National Football League is the highest level of professional American football in the United States, and is considered the top professional American football league in the world. It was formed by eleven teams in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association, with the league changing...

. From 1948 to 1957, the Rochester Royals
Sacramento Kings
The Sacramento Kings are a professional basketball team based in Sacramento, California, United States. They are currently members of the Western Conference of the National Basketball Association...

 played in the National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in North America. It consists of thirty franchised member clubs, of which twenty-nine are located in the United States and one in Canada...

, winning the NBA championship in 1951. In soccer, the Rochester Lancers
Rochester Lancers
The Rochester Lancers were a soccer team based in Rochester, New York that played in the American Soccer League from 1967 until 1969 and the North American Soccer League from 1970 to 1980 at Aquinas Stadium...

 played from 1970 to 1980 in the top-level North American Soccer League
North American Soccer League
North American Soccer League was a professional soccer league with teams in the United States and Canada that operated from 1968 to 1984.-History:...

 and became NASL champions in the 1970 season.

Since 1877, 29 teams in eight professional sports have represented Rochester, according to The Rochester Sports Project by local sports historian Douglas Brei
Douglas Brei
Douglas Brei is a former minor league sports executive who has recently garnered national attention as a sports historian in his hometown of Rochester, New York, United States.- Historical contributions :...

. In spring 2006, Brei showed that Rochester's professional sports teams were collectively approaching 25,000 games played. That game was played on June 16, 2006, when Red Wings hosted the Indianapolis Indians
Indianapolis Indians
The Indianapolis Indians are a minor league baseball team based in Indianapolis, Indiana. The team, which plays in the International League, is the Triple-A affiliate of the Pittsburgh Pirates major-league club. The Indians play at Victory Field, located in downtown Indianapolis...

 at Frontier Field. He also reports that only six active franchises in the history of North American professional sports have played in the same city and same league continuously and uninterrupted since the 19th century: Chicago Cubs
Chicago Cubs
The Chicago Cubs are a professional baseball team located in Chicago, Illinois. They are members of the Central Division of Major League Baseball's National League. They are one of two Major League clubs based in Chicago . The Cubs are also one of the two remaining charter members of the National...

, Cincinnati Reds
Cincinnati Reds
The Cincinnati Reds are a Major League Baseball team based in Cincinnati, Ohio. They are members of the National League Central Division. The club was established in 1882 as a charter member of the American Association and joined the National League in 1890....

, Philadelphia Phillies
Philadelphia Phillies
The Philadelphia Phillies are a Major League Baseball team. They are the oldest continuous, one-name, one-city franchise in all of professional American sports, dating to 1883. The Phillies are a member of the Eastern Division of Major League Baseball's National League...

, Pittsburgh Pirates
Pittsburgh Pirates
The Pittsburgh Pirates are a Major League Baseball club based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. They play in the Central Division of the National League, and are five-time World Series Champions...

, St. Louis Cardinals
St. Louis Cardinals
The St. Louis Cardinals are a professional baseball team based in St. Louis, Missouri. They are members of the Central Division in the National League of Major League Baseball. The Cardinals have won eleven World Series championships, the most of any National League team, and second overall only to...

, and Rochester Red Wings
Rochester Red Wings
The Rochester Red Wings are a minor league baseball team based in Rochester, New York. The team plays in the International League and is the Triple-A affiliate of the Minnesota Twins major-league club. The Red Wings play in Frontier Field, located in downtown Rochester.The Red Wings were an...

.

College sports

Almost all area college sports are played at the NCAA Division III level. The exception is the RIT
Rochester Institute of Technology
The Rochester Institute of Technology is a private university, located within the town of Henrietta in metropolitan Rochester, New York, United States...

 men's ice hockey team
RIT Tigers men's ice hockey
The RIT Tigers men's ice hockey team is one of two hockey teams representing Rochester Institute of Technology in suburban Rochester, New York. The school's men's team competes in the Division I Atlantic Hockey conference. The team has won two national championships, one each at the Division II and...

, which moved up to the Division I level in 2005, and made it to the NCAA Frozen Four in 2010.

Among junior colleges, MCC
Monroe Community College
Monroe Community College is a two-year college of the State University of New York, located in Monroe County, New York. The college has two campuses, one in the town of Brighton and another, the Damon City Campus, in the City of Rochester...

 is dominant in NJCAA
National Junior College Athletic Association
The National Junior College Athletic Association , founded in 1938, is an association of community college and junior college athletic departments throughout the United States. It is held as Divisions and Regions. The current NJCAA holds 24 separate regions.-History:The idea for the NJCAA was...

