Robert Adam
Overview
 
Robert Adam was a Scottish neoclassical
Neoclassicism
Neoclassicism is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome...

 architect
Architect
An architect is a person trained in the planning, design and oversight of the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to offer or render services in connection with the design and construction of a building, or group of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the...

, interior designer and furniture designer. He was the son of William Adam (1689–1748), Scotland's foremost architect of the time, and trained under him. With his older brother John
John Adam (architect)
John Adam was a Scottish architect. Born in Linktown of Abbotshall, now part of Kirkcaldy, Fife, he was the eldest son of architect and entrepreneur William Adam. His younger brothers Robert and James Adam also became architects.The Adam family moved to Edinburgh in 1728, as William Adam's career...

, Robert took on the family business, which included lucrative work for the Board of Ordnance
Board of Ordnance
The Board of Ordnance was a British government body responsible for the supply of armaments and munitions to the Royal Navy and British Army. It was also responsible for providing artillery trains for armies and maintaining coastal fortresses and, later, management of the artillery and engineer...

, after William's death.

In 1754 he left for Rome, spending nearly five years on the continent studying architecture under Charles-Louis Clérisseau
Charles-Louis Clérisseau
Charles-Louis Clérisseau was a French architectural draughtsman, antiquary and artist. He had a role in the genesis of neoclassical architecture during the second half of the 18th century....

 and Giovanni Battista Piranesi
Giovanni Battista Piranesi
Giovanni Battista Piranesi was an Italian artist famous for his etchings of Rome and of fictitious and atmospheric "prisons" .-His Life:...

.
Encyclopedia
Robert Adam was a Scottish neoclassical
Neoclassicism
Neoclassicism is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome...

 architect
Architect
An architect is a person trained in the planning, design and oversight of the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to offer or render services in connection with the design and construction of a building, or group of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the...

, interior designer and furniture designer. He was the son of William Adam (1689–1748), Scotland's foremost architect of the time, and trained under him. With his older brother John
John Adam (architect)
John Adam was a Scottish architect. Born in Linktown of Abbotshall, now part of Kirkcaldy, Fife, he was the eldest son of architect and entrepreneur William Adam. His younger brothers Robert and James Adam also became architects.The Adam family moved to Edinburgh in 1728, as William Adam's career...

, Robert took on the family business, which included lucrative work for the Board of Ordnance
Board of Ordnance
The Board of Ordnance was a British government body responsible for the supply of armaments and munitions to the Royal Navy and British Army. It was also responsible for providing artillery trains for armies and maintaining coastal fortresses and, later, management of the artillery and engineer...

, after William's death.

In 1754 he left for Rome, spending nearly five years on the continent studying architecture under Charles-Louis Clérisseau
Charles-Louis Clérisseau
Charles-Louis Clérisseau was a French architectural draughtsman, antiquary and artist. He had a role in the genesis of neoclassical architecture during the second half of the 18th century....

 and Giovanni Battista Piranesi
Giovanni Battista Piranesi
Giovanni Battista Piranesi was an Italian artist famous for his etchings of Rome and of fictitious and atmospheric "prisons" .-His Life:...

. On his return to Britain he established a practice in London, where he was joined by his younger brother James. Here he developed the "Adam Style
Adam style
The Adam style is an 18th century neoclassical style of interior design and architecture, as practiced by the three Adam brothers from Scotland; of whom Robert Adam and James Adam were the most widely known.The Adam brothers were the first to advocate an integrated style for architecture and...

", and his theory of "movement" in architecture, based on his studies of antiquity and became one of the most successful and fashionable architects in the country. Adam held the post of Architect of the Kings Works
Office of Works
The Office of Works was established in the English Royal household in 1378 to oversee the building of the royal castles and residences. In 1832 it became the Works Department within the Office of Woods, Forests, Land Revenues, Works and Buildings...

 from 1761 to 1769.

Robert Adam was leader of the first phase of the classical revival in England and Scotland from around 1760 until his death. He influenced the development of Western architecture, both in Europe and in North America
Architecture of the United States
The architecture of the United States demonstrates a broad variety of architectural styles and built forms over the country's history of over four centuries....

. Adam designed interiors and fittings as well as houses.

Early life

Adam was born at Gladney House in Kirkcaldy
Kirkcaldy
Kirkcaldy is a town and former royal burgh in Fife, on the east coast of Scotland. The town lies on a shallow bay on the northern shore of the Firth of Forth; SSE of Glenrothes, ENE of Dunfermline, WSW of Dundee and NNE of Edinburgh...

, Fife
Fife
Fife is a council area and former county of Scotland. It is situated between the Firth of Tay and the Firth of Forth, with inland boundaries to Perth and Kinross and Clackmannanshire...

, although the family moved to Edinburgh later that same year. As a child he was noted as having a "feeble constitution". From the age of six Adam attended the Royal High School, Edinburgh where he learned Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 until he was fifteen. In autumn 1743 he matriculated at Edinburgh University, and attended classes including mathematics, taught by Colin Maclaurin
Colin Maclaurin
Colin Maclaurin was a Scottish mathematician who made important contributions to geometry and algebra. The Maclaurin series, a special case of the Taylor series, are named after him....

, and anatomy, taught by Alexander Monro primus
Alexander Monro (primus)
Alexander Monro was the founder of Edinburgh Medical School. To distinguish him as the first of three generations of physicians of the same name, he is known as primus....

. His studies were interrupted by the arrival of Bonnie Prince Charlie and his Highlanders, who occupied Edinburgh during the 1745 Jacobite rising
Jacobite Rising of 1745
The Jacobite rising of 1745, often referred to as "The 'Forty-Five," was the attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the British throne for the exiled House of Stuart. The rising occurred during the War of the Austrian Succession when most of the British Army was on the European continent...

. At the end of the year, Robert fell seriously ill for some months, and it seems unlikely that he returned to university, having completed only two years of study.

On his recovery from illness in 1746, he joined his elder brother John as apprentice to his father. He assisted William Adam on projects such as the building of Inveraray Castle
Inveraray Castle
Inveraray Castle is an estate house near Inveraray in Argyll in western Scotland.It is the seat of the Duke of Argyll and a Category A listed building.-Ghosts:...

 and the continuing extensions of Hopetoun House
Hopetoun House
Hopetoun House is the traditional residence of the Earl of Hopetoun . It was built 1699-1701, designed by William Bruce. It was then hugely extended from 1721 by William Adam until his death in 1748 being one of his most notable projects. The interior was completed by his sons John Adam and Robert...

. William's position as Master Mason to the Board of Ordnance also began to generate much work, as the Highlands were fortified following the failed Jacobite revolt. Robert's early ambition was to be an artist rather than architect, and the style of his early sketches in the manner of Salvator Rosa
Salvator Rosa
Salvator Rosa was an Italian Baroque painter, poet and printmaker, active in Naples, Rome and Florence. As a painter, he is best known as an "unorthodox and extravagant" and a "perpetual rebel" proto-Romantic.-Early life:...

 are reflected in his earliest surviving architectural drawings, which show picturesque gothic
Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

 follies
Folly
In architecture, a folly is a building constructed primarily for decoration, but either suggesting by its appearance some other purpose, or merely so extravagant that it transcends the normal range of garden ornaments or other class of building to which it belongs...

. William Adam died in June 1748, and left Dowhill, a part of the Blair Adam estate which included a tower house
Tower house
A tower house is a particular type of stone structure, built for defensive purposes as well as habitation.-History:Tower houses began to appear in the Middle Ages, especially in mountain or limited access areas, in order to command and defend strategic points with reduced forces...

, to Robert.

Architectural practice in Edinburgh

On William Adam's death, John Adam inherited both the family business and the position of Master Mason to the Board of Ordnance. He immediately took Robert into partnership, later to be joined by James Adam. The Adam Brothers' first major commission was the decoration of the grand state apartments on the first floor at Hopetoun House, followed by their first "new build" at Dumfries House
Dumfries House
Dumfries House is a Palladian country house in Ayrshire, Scotland. It is located within a large estate, around 3 km west of Cumnock. It was built in the 1750s by John Adam and Robert Adam for William Dalrymple, 5th Earl of Dumfries, and inherited in due course by the Marquesses of Bute, in...

