Rhizophora
Overview
 
Rhizophora is a genus
Genus
In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

 of tropical mangrove
Mangrove
Mangroves are various kinds of trees up to medium height and shrubs that grow in saline coastal sediment habitats in the tropics and subtropics – mainly between latitudes N and S...

 trees, sometimes collectively called true mangroves. The most notable species is the Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle
Rhizophora mangle
Rhizophora mangle, known as the red mangrove, is distributed in estuarine ecosystems throughout the tropics. Its viviparous "seeds," in actuality called propagules, become fully mature plants before dropping off the parent tree...

) but some other species and a few natural hybrids are known. Rhizophora species generally live in intertidal zone
Intertidal zone
The intertidal zone is the area that is above water at low tide and under water at high tide . This area can include many different types of habitats, with many types of animals like starfish, sea urchins, and some species of coral...

s which are indundated daily by the ocean. They exhibit a number of adaptations to this environment, including stilt-roots
Aerial root
Aerial roots are roots above the ground. They are almost always adventitious. They are found in diverse plant species, including epiphytes such as orchids, tropical coastal swamp trees such as mangroves, the resourceful banyan trees, the warm-temperate rainforest rātā and pōhutukawa Aerial roots...

 that elevate the plants above the water and allow them to respire
Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration is the set of the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate , and then release waste products. The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions that involve...

 oxygen even while their lower roots are submerged, and a cytological
Cell biology
Cell biology is a scientific discipline that studies cells – their physiological properties, their structure, the organelles they contain, interactions with their environment, their life cycle, division and death. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level...

 molecular "pump" mechanism that allows them to remove excess salts from their cells.
Unanswered Questions
Encyclopedia
Rhizophora is a genus
Genus
In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

 of tropical mangrove
Mangrove
Mangroves are various kinds of trees up to medium height and shrubs that grow in saline coastal sediment habitats in the tropics and subtropics – mainly between latitudes N and S...

 trees, sometimes collectively called true mangroves. The most notable species is the Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle
Rhizophora mangle
Rhizophora mangle, known as the red mangrove, is distributed in estuarine ecosystems throughout the tropics. Its viviparous "seeds," in actuality called propagules, become fully mature plants before dropping off the parent tree...

) but some other species and a few natural hybrids are known. Rhizophora species generally live in intertidal zone
Intertidal zone
The intertidal zone is the area that is above water at low tide and under water at high tide . This area can include many different types of habitats, with many types of animals like starfish, sea urchins, and some species of coral...

s which are indundated daily by the ocean. They exhibit a number of adaptations to this environment, including stilt-roots
Aerial root
Aerial roots are roots above the ground. They are almost always adventitious. They are found in diverse plant species, including epiphytes such as orchids, tropical coastal swamp trees such as mangroves, the resourceful banyan trees, the warm-temperate rainforest rātā and pōhutukawa Aerial roots...

 that elevate the plants above the water and allow them to respire
Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration is the set of the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate , and then release waste products. The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions that involve...

 oxygen even while their lower roots are submerged, and a cytological
Cell biology
Cell biology is a scientific discipline that studies cells – their physiological properties, their structure, the organelles they contain, interactions with their environment, their life cycle, division and death. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level...

 molecular "pump" mechanism that allows them to remove excess salts from their cells. The generic name is derived from the Greek
Greek language
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

 words ριζα (rhiza), meaning "root," and φορος (phoros), meaning "bearing," referring to the stilt-roots.

The beetle Poecilips fallax
Poecilips fallax
Poecilips fallax is small beetle of the subfamily Scolytinae. The beetle, related to carver beetles, is a pest to mangrove trees especially Rhizophora mucronata and Rhizophora apiculata....

is a common pest of these trees.

The Red Mangrove is the state tree of Delta Amacuro
Delta Amacuro
Delta Amacuro State is one of the 23 states of Venezuela, and is the location of the Orinoco Delta. The Paria Gulf and the Atlantic Ocean are found to the north, Bolívar State is found to the south, the Atlantic Ocean and Guyana are found to the east, and Monagas State is found to the west...

 in Venezuela
Venezuela
Venezuela , officially called the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela , is a tropical country on the northern coast of South America. It borders Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south...

; a dark brown dye can be produced from it, which is used in Tonga
Tonga
Tonga, officially the Kingdom of Tonga , is a state and an archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, comprising 176 islands scattered over of ocean in the South Pacific...

n ngatu cloth
Tapa cloth
Tapa cloth is a bark cloth made in the islands of the Pacific Ocean, primarily in Tonga, Samoa and Fiji, but as far afield as Niue, Cook Islands, Futuna, Solomon Islands, Java, New Zealand, Vanuatu, Papua New Guinea and Hawaii...

 production.

Selected species

  • Rhizophora apiculata
    Rhizophora apiculata
    Rhizophora apiculata is a species of plant in the Rhizophoraceae family. It is found in Australia , Guam, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Micronesia, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, the Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Taiwan,Maldives Thailand, Vanuatu, and Vietnam.Rhizophora...

    Blumebakauan lalaki (Philippines
    Philippines
    The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

    ) bakau minyak
  • Rhizophora harrisonii Leechm.
  • Rhizophora mangle
    Rhizophora mangle
    Rhizophora mangle, known as the red mangrove, is distributed in estuarine ecosystems throughout the tropics. Its viviparous "seeds," in actuality called propagules, become fully mature plants before dropping off the parent tree...

    L. – Red Mangrove, tongo (Tonga
    Tonga
    Tonga, officially the Kingdom of Tonga , is a state and an archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, comprising 176 islands scattered over of ocean in the South Pacific...

    )
  • Rhizophora mucronata Lam.
  • Rhizophora racemosa G.Mey.
  • Rhizophora samoensis (Hochr.) Salvoza
  • Rhizophora stylosa Griff. – Spotted Mangrove, bakauan bato (Philippines)

Hybrids

  • Rhizophora × annamalayana Kathiresan (R. apiculata × R. mucronata)
  • Rhizophora × lamarckii
    Rhizophora × lamarckii
    Rhizophora × lamarckii is a hybrid of Rhizophora apiculata and Rhizophora stylosa . Found in the Indo-West Pacific region within the Indomalaya biome in the Sunda Shelf mangroves ecoregion, the hybrid is widespread and shares many characters of its parents .-Description:The tree grows up to 25 m in...

    Montrouz. (R. apiculata × R. stylosa)
  • Rhizophora × selala (Salvoza) P.B.Tomlinson (R. mangle × R. stylosa)

Formerly placed here

  • Aegiceras corniculatum
    Aegiceras corniculatum
    Aegiceras corniculatum, commonly known as Black Mangrove or River Mangrove, is a species of shrub or tree mangrove in the Myrsine family with a distribution in coastal and estuarine areas ranging from India through South East Asia to southern China, New Guinea and Australia.-Description:Aegiceras...

    (L.) Blanco (as R. corniculata L.)
  • Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Savigny (as R. gymnorhiza L.)
  • Bruguiera parviflora (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. ex Griff. (as R. parviflora Roxb.)
  • Bruguiera sexangula
    Bruguiera sexangula
    Bruguiera sexangula, commonly called the Upriver Orange Mangrove, is a mangrove shrub or tree usually growing up to 15 m, occasionally 30 m, in height.-Description:...

    (Lour.) Poir. (as R. sexangula Lour.)
  • Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B.Rob. (as R. tagal Perr.)
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