 Division II sports. They are also a D-III golf powerhouse and in addition won back to back national championships for women's lacrosse in '10 and '11..

Rochester is the largest Metropolitan Statistical Area in the U.S. which does not include at least one college or university participating at the NCAA Division I level in all sports.

Club Sports

Rochester is home to two men's rugby
Rugby football
Rugby football is a style of football named after Rugby School in the United Kingdom. It is seen most prominently in two current sports, rugby league and rugby union.-History:...

 teams, the Rochester Aardvarks and the Rochester Colonials. Both have long histories, with the Aardvarks celebrating their 40th anniversary in 2006, and the Rochester Colonials celebrating 30 years upcoming in 2010. The Aardvarks are one of the few rugby teams in the country to own its own pitch: Aardvark Park in Henrietta, New York
Henrietta, New York
Henrietta is a town in Monroe County, New York, United States. It is a suburb of Rochester. The population was 42,581 at the 2010 census. Established in 1818, the town is named after Henrietta Laura Pulteney, Countess of Bath, daughter of Sir William Pulteney, 5th Baronet, a major British...

, while the Colonials play their matches in the downtown located soccer stadium. The Aardvarks and the Colonials both have hosted local and state-wide tournaments and the Rochester Colonials hosted the 2007 USA Rugby National Collegiate All-Star Championships, Rochester's first national tournament, as well as the 2009 NYS Rugby Upstates Tournament and the 2009 New York State High School Rugby Championships. Both teams participate in the annual Can-Am Rugby Tournament in Saranac Lake, New York
Saranac Lake, New York
Saranac Lake is a village located in the state of New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 5,406. The village is named after Upper, Middle, and Lower Saranac Lakes, which are nearby....

 in early August. Rochester also has a Women's Rugby club, the Rochester Renegades, who celebrated their 20th anniversary in 2008. The Renegades started the New York State Rugby Women's Division.

The Rochester Bicycling Club is a social and fitness bicycling club.

Rochester is also home to Rochester Rhythm the three time champions of the American Extreme Paintball League or AXBL.

The Rochester, NY Region EWGA chapter, homepage http://www.ewgarochesterny.com, organizes leagues, golf training, and golf events and networking for the area's amateur women golfers.

Monroe County supports two adult baseball (hardball) leagues - the Rochester chapters of the Men's Senior Baseball League (MSBL) and National Adult Baseball Association
National Adult Baseball Association
The National Adult Baseball Association is an adult, semi-professional baseball organization, headquartered in Denver, Colorado. It offers competitive and recreational baseball for players in over 125 leagues in over 40 U.S. states. Over 25,000 player-members participate.The NABA is organized into...

 (NABA).

Maritime transport

There is marine freight service at the Port of Rochester
Charlotte, Rochester, New York
Charlotte is a neighborhood in Rochester, New York located at the mouth of the Genesee River along Lake Ontario. It is the home of the Port of Rochester and Charlotte High School.-Early Settlers:...

 on Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is bounded on the north and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south by the American state of New York. Ontario, Canada's most populous province, was named for the lake. In the Wyandot language, ontarío means...

, which is connected to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions. With a total area of about , it covers approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and about 26% of its water surface area...

 via the Saint Lawrence Seaway
Saint Lawrence Seaway
The Saint Lawrence Seaway , , is the common name for a system of locks, canals and channels that permits ocean-going vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the North American Great Lakes, as far as Lake Superior. Legally it extends from Montreal to Lake Erie, including the Welland Canal...

.

A short-lived, high-speed passenger/vehicle ferry
Ferry
A ferry is a form of transportation, usually a boat, but sometimes a ship, used to carry primarily passengers, and sometimes vehicles and cargo as well, across a body of water. Most ferries operate on regular, frequent, return services...

 Spirit of Ontario I, nicknamed The Breeze or The Fast Ferry, linked Rochester to Toronto, Ontario
Toronto
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the largest city in Canada. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A relatively modern city, Toronto's history dates back to the late-18th century, when its land was first purchased by the British monarchy from...

 across Lake Ontario. It operated between June 17, 2004, and December 12, 2005, and cost the city $42.5 million. It was sold to Förde Reederei Seetouristik
Förde Reederei Seetouristik
-Conventional passenger ferries:* MS Hansestadt Stralsund * MS Insel Hiddensee * MS Gellen * MS Schaprode * MS Altefähr * MS Atlantis -Double End Carferries:...

, a German company, for $30 million.

Air transport

Rochester is served by the Greater Rochester International Airport
Greater Rochester International Airport
Greater Rochester International Airport is a county-owned public-use airport located three nautical miles southwest of the central business district of Rochester, a city in Monroe County, New York, United States...