. For the Board of Ordnance, the brothers were the main contractor at Fort George
Fort George, Highland
Fort George , is a large 18th century fortress near Ardersier, to the north-east of Inverness in the Highland council area of Scotland. It was built to pacify the Scottish Highlands in the aftermath of the Jacobite rising of 1745, replacing an earlier Fort George built with the same aim after the...

, a large modern fort near Inverness
Inverness
Inverness is a city in the Scottish Highlands. It is the administrative centre for the Highland council area, and is regarded as the capital of the Highlands of Scotland...

 designed by military engineer
Military engineer
In military science, engineering refers to the practice of designing, building, maintaining and dismantling military works, including offensive, defensive and logistical structures, to shape the physical operating environment in war...

 Colonel Skinner. Visits to this project, begun in 1750, would occupy the brothers every summer for the next ten years, and, along with works at many other barracks and forts, provided Robert with a solid foundation in practical building.

In the winter of 1749–1750, Adam travelled to London with his friend, the poet John Home
John Home
John Home was a Scottish poet and dramatist.-Biography:He was born at Leith, near Edinburgh, where his father, Alexander Home, a distant relation of the earls of Home, was town clerk. John was educated at the Leith Grammar School, and at the University of Edinburgh, where he graduated MA, in 1742...

. He took the opportunity for architectural study, visiting Wilton
Wilton House
Wilton House is an English country house situated at Wilton near Salisbury in Wiltshire. It has been the country seat of the Earls of Pembroke for over 400 years....

, designed by Inigo Jones
Inigo Jones
Inigo Jones is the first significant British architect of the modern period, and the first to bring Italianate Renaissance architecture to England...

, and the Queens Hermitage in Richmond by Roger Morris. His sketchbook of the trip also shows a continuing interest in gothic architecture.

Among his friends at Edinburgh were the philosophers Adam Ferguson
Adam Ferguson
Adam Ferguson FRSE, also known as Ferguson of Raith was a Scottish philosopher, social scientist and historian of the Scottish Enlightenment...

 & David Hume
David Hume
David Hume was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, known especially for his philosophical empiricism and skepticism. He was one of the most important figures in the history of Western philosophy and the Scottish Enlightenment...

 and the artist Paul Sandby
Paul Sandby
Paul Sandby was an English map-maker turned landscape painter in watercolours, who, along with his older brother Thomas, became one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768.-Life and work:...

 whom he met in the Highlands. Other Edinburgh acquaintances included Gilbert Elliot, William Wilkie
William Wilkie
William Wilkie was a Scottish poet. The son of a farmer, he was born in West Lothian and educated at Edinburgh. In 1757 he published the Epigoniad, dealing with the Epigoni, sons of the seven heroes who fought against Thebes. He also wrote Moral Fables in Verse. In 1756 he entered the Church,...

, John Home and Alexander Wedderburn.

Grand Tour

In 1754, Robert Adam set off for Europe on the Grand Tour
Grand Tour
The Grand Tour was the traditional trip of Europe undertaken by mainly upper-class European young men of means. The custom flourished from about 1660 until the advent of large-scale rail transit in the 1840s, and was associated with a standard itinerary. It served as an educational rite of passage...

 of France and Italy, in the company of Charles Hope-Weir
Charles Hope-Weir
The Hon. Charles Hope-Weir was a Scottish politician.Born The Hon. Charles Hope, he was the second son of Charles Hope, 1st Earl of Hopetoun and Lady Henrietta Johnstone, daughter of William Johnstone, 1st Marquess of Annandale...

, brother of the Earl of Hopetoun
John Hope, 2nd Earl of Hopetoun
John Hope, 2nd Earl of Hopetoun was the son of Charles Hope, 1st Earl of Hopetoun and Lady Henrietta Johnstone....

. Hope agreed to take Adam on the tour at the suggestion of his uncle, the Marquess of Annandale, who had undertaken the Grand Tour himself. Adam met Hope-Weir in France, and they travelled on to Italy together, before falling out in Rome over travelling expenses and accommodation. Robert Adam stayed on in Rome until 1757, studying classical architecture and honing his drawing skills. His tutors included the French architect and artist Charles-Louis Clérisseau
Charles-Louis Clérisseau
Charles-Louis Clérisseau was a French architectural draughtsman, antiquary and artist. He had a role in the genesis of neoclassical architecture during the second half of the 18th century....

, and the Italian artist Giovanni Battista Piranesi
Giovanni Battista Piranesi
Giovanni Battista Piranesi was an Italian artist famous for his etchings of Rome and of fictitious and atmospheric "prisons" .-His Life:...

. Here, he became acquainted with the work of the pioneering classical archaeologist and art historian, theorist Johann Joachim Winckelmann
Johann Joachim Winckelmann
Johann Joachim Winckelmann was a German art historian and archaeologist. He was a pioneering Hellenist who first articulated the difference between Greek, Greco-Roman and Roman art...

. On his return journey, Adam and Clerisseau spent time intensively studying the ruins of Diocletian's Palace
Diocletian's Palace
Diocletian's Palace is a building in Split, Croatia, that was built by the Roman emperor Diocletian at the turn of the fourth century AD.Diocletian built the massive palace in preparation for his retirement on 1 May 305 AD. It lies in a bay on the south side of a short peninsula running out from...

 at Spalato in Dalmatia
Dalmatia
Dalmatia is a historical region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. It stretches from the island of Rab in the northwest to the Bay of Kotor in the southeast. The hinterland, the Dalmatian Zagora, ranges from fifty kilometers in width in the north to just a few kilometers in the south....

 (now known as Split
Split (city)
Split is a Mediterranean city on the eastern shores of the Adriatic Sea, centered around the ancient Roman Palace of the Emperor Diocletian and its wide port bay. With a population of 178,192 citizens, and a metropolitan area numbering up to 467,899, Split is by far the largest Dalmatian city and...

, in modern Croatia
Croatia
Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

). These studies were later published as Ruins of the Palace of the Emperor Diocletian at Spalatro in Dalmatia in 1764.

Architectural practice in London

He returned to Great Britain in 1758 and set up in business in London with his brother James Adam. They focused on designing complete schemes for the decoration and furnishing of houses. Palladian
Palladian architecture
Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from the designs of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio . The term "Palladian" normally refers to buildings in a style inspired by Palladio's own work; that which is recognised as Palladian architecture today is an evolution of...

 design was popular, and Robert designed a number of country houses in this style, but Robert evolved a new, more flexible style incorporating elements of classical Roman
Roman architecture
Ancient Roman architecture adopted certain aspects of Ancient Greek architecture, creating a new architectural style. The Romans were indebted to their Etruscan neighbors and forefathers who supplied them with a wealth of knowledge essential for future architectural solutions, such as hydraulics...

 design alongside influences from Greek
Architecture of Ancient Greece
The architecture of Ancient Greece is the architecture produced by the Greek-speaking people whose culture flourished on the Greek mainland and Peloponnesus, the Aegean Islands, and in colonies in Asia Minor and Italy for a period from about 900 BC until the 1st century AD, with the earliest...

, Byzantine
Byzantine architecture
Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire. The empire gradually emerged as a distinct artistic and cultural entity from what is today referred to as the Roman Empire after AD 330, when the Roman Emperor Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire east from Rome to...

 and Baroque
Baroque architecture
Baroque architecture is a term used to describe the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late sixteenth century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church and...

 styles. The Adam brothers' success can also be attributed to a desire to design everything down to the smallest detail, ensuring a sense of unity in their design.

