River Colne, Hertfordshire
Overview
 
The Colne is a river
River
A river is a natural watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, a lake, a sea, or another river. In a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. Small rivers may also be called by several other names, including...

 in England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

 which is a tributary of the River Thames
River Thames
The River Thames flows through southern England. It is the longest river entirely in England and the second longest in the United Kingdom. While it is best known because its lower reaches flow through central London, the river flows alongside several other towns and cities, including Oxford,...

. It flows mainly through Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in the East region of England. The county town is Hertford.The county is one of the Home Counties and lies inland, bordered by Greater London , Buckinghamshire , Bedfordshire , Cambridgeshire and...

 and forms the boundary between the South Bucks
South Bucks
South Bucks is one of four local government districts in the non-metropolitan county of Buckinghamshire, in South East England.The district was formed on 1 April 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972, by the amalgamation of the area of Beaconsfield Urban District with part of Eton Rural District...

 district of Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan home county in South East England. The county town is Aylesbury, the largest town in the ceremonial county is Milton Keynes and largest town in the non-metropolitan county is High Wycombe....

 and the London Borough of Hillingdon
London Borough of Hillingdon
The London Borough of Hillingdon is the westernmost borough in Greater London, England. The borough's population was recorded as 243,006 in the 2001 Census. The borough incorporates the former districts of Ruislip-Northwood, Uxbridge, Hayes and Harlington and Yiewsley and West Drayton in the...

. It splits off into several separate branches, some of which rejoin it, and it flows into the River Thames on the reach above Penton Hook Lock
Penton Hook Lock
Penton Hook Lock is a lock on the River Thames in England situated on the northern "Middlesex" bank near Laleham, Surrey.The lock cuts across a large loop or hook in the river, creating Penton Hook Island There is a large marina in the disused gravel pits connected to this loop...

 at Staines
Staines
Staines is a Thames-side town in the Spelthorne borough of Surrey and Greater London Urban Area, as well as the London Commuter Belt of South East England. It is a suburban development within the western bounds of the M25 motorway and located 17 miles west south-west of Charing Cross in...

.
The Colne rises near North Mymms
North Mymms
North Mymms is a civil parish in the English county of Hertfordshire.The village itself has suffered from enclosure. North Mimms Park and Brookmans Park enclose large areas of the parish. Even the parish church stands in the park of North Mimms; in it is a chapel, the burialplace of the Coningsbys...

 in Hertfordshire (although the now dry river bed can be followed further back for about 1.2 miles (1.9 km) to the Water End Swallow holes).
Encyclopedia
The Colne is a river
River
A river is a natural watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, a lake, a sea, or another river. In a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. Small rivers may also be called by several other names, including...

 in England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

 which is a tributary of the River Thames
River Thames
The River Thames flows through southern England. It is the longest river entirely in England and the second longest in the United Kingdom. While it is best known because its lower reaches flow through central London, the river flows alongside several other towns and cities, including Oxford,...

. It flows mainly through Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in the East region of England. The county town is Hertford.The county is one of the Home Counties and lies inland, bordered by Greater London , Buckinghamshire , Bedfordshire , Cambridgeshire and...

 and forms the boundary between the South Bucks
South Bucks
South Bucks is one of four local government districts in the non-metropolitan county of Buckinghamshire, in South East England.The district was formed on 1 April 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972, by the amalgamation of the area of Beaconsfield Urban District with part of Eton Rural District...

 district of Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan home county in South East England. The county town is Aylesbury, the largest town in the ceremonial county is Milton Keynes and largest town in the non-metropolitan county is High Wycombe....

 and the London Borough of Hillingdon
London Borough of Hillingdon
The London Borough of Hillingdon is the westernmost borough in Greater London, England. The borough's population was recorded as 243,006 in the 2001 Census. The borough incorporates the former districts of Ruislip-Northwood, Uxbridge, Hayes and Harlington and Yiewsley and West Drayton in the...

. It splits off into several separate branches, some of which rejoin it, and it flows into the River Thames on the reach above Penton Hook Lock
Penton Hook Lock
Penton Hook Lock is a lock on the River Thames in England situated on the northern "Middlesex" bank near Laleham, Surrey.The lock cuts across a large loop or hook in the river, creating Penton Hook Island There is a large marina in the disused gravel pits connected to this loop...

 at Staines
Staines
Staines is a Thames-side town in the Spelthorne borough of Surrey and Greater London Urban Area, as well as the London Commuter Belt of South East England. It is a suburban development within the western bounds of the M25 motorway and located 17 miles west south-west of Charing Cross in...

.