. Daily scheduled air service is provided by Air Canada
Air Canada
Air Canada is the flag carrier and largest airline of Canada. The airline, founded in 1936, provides scheduled and charter air transport for passengers and cargo to 178 destinations worldwide. It is the world's tenth largest passenger airline by number of destinations, and the airline is a...

, AirTran
AirTran Airways
AirTran Airways, a subsidiary of the Dallas, Texas-based Southwest Airlines, is an American low-cost airline headquartered in Orlando, Florida. AirTran operates over 650 daily flights , primarily in the eastern and midwestern United States...

, American
American Airlines
American Airlines, Inc. is the world's fourth-largest airline in passenger miles transported and operating revenues. American Airlines is a subsidiary of the AMR Corporation and is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas adjacent to its largest hub at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport...

, Continental
Continental Airlines
Continental Airlines was a major American airline now merged with United Airlines. On May 3, 2010, Continental Airlines, Inc. and UAL, Inc. announced a merger via a stock swap, and on October 1, 2010, the merger closed and UAL changed its name to United Continental Holdings, Inc...

, Delta
Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines, Inc. is a major airline based in the United States and headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. The airline operates an extensive domestic and international network serving all continents except Antarctica. Delta and its subsidiaries operate over 4,000 flights every day...

, JetBlue
JetBlue Airways
JetBlue Airways Corporation is an American low-cost airline. The company is headquartered in the Forest Hills neighborhood of the New York City borough of Queens. Its main base is John F. Kennedy International Airport, also in Queens....

, United
United Airlines
United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees (which includes the entire holding company United Continental...

, and US Airways
US Airways
US Airways, Inc. is a major airline based in the U.S. city of Tempe, Arizona. The airline is an operating unit of US Airways Group and is the sixth largest airline by traffic and eighth largest by market value in the country....

. Many of these airlines do not operate mainline service to Rochester; rather, they contract regional airlines to operate flights on their own, smaller aircraft.

In 2010, the GRIA was ranked the 14th-least expensive airport in the United States by Cheapflights
Cheapflights
Cheapflights Media Ltd. is a private international online media company based in London and Boston that operates travel websites. Cheapflights Media's sites do not sell flights but publish deals online from hundreds of airlines, low cost airlines and travel operators that fly out of the US, the...

. This was considered a major achievement for the county and the airport authority; as recently as 2003, Rochester's ticket prices were among the highest in the country, ranking as high as fourth in 1999.

FedEx
FedEx
FedEx Corporation , originally known as FDX Corporation, is a logistics services company, based in the United States with headquarters in Memphis, Tennessee...

 founder, Fred Smith, has stated in numerous articles that Xerox Corporation's development of the copier and their need to quickly get parts to customers, was one of the economic issues that lead him to pioneer the overnight delivery business 1971. Due to the fact that Xerox manufactured their copiers in Rochester, the city was one of the original 25 cities that Federal Express serviced on their first night of operations on April 17, 1973.

Mass transit

Amtrak
Amtrak
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak , is a government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "track". It is headquartered at Union...

 (passenger) and freight lines provide rail service to Rochester. Rochester has intercity and transcontinental bus service via Greyhound
Greyhound Lines
Greyhound Lines, Inc., based in Dallas, Texas, is an intercity common carrier of passengers by bus serving over 3,700 destinations in the United States, Canada and Mexico, operating under the well-known logo of a leaping greyhound. It was founded in Hibbing, Minnesota, USA, in 1914 and...

 and Trailways
Trailways Transportation System
The Trailways Transportation System is an American group of 80 independent bus companies that have entered into a franchising agreement. The company is headquartered in Fairfax, Virginia.- History :...

.

Local bus service in Rochester and its county suburbs is provided by the Rochester-Genesee Regional Transportation Authority
Rochester-Genesee Regional Transportation Authority
The Rochester-Genesee Regional Transportation Authority is a public benefit organization which provides transportation services in the area in and around Rochester, New York. RGRTA was formed on August 1, 1970 by a state act of government which also formed three similar agencies in Syracuse,...

 (RGRTA) via its Regional Transit Service (RTS) subsidiary. RTS also provides suburban service outside the immediate Rochester area and runs smaller transportation systems in outlying counties, such as WATS (Wayne Area Transportation System).

From 1927 to 1957, Rochester had a light rail
Light rail
Light rail or light rail transit is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems...

 underground transit system called the Rochester Subway
Rochester Subway
The Rochester Subway or Rochester Industrial and Rapid Transit Railway was an underground rapid transit line in the city of Rochester, New York from 1927 to 1956. Contemporary photos show it used single streetcars, like Boston's Green Line, as a light rail line, with a large portion underground...