Public life

Adam was elected a member of the Royal Society of Arts
Royal Society of Arts
The Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufacturers and Commerce is a British multi-disciplinary institution, based in London. The name Royal Society of Arts is frequently used for brevity...

 in 1758 and of the Society of Antiquaries
Society of Antiquaries of London
The Society of Antiquaries of London is a learned society "charged by its Royal Charter of 1751 with 'the encouragement, advancement and furtherance of the study and knowledge of the antiquities and history of this and other countries'." It is based at Burlington House, Piccadilly, London , and is...

 in 1761, the same year he was appointed Architect of the King’s Works
Office of Works
The Office of Works was established in the English Royal household in 1378 to oversee the building of the royal castles and residences. In 1832 it became the Works Department within the Office of Woods, Forests, Land Revenues, Works and Buildings...

 (jointly with Sir William Chambers). His younger brother James succeeded him in this post when he relinquished the role in 1768 in order to devote more time to his elected office as Member of Parliament for Kinross-shire
Clackmannanshire and Kinross-shire (UK Parliament constituency)
Clackmannanshire and Kinross-shire were constituencies of the House of Commons of Great Britain from 1708 to 1801 and of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1918....

.

Architectural style

Robert Adam rejected the Palladian style, as introduced to England by Inigo Jones
Inigo Jones
Inigo Jones is the first significant British architect of the modern period, and the first to bring Italianate Renaissance architecture to England...

, and advocated by Lord Burlington, as "ponderous" and "disgustful". However, he continued their tradition of drawing inspiration directly from classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world...

, during his four-year stay in Europe. Through the adoption of classical motifs, Adam developed a new style of architectural decoration.

The Adam brothers' principle of "movement" was largely Robert's conception, although the theory was first written down by James. "Movement" relied on dramatic contrasts and diversity of form, and drew on the picturesque
Picturesque
Picturesque is an aesthetic ideal introduced into English cultural debate in 1782 by William Gilpin in Observations on the River Wye, and Several Parts of South Wales, etc. Relative Chiefly to Picturesque Beauty; made in the Summer of the Year 1770, a practical book which instructed England's...

 aesthetic. The first volume of the Adam brother's Works (1773) cited Kedleston Hall
Kedleston Hall
Kedleston Hall is an English country house in Kedleston, Derbyshire, approximately four miles north-west of Derby, and is the seat of the Curzon family whose name originates in Notre-Dame-de-Courson in Normandy...

, designed by Robert in 1761, as an outstanding example of movement in architecture.

By contrasting room sizes and decorative schemes, Adam applied the concept of movement to his interiors also. His style of decoration, described by Pevsner as "Classical Rococo
Rococo
Rococo , also referred to as "Late Baroque", is an 18th-century style which developed as Baroque artists gave up their symmetry and became increasingly ornate, florid, and playful...

", drew on Roman "grotesque
Grotesque
The word grotesque comes from the same Latin root as "Grotto", meaning a small cave or hollow. The original meaning was restricted to an extravagant style of Ancient Roman decorative art rediscovered and then copied in Rome at the end of the 15th century...

" stucco
Stucco
Stucco or render is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water. Stucco is applied wet and hardens to a very dense solid. It is used as decorative coating for walls and ceilings and as a sculptural and artistic material in architecture...

 decoration.

Influence

Robert Adam's work had influenced the direction of architecture across the western world. In North America, the Federal style owes much to neoclassicism as practised by Adam. In Europe, Adam notably influenced Charles Cameron
Charles Cameron (architect)
Charles Cameron was a Scottish architect who made an illustrious career at the court of Catherine II of Russia. Cameron, practitioner of early neoclassical architecture, was the chief architect of Tsarskoye Selo and Pavlovsk palaces and the adjacent new town of Sophia from his arrival in Russia in...

, the Scotsman who designed Tsarskoye Selo
Tsarskoye Selo
Tsarskoye Selo is the town containing a former Russian residence of the imperial family and visiting nobility, located south from the center of St. Petersburg. It is now part of the town of Pushkin and of the World Heritage Site Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments.-History:In...

 and other Russian palaces for Catherine the Great. However, by the time of his death, Adam's neoclassicism was being superseded in Britain by a more severe, Greek phase of the classical revival, as practiced by James "Athenian" Stuart
James Stuart (1713-1788)
James "Athenian" Stuart was an English archaeologist, architect and artist best known for his central role in pioneering Neoclassicism.-Early life:...

. The Adam brothers employed several draughtsmen who would go on to establish themselves as architects, including George Richardson
George Richardson (architect)
George Richardson was a Scottish architectural and decorative draftsman and writer on architecture.One of his few remaining architectural works is St Mary Magdalene's Church at Stapleford, Leicestershire, built in 1783 for the Earl of Harborough.His main output, however, was in the form of books...

, and the Italian Joseph Bonomi
Joseph Bonomi the Elder
Joseph Bonomi the Elder was an Italian architect and draughtsman notable for his activity in England.Born in Rome, he made his early reputation there, then moved to London in 1767....

, who Robert originally hired in Rome.

Written works

During their lifetime Robert and James Adam published two volumes of their designs, Works in Architecture of Robert and James Adam (in 1773-1778 and 1779; a third volume was published posthumously, in 1822).

Death and burial

Adam had long suffered from stomach and bowel problems, probably caused by a Peptic ulcer
Peptic ulcer
A peptic ulcer, also known as PUD or peptic ulcer disease, is the most common ulcer of an area of the gastrointestinal tract that is usually acidic and thus extremely painful. It is defined as mucosal erosions equal to or greater than 0.5 cm...

 and Irritable bowel syndrome
Irritable bowel syndrome
Irritable bowel syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion. It is a functional bowel disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain, discomfort, bloating, and alteration of bowel habits in the absence of any detectable organic cause. In some cases, the symptoms are relieved by bowel movements...

. While at home 11 Albermarle Street, London, on 1 March 1792 one of the ulcers burst, on 3 March Adam died.

The funeral was held on 10 March, he was buried in the south aisle of Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, popularly known as Westminster Abbey, is a large, mainly Gothic church, in the City of Westminster, London, United Kingdom, located just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English,...

. The pall-bearers were several of his clients: Henry Scott, 3rd Duke of Buccleuch
Henry Scott, 3rd Duke of Buccleuch
Henry Scott, 3rd Duke of Buccleuch and 5th Duke of Queensberry KG KT FRSE was a Scottish nobleman and long-time friend of the notable Sir Walter Scott...

; George Coventry, 6th Earl of Coventry
George Coventry, 6th Earl of Coventry
George William Coventry, 6th Earl of Coventry , known as Viscount Deerhurst from 1744 to 1751, was a British peer and Tory politician....

; James Maitland, 8th Earl of Lauderdale
James Maitland, 8th Earl of Lauderdale
James Maitland, 8th Earl of Lauderdale KT PC was Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland, and a representative peer for Scotland in the House of Lords.-Early years:...

; David Murray, 2nd Earl of Mansfield
David Murray, 2nd Earl of Mansfield
David Murray, 2nd Earl of Mansfield KT, PC , known from 1748 to 1793 as The Viscount Stormont, was a British politician. He succeeded to both the Mansfield and Stormont lines of the Murray family, inheriting two titles and two fortunes.-Life:Mansfield was the son of David Murray, 6th Viscount of...

; Lord Frederick Campbell and Sir William Pulteney, 5th Baronet.

Knowing he was dying, he draft his will on 2 March 1792, having never married, Adam left his estate to his sisters Elizabeth Adam and Margaret Adam.

He left nearly 9,000 drawings, most of which were subsequently purchased by the architect John Soane
John Soane
Sir John Soane, RA was an English architect who specialised in the Neo-Classical style. His architectural works are distinguished by their clean lines, massing of simple form, decisive detailing, careful proportions and skilful use of light sources...

 and are now at the Soane Museum in London.

