Rochester, New Hampshire
Overview
Rochester is a city in Strafford County
Strafford County, New Hampshire
-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 112,233 people, 42,581 households, and 27,762 families residing in the county. The population density was 304 people per square mile . There were 45,539 housing units at an average density of 124 per square mile...

, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. The state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Canadian...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 29,752. The city includes the villages of East Rochester
East Rochester, New Hampshire
East Rochester is a district of the city of Rochester, New Hampshire, located on the banks of the Salmon Falls River, which separates Maine from New Hampshire...

 and Gonic. Rochester is home to Skyhaven Airport
Skyhaven Airport (New Hampshire)
Skyhaven Airport is a public-use airport located three miles southeast of the central business district of Rochester, a city in Strafford County, New Hampshire, United States. The airport is owned and operated by the New Hampshire Department of Transportation's Bureau of Aeronautics, with fixed...

 and the annual Rochester Fair.
Rochester was once inhabited by Abenaki Indians
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of North and South America, their descendants and other ethnic groups who are identified with those peoples. Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, and in the United States as Native Americans...

 of the Pennacook
Pennacook
The Pennacook, also known by the names Merrimack and Pawtucket, were a North American people that primarily inhabited the Merrimack River valley of present-day New Hampshire and Massachusetts, as well as portions of southern Maine...

 tribe. They fished, hunted and farmed, moving locations when their agriculture exhausted the soil for growing pumpkins, squash
Squash (fruit)
Squashes generally refer to four species of the genus Cucurbita, also called marrows depending on variety or the nationality of the speaker...

, beans and maize
Maize
Maize known in many English-speaking countries as corn or mielie/mealie, is a grain domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. The leafy stalk produces ears which contain seeds called kernels. Though technically a grain, maize kernels are used in cooking as a vegetable...

.
Encyclopedia
Rochester is a city in Strafford County
Strafford County, New Hampshire
-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 112,233 people, 42,581 households, and 27,762 families residing in the county. The population density was 304 people per square mile . There were 45,539 housing units at an average density of 124 per square mile...

, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. The state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Canadian...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 29,752. The city includes the villages of East Rochester
East Rochester, New Hampshire
East Rochester is a district of the city of Rochester, New Hampshire, located on the banks of the Salmon Falls River, which separates Maine from New Hampshire...

 and Gonic. Rochester is home to Skyhaven Airport
Skyhaven Airport (New Hampshire)
Skyhaven Airport is a public-use airport located three miles southeast of the central business district of Rochester, a city in Strafford County, New Hampshire, United States. The airport is owned and operated by the New Hampshire Department of Transportation's Bureau of Aeronautics, with fixed...

 and the annual Rochester Fair.

Origins

Rochester was once inhabited by Abenaki Indians
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of North and South America, their descendants and other ethnic groups who are identified with those peoples. Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, and in the United States as Native Americans...

 of the Pennacook
Pennacook
The Pennacook, also known by the names Merrimack and Pawtucket, were a North American people that primarily inhabited the Merrimack River valley of present-day New Hampshire and Massachusetts, as well as portions of southern Maine...

 tribe. They fished, hunted and farmed, moving locations when their agriculture exhausted the soil for growing pumpkins, squash
Squash (fruit)
Squashes generally refer to four species of the genus Cucurbita, also called marrows depending on variety or the nationality of the speaker...

, beans and maize
Maize
Maize known in many English-speaking countries as corn or mielie/mealie, is a grain domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. The leafy stalk produces ears which contain seeds called kernels. Though technically a grain, maize kernels are used in cooking as a vegetable...

. Gonic was called Squanamagonic, meaning "the water of the clay place hill."

The town was one of four granted by Colonial
Colony
In politics and history, a colony is a territory under the immediate political control of a state. For colonies in antiquity, city-states would often found their own colonies. Some colonies were historically countries, while others were territories without definite statehood from their inception....

 Governor Samuel Shute of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. It is bordered by Rhode Island and Connecticut to the south, New York to the west, and Vermont and New Hampshire to the north; at its east lies the Atlantic Ocean. As of the 2010...

 during his brief term. Incorporated in 1722, it was named for his close friend, Laurence Hyde
Laurence Hyde, 1st Earl of Rochester
Laurence Hyde, 1st Earl of Rochester KG PC was an English statesman and writer. He was originally a supporter of James II but later supported the Glorious Revolution in 1688.-Early life:...