Route

The Colne rises near North Mymms
North Mymms
North Mymms is a civil parish in the English county of Hertfordshire.The village itself has suffered from enclosure. North Mimms Park and Brookmans Park enclose large areas of the parish. Even the parish church stands in the park of North Mimms; in it is a chapel, the burialplace of the Coningsbys...

 in Hertfordshire (although the now dry river bed can be followed further back for about 1.2 miles (1.9 km) to the Water End Swallow holes). It runs south west to Watford
Watford
Watford is a town and borough in Hertfordshire, England, situated northwest of central London and within the bounds of the M25 motorway. The borough is separated from Greater London to the south by the urbanised parish of Watford Rural in the Three Rivers District.Watford was created as an urban...

 and then south to Uxbridge
Uxbridge
Uxbridge is a large town located in north west London, England and is the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Hillingdon. It forms part of the ceremonial county of Greater London. It is located west-northwest of Charing Cross and is one of the major metropolitan centres...

 where it parallels the Grand Union Canal
Grand Union Canal
The Grand Union Canal in England is part of the British canal system. Its main line connects London and Birmingham, stretching for 137 miles with 166 locks...

 and its distributary the Frays River
Frays River
Frays River is a river in England that branches off the River Colne at Uxbridge Moor and rejoins it at West Drayton.The Frays River leaves the River Colne between Uxbridge and Denham, Buckinghamshire at Denham Weir. It passes Cowley and Yiewsley where it is joined by the River Pinn. It is also...

 which is joined by the River Pinn
River Pinn
The River Pinn is a river in West London which originates around Pinner and flows into the Frays River, which is a branch of the River Colne.-Route:...

. The Colne Brook
Colne Brook
The Colne Brook is a river in England that branches off the River Colne at Uxbridge Moor and flows into the River Thames at Hythe End, just below Bell Weir Lock....

 splits off at Uxbridge and at West Drayton
West Drayton
West Drayton is a suburban area in the London Borough of Hillingdon in the far west of London, England. Formerly part of the Yiewsley and West Drayton Urban District of Middlesex, the district became part of Greater London in 1965....

 the Frays River rejoins and the Wraysbury River
Wraysbury River
Wraysbury River is a river in England that branches off the River Colne at West Drayton and rejoins it at Staines before it flows into the River Thames....

 and Duke of Northumberland's River
Duke of Northumberland's River
The Duke of Northumberland's River consists of two sections of artificial waterway. The older name: "Isleworth Mill Stream", or River, more accurately describes the economic motivation for their construction.-The western section :...

 divide off.

The village
Village
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet with the population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand , Though often located in rural areas, the term urban village is also applied to certain urban neighbourhoods, such as the West Village in Manhattan, New...

s of Colney Heath
Colney Heath
Colney Heath is a large village south-east of St Albans, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom.The population of the ward of Colney Heath at the time of the 2001 census was 5,449....

 near St Albans
St Albans
St Albans is a city in southern Hertfordshire, England, around north of central London, which forms the main urban area of the City and District of St Albans. It is a historic market town, and is now a sought-after dormitory town within the London commuter belt...

, Colney Street
Colney Street
Colney Street is a village in the English county of Hertfordshire.It lies on the A5183 road, this was formerly the A5 road and, before that, Roman Britain's Watling Street. In addition its northern boundary is delineated by the M25 motorway. These location advantages have led to it becoming a...

 near Radlett
Radlett
Radlett is a small town in the county of Hertfordshire between St Albans and Borehamwood on Watling Street with a population of approximately 8,000. It is located in the council district of Hertsmere and is covered by two wards, Aldenham East and Aldenham West...

, Colnbrook
Colnbrook
Colnbrook is a large village in the unitary authority of Slough, in Berkshire, England. It is situated southeast of central Slough, east of Windsor and west of central London....

 near Slough
Slough
Slough is a borough and unitary authority within the ceremonial county of Royal Berkshire, England. The town straddles the A4 Bath Road and the Great Western Main Line, west of central London...

 and London Colney
London Colney
London Colney is a village and civil parish in Hertfordshire, England. It is located to the north of London, at Junction 22 of the M25 motorway....

 in Hertfordshire all take their name from this river. The Colne is also one of the rivers referred to in the name of the Three Rivers district
Three Rivers (district)
Three Rivers is a local government district in Hertfordshire in the East of England. Its council is based in Rickmansworth.It was formed on 1 April 1974 by the merger of Rickmansworth Urban District and Chorleywood Urban District with part of Watford Rural District...

.

In its lower reaches, the river supplies water to Longford River
Longford River
The Longford River is an artificial waterway that diverts water 19km from the River Colne at Longford to Bushy Park and Hampton Court Palace where it reaches the Thames on the reach above Teddington Lock....