. It was the smallest city in the world to have one. Over the years there have been privately sponsored proposals put forth that encourage the region to support a new system, possibly using some of the old tunnels. One includes converting the Broad Street bridge tunnel—the former canal aqueduct—into an enhanced pedestrian corridor, which would also could include a Rochester Transportation Museum, and a tram system.
The former canal and subway tunnels have become a frequent source of debate. Several city homeless use the tunnels for shelter, and a few areas near tunnel entrances have gained the reputation as being dangerous. The city has considered multiple solutions for the space including recreating a canal way, putting the subway system back in or filling the tunnels entirely. The plan to fill the tunnels in completely has generated criticism as the cost of filling would not generate nor leverage economic development.

Public support continues to grow for re-watering the original Erie Canal through downtown Rochester. In support of the re-watering efforts, the City released a master plan in 2009 calling for the creation of Rochester's Historic Canal District. A subsequent environmental review documment is set to be released in the near future, seeking additional public input. This district includes both private and public investment that builds upon the rich heritage of the district, educational opportuniites, historic interpretation, architectural significant building and recreational amenities. The City is currently seeking public funds for implementing the first of three major phases of the Canal District.

Major highways and roads that serve the Greater Rochester Area

There are three exits off the New York State Thruway
New York State Thruway
The New York State Thruway is a system of limited-access highways located within the state of New York in the United States. The system, known officially as the Governor Thomas E. Dewey Thruway for former New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey, is operated by the New York State Thruway Authority and...

 (Interstate 90
Interstate 90
Interstate 90 is the longest Interstate Highway in the United States at . It is the northernmost coast-to-coast interstate, and parallels US 20 for the most part. Its western terminus is in Seattle, at Edgar Martinez Drive S. near Safeco Field and CenturyLink Field, and its eastern terminus is in...

) that serve Rochester. Rochester has an extensive system of contrtolled-access highways (called 'freeways' and 'expresssways') which connects all parts of the city and the Thruway. During the Thruway's construction, a disagreement between the governor of New York and mayor of Rochester resulted in a bypass of downtown Rochester, leaving the city struggling for growth.

Rochester's expressway system, conceived in the 1950s, was designed as two concentric circles with feeder expressways from the west, south and east. The system allows for quick travel within the metropolitan area and a lack of the traffic gridlock typically found in cities of comparable size; in part this is because the system was designed to accommodate an anticipated year-2000 metro population of 5 million, whereas the present-day population is just over one million.

The Outer Loop
New York State Route 47
New York State Route 47 was a long state highway around Rochester in New York, United States. It formed a semicircle through the inner suburbs of Rochester, following expressways west and east of the city and surface streets south of Rochester. The western terminus of the route was at an...

 circles just outside the city limits while the Inner Loop
Inner Loop (Rochester)
The Inner Loop is an expressway that encloses downtown Rochester, New York, in the United States. Although the expressway is a continuous loop, only the portion of the loop north of Interstate 490 is signed as the "Inner Loop"...

 circles around the immediate downtown area within the city proper. From the west are Lake Ontario State Parkway
Lake Ontario State Parkway
The Lake Ontario State Parkway is a parkway along the southern shore of Lake Ontario in western New York in the United States. The western end of the highway is at a partial interchange within Lakeside Beach State Park in Carlton, Orleans County. Its eastern terminus is at an intersection with...

, NY-531
New York State Route 531
New York State Route 531 is a limited-access, east–west state highway located in Monroe County, New York, in the United States. The route extends for from the far northwestern suburbs of Rochester to the town of Gates located just west of the city...

 and I-490
Interstate 490 (New York)
Interstate 490 is an auxiliary Interstate Highway that serves the city of Rochester, New York, in the United States. It acts as a northerly alternate route to the New York State Thruway , leaving it at exit 47 in the town of Le Roy and rejoining the highway at exit 45 in the town of...

; Interstate 390
Interstate 390
Interstate 390 is a north–south auxiliary Interstate Highway located entirely within New York in the United States. The southern terminus of the route is at the Southern Tier Expressway in the town of Avoca. Its northern terminus is at I-490 in Rochester...

 feeds from the south; and NY-104
New York State Route 104
New York State Route 104 is a long east–west state highway in Upstate New York, United States. It spans six counties and enters the vicinity of four cities—Niagara Falls, Lockport, Rochester, and Oswego—as it follows a routing largely parallel to that of the southern shoreline of Lake...