Public buildings

  • Fort George, Scotland, the buildings within the fort were designed by William Adam, after his death his sons oversaw completion (1748–69)
  • The Argyll Arms, Inveraray
    Inveraray
    Inveraray is a royal burgh in Argyll and Bute, Scotland. It is on the western shore of Loch Fyne, near its head, and on the A83 road. It is the traditional county town of Argyll and ancestral home to the Duke of Argyll.-Coat of arms:...

     (1750–56)
  • The Town House, Inveraray (1750–57)
  • Edinburgh City Chambers, (1753–54)
  • Screen in front of the Old Admiralty, Whitehall
    Whitehall
    Whitehall is a road in Westminster, in London, England. It is the main artery running north from Parliament Square, towards Charing Cross at the southern end of Trafalgar Square...

    , London (1760)
  • Kedleston Hotel, Quarndon
    Quarndon
    Quarndon is a linear village in the English county of Derbyshire.It is due north of, and essentially contiguous with, the City of Derby's suburb of Allestree. Formerly it was notable for its chalybeate springs that were at the well and in the grounds of neighbouring Kedleston Hall...

     (1760)
  • Little Market Hall, High Wycombe
    High Wycombe
    High Wycombe , commonly known as Wycombe and formally called Chepping Wycombe or Chipping Wycombe until 1946,is a large town in Buckinghamshire, England. It is west-north-west of Charing Cross in London; this figure is engraved on the Corn Market building in the centre of the town...

    , Buckinghamshire (1761) later altered
  • Riding School, Edinburgh (1763) demolished
  • Courts of Justice and Corn Market, Hertford
    Hertford
    Hertford is the county town of Hertfordshire, England, and is also a civil parish in the East Hertfordshire district of the county. Forming a civil parish, the 2001 census put the population of Hertford at about 24,180. Recent estimates are that it is now around 28,000...

    , Hertfordshire, now Shire Hall (1768)
  • Pulteney Bridge
    Pulteney Bridge
    Pulteney Bridge is a bridge that crosses the River Avon, in Bath, England. It was completed in 1773 and is designated by English Heritage as a grade I listed building....

    , Bath (1770)
  • County House, Kinross
    Kinross
    Kinross is a burgh in Perth and Kinross, Scotland. It was formerly the county town of Kinross-shire.Kinross is a fairly small town, with some attractive buildings...

     (1771)
  • Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures & Commerce (1772)
  • Register House, Edinburgh (1774–1789)
  • The Market Cross, Bury St Edmunds, refaced and upper floor added (a theatre now art gallery) (1775)
  • Theatre Royal, Drury Lane
    Theatre Royal, Drury Lane
    The Theatre Royal, Drury Lane is a West End theatre in Covent Garden, in the City of Westminster, a borough of London. The building faces Catherine Street and backs onto Drury Lane. The building standing today is the most recent in a line of four theatres at the same location dating back to 1663,...

    , London, remodelled, (1775) demolished
  • Red Lion Inn, Pontefract
    Pontefract
    Pontefract is an historic market town in West Yorkshire, England. Traditionally in the West Riding, near the A1 , the M62 motorway and Castleford. It is one of the five towns in the metropolitan borough of the City of Wakefield and has a population of 28,250...

     (1776)
  • Drummonds Bank
    Drummonds Bank
    Messrs. Drummond is an English private banking house founded in 1717 by goldsmith Andrew Drummond . Drummonds Bank was owned by the Drummond family until 1924, when it was taken over by the Royal Bank of Scotland in its first acquisition south of the border.The bank offers a variety of services to...

    , Charing Cross
    Charing Cross
    Charing Cross denotes the junction of Strand, Whitehall and Cockspur Street, just south of Trafalgar Square in central London, England. It is named after the now demolished Eleanor cross that stood there, in what was once the hamlet of Charing. The site of the cross is now occupied by an equestrian...

    , London (1777–78) demolished
  • Old College, University of Edinburgh
    Old College, University of Edinburgh
    Old College is a building of the University of Edinburgh. It is located on South Bridge, and presently houses parts of the University's administration, the University of Edinburgh School of Law, and the Talbot Rice Gallery...

    , (1788-onwards) completed to an amended design by William Henry Playfair
    William Henry Playfair
    William Henry Playfair FRSE was one of the greatest Scottish architects of the 19th century, designer of many of Edinburgh's neo-classical landmarks in the New Town....

     1831
  • The Bridewell, Edinburgh, (1791) demolished
  • The Assembly Rooms, Glasgow (1791–94) demolished
  • Trades Hall
    Trades Hall
    A Trades Hall is an English term for a building where trade unions meet together, or work from cooperatively, as a local representative organisation, known as a Labor Council or Trades Hall Council...

    , Glasgow, Scotland (1791–1792) (completed 1792-1802 by his brothers)
  • The Royal Infirmary
    Glasgow Royal Infirmary
    The Glasgow Royal Infirmary is a large teaching hospital, operated by NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde,. With a capacity of around 1000 beds, the hospital campus covers an area of around 20 acres, situated on the north-eastern edge of the city centre of Glasgow, Scotland.-History:Designed by Robert...

    , Glasgow (1791–94) rebuilt 1914


Churches

  • Yester Chapel
    Yester Chapel
    Yester Chapel is situated on the estate of Yester House, at the south-east edge of the village of Gifford in East Lothian, Scotland. The chapel is situated at .- History :...

    , Lothian, new west front in Gothic style (1753)
  • Cumnock
    Cumnock
    Cumnock is a town in East Ayrshire, Scotland. The town sits at the confluence of the Glaisnock Water and the Lugar Water...

     church, Ayrshire (1753-4) demolished
  • St. Mary Magdalene, Croome Park
    Croome Park
    Croome is an 18th century landscape park, garden and mansion house in south Worcestershire designed by Lancelot 'Capability' Brown with some features by Robert Adam. The park and garden are owned by the National Trust. The mansion house, Croome Court, was purchased by the Croome Heritage Trust and...

    , interior (1761–63) the church was designed by Lancelot "Capability" Brown
  • St. Andrew's Church, Gunton Hall, Gunton
    St Andrew's Church, Gunton
    St Andrew's Church, Gunton, is a redundant Anglican church adjacent to Gunton Hall, in the parish of Hanworth, Norfolk, England. It has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building, and is under the care of the Churches Conservation Trust. The church stands in woodland to...

    , Norfolk
    Norfolk
    Norfolk is a low-lying county in the East of England. It has borders with Lincolnshire to the west, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest and Suffolk to the south. Its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea coast and to the north-west the county is bordered by The Wash. The county...

     (1769)
  • St Mary's, Mistley
    Mistley Towers
    Mistley Towers are the twin towers of the now demolished Church of St. Mary the Virgin at Mistley in Essex. The original Georgian parish church on the site had been built in classical style early in the 18th century following the death of Richard Rigby Esquire...

     (1776) only the towers survive
  • St. George's Chapel, Edinburgh, (1792) demolished


Mausoleums

  • William Adam Mausoleum, Greyfriars Kirkyard
    Greyfriars Kirkyard
    Greyfriars Kirkyard is the graveyard surrounding Greyfriars Kirk in Edinburgh, Scotland. It is located at the southern edge of the Old Town, adjacent to George Heriot's School. Burials have been taking place since the late 16th century, and a number of notable Edinburgh residents are interred at...

     (1753–55)
  • Bowood House
    Bowood House
    Bowood is a grade I listed Georgian country house with interiors by Robert Adam and a garden designed by Lancelot "Capability" Brown. It is adjacent to the village of Derry Hill, halfway between Calne and Chippenham in Wiltshire, England...

     Mausoleum (1761–64)
  • David Hume
    David Hume
    David Hume was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, known especially for his philosophical empiricism and skepticism. He was one of the most important figures in the history of Western philosophy and the Scottish Enlightenment...

     Mausoleum, Old Calton Cemetery
    Old Calton Cemetery
    Old Calton Cemetery is a graveyard in Edinburgh, Scotland. It is located on Calton Hill, to the north-east of the city centre. The burial ground was opened in 1718, and is the resting place of several notable Edinburgh persons, including philosopher David Hume, publisher William Blackwood and...