, a 12 miles (19.3 km) artificial channel created in 1610 for King Charles I
Charles I of England
Charles I was King of England, King of Scotland, and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. Charles engaged in a struggle for power with the Parliament of England, attempting to obtain royal revenue whilst Parliament sought to curb his Royal prerogative which Charles...

 to supply water features in Bushy Park
Bushy Park
- External links :***...

.

The river underwent considerable change in the 1790s, when the Grand Junction Canal
Grand Junction Canal
The Grand Junction Canal is a canal in England from Braunston in Northamptonshire to the River Thames at Brentford, with a number of branches. The mainline was built between 1793 and 1805, to improve the route from the Midlands to London, by-passing the upper reaches of the River Thames near Oxford...

 (which became part of the Grand Union Canal in 1929) was routed along the valley, and joined the river channel for part of its course. Construction began from Brentford, where it used the channel of the River Brent
River Brent
The Brent is a river within Greater London which is a tributary of the River Thames. It is 17.9 miles long, running north-east to south-west, and it joins the Thames on the Tideway at Brentford, Hounslow.- Hydronymy and etymology :...

, and progressed northwards, with it reaching Uxbridge in November 1794. It continued along the river channel until its junction with the River Gade, which it ran parallel to, but did not take over the channel. The Slough Arm was built much later, in 1882, and required three aqueducts near its junction with the Grand Junction main line, to cross the Fray's River, the River Colne and the Colne Brook. There had been earlier proposals to link the river to London, including one in 1641 by Sir Edward Forde, for a navigable canal, the main purpose of which seems to have been the supply of clean water, and two in 1766, for canals from Marylebone to the river at Uxbridge and another from Marylebone to West Drayton.

Between Croxley Green, where the River Gade joins the Colne, and West Drayton, below the Slough Arm, the river channels thread their way between many large lakes, some of which were once watercress beds, some chalk pits, and some of which were the result of brickmaking, an industry which developed over several miles of the valley after 1800, when the Grand Junction Canal company advertised the presence of good brick earth, discovered during the construction of the canal.

Structures

There are two London Coal Duty markers besides the river, which were positioned to mark the point at which coal duty became payable in the London area. The first is on the north side of the river at Colney Heath, and is a square-section cast iron
Cast iron
Cast iron is derived from pig iron, and while it usually refers to gray iron, it also identifies a large group of ferrous alloys which solidify with a eutectic. The color of a fractured surface can be used to identify an alloy. White cast iron is named after its white surface when fractured, due...

 pillar made by Henry Grissell at his Regents Canal ironworks and erected in 1861 or 1862. It is 5 feet (1.5 m) high and is painted white. The second is a stone obelisk, 13 feet (4 m) high, with a square base, which is erected at Colne Bridge in 1861. It was moved from its original position on the other side of the river in 1984, when it was repaired by Watford Borough Council. It is close to a five-arched railway viaduct, which was built in 1837 to carry the London to Birmingham Railway over the river. Each of the arches spans around 40 feet (12.2 m) and is 45 feet (13.7 m) high. The structure was designed by Robert Stephenson
Robert Stephenson
Robert Stephenson FRS was an English civil engineer. He was the only son of George Stephenson, the famed locomotive builder and railway engineer; many of the achievements popularly credited to his father were actually the joint efforts of father and son.-Early life :He was born on the 16th of...

, and is grade II listed.

At London Colney there is a seven-arched brick bridge which carries Barnet Road over the river. It dates from 1774, and is called Telford's Bridge, although it is not thought to have been designed by Thomas Telford
Thomas Telford
Thomas Telford FRS, FRSE was a Scottish civil engineer, architect and stonemason, and a noted road, bridge and canal builder.-Early career:...

. It was modified in the twentieth century, when parapets and railings were added.

There was a long-running dispute over water levels in the Batchford area, following construction of the Grand Junction Canal, which were resolved in 1825, when an 8.2 feet (2.5 m) obelisk was erected in a pond, to act as a water gauge. The obelisk records the agreement made between the canal company, John Dickinson who was the miller at Batchworth Mill, and R. Williams of Moor Park, who was the landowner.

Tributaries and distributaries

These are listed from mouth (Thames) to source:
  • Wraysbury River
    Wraysbury River
    Wraysbury River is a river in England that branches off the River Colne at West Drayton and rejoins it at Staines before it flows into the River Thames....

     (branch West Drayton to Staines)
  • River Ash (Staines to River Thames Sunbury on Thames)
  • Colne Brook
    Colne Brook
    The Colne Brook is a river in England that branches off the River Colne at Uxbridge Moor and flows into the River Thames at Hythe End, just below Bell Weir Lock....

     (Uxbridge Moor to River Thames Hythe End
    Hythe End
    Hythe End is a place in Berkshire between Wraysbury and Staines, England on the northern bank of the River Thames close to Bell Weir Lock.Hythe End consists of several riverside homes, mainly on The Island, Hythe End. There are gravel pits to the north which make up a Site of Special Scientific...