, Earl of Rochester
Earl of Rochester
Earl of Rochester was a title that was created twice in the Peerage of England. The first creation came in 1652 in favour of the Royalist soldier Henry Wilmot, 2nd Viscount Wilmot. He had already been created Baron Wilmot, of Adderbury in the County of Oxford, in 1643, also in the Peerage of England...

 and brother-in-law to King James II
James II of England
James II & VII was King of England and King of Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685. He was the last Catholic monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland...

. As was customary, tall white pine
Eastern White Pine
Pinus strobus, commonly known as the eastern white pine, is a large pine native to eastern North America, occurring from Newfoundland west to Minnesota and southeastern Manitoba, and south along the Appalachian Mountains to the northern edge of Georgia.It is occasionally known as simply white pine,...

 trees were reserved for use as masts
Mast (sailing)
The mast of a sailing vessel is a tall, vertical, or near vertical, spar, or arrangement of spars, which supports the sails. Large ships have several masts, with the size and configuration depending on the style of ship...

 by the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
The Royal Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Founded in the 16th century, it is the oldest service branch and is known as the Senior Service...

. But hostility with the Indians delayed settlement until 1728, although attacks would continue until 1748. Early dwellings clustered together for protection, beginning near Haven Hill. Due to warfare or disease, after 1749 the Indians were gone. The community at that time included Farmington
Farmington, New Hampshire
Farmington is a town located in Strafford County, New Hampshire, USA. The 2010 census reported that the town had a total population of 6,786. Farmington is home to Blue Job State Forest....

, which would be incorporated in 1798, and Milton
Milton, New Hampshire
Milton is a town in Strafford County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 4,598 at the 2010 census. A manufacturing, resort and residential town, Milton includes the village of Milton Mills...

, in 1802.

Rochester Common

In 1737, the Reverend Amos Main became the first settled pastor of the Congregational
Congregational church
Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing Congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs....

 Church, located on Rochester Hill. The building would be moved to Rochester Common, which then encompassed 250 acres (1 km²) and was called Norway Plain Mille Common after its abundant Norway pines. At the time, the Common extended into what is now downtown Rochester. By 1738, the farming community contained 60 families. A statue of Parson Main, sculpted by Giuseppe Moretti
Giuseppe Moretti
Giuseppe Moretti was an Italian émigré sculptor who became known in America for his public monuments in bronze and marble. Most notable among his works is Vulcan in Birmingham, Alabama, which is the largest cast iron statue in the world...

, today presides over the town square.

By 1780 the area surrounding the Common was the most thickly settled part of town, so a meeting house/church was erected on the east end of the Common with the entrance facing what is now South Main Street. A cemetery was also established near the new meeting house, but the ground was found to be too wet, and the bodies were removed to the Old Rochester Cemetery. In 1842 the Meeting House/church was moved to the present-day location at the corner of Liberty and South Main streets. As the years went by the size of the Common would shrink as more of it was sold off for development.

During the Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War , the American War of Independence, or simply the Revolutionary War, began as a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and thirteen British colonies in North America, and ended in a global war between several European great powers.The war was the result of the...

 the Common was used as the meeting place for soldiers before going off to war. The common is also the location of the city's Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

 monument which bears the names of the 54 men who died then. The monument was dedicated in the 1870s, and in the 1880s the statue was added to the monument. Four Civil War cannons also decorated the monument, but during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 the cannon were melted down for use in the war. They were replaced by World War II guns.

The bandstand was built in 1914 by Miles Dustin; before then band concerts were held on the square. The flag pole was donated by J. Frank Place in 1917. He was the former publisher of the Rochester Courier.

Early education

In the early days if a town had more than 50 families, it was required to establish a public school to teach writing and reading. Up to 1750 Rochester was able to ignore this law because of Indian hostilities. In 1750 the Indian attacks were not a threat anymore so Rochester voted at a town meeting to start schooling the children.

In 1751 the first public schooling started in Rochester. The school lasted for 16 weeks and the first teacher (school master) was named John Forst. Forst was paid a salary of 15 pounds and boarded with a different family each month (this family received 30 cents a week from the city). The early school had a fireplace in the front of the classroom. The children in the front of the class got really hot while the children at the back of the classroom were really cold. Discipline of the school children was enforced by the teacher flogging the students. One of the earlier teachers was named Mr. Tanner, and he was known as the best 'flogger' in the area even though he had only one arm.