, NY-441
New York State Route 441
New York State Route 441 is an east–west state highway in the eastern suburbs of Rochester, New York, United States. Its western terminus is at NY 96 in Brighton, and its eastern terminus is at NY 350 in Walworth. The portion of NY 441 in Brighton and western Penfield is a...

, and I-490
Interstate 490 (New York)
Interstate 490 is an auxiliary Interstate Highway that serves the city of Rochester, New York, in the United States. It acts as a northerly alternate route to the New York State Thruway , leaving it at exit 47 in the town of Le Roy and rejoining the highway at exit 45 in the town of...

 approach from the east.

Four Interstate Highways
Interstate Highway System
The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, , is a network of limited-access roads including freeways, highways, and expressways forming part of the National Highway System of the United States of America...

 run through the Greater Rochester area:


Interstate 90
Interstate 90 in New York
Interstate 90 is a part of the Interstate Highway System that runs from Seattle, Washington, to Boston, Massachusetts. In the U.S. state of New York, I-90 extends from the Pennsylvania state line at Ripley to the Massachusetts state line at Canaan...

 (New York State Thruway
New York State Thruway
The New York State Thruway is a system of limited-access highways located within the state of New York in the United States. The system, known officially as the Governor Thomas E. Dewey Thruway for former New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey, is operated by the New York State Thruway Authority and...

)
  • I-90 runs from Seattle to Boston
    Boston
    Boston is the capital of and largest city in Massachusetts, and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. The largest city in New England, Boston is regarded as the unofficial "Capital of New England" for its economic and cultural impact on the entire New England region. The city proper had...

    . I-90 connects to I-390 and I-490 to serve the Greater Rochester Area.

Interstate 390
Interstate 390
Interstate 390 is a north–south auxiliary Interstate Highway located entirely within New York in the United States. The southern terminus of the route is at the Southern Tier Expressway in the town of Avoca. Its northern terminus is at I-490 in Rochester...

 (Genesee Expressway)
  • I-390 runs south-north, crossing I-90
    Interstate 90
    Interstate 90 is the longest Interstate Highway in the United States at . It is the northernmost coast-to-coast interstate, and parallels US 20 for the most part. Its western terminus is in Seattle, at Edgar Martinez Drive S. near Safeco Field and CenturyLink Field, and its eastern terminus is in...

     (exit 46) and routing north through Rochester's western suburbs. Its northern end is at I-490
    Interstate 490 (New York)
    Interstate 490 is an auxiliary Interstate Highway that serves the city of Rochester, New York, in the United States. It acts as a northerly alternate route to the New York State Thruway , leaving it at exit 47 in the town of Le Roy and rejoining the highway at exit 45 in the town of...

    , however it continues north as NY-390
    New York State Route 390
    New York State Route 390 is a north–south state highway located along the western edge of the city of Rochester, New York, in the United States. The route, a limited-access northward continuation of Interstate 390 , extends for from I-490 in Gates to the Lake Ontario State Parkway in...

     until it merges into the Lake Ontario State Parkway
    Lake Ontario State Parkway
    The Lake Ontario State Parkway is a parkway along the southern shore of Lake Ontario in western New York in the United States. The western end of the highway is at a partial interchange within Lakeside Beach State Park in Carlton, Orleans County. Its eastern terminus is at an intersection with...

    . South of I-90, I-390 runs to Avoca, New York
    Avoca (town), New York
    Avoca is a town in Steuben County, New York, USA. The population was 2,314 at the 2000 census.The Town of Avoca has a village named Avoca. The town is in the north part of the county, northwest of Bath, New York.- History :...

    , where it meets up with U.S. Route 15
    U.S. Route 15
    U.S. Route 15 is a -long United States highway, designated along South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and New York. The route is signed north–south, from U.S. Route 17 Alternate in Walterboro, South Carolina to Interstate 86 and NY 17 in Painted Post, New York.US...

     and the Southern Tier Expressway, I-86
    Interstate 86 (east)
    Interstate 86 is an Interstate Highway that extends for through northwestern Pennsylvania and southern New York in the United States...

    .

Interstate 490
Interstate 490 (New York)
Interstate 490 is an auxiliary Interstate Highway that serves the city of Rochester, New York, in the United States. It acts as a northerly alternate route to the New York State Thruway , leaving it at exit 47 in the town of Le Roy and rejoining the highway at exit 45 in the town of...