    )
  • Longford River
    Longford River
    The Longford River is an artificial waterway that diverts water 19km from the River Colne at Longford to Bushy Park and Hampton Court Palace where it reaches the Thames on the reach above Teddington Lock....

     (man made - Longford to River Thames Hampton Court)
  • Duke of Northumberland River (man made West Drayton to River Thames Isleworth
    Isleworth
    Isleworth is a small town of Saxon origin sited within the London Borough of Hounslow in west London, England. It lies immediately east of the town of Hounslow and west of the River Thames and its tributary the River Crane. Isleworth's original area of settlement, alongside the Thames, is known as...

    )
  • Frays River
    Frays River
    Frays River is a river in England that branches off the River Colne at Uxbridge Moor and rejoins it at West Drayton.The Frays River leaves the River Colne between Uxbridge and Denham, Buckinghamshire at Denham Weir. It passes Cowley and Yiewsley where it is joined by the River Pinn. It is also...

     (branch Watford to West Drayton)
    • River Pinn
      River Pinn
      The River Pinn is a river in West London which originates around Pinner and flows into the Frays River, which is a branch of the River Colne.-Route:...

       (Harrow Weald to West Drayton)
  • River Misbourne
    River Misbourne
    The River Misbourne rises in a field on the outskirts of Great Missenden, Buckinghamshire, and flows down the Misbourne valley to join the River Colne just north of where the latter is crossed by the A40 Western Avenue....

     (Amersham to Uxbridge)
  • Alder Bourne (Fulmer
    Fulmer
    Fulmer is a village and civil parish in South Buckinghamshire district in Buckinghamshire, England. The village is now contiguous with Gerrards Cross but remains administratively separate....

     to Colne)
  • River Chess
    River Chess
    The River Chess is a chalk stream which springs from Chesham, Buckinghamshire and runs through Buckinghamshire and Hertfordshire, in south-eastern England. The Chess, along with the Colne and Gade, gives rise to the name of the district of Three Rivers, in which it forms its confluence with the...

     (Chesham to Rickmansworth)
  • River Gade
    River Gade
    The River Gade is a river running almost entirely though Hertfordshire. It rises from a spring in the chalk of the Chiltern Hills at Dagnall, Buckinghamshire and flows through Hemel Hempstead, Kings Langley and Croxley Green to Rickmansworth where it joins the The River Colne...

    • River Bulbourne
      River Bulbourne
      The River Bulbourne is a river in Hertfordshire, England. It runs from Dudswell in Northchurch, through Berkhamsted , Bourne End and Boxmoor to where it joins the River Gade at Two Waters in Apsley near Hemel Hempstead. The total length of the river is 11 Km....

  • River Ver
    River Ver
    The Ver is a river in Hertfordshire, England. The river begins in the grounds of Markyate Cell, and flows south for 12 miles alongside Watling Street through Flamstead, Redbourn, St Albans and Park Street, and joins the River Colne at Bricket Wood....

     (Dolittle Mill to Colne)
  • Tykes Water (Aldenham Reservoir
    Aldenham Reservoir
    Aldenham Reservoir is situated in the County of Hertfordshire in England about one mile to the west of the village of Elstree.Originally, it was in extent [now after repairs to the dam] and was built by the Grand Union Canal Company to control the water levels in the River Colne following the...

     to Colne)
  • Ellen Brook (Hatfield
    Hatfield, Hertfordshire
    Hatfield is a town and civil parish in Hertfordshire, England in the borough of Welwyn Hatfield. It has a population of 29,616, and is of Saxon origin. Hatfield House, the home of the Marquess of Salisbury, is the nucleus of the old town...

     to Colne)
  • Mimmshall Brook (Elstree
    Elstree
    Elstree is a village in the Hertsmere borough of Hertfordshire on the A5 road, about 10 miles north of London. In 2001, its population was 4,765, and forms part of the civil parish of Elstree and Borehamwood, originally known simply as Elstree....

     to Colne)
    • Catherine Bourne (Shenley to Mimmshall Brook)
    • Potters Bar Brook (Potters Bar to Mimmshall Brook)

See also

  • Tributaries of the River Thames
    Tributaries of the River Thames
    This article lists the tributaries of the River Thames, in England. It also includes significant backwaters and waterways which also have confluences with the main stream of the River Thames.Most of the tributaries are natural, but a few were man-made...

  • List of rivers in England
  • Mid Colne Valley
    Mid Colne Valley
    Mid Colne Valley is a 132 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest at grid reference in Harefield in the London Borough of Hillingdon and Denham in South Buckinghamshire. Its main importance lies in its extensive diversity of birdlife in lakes in former gravel pits.The site is...

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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