Growth through the 19th century

When Rochester was first settled there was no mail service at all. In 1768 this changed when a post rider traveled from Portsmouth
Portsmouth, New Hampshire
Portsmouth is a city in Rockingham County, New Hampshire in the United States. It is the largest city but only the fourth-largest community in the county, with a population of 21,233 at the 2010 census...

 through Berwick, Dover
Dover, New Hampshire
Dover is a city in Strafford County, New Hampshire, in the United States of America. The population was 29,987 at the 2010 census, the largest in the New Hampshire Seacoast region...

 and Rochester bringing gazettes. In 1792 this improved when Joseph Paine would deliver and pick up mail once a week. When he arrived in town a horn would blow to inform the town of his presence. A regular post office was established on March 26, 1812, in the Barke Tavern. The first postmaster in Rochester was William Barker.
The first large business was lumber
Lumber
Lumber or timber is wood in any of its stages from felling through readiness for use as structural material for construction, or wood pulp for paper production....

ing, although it would be overtaken by other industries as Rochester developed into a mill town
Mill town
A mill town, also known as factory town or mill village, is typically a settlement that developed around one or more mills or factories .- United Kingdom:...

 with the Cochecho River
Cochecho River
The Cochecho River or Cocheco River is a tributary of the Piscataqua River, 38.3 miles long, in the U.S. state of New Hampshire. It rises in northern Strafford County and runs southeastward, through the town of Farmington and the cities of Rochester and Dover, where it provides hydroelectric power...

 to provide water power. In 1806, 6 tanneries
Tanning
Tanning is the making of leather from the skins of animals which does not easily decompose. Traditionally, tanning used tannin, an acidic chemical compound from which the tanning process draws its name . Coloring may occur during tanning...

 were operating, along with a sawmill
Sawmill
A sawmill is a facility where logs are cut into boards.-Sawmill process:A sawmill's basic operation is much like those of hundreds of years ago; a log enters on one end and dimensional lumber exits on the other end....

, fulling
Fulling
Fulling or tucking or walking is a step in woolen clothmaking which involves the cleansing of cloth to eliminate oils, dirt, and other impurities, and making it thicker. The worker who does the job is a fuller, tucker, or walker...

 mill, and 2 gristmill
Gristmill
The terms gristmill or grist mill can refer either to a building in which grain is ground into flour, or to the grinding mechanism itself.- Early history :...

s. By the 1820s-1830s, the town had a cabinet maker
Cabinet making
Cabinet making is the practice of using various woodworking skills to create cabinets, shelving and furniture.Cabinet making involves techniques such as creating appropriate joints, dados, bevels, chamfers and shelving systems, the use of finishing tools such as routers to create decorative...

 and clockmaker. The Mechanics Company was established in 1834, producing woolen
Woolen
Woolen or woollen is a type of yarn made from carded wool. Woolen yarn is soft, light, stretchy, and full of air. It is thus a good insulator, and makes a good knitting yarn...

 blanket
Blanket
A blanket is a type of bedding, generally speaking, a large piece of cloth, intended to keep the user warm, especially while sleeping. Blankets are distinguished from sheets by their thickness and purpose; the thickest sheet is still thinner than the lightest blanket. Blankets are generally used...

s which would win the premium quality award at the 1853 New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

 World's Fair
World's Fair
World's fair, World fair, Universal Exposition, and World Expo are various large public exhibitions held in different parts of the world. The first Expo was held in The Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London, United Kingdom, in 1851, under the title "Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All...

. The Norway Plains Woolen Company manufactured blankets used by the Union Army
Union Army
The Union Army was the land force that fought for the Union during the American Civil War. It was also known as the Federal Army, the U.S. Army, the Northern Army and the National Army...

 in the Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

, and in 1870 wove 1600000 yards (1,463,040 m) of textiles, but by century's end was out of business.