 (Western/Eastern Expressway)
  • I-490 runs west-east through Rochester, starting at Le Roy, New York
    Le Roy (town), New York
    Le Roy, or more commonly LeRoy, is a town in Genesee County, New York, United States. The population was 7,790 at the 2000 census. The town is named after one of the original land owners, Herman Le Roy....

     and ending in Victor, New York
    Victor (town), New York
    Victor is a town in Ontario County, New York, USA. The population was 9,977 at the 2000 census. The town is named after Claudius Victor Boughton, a hero of the War of 1812.The Town of Victor contains a village, also called Victor...

    . It interchanges with the two other Interstates in Rochester: I-390
    Interstate 390
    Interstate 390 is a north–south auxiliary Interstate Highway located entirely within New York in the United States. The southern terminus of the route is at the Southern Tier Expressway in the town of Avoca. Its northern terminus is at I-490 in Rochester...

     at the western city limit and I-590
    Interstate 590
    Interstate 590 is a north–south auxiliary Interstate Highway that serves the immediate southeastern suburbs of the city of Rochester, New York, in the United States. It extends for from an interchange with I-390 in Brighton to the Can of Worms, a complex interchange connecting I-590 to I-490...

     at the eastern limit, as well as connecting at both ends with the Thruway, I-90
    Interstate 90
    Interstate 90 is the longest Interstate Highway in the United States at . It is the northernmost coast-to-coast interstate, and parallels US 20 for the most part. Its western terminus is in Seattle, at Edgar Martinez Drive S. near Safeco Field and CenturyLink Field, and its eastern terminus is in...

     (exits 47 and 45). In July 2007, a new bridge over the Genesee River
    Genesee River
    The Genesee River is a North American river flowing northward through the Twin Tiers of Pennsylvania and New York. The river provided the original power for the Rochester area's 19th century mills and still provides hydroelectric power for downtown Rochester....

     was completed and named the Frederick Douglass-Susan B. Anthony Memorial Bridge
    Frederick Douglass-Susan B. Anthony Memorial Bridge
    The Frederick Douglass – Susan B. Anthony Memorial Bridge is a triple steel arch bridge carrying Interstate 490 over the Genesee River and New York State Route 383 in downtown Rochester, New York...

    .

Interstate 590
Interstate 590
Interstate 590 is a north–south auxiliary Interstate Highway that serves the immediate southeastern suburbs of the city of Rochester, New York, in the United States. It extends for from an interchange with I-390 in Brighton to the Can of Worms, a complex interchange connecting I-590 to I-490...

  • I-590 runs south-north through Rochester's eastern suburbs. Its southern end is at I-390
    Interstate 390
    Interstate 390 is a north–south auxiliary Interstate Highway located entirely within New York in the United States. The southern terminus of the route is at the Southern Tier Expressway in the town of Avoca. Its northern terminus is at I-490 in Rochester...

    , while the northern end is at I-490
    Interstate 490 (New York)
    Interstate 490 is an auxiliary Interstate Highway that serves the city of Rochester, New York, in the United States. It acts as a northerly alternate route to the New York State Thruway , leaving it at exit 47 in the town of Le Roy and rejoining the highway at exit 45 in the town of...

    ; the highway continues north to the shore of Lake Ontario as NY-590
    New York State Route 590
    New York State Route 590 is a north–south state highway located in the eastern suburbs of Rochester, New York, in the United States...

    .

  • In decreasing usage is the term "Can of Worms", referring to the previously dangerous at-grade intersection of Interstate 490
    Interstate 490 (New York)
    Interstate 490 is an auxiliary Interstate Highway that serves the city of Rochester, New York, in the United States. It acts as a northerly alternate route to the New York State Thruway , leaving it at exit 47 in the town of Le Roy and rejoining the highway at exit 45 in the town of...

     and expressway NY-590
    New York State Route 590
    New York State Route 590 is a north–south state highway located in the eastern suburbs of Rochester, New York, in the United States...

     on the eastern edge of the Rochester city limits, bordering the suburb of Brighton
    Brighton, Monroe County, New York
    Brighton is a town in Monroe County, New York, USA. The population was 36,609 at the 2010 census.-History:The Town of Brighton, located on the southeast border of the city of Rochester, was originally settled approximately 1790, and formally established in 1814—earning it recognition as one...

    . In the 1980s, a multimillion dollar project created a system of overpasses and ramps that reduced the danger but resulted in the loss of certain exits.


New York State Route Expressways:

New York State Route 104
New York State Route 104
New York State Route 104 is a long east–west state highway in Upstate New York, United States. It spans six counties and enters the vicinity of four cities—Niagara Falls, Lockport, Rochester, and Oswego—as it follows a routing largely parallel to that of the southern shoreline of Lake...