     (1777–78)
  • Templetown Mausoleum, Castle Upton
    Castle Upton
    Castle Upton is a castle situated in the village of Templepatrick, County Antrim, Northern Ireland. One side of the main street in the village of Templepatrick consists of the demesne wall of Castle Upton. A fortified gateway in the wall at the centre of the village leads up to the castle...

    , County Antrim
    County Antrim
    County Antrim is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland, situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland. Adjoined to the north-east shore of Lough Neagh, the county covers an area of 2,844 km², with a population of approximately 616,000...

     Ireland (1789) for 2nd.Lord Templetown.
  • Johnstone Family Mausoleum, Ochil Road graveyard, Alva, Clackmannanshire
    Alva, Clackmannanshire
    Alva is a small town in Clackmannanshire, set in the Central Lowlands of Scotland. It is one of a number of towns situated immediately to the south of the Ochil Hills, collectively referred to as the Hillfoots Villages or simply The Hillfoots...

     (1789–90)
  • Johnstone Family Mausoleum, Westerkirk graveyard, near Bentpath, Dumfries and Galloway
    Dumfries and Galloway
    Dumfries and Galloway is one of 32 unitary council areas of Scotland. It was one of the nine administrative 'regions' of mainland Scotland created in 1975 by the Local Government etc. Act 1973...

     1790


Urban domestic work

  • Little Wallingford House, Whitehall
    Whitehall
    Whitehall is a road in Westminster, in London, England. It is the main artery running north from Parliament Square, towards Charing Cross at the southern end of Trafalgar Square...

    , London, alterations (1761) demolished
  • Lansdowne House
    Lansdowne House
    Lansdowne House is a building to the southwest of Berkeley Square in central London, England. It was designed by Robert Adam as a private house and for most of its time as a residence it belonged to the Petty family, Marquesses of Lansdowne. Since 1935, it has been the home of the Lansdowne Club....

    , Berkeley Square
    Berkeley Square
    Berkeley Square is a town square in the West End of London, England, in the City of Westminster. It was originally laid out in the mid 18th century by architect William Kent...

    , London (1762–67), partially demolished, the Dining Room is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art
    Metropolitan Museum of Art
    The Metropolitan Museum of Art is a renowned art museum in New York City. Its permanent collection contains more than two million works, divided into nineteen curatorial departments. The main building, located on the eastern edge of Central Park along Manhattan's Museum Mile, is one of the...

     and the Drawing Room is in Philadelphia Museum of Art
    Philadelphia Museum of Art
    The Philadelphia Museum of Art is among the largest art museums in the United States. It is located at the west end of the Benjamin Franklin Parkway in Philadelphia's Fairmount Park. The Museum was established in 1876 in conjunction with the Centennial Exposition of the same year...

  • 34 Pall Mall, London
    Pall Mall, London
    Pall Mall is a street in the City of Westminster, London, and parallel to The Mall, from St. James's Street across Waterloo Place to the Haymarket; while Pall Mall East continues into Trafalgar Square. The street is a major thoroughfare in the St James's area of London, and a section of the...

     (1765–66) demolished
  • Langford House, Mary Street, Dublin, Ireland.(1765) Remodelling of house for Rt. Hon. Hercules Langford Rowley. Demolished 1931.
  • 16 Hanover Square, London
    Hanover Square, London
    Hanover Square, London, is a square in Mayfair, London W1, England, situated to the south west of Oxford Circus, the major junction where Oxford Street meets Regent Street....

    , alterations (1766–67) demolished
  • Deputy Ranger's lodge, Green Park
    Green Park
    -External links:*...

    , London (1768–71) demolished in the 19th century
  • The Adelphi
    Adelphi, London
    Adelphi is a district of London, England in the City of Westminster. The small district includes the streets of Adelphi Terrace, Robert Street and John Adam Street.-Adelphi Buildings:...

     development, London (1768–1775) mostly demolished 1930s, a ceiling & fireplace are in the Victoria and Albert Museum
    Victoria and Albert Museum
    The Victoria and Albert Museum , set in the Brompton district of The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, London, England, is the world's largest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4.5 million objects...

  • Chandos House
    Chandos House
    Chandos House is a grade I listed building at no.2 Queen Anne Street, Marylebone, in central London. It was designed by Robert Adam, the most prominent architect in Georgian Britain, and built by William Adam and Company. It is seen as the first of a series of large townhouses in London including...

    , London (1770–71)
  • Mansfield Street, London (1770–72)
  • Northumberland House
    Northumberland House
    Northumberland House was a large Jacobean mansion in London, which was so called because for most of its history it was the London residence of the Percy family, who were the Earls and later Dukes of Northumberland, and one of England's richest and most prominent aristocratic dynasties for many...

    , London, alterations (1770) demolished, parts of the Glass Drawing Room survive in the Victoria and Albert Museum
    Victoria and Albert Museum
    The Victoria and Albert Museum , set in the Brompton district of The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, London, England, is the world's largest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4.5 million objects...

  • 20 St. James's Square
    St. James's Square
    St. James's Square is the only square in the exclusive St James's district of the City of Westminster. It has predominantly Georgian and neo-Georgian architecture and a private garden in the centre...

     (1771–74)
  • 33 St. James's Square (1771–73)
  • Ashburnham House, Dover Street, London, alterations (1773)
  • Derby House, 23 Grosvenor Square
    Grosvenor Square
    Grosvenor Square is a large garden square in the exclusive Mayfair district of London, England. It is the centrepiece of the Mayfair property of the Duke of Westminster, and takes its name from their surname, "Grosvenor".-History:...

     (1773–74) demolished
  • Portland Place
    Portland Place
    Portland Place is a street in the Marylebone district of central London, England.-History and topography:The street was laid out by the brothers Robert and James Adam for the Duke of Portland in the late 18th century and originally ran north from the gardens of a detached mansion called Foley House...

    , London (1773–94) (only a few houses survive)
  • 11 St. James's Square (1774–76)
  • Frederick's Place, London (1775–78)
  • Roxburghe House, Hanover Square, London
    Hanover Square, London
    Hanover Square, London, is a square in Mayfair, London W1, England, situated to the south west of Oxford Circus, the major junction where Oxford Street meets Regent Street....

     (1776–78) demolished
  • Home House
    Home House
    Home House is a Georgian town house at 20 Portman Square, London. James Wyatt was appointed to design it by Elizabeth, Countess of Home in 1776, but by 1777 he had been sacked and replaced by Robert Adam. Elizabeth left the completed house on her death in 1784 to her nephew William Gale, who in...

    , London (1777-before 1784)
  • 31 (now 17) Hill Street, London alterations (1777–79)
  • Apsley House
    Apsley House
    Apsley House, also known as Number One, London, is the former London residence of the Dukes of Wellington. It stands alone at Hyde Park Corner, on the south-east corner of Hyde Park, facing south towards the busy traffic interchange and Wellington Arch...

    , London (1778) altered
  • Cumberland House
    Cumberland House
    Cumberland House was a mansion on the south side of Pall Mall in London, England. It was built in the 1760s by Matthew Brettingham for Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany and was originally called York House...

    , Pall Mall, London, alterations and interiors (1780–88) demolished
  • Marlborough House
    Marlborough House, Brighton
    Marlborough House is a mansion in Brighton on the south coast of England. It is a Grade I listed building. Located at 54 Old Steine, it was built as a red brick building circa 1765 for Samuel Shergold, a local hotelier...

    , Brighton
    Brighton
    Brighton is the major part of the city of Brighton and Hove in East Sussex, England on the south coast of Great Britain...

     (1786)
  • Fitzroy Square
    Fitzroy Square
    Fitzroy Square is one of the Georgian squares in London and is the only one found in the central London area known as in Fitzrovia.The square, nearby Fitzroy Street and the Fitzroy Tavern in Charlotte Street have the family name of Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Grafton, into whose ownership the land...