In 1854, the E.G. & E. Wallace Shoe Company was established, eventually becoming the city's biggest employer, with over 700 workers in 1901. Its name changed to the Rochester Shoe Corporation in the 1920s. The Kessel Fire Brick Company was established in 1889, and at one time bricks for new buildings at Harvard University
Harvard University
Harvard University is a private Ivy League university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States, established in 1636 by the Massachusetts legislature. Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and the first corporation chartered in the country...

 were made in Gonic. Carrying the freight were four railroads which once passed through Rochester, a major junction
Junction (rail)
A junction, in the context of rail transport, is a place at which two or more rail routes converge or diverge.This implies a physical connection between the tracks of the two routes , 'points' and signalling.one or two tracks each meet at a junction, a fairly simple layout of tracks suffices to...

 between Haverhill, Massachusetts
Haverhill, Massachusetts
Haverhill is a city in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 60,879 at the 2010 census.Located on the Merrimack River, it began as a farming community that would evolve into an important industrial center, beginning with sawmills and gristmills run by water power. In the...

 and Portland, Maine
Portland, Maine
Portland is the largest city in Maine and is the county seat of Cumberland County. The 2010 city population was 66,194, growing 3 percent since the census of 2000...

. Agriculture continued to be important, and in 1875 the Rochester Fair was established. In 1891, Rochester was incorporated as a city.

The first telephone was installed in 1885 in the K.C. Sanborn Drug Store, the phone was connected to the Dover Telephone Exchange. By the early 1900s there were 1200 local calls and 400 toll calls a day made from Rochester.

During the Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

, however, several industries left for cheaper operating conditions in the South
Southern United States
The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South—constitutes a large distinctive area in the southeastern and south-central United States...

 or went bankrupt
Bankruptcy
Bankruptcy is a legal status of an insolvent person or an organisation, that is, one that cannot repay the debts owed to creditors. In most jurisdictions bankruptcy is imposed by a court order, often initiated by the debtor....

. But the affluent mill era left behind some fine architecture
Architecture
Architecture is both the process and product of planning, designing and construction. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural and political symbols and as works of art...

, including the Rochester Public Library, designed by the Concord
Concord, New Hampshire
The city of Concord is the capital of the state of New Hampshire in the United States. It is also the county seat of Merrimack County. As of the 2010 census, its population was 42,695....

 architects Randlett & Griffin.

Library

The Rochester Public Library was started in 1893 and was one of the three earliest public libraries in the state. Back then the library was located on the corner of Portland and Main streets. A little bit later it moved to City Hall.

In the early 1900s, Rochester Postmaster Osman Warren contacted Andrew Carnegie
Andrew Carnegie
Andrew Carnegie was a Scottish-American industrialist, businessman, and entrepreneur who led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century...

 to secure his help in providing financial help in building a new library. The Carnegie Institute responded with a check for $20,000. The brand new library was built on the site of what was the Main Street School. The library was built in the new Georgian revival style using brick and granite, and the inside was finished with golden oak and cypress. The library opened on October 2, 1905, and 150 people registered the first day. Miss Lillian Parshley was the first librarian, serving until her death in 1945. Velma Foss, Miss Parshley's assistant, was the second librarian of the Rochester Library.

City Hall and Opera House

Another notable structure is the 1908 Rochester City Hall and Opera House
Rochester Opera House
The Rochester Opera House is an 800+ seat theater in the city hall of Rochester, a city in Strafford County, New Hampshire, United States. It has the unique architectural feature of a fully moveable floor, perhaps the last of this design in existence....

 by George Gilman Adams. Adams designed other city hall/opera house dual-purpose buildings around New England, including for Bellows Falls, Vermont
Bellows Falls, Vermont
Bellows Falls is an incorporated village located in the town of Rockingham in Windham County, Vermont, United States. The population was 3,165 at the 2000 census...

 (1887); Amesbury, Massachusetts
Amesbury, Massachusetts
Amesbury is a city in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. Though it officially became a city in 1996, its formal name remains "The Town of Amesbury." In 1890, 9798 people lived in Amesbury; in 1900, 9473; in 1910, 9894; in 1920, 10,036; and in 1940, 10,862. The population was 16,283 at...

 (1887); Dover, New Hampshire
Dover, New Hampshire
Dover is a city in Strafford County, New Hampshire, in the United States of America. The population was 29,987 at the 2010 census, the largest in the New Hampshire Seacoast region...

 (1891); and Derry, New Hampshire
Derry, New Hampshire
-Climate:-Demographics:As of the census of 2010, there were 33,109 people, 12,537 households, and 8,767 families residing in the town. The population density was 924.8 people per square mile . There were 13,277 housing units at an average density of 143.2/km²...

 (1901). Only four of his city hall/opera houses survive today (in Waterville
Waterville, Maine
Waterville is a city in Kennebec County, Maine, United States, on the west bank of the Kennebec River. The population was 15,722 at the 2010 census. Home to Colby College and Thomas College, Waterville is the regional commercial, medical and cultural center....