 (Irondequoit-Wayne County Expressway, West Ridge Road)
  • NY 104 - Just east of the NY 590 interchange, NY 104 becomes the Irondequoit-Wayne County Expressway and crosses the Irondequoit Bay Bridge
    Irondequoit Bay Bridge
    Irondequoit Bay Bridge is located near Rochester, New York and carries Route 104 across the Irondequoit Bay between Irondequoit and Webster near the intersection with Rt 590. According to the National Bridge Inventory the bridge was built in 1967. Its total span is with nine spans and an...

    . On the other side of the Bay Bridge, in the town of Webster, NY 104 has exits before returning to an at-grade highway at Basket Road.

New York State Route 390
New York State Route 390
New York State Route 390 is a north–south state highway located along the western edge of the city of Rochester, New York, in the United States. The route, a limited-access northward continuation of Interstate 390 , extends for from I-490 in Gates to the Lake Ontario State Parkway in...

  • NY 390 is an extension of Interstate 390 from the I-390/I-490 interchange in Gates. The northern terminus is at the Lake Ontario State Parkway in Greece, less than a mile from the Lake Ontario shoreline.

New York State Route 531
New York State Route 531
New York State Route 531 is a limited-access, east–west state highway located in Monroe County, New York, in the United States. The route extends for from the far northwestern suburbs of Rochester to the town of Gates located just west of the city...

 (Spencerport Expressway)
  • NY 531 serves as a connector between the northwestern suburbs of Rochester and Interstate 490.

New York State Route 590
New York State Route 590
New York State Route 590 is a north–south state highway located in the eastern suburbs of Rochester, New York, in the United States...

  • NY 590 is a limited-access extension of Interstate 590 at runs from an interchange between Interstate 490 and I-590 on the Brighton/Rochester border. The northern terminus is at Culver Road in Irondequoit, near Sea Breeze (the western shore of Irondequoit Bay at Lake Ontario).

Inner Loop
Inner Loop (Rochester)
The Inner Loop is an expressway that encloses downtown Rochester, New York, in the United States. Although the expressway is a continuous loop, only the portion of the loop north of Interstate 490 is signed as the "Inner Loop"...

  • The Inner Loop encircles the downtown Rochester area. Unsigned reference New York State Route 940T begins and ends at Interstate 490, and the rest of the Loop is part of I-490 between exits 13 and 15, including the Frederick Douglass - Susan B. Anthony Memorial Bridge.


New York State Parkways:

Lake Ontario State Parkway
Lake Ontario State Parkway
The Lake Ontario State Parkway is a parkway along the southern shore of Lake Ontario in western New York in the United States. The western end of the highway is at a partial interchange within Lakeside Beach State Park in Carlton, Orleans County. Its eastern terminus is at an intersection with...

  • Lake Ontario State Parkway travels from Lakeside Beach State Park
    Lakeside Beach State Park
    Lakeside Beach State Park is a New York state park, located in western New York in the Town of Carlton in Orleans County on the shore of Lake Ontario. The park may be accessed from Route 18. The park includes over one hundred campsites with electrical hook-ups, as well as a campground store...

     in Carlton, Orleans County. The eastern end is at Lake Avenue in the city of Rochester in Monroe County.

Sister cities

Rochester has twelve sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International
Sister Cities International
Sister Cities International is a nonprofit citizen diplomacy network that creates and strengthens partnerships between United States and international communities. More than 2,000 cities, states and counties are partnered in 136 countries around the world...

. They are all dedicated by a branched concrete walkway over the Genesee River, dubbed the Sister Cities Bridge (known as the Frank and Janet Lamb Bridge since October 2006):
! style="background: #FFFFEF; color: #000000" ! |  Early Modern France> ! style="background: #FFFFEF; color: #000000" ! |  Germany> ! style="background: #FFFFEF; color: #000000" ! |  Italy> ! style="background: #FFFFEF; color: #000000" ! |  Israel> ! style="background: #FFFFEF; color: #000000" ! |  Poland> ! style="background: #FFFFEF; color: #000000" ! |  Mali>
Country ity ounty / District / Region / State ate
France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

Rennes
Rennes
Rennes is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern France. Rennes is the capital of the region of Brittany, as well as the Ille-et-Vilaine department.-History:...

Brittany 1958
Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

Würzburg
Würzburg
Würzburg is a city in the region of Franconia which lies in the northern tip of Bavaria, Germany. Located at the Main River, it is the capital of the Regierungsbezirk Lower Franconia. The regional dialect is Franconian....

Bavaria
Bavaria
Bavaria, formally the Free State of Bavaria is a state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of , it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany...

1964
Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

Caltanissetta
Caltanissetta
Caltanissetta is a city and comune located on the western interior of Sicily, capital of the province of Caltanissetta...