    , London (1790–94) only the south and east sides were built
  • Charlotte Square
    Charlotte Square
    Charlotte Square is a city square in Edinburgh, Scotland, part of the New Town, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The square is located at the west end of George Street, intended to mirror St. Andrew Square in the east.-History:Initially named St...

     (north side), Edinburgh (1791–94)
  • 169-185 High Street, Glasgow (1793) demolished


Country houses with major work

  • Dumfries House
    Dumfries House
    Dumfries House is a Palladian country house in Ayrshire, Scotland. It is located within a large estate, around 3 km west of Cumnock. It was built in the 1750s by John Adam and Robert Adam for William Dalrymple, 5th Earl of Dumfries, and inherited in due course by the Marquesses of Bute, in...

    , Ayrshire (1754–1759)
  • Paxton House, near Berwick-upon-Tweed
    Berwick-upon-Tweed
    Berwick-upon-Tweed or simply Berwick is a town in the county of Northumberland and is the northernmost town in England, on the east coast at the mouth of the River Tweed. It is situated 2.5 miles south of the Scottish border....

     (1758)
  • Shardeloes
    Shardeloes
    Shardeloes is a large 18th century country house located one mile northwest of Amersham in Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom. . A previous manor house on the site was demolished and the present building constructed between 1758 and 1766 for William Drake, the Member of Parliament for Amersham.-Design...

    , Amersham
    Amersham
    Amersham is a market town and civil parish within Chiltern district in Buckinghamshire, England, 27 miles north west of London, in the Chiltern Hills. It is part of the London commuter belt....

    , Buckinghamshire
    Buckinghamshire
    Buckinghamshire is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan home county in South East England. The county town is Aylesbury, the largest town in the ceremonial county is Milton Keynes and largest town in the non-metropolitan county is High Wycombe....

     (altered and completed the original design by Stiff Leadbetter
    Stiff Leadbetter
    Stiff Leadbetter was a British architect and builder, one of the most successful architect–builders of the 1750s and 1760s, working for many leading aristocratic families.- Career :...

    ) (1759–63)
  • Harewood House
    Harewood House
    Harewood House is a country house located in Harewood , near Leeds, West Yorkshire, England. It is a member of Treasure Houses of England, a marketing consortium for nine of the foremost stately homes in England...

    , West Yorkshire
    West Yorkshire
    West Yorkshire is a metropolitan county within the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England with a population of 2.2 million. West Yorkshire came into existence as a metropolitan county in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972....

     (1759–1771)
  • Kedleston Hall
    Kedleston Hall
    Kedleston Hall is an English country house in Kedleston, Derbyshire, approximately four miles north-west of Derby, and is the seat of the Curzon family whose name originates in Notre-Dame-de-Courson in Normandy...

    , near Derby
    Derby
    Derby , is a city and unitary authority in the East Midlands region of England. It lies upon the banks of the River Derwent and is located in the south of the ceremonial county of Derbyshire. In the 2001 census, the population of the city was 233,700, whilst that of the Derby Urban Area was 229,407...

     (1759–1765)
  • Mellerstain House
    Mellerstain House
    Mellerstain House is a stately home around 13 kilometres north of Kelso in the Borders, Scotland. It is currently the home of the 13th Earl of Haddington....

    , Kelso, Scottish Borders
    Scottish Borders
    The Scottish Borders is one of 32 local government council areas of Scotland. It is bordered by Dumfries and Galloway in the west, South Lanarkshire and West Lothian in the north west, City of Edinburgh, East Lothian, Midlothian to the north; and the non-metropolitan counties of Northumberland...

     (1760–1768)
  • Osterley Park
    Osterley Park
    Osterley Park is a mansion set in a large park of the same name. It is in the London Borough of Hounslow, part of the western suburbs of London. When the house was built it was surrounded by rural countryside. It was one of a group of large houses close to London which served as country retreats...

    , west London (1761–1780)
  • Mersham le Hatch, Mersham
    Mersham
    Mersham is a small village and civil parish, three miles east of Willesborough and the town of Ashford in the county of Kent.-History:Historically Mersham has been a farming community with close ties to the local market town of Ashford. The small village dates back to Saxon times and is mentioned...

    , Ashford
    Ashford, Kent
    Ashford is a town in the borough of Ashford in Kent, England. In 2005 it was voted the fourth best place to live in the United Kingdom. It lies on the Great Stour river, the M20 motorway, and the South Eastern Main Line and High Speed 1 railways. Its agricultural market is one of the most...

    , Kent
    Kent
    Kent is a county in southeast England, and is one of the home counties. It borders East Sussex, Surrey and Greater London and has a defined boundary with Essex in the middle of the Thames Estuary. The ceremonial county boundaries of Kent include the shire county of Kent and the unitary borough of...

     (1762–1766)
  • Syon House
    Syon House
    Syon House, with its 200-acre park, is situated in west London, England. It belongs to the Duke of Northumberland and is now his family's London residence...

     interior, Brentford
    Brentford
    Brentford is a suburban town in west London, England, and part of the London Borough of Hounslow. It is located at the confluence of the River Thames and the River Brent, west-southwest of Charing Cross. Its former ceremonial county was Middlesex.-Toponymy:...

     (1762–1769)
  • Luton Hoo
    Luton Hoo
    Luton Hoo straddles the Hertfordshire and Bedfordshire borders between the towns of Harpenden and Luton. The unusual name "Hoo" is a Saxon word meaning the spur of a hill, and is more commonly associated with East Anglia.- Early History :...

    , Bedfordshire
    Bedfordshire
    Bedfordshire is a ceremonial county of historic origin in England that forms part of the East of England region.It borders Cambridgeshire to the north-east, Northamptonshire to the north, Buckinghamshire to the west and Hertfordshire to the south-east....

     (1766–1770) later extensively reconstructed 1816 by Robert Smirke
    Robert Smirke (architect)
    Sir Robert Smirke was an English architect, one of the leaders of Greek Revival architecture his best known building in that style is the British Museum, though he also designed using other architectural styles...

     and other architects later
  • Nostell Priory
    Nostell Priory
    Nostell Priory is a Palladian house located in Nostell, near Crofton close to Wakefield, West Yorkshire, England, approached by the Doncaster road from Wakefield...

     (1766–80)
  • Newby Hall
    Newby Hall
    Newby Hall is an historic mansion house and Grade I listed building situated on the banks of the River Ure at Skelton-on-Ure, near Boroughbridge in North Yorkshire, England.-History:...

    , Newby Boroughbridge
    Boroughbridge
    Boroughbridge is a small town and civil parish in the Harrogate district of North Yorkshire, England. It is situated northwest of York. Until its bypass was built, it was on the main A1 road from London to Edinburgh...

    , North Yorkshire (1767–76)
  • Kenwood House
    Kenwood House
    Kenwood House is a former stately home, in Hampstead, London, on the northern boundary of Hampstead Heath. It is managed by English Heritage.-History:...

    , Hampstead
    Hampstead
    Hampstead is an area of London, England, north-west of Charing Cross. Part of the London Borough of Camden in Inner London, it is known for its intellectual, liberal, artistic, musical and literary associations and for Hampstead Heath, a large, hilly expanse of parkland...

    , London (1768)
  • Saltram House
    Saltram House
    Saltram House is a George II era mansion located in Plympton, Plymouth, England. The house that can be seen today is the work of Robert Adam, who altered the original Tudor house on two occasions. The saloon is sometimes cited as one of Adam's finest interiors...

    , Plymouth
    Plymouth
    Plymouth is a city and unitary authority area on the coast of Devon, England, about south-west of London. It is built between the mouths of the rivers Plym to the east and Tamar to the west, where they join Plymouth Sound...

    , Devon
    Devon
    Devon is a large county in southwestern England. The county is sometimes referred to as Devonshire, although the term is rarely used inside the county itself as the county has never been officially "shired", it often indicates a traditional or historical context.The county shares borders with...