, Montpelier
Montpelier, Vermont
Montpelier is a city in the U.S. state of Vermont that serves as the state capital and the shire town of Washington County. As the capital of Vermont, Montpelier is the site of the Vermont State House, seat of the legislative branch of Vermont government. The population was 7,855 at the 2010...

, Derry, and Rochester), as many of his buildings were destroyed by fire.

George Adams' opera houses were unique because of their floors, which were movable and could function in an inclined position or level position. With the floor in the inclined position, the opera house would show plays, concerts, etc. When the floor was level, the building could be used for dances or public meetings. The Rochester Opera House opened on Memorial Day
Memorial Day
Memorial Day is a United States federal holiday observed on the last Monday of May. Formerly known as Decoration Day, it originated after the American Civil War to commemorate the fallen Union soldiers of the Civil War...

 in 1908. Almost all of Adams' buildings contained the movable floor, though the buildings in Waterville and Montpelier did not. Because of the destruction of the other opera houses the Rochester Opera House is the only known theatre in the United States to use this type of movable floor.

Today one can still take in a show at the Rochester Opera House. The Opera House looks like it did over ninety years ago when it opened up.

20th century

Rochester passed out of the silent movie era on May 20, 1929 with the arrival of the first talking motion picture in the city, titled The Wild Party
The Wild Party (1929 film)
The Wild Party is a Pre-Code film directed by Dorothy Arzner, released by Paramount Pictures, and known as Clara Bow's first talkie.-Plot:...

, starring Clara Bow
Clara Bow
Clara Gordon Bow was an American actress who rose to stardom in the silent film era of the 1920s. It was her appearance as a spunky shopgirl in the film It that brought her global fame and the nickname "The It Girl." Bow came to personify the roaring twenties and is described as its leading sex...

. The movie was shown at the Scenic Theater. The evening admission price was 35 cents for adults and 15 cents for children.

A Rochester Courier article from October 1930 described a new indoor golf course:


INDOOR GOLF COURSE TO BE OPENED ON SATURDAY

The Leavitt Theatre Property Transformed Inside Into a Bower of Beauty - Rochester is to have an indoor golf course, which, it is said, will be second to none, in beauty and attractiveness, this side of New York. Fred Couture, proprietor of the Scenic theatre, who a few months since purchased the Leavitt theatre on South Main Street, has been laying out a small fortune in fitting it up on the ground floor for such use. This building was formerly the residence of the Hon. Summer Wallace and was one of the most beautiful mansions in New Hampshire. Despite the way in which the outside was altered to make the theatre, much of the magnificent paneling inside has been preserved. It was a foundation for an unusual setting for indoor golf. A large force of workers has been engaged in recent weeks, working in relays, and this week six scene painters are decorating the walls and ceilings. There are to be an Egyptian room, a Japanese room, an Indian room and a Dutch room. The walls of each are adorned with appropriate paintings to form a picture of any particular land represented. The Dutch room, for example, not only has the paintings of the canals and dikes but an actual windmill revolving. In the Indian room are pictures of forests and streams, with an Indian paddling a canoe. There is a real waterfall too, with the water flowing down over actual rocks into a series of three basins, with a pool for goldfish at the bottom. One room represents the seashore, the entire wall being one huge painting of the ocean, with a real light house perched up on a promontory, with a light shedding forth its rays. There is also a garden room with a profusion of flowers. There are various rest rooms and seats in plenty everywhere for the onlookers or tired players. All the floors will be covered with artificial grass. In a conspicuous place is a great pile of stones, with a fountain at the top, out of which a tiny stream trickles down over the rocks in various small channels and little pools. Ferns grow on its sides. There are also in various places tree trunks, some birch with their white bark and other varieties. There will be eighteen holes to the golf course, with various traps and some mysteries. The whole place is certainly a wonderful representation of the great out-of-doors and a veritable dream of loveliness. The grand opening is set for Saturday evening at 6:00, when Mayor Louis H. McDuffee will press the button and turn on the lights.