Sicily
Sicily
Sicily is a region of Italy, and is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. Along with the surrounding minor islands, it constitutes an autonomous region of Italy, the Regione Autonoma Siciliana Sicily has a rich and unique culture, especially with regard to the arts, music, literature,...

1965
Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

Rehovot
Rehovot
Rehovot is a city in the Center District of Israel, about south of Tel Aviv. According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics , at the end of 2009 the city had a total population of 112,700. Rehovot's official website estimates the population at 114,000.Rehovot was built on the site of Doron,...

Center District 1972
Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

Kraków
Kraków
Kraków also Krakow, or Cracow , is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, cultural, and artistic life...

Małopolskie
Lesser Poland Voivodeship
Małopolska Voivodeship , or Lesser Poland Voivodeship, is a voivodeship, in southern Poland...

1973
Mali
Mali
Mali , officially the Republic of Mali , is a landlocked country in Western Africa. Mali borders Algeria on the north, Niger on the east, Burkina Faso and the Côte d'Ivoire on the south, Guinea on the south-west, and Senegal and Mauritania on the west. Its size is just over 1,240,000 km² with...

Bamako
Bamako
Bamako is the capital of Mali and its largest city with a population of 1.8 million . Currently, it is estimated to be the fastest growing city in Africa and sixth fastest in the world...

Capital District 1975

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Country ity ounty / District / Region / State ate
Ireland
Ireland
Ireland is an island to the northwest of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth...

Waterford
Waterford
Waterford is a city in the South-East Region of Ireland. It is the oldest city in the country and fifth largest by population. Waterford City Council is the local government authority for the city and its immediate hinterland...

County Waterford
County Waterford
*Abbeyside, Affane, Aglish, Annestown, An Rinn, Ardmore*Ballinacourty, Ballinameela, Ballinamult, Ballinroad, Ballybeg, Ballybricken, Ballyduff Lower, Ballyduff Upper, Ballydurn, Ballygunner, Ballylaneen, Ballymacarbry, Ballymacart, Ballynaneashagh, Ballysaggart, Ballytruckle, Bilberry, Bunmahon,...

1983
Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

Novgorod
Veliky Novgorod
Veliky Novgorod is one of Russia's most historic cities and the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast. It is situated on the M10 federal highway connecting Moscow and St. Petersburg. The city lies along the Volkhov River just below its outflow from Lake Ilmen...

Novgorod Oblast
Novgorod Oblast
Novgorod Oblast is a federal subject of Russia , located between Moscow and Saint Petersburg. Its administrative center is the city of Veliky Novgorod. Some of the oldest Russian cities, including Veliky Novgorod and Staraya Russa, are located there...

1990
Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

Hamamatsu Shizuoka Prefecture
Shizuoka Prefecture
is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūbu region on Honshu island. The capital is the city of Shizuoka.- History :Shizuoka prefecture was formed from the former Tōtōmi, Suruga and Izu provinces.The area was the home of the first Tokugawa Shogun...

1996
Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
The Dominican Republic is a nation on the island of La Hispaniola, part of the Greater Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean region. The western third of the island is occupied by the nation of Haiti, making Hispaniola one of two Caribbean islands that are shared by two countries...

Puerto Plata
San Felipe de Puerto Plata
San Felipe de Puerto Plata, often referred to as simply Puerto Plata, is the capital of the Dominican province Puerto Plata.The city is famous for resorts such as Playa Dorada and Costa Dorada, located east of San Felipe de Puerto Plata. There are a total of 100,000 hotel beds in the city.The only...

Puerto Plata Province 1997
China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

Xianyang
Xianyang
Xianyang is a former capital of China in Shaanxi province, on the Wei River, a few kilometers upstream from Xi'an. It has an area of...

Shaanxi
Shaanxi
' is a province in the central part of Mainland China, and it includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River in addition to the Qinling Mountains across the southern part of this province...

2007
Lithuania
Lithuania
Lithuania , officially the Republic of Lithuania is a country in Northern Europe, the biggest of the three Baltic states. It is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, whereby to the west lie Sweden and Denmark...

Alytus
Alytus
Alytus is a city with municipal rights in southern Lithuania. It is the capital of Alytus County. Its population in 2007 was 68,835. Alytus is the historical centre of the Dzūkija region. The city lies on the banks of the Nemunas River. The major highways linking Vilnius, Kaunas, Lazdijai, and...

Alytus County
Alytus County
Alytus County is one of ten counties in Lithuania. It is the southernmost county, and its capital is the city of Alytus. Its territory lies within the ethnographic region of Dzūkija...

2009


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