     (1768–69)
  • Bowood House
    Bowood House
    Bowood is a grade I listed Georgian country house with interiors by Robert Adam and a garden designed by Lancelot "Capability" Brown. It is adjacent to the village of Derry Hill, halfway between Calne and Chippenham in Wiltshire, England...

    , near Calne
    Calne
    Calne is a town in Wiltshire, southwestern England. It is situated at the northwestern extremity of the North Wessex Downs hill range, a designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty....

    , Wiltshire
    Wiltshire
    Wiltshire is a ceremonial county in South West England. It is landlocked and borders the counties of Dorset, Somerset, Hampshire, Gloucestershire, Oxfordshire and Berkshire. It contains the unitary authority of Swindon and covers...

    , Diocletian wing, and other interiors (1770)
  • Wedderburn Castle
    Wedderburn Castle
    Wedderburn Castle, near Duns, Berwickshire, in the Scottish Borders, is an 18th century country house. It is the historic family seat of the Home of Wedderburn family, cadets of the Home family .-History:...

    , Duns
    Duns
    Duns is the county town of the historic county of Berwickshire, within the Scottish Borders.-Early history:Duns law, the original site of the town of Duns, has the remains of an Iron Age hillfort at its summit...

    , Berwickshire
    Berwickshire
    Berwickshire or the County of Berwick is a registration county, a committee area of the Scottish Borders Council, and a lieutenancy area of Scotland, on the border with England. The town after which it is named—Berwick-upon-Tweed—was lost by Scotland to England in 1482...

     (1770–1778)
  • Culzean Castle
    Culzean Castle
    Culzean Castle is a castle near Maybole, Carrick, on the Ayrshire coast of Scotland. It is the former home of the Marquess of Ailsa but is now owned by the National Trust for Scotland...

    , South Ayrshire (1772–1790)
  • Moreton Hall
    Moreton Hall (Suffolk)
    Moreton Hall is a Grade II* listed building in Bury St. Edmund's, a market town in the county of Suffolk, England. It was designed by the English architect Robert Adam and built in 1773 as a country house for John Symonds , a clergyman and Professor of Modern History at Cambridge University. The...

    , Suffolk (1773-1776), building and interiors
  • Stowe, Buckinghamshire
    Stowe, Buckinghamshire
    Stowe is a civil parish and former village about northwest of Buckingham in the Aylesbury Vale district of Buckinghamshire, England. The parish includes the hamlets of Boycott, Dadford and Lamport....

     (1774)
  • Pitfour Castle
    Pitfour Castle
    Pitfour Castle is an historic home in St Madoes in Scotland.-History:The design is attributed to Robert Adam and built in 1784.It was advertised for sale in July 1967 by the London estate agents, Ralph Pay, Lord and Ransom, with the following text :Pitfour Castle is an historic home in St Madoes in...

    , Tayside, attributed (c.1785-90)
  • Seton House, Lothian (1789)
  • Dalquharran Castle, South Ayrshire (1789–1792) now a ruin
  • Airthrey Castle
    Airthrey Castle
    Airthrey Castle is a historic building and estate which now forms part of the buildings and grounds of the University of Stirling in central Scotland....

    , Stirlingshire (1790–1791)
  • Balbardie House
    Balbardie House
    Balbardie House was a country house in West Lothian, Scotland, near to the town of Bathgate. Designed by Robert Adam, this great neoclassical mansion was demolished in two stages in 1954 and in 1975....

    , Lothian
    Lothian
    Lothian forms a traditional region of Scotland, lying between the southern shore of the Firth of Forth and the Lammermuir Hills....

     (1792) demolished
  • Gosford House
    Gosford House
    Gosford House is the family seat of the Charteris family and is situated near Longniddry in East Lothian, Scotland. It was recently the home of the late Rt. Hon. David Charteris, 12th Earl of Wemyss and 8th Earl of March, chief of the name and arms of Charteris.Gosford was built by the 7th Earl of...

    , near Longniddry
    Longniddry
    Longniddry is a village in East Lothian, Scotland, with a population of 2,613 .Longniddry is primarily a dormitory village for commuters to Edinburgh, with good transport links by road and rail to the capital...

    , East Lothian
    East Lothian
    East Lothian is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland, and a lieutenancy Area. It borders the City of Edinburgh, Scottish Borders and Midlothian. Its administrative centre is Haddington, although its largest town is Musselburgh....

     (1790–1800)


Garden buildings and follies

  • North Lodge, Kedleston Hall
    Kedleston Hall
    Kedleston Hall is an English country house in Kedleston, Derbyshire, approximately four miles north-west of Derby, and is the seat of the Curzon family whose name originates in Notre-Dame-de-Courson in Normandy...

     1759
  • Conservatory Croome Park
    Croome Park
    Croome is an 18th century landscape park, garden and mansion house in south Worcestershire designed by Lancelot 'Capability' Brown with some features by Robert Adam. The park and garden are owned by the National Trust. The mansion house, Croome Court, was purchased by the Croome Heritage Trust and...

     (1760)
  • Rotunda Croome Park
    Croome Park
    Croome is an 18th century landscape park, garden and mansion house in south Worcestershire designed by Lancelot 'Capability' Brown with some features by Robert Adam. The park and garden are owned by the National Trust. The mansion house, Croome Court, was purchased by the Croome Heritage Trust and...

    , attributed (1760)
  • Old Rectory, Kedleston Hall (c.1761)
  • Entrance screen, Moor Park, Hertfordshire
    Moor Park, Hertfordshire
    Moor Park Estate is a private residential estate in north-west London. The area borders Northwood, London and is part of the affluent suburb of Ruislip. It takes its name from Moor Park, a country house which was originally built in 1678–9 for James, Duke of Monmouth, and was reconstructed...

     (1763)
  • The Conservatory, Osterley Park
    Osterley Park
    Osterley Park is a mansion set in a large park of the same name. It is in the London Borough of Hounslow, part of the western suburbs of London. When the house was built it was surrounded by rural countryside. It was one of a group of large houses close to London which served as country retreats...

     (1763)
  • Bridge, Audley End House
    Audley End House
    Audley End House is largely an early 17th-century country house just outside Saffron Walden, Essex, south of Cambridge, England. It was once a palace in all but name and renowned as one of the finest Jacobean houses in England. Audley End is now only one-third of its original size, but is still...

    , Essex (c.1763-64)
  • Tea Pavilion, Moor Park, Hertfordshire (c.1764) demolished
  • Gatehouse Kimbolton Castle
    Kimbolton Castle
    Kimbolton Castle in Kimbolton, Cambridgeshire, is best known as the final home of King Henry VIII's first queen, Catherine of Aragon. Originally a medieval castle but converted into a stately palace, it was the family seat of the Dukes of Manchester from 1615 until 1950...

     (c.1764)
  • Bridge, Kedleston Hall 1764
  • Dunstall 'Castle' and Garden Alcove, Croome Park (1766)
  • Entrance arch, Croome Court (1767)
  • Bridge, Osterley Park (c.1768)
  • Entrance screen, Syon House
    Syon House
    Syon House, with its 200-acre park, is situated in west London, England. It belongs to the Duke of Northumberland and is now his family's London residence...

     (1769)
  • Fishing, Boat & Bath House, Kedleston Hall 1770-71
  • Circular Temple, Audley End House, Essex (1771)
  • Lion Bridge, Alnwick
    Alnwick
    Alnwick is a small market town in north Northumberland, England. The town's population was just over 8000 at the time of the 2001 census and Alnwick's district population was 31,029....

     (1773)
  • Stag Lodge, Saltram House, Devon (c.1773)
  • The Stables, Featherstone entrance & Huntwick arch Nostell Priory
    Nostell Priory
    Nostell Priory is a Palladian house located in Nostell, near Crofton close to Wakefield, West Yorkshire, England, approached by the Doncaster road from Wakefield...