Natural disasters

The summer of 1947 was dry. In late October of that year only 1/8 inch of rain had fallen since mid-September, and the temperatures were high. Small ponds and streams were dried up, and local farmers were using water from the Salmon Falls River
Salmon Falls River
The Salmon Falls River is a tributary of the Piscataqua River in the U.S. states of Maine and New Hampshire. It rises at Great East Lake and flows south-southeast for approximately , forming the border between Maine and New Hampshire....

 and Cocheco River to provide water for their livestock. Fire risk was high. On October 21, sparks from a passing train car in Farmington
Farmington, New Hampshire
Farmington is a town located in Strafford County, New Hampshire, USA. The 2010 census reported that the town had a total population of 6,786. Farmington is home to Blue Job State Forest....

 ignited the dry grass on both sides of the track, starting the biggest fire to strike Rochester.

At first firefighters seemed to have the fire in control, but two days later winds up to 60 miles per hour (26.8 m/s) drove the 'small' fire out of control. The wind-driven fire moved to the south and east into Rochester. The fire would engulf an area over 9 miles (14.5 km) long and over 2 miles (3.2 km) wide with walls of flame 40 feet (12.2 m) high. Before the fire was under control over 30 homes in Rochester would be lost.

Hurricane Carol
Hurricane Carol
Hurricane Carol was among the worst tropical cyclones to affect the New England region of the United States. It developed from a tropical wave near the Bahamas on August 25, 1954, and gradually strengthened as it moved northwestward. On August 27, Carol intensified to reach winds of , but weakened...

 struck New Hampshire on September 2, 1954. The winds of the hurricane were in excess of 90 miles per hour (40.2 m/s). The property damage in New Hampshire was estimated to be 3 million dollars and four inches of rain fell during the storm.

Notable inhabitants

  • Isaac Adams
    Isaac Adams
    -Biography:He was born in Rochester, New Hampshire to Benjamin Adams and Elizabeth Horne Adams in 1802. His education was limited, and at an early age he was a operative in a cotton factory. Afterward he learned the trade of cabinet maker, but in 1824 went to Boston and sought work in a machine...

    , inventor and manufacturer
  • Allard Baird
    Allard Baird
    Allard Baird is the former general manager of the Kansas City Royals. He now works for the Boston Red Sox as vice president, player personnel, serving under general manager Ben Cherington...

    , assistant general manager, the Boston Red Sox
    Boston Red Sox
    The Boston Red Sox are a professional baseball team based in Boston, Massachusetts, and a member of Major League Baseball’s American League Eastern Division. Founded in as one of the American League's eight charter franchises, the Red Sox's home ballpark has been Fenway Park since . The "Red Sox"...

  • Jeff Coffin
    Jeff Coffin
    Jeff Coffin is an American jazz and alternative rock musician best known as the saxophonist for Dave Matthews Band and Béla Fleck and the Flecktones. In addition to the saxophone, he plays clarinet, flute and oboe.-Biography:...

    , saxophonist with Bela Fleck and the Flecktones
    Béla Fleck and the Flecktones
    Béla Fleck and the Flecktones is a primarily instrumental group from the United States, that draws equally on bluegrass, fusion and jazz, sometimes dubbed "blu-bop". The band formed in 1988, initially to perform once on the PBS series Lonesome Pine Specials. The Flecktones have toured extensively...

  • James Farrington
    James Farrington
    James Farrington was a United States Representative from New Hampshire. He was born in Conway, New Hampshire and attended the common schools there. He graduated from Fryeburg Academy in Fryeburg, Maine in 1814...

    , U.S. congressman
  • Samuel D. Felker
    Samuel D. Felker
    Samuel Demeritt Felker was an American lawyer and Democratic politician from Rochester, New Hampshire. He served as mayor of Rochester and in the New Hampshire state House of Representatives before being elected Governor in 1912.-External links:*...

    , mayor and governor
  • John P. Hale
    John P. Hale
    John Parker Hale was an American politician and lawyer from New Hampshire. He served in the United States House of Representatives from 1843 to 1845 and in the United States Senate from 1847 to 1853 and again from 1855 to 1865. He was the first senator to make a stand against slavery...

    , U.S. senator
  • Charles Francis Hall
    Charles Francis Hall
    Charles Francis Hall was an American Arctic explorer. Little is known of Hall's early life. He was born in the state of Vermont, but while he was still a child his family moved to Rochester, New Hampshire, where, as a boy, he was apprenticed to a blacksmith. In the 1840s he married and drifted...

    , Arctic explorer
  • Christy Karacas, creator of cartoon series Superjail!
  • Lyndon LaRouche
    Lyndon LaRouche
    Lyndon Hermyle LaRouche, Jr. is an American political activist and founder of a network of political committees, parties, and publications known collectively as the LaRouche movement...

    , political activist and presidential candidate
  • Freddy Meyer
    Freddy Meyer
    Frederick Meyer IV is an American professional ice hockey defenseman who currently plays for Modo Hockey of the Swedish Elitserien.- Playing career :Meyer was signed by the Philadelphia Flyers on May 21, 2003 to an entry level contract...

    , professional hockey player, Philadelphia Flyers
    Philadelphia Flyers
    The Philadelphia Flyers are a professional ice hockey team based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. They are members of the Atlantic Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League...

  • Brandon Rogers
    Brandon Rogers (ice hockey)
    Brandon Rogers is an American professional ice hockey defenseman who is currently playing for HK SKP Poprad in the Slovak Extraliga.-Playing career:...

    , professional hockey player, Houston Aeros
    Houston Aeros
    The Houston Aeros are a professional ice hockey team in the American Hockey League. The team plays in Houston, Texas, at the Toyota Center. They are the AHL affiliate of the NHL's Minnesota Wild.- History :...

  • Carol Shea-Porter, U.S. congresswoman
  • Huntley N. Spaulding
    Huntley N. Spaulding
    Huntley Nowel Spaulding was an American manufacturer and Republican politician from Rochester, New Hampshire. He was elected governor of New Hampshire...

    , governor
  • Rolland H. Spaulding
    Rolland H. Spaulding
    Rolland Harty Spaulding was an American manufacturer and Republican politician. He was elected Governor of Hew Hampshire in 1914, where he served one term.-Early life and education:...

    , governor
  • Nathaniel Upham
    Nathaniel Upham
    Nathaniel Upham was a United States Representative from New Hampshire. He was born in Deerfield, New Hampshire. He pursued classical studies and attended the Phillips Exeter Academy in Exeter in 1793...

    , U.S. congressman

Geography

Rochester is located at 43°18′7"N 70°58′23"W (43.302081, -70.973106).

According to the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

, the city has a total area of 45.8 square miles (118.6 km²), of which 45.4 square miles (117.6 km²) is land and 0.3 square mile (0.776996433 km²) is water, comprising 0.79% of the town. Rochester is drained by the Salmon Falls
Salmon Falls River
The Salmon Falls River is a tributary of the Piscataqua River in the U.S. states of Maine and New Hampshire. It rises at Great East Lake and flows south-southeast for approximately , forming the border between Maine and New Hampshire....

, Isinglass
Isinglass River
The Isinglass River in Strafford County, southeastern New Hampshire, the United States, is about 15 miles long. It rises at Bow Lake in Strafford, but is also fed through its tributaries by Ayer's, Nippo, Round and Long Ponds in Barrington. The Isinglass flows east to meet the Cochecho River below...

 and Cochecho rivers. The highest point in Rochester is a southern extension of Nute Ridge, at 581 feet (177.1 m) above sea level
Sea level
Mean sea level is a measure of the average height of the ocean's surface ; used as a standard in reckoning land elevation...

, occupying the northern corner of the city.

Demographics

As of the census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

of 2000, there were 28,461 people, 11,434 households, and 7,649 families residing in the city. The population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 was 630.3 people per square mile (243.4/km²). There were 11,836 housing units at an average density of 262.1 per square mile (101.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 97.12% White, 0.52% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.87% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.26% from other races
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, and 0.98% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.90% of the population.

There were 11,434 households out of which 32.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.9% were married couples
Marriage
Marriage is a social union or legal contract between people that creates kinship. It is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually intimate and sexual, are acknowledged in a variety of ways, depending on the culture or subculture in which it is found...

 living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.1% were non-families. 25.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.95.

In the city the population was spread out with 25.3% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 13.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 94.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $40,596, and the median income for a family was $47,324. Males had a median income of $34,290 versus $23,319 for females. The per capita income
Per capita income
Per capita income or income per person is a measure of mean income within an economic aggregate, such as a country or city. It is calculated by taking a measure of all sources of income in the aggregate and dividing it by the total population...

 for the city was $18,859. About 6.3% of families and 8.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.7% of those under age 18 and 8.8% of those age 65 or over.

Sites of interest

  • Rochester Historical Society Museum
  • Rochester Opera House
  • Rochester Common
  • Spaulding High School
  • Rochester Skate Park
  • Roger Allen Sports Facility

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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