     (1776)
  • Wyke Green Lodges, Osterley, Middlesex (1777) remodelled
  • the Home Farm, Culzean Castle
    Culzean Castle
    Culzean Castle is a castle near Maybole, Carrick, on the Ayrshire coast of Scotland. It is the former home of the Marquess of Ailsa but is now owned by the National Trust for Scotland...

    , Ayrshire (1777–79)
  • Brizlee Tower, Alnwick, Gothic tower (1777–81)
  • Oswald's Temple, Auchincruive
    Auchincruive
    Auchincruive is a former country house and estate in South Ayrshire, Scotland. It is located east of Ayr, on the north bank of the River Ayr. Auchincruive House was built in the 18th century on the site of an earlier mansion. In 1927 the estate became the West of Scotland College of Agriculture,...

    , Ayrshire (1778)
  • 'Ruined' arch and viaduct, Culzean Castle (1780)
  • The semi-circular conservatory, Osterley Park (1780)
  • Tea House Bridge, Audley End House, Essex (1782)
  • Stables, Castle Upton, Templepatrick, Co. Antrim, Ireland.(1788-9) Important range of office buildings in castle style.
  • Montagu Bridge, Dalkeith Palace
    Dalkeith Palace
    Dalkeith Palace in Dalkeith, Midlothian, Scotland, is the former seat of the Duke of Buccleuch.Dalkeith Castle was located to the north east of Dalkeith, and was originally in the hands of the Clan Graham in the 12th century and given to the Douglas family in the early 14th century. James Douglas...

    , Lothian (1792)
  • Loftus Hall, Fethard-on-sea, Co. Wexford, Ireland. Date unknown. Proposed gates.

Country houses with minor work

  • Hopetoun House
    Hopetoun House
    Hopetoun House is the traditional residence of the Earl of Hopetoun . It was built 1699-1701, designed by William Bruce. It was then hugely extended from 1721 by William Adam until his death in 1748 being one of his most notable projects. The interior was completed by his sons John Adam and Robert...

    , West Lothian (interiors) (1750–54), the house was designed by William Adam
  • Ballochmyle House, Ayrshire
    Ayrshire
    Ayrshire is a registration county, and former administrative county in south-west Scotland, United Kingdom, located on the shores of the Firth of Clyde. Its principal towns include Ayr, Kilmarnock and Irvine. The town of Troon on the coast has hosted the British Open Golf Championship twice in the...

     (c.1757-60)
  • Compton Verney House
    Compton Verney House
    Compton Verney House is an 18th century country mansion at Compton Verney near Kineton in Warwickshire which has been converted into the Compton Verney Art Gallery....

    , added the wings and interiors (1760–63)
  • Croome Park
    Croome Park
    Croome is an 18th century landscape park, garden and mansion house in south Worcestershire designed by Lancelot 'Capability' Brown with some features by Robert Adam. The park and garden are owned by the National Trust. The mansion house, Croome Court, was purchased by the Croome Heritage Trust and...

    , three interiors: the Library the fittings are in the Victoria and Albert Museum
    Victoria and Albert Museum
    The Victoria and Albert Museum , set in the Brompton district of The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, London, England, is the world's largest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4.5 million objects...

    , Gallery and Tapestry Room this is now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art
    Metropolitan Museum of Art
    The Metropolitan Museum of Art is a renowned art museum in New York City. Its permanent collection contains more than two million works, divided into nineteen curatorial departments. The main building, located on the eastern edge of Central Park along Manhattan's Museum Mile, is one of the...

    , (1760–65)
  • Audley End House
    Audley End House
    Audley End House is largely an early 17th-century country house just outside Saffron Walden, Essex, south of Cambridge, England. It was once a palace in all but name and renowned as one of the finest Jacobean houses in England. Audley End is now only one-third of its original size, but is still...

    , redecoration of ground floor rooms (1763–65)
  • Goldsborough Hall
    Goldsborough Hall
    Goldsborough Hall is a Jacobean stately home located in the village of Goldsborough, North Yorkshire, England. It is a member of the Historic Houses Association...

    , near Knaresborough
    Knaresborough
    Knaresborough is an old and historic market town, spa town and civil parish in the Borough of Harrogate, North Yorkshire, England, located on the River Nidd, four miles east of the centre of Harrogate.-History:...

    , North Yorkshire
    North Yorkshire
    North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan or shire county located in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, and a ceremonial county primarily in that region but partly in North East England. Created in 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972 it covers an area of , making it the largest...

     (1764–1765)
  • Alnwick Castle
    Alnwick Castle
    Alnwick Castle is a castle and stately home in the town of the same name in the English county of Northumberland. It is the residence of the Duke of Northumberland, built following the Norman conquest, and renovated and remodelled a number of times. It is a Grade I listed building.-History:Alnwick...

    , Northumberland
    Northumberland
    Northumberland is the northernmost ceremonial county and a unitary district in North East England. For Eurostat purposes Northumberland is a NUTS 3 region and is one of three boroughs or unitary districts that comprise the "Northumberland and Tyne and Wear" NUTS 2 region...

     (interiors) (1766) destroyed when Anthony Salvin
    Anthony Salvin
    Anthony Salvin was an English architect. He gained a reputation as an expert on medieval buildings and applied this expertise to his new buildings and his restorations...

     created the current state rooms
  • Woolton Hall
    Woolton Hall
    Woolton Hall, Woolton, England was built in 1704 for the Molyneuxs. In 1772, Robert Adam was employed to design a new frontage and redesign the interior. The hall is a grade I listed building....

    , Woolton
    Woolton
    Woolton is a suburb of Liverpool, Merseyside, England and a Liverpool City Council Ward. It is located at the south of the city, bordered by Gateacre, Hunts Cross, Allerton and Halewood. At the 2001 Census the population was recorded as 14,836.-History:...

    , Merseyside (1772), remodelled main façade and the interior
  • Headfort House, County Meath
    County Meath
    County Meath is a county in Ireland. It is part of the Mid-East Region and is also located in the province of Leinster. It is named after the ancient Kingdom of Mide . Meath County Council is the local authority for the county...

    , Ireland. Internal work, including stairs and notably the Great Eating Room (1775) for Thomas Taylour, 1st. Earl Bective.
  • Wormleybury
    Wormleybury
    Wormleybury is a landscape park of 57ha and house near Wormley in Hertfordshire, England.The house, "Wormleybury Manor", was built by Robert Mylne in 1767-69, and embellished by Robert Adam in 1777-79.In 1825 the parish records from the Parish Church of St...

    , Hertfordshire, internal work including entrance hall & staircase (1777)
  • Downhill, near Coleraine
    Coleraine
    Coleraine is a large town near the mouth of the River Bann in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. It is northwest of Belfast and east of Derry, both of which are linked by major roads and railway connections...

    , County Londonderry
    County Londonderry
    The place name Derry is an anglicisation of the old Irish Daire meaning oak-grove or oak-wood. As with the city, its name is subject to the Derry/Londonderry name dispute, with the form Derry preferred by nationalists and Londonderry preferred by unionists...

    , Ireland.(1780) Design for dining room. Not executed. House is now a crumbling ruin.
  • Moccas Court, Moccas
    Moccas
    Moccas is a village and civil parish in the English county of Herefordshire. It is located west of Hereford.The parish is mainly farmland with a number of woods, including Woodbury Hill Wood and the Moccas Park Deer Park...

    , Herefordshire , internal work including drawing room (1781)
  • Castle Upton, Templepartick, Co. Antrim, Ireland. Remodelling of house. (1782-3) for 1st. Lord Templetown.
  • Archerfield House
    Archerfield Estate and Links
    Archerfield and Archerfield Links are a country house and pair of golf courses in the parish of Dirleton, East Lothian, Scotland...

    , Lothian, internal work including library (1791)

  • Summerhill, Co. Meath, Ireland. Date unknown. Proposed alterations. House now demolished.

Official appointments

External links

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