Reza Shah
Overview
 
Rezā Shāh, also known as Rezā Shāh Pahlavi and Rezā Shāh Kabir (Reza Shah the Great), (March 15, 1878 – July 26, 1944), was the Shah
Shah
Shāh is the title of the ruler of certain Southwest Asian and Central Asian countries, especially Persia , and derives from the Persian word shah, meaning "king".-History:...

 of the Imperial State of Iran
Pahlavi dynasty
The Pahlavi dynasty consisted of two Iranian/Persian monarchs, father and son Reza Shah Pahlavi and Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi The Pahlavi dynasty consisted of two Iranian/Persian monarchs, father and son Reza Shah Pahlavi (reg. 1925–1941) and Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi The Pahlavi dynasty ...

 from December 15, 1925, until he was forced to abdicate
Abdication
Abdication occurs when a monarch, such as a king or emperor, renounces his office.-Terminology:The word abdication comes derives from the Latin abdicatio. meaning to disown or renounce...

 by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran
Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran
The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran was the Allied invasion of the Imperial State of Iran during World War II, by British, Commonwealth, and Soviet armed forces. The invasion from August 25 to September 17, 1941, was codenamed Operation Countenance...

 on September 16, 1941.

In 1925, Reza Shah overthrew Ahmad Shah Qajar
Ahmad Shah Qajar
Ahmad Shah Qajar ‎ was Shah of Iran from July 16, 1909, to October 31, 1925 and the last of the Qajar dynasty.- Reign :...

, the last Shah
Shah
Shāh is the title of the ruler of certain Southwest Asian and Central Asian countries, especially Persia , and derives from the Persian word shah, meaning "king".-History:...

 of the Qajar dynasty
Qajar dynasty
The Qajar dynasty was an Iranian royal family of Turkic descent who ruled Persia from 1785 to 1925....

, and founded the Pahlavi dynasty
Pahlavi dynasty
The Pahlavi dynasty consisted of two Iranian/Persian monarchs, father and son Reza Shah Pahlavi and Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi The Pahlavi dynasty consisted of two Iranian/Persian monarchs, father and son Reza Shah Pahlavi (reg. 1925–1941) and Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi The Pahlavi dynasty ...

. He established a system of government that revitalized the goals of the Constitutional Revolution of Iran where for the first time Iranians were seeking for rulers who do not remain in power for eternity.
Encyclopedia
Rezā Shāh, also known as Rezā Shāh Pahlavi and Rezā Shāh Kabir (Reza Shah the Great), (March 15, 1878 – July 26, 1944), was the Shah
Shah
Shāh is the title of the ruler of certain Southwest Asian and Central Asian countries, especially Persia , and derives from the Persian word shah, meaning "king".-History:...

 of the Imperial State of Iran
Pahlavi dynasty
The Pahlavi dynasty consisted of two Iranian/Persian monarchs, father and son Reza Shah Pahlavi and Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi The Pahlavi dynasty consisted of two Iranian/Persian monarchs, father and son Reza Shah Pahlavi (reg. 1925–1941) and Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi The Pahlavi dynasty ...

 from December 15, 1925, until he was forced to abdicate
Abdication
Abdication occurs when a monarch, such as a king or emperor, renounces his office.-Terminology:The word abdication comes derives from the Latin abdicatio. meaning to disown or renounce...

 by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran
Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran
The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran was the Allied invasion of the Imperial State of Iran during World War II, by British, Commonwealth, and Soviet armed forces. The invasion from August 25 to September 17, 1941, was codenamed Operation Countenance...

 on September 16, 1941.

In 1925, Reza Shah overthrew Ahmad Shah Qajar
Ahmad Shah Qajar
Ahmad Shah Qajar ‎ was Shah of Iran from July 16, 1909, to October 31, 1925 and the last of the Qajar dynasty.- Reign :...

, the last Shah
Shah
Shāh is the title of the ruler of certain Southwest Asian and Central Asian countries, especially Persia , and derives from the Persian word shah, meaning "king".-History:...

 of the Qajar dynasty
Qajar dynasty
The Qajar dynasty was an Iranian royal family of Turkic descent who ruled Persia from 1785 to 1925....

, and founded the Pahlavi dynasty
Pahlavi dynasty
The Pahlavi dynasty consisted of two Iranian/Persian monarchs, father and son Reza Shah Pahlavi and Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi The Pahlavi dynasty consisted of two Iranian/Persian monarchs, father and son Reza Shah Pahlavi (reg. 1925–1941) and Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi The Pahlavi dynasty ...

. He established a system of government that revitalized the goals of the Constitutional Revolution of Iran where for the first time Iranians were seeking for rulers who do not remain in power for eternity. Known for being quite intelligent despite his lack of formal and academic education, Reza Shah introduced many socio-economic reforms, reorganizing the army, government administration and finances. To his supporters his reign brought "law and order, discipline, central authority, and modern amenities — schools, trains, buses, radios, cinemas, and telephones". However, his attempts at modernisation have been criticised for being "too fast".

Early life

Reza was born in the village of Alasht
Alasht
Alasht is a city in the Central District of Savadkuh County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 976, in 287 families....

 in Savadkuh County
Savadkuh County
Savadkuh County is a county in Mazandaran Province in Iran. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 66,430, in 17,918 families. The county is subdivided into two districts: the Central District and Shirgah District...

, Māzandarān Province
Mazandaran Province
Mazandaran Province is a Caspian province in the north of Iran. Located on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, it is bordered clockwise by the Golestan, Semnan, Tehran, Alborz, Qazvin, and Gilan provinces....

, in 1878.

His father Major
Major
Major is a rank of commissioned officer, with corresponding ranks existing in almost every military in the world.When used unhyphenated, in conjunction with no other indicator of rank, the term refers to the rank just senior to that of an Army captain and just below the rank of lieutenant colonel. ...

 Abbas Ali Khan (Dadash Beg) became commissioned in the 7th Savadkuh
Savadkuh County
Savadkuh County is a county in Mazandaran Province in Iran. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 66,430, in 17,918 families. The county is subdivided into two districts: the Central District and Shirgah District...

 Regiment, and served in the Anglo-Persian War
Anglo-Persian War
The Anglo-Persian War lasted between November 1, 1856 and April 4, 1857, and was fought between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Persia . In the war, the British opposed an attempt by Persia to reacquire the city of Herat...

 in 1856. He married more than once and his fifth marriage was in 1877, to Noushafarin Ayromlou. She was a second or third cousin of Sar-Lashkar Muhammad-Hussein Ayrom. The Ayrums were a prominent Azeri tribe from the Caucasus
Caucasus
The Caucasus, also Caucas or Caucasia , is a geopolitical region at the border of Europe and Asia, and situated between the Black and the Caspian sea...

, who arrived in Iran sometime in the nineteenth century as result of the Russo-Persian War. Upon entering Iran, many Ayrums became Iranian generals, colonels, and some Ayrum women, namely Nimtaj and Noushafarin, became royalty. Although having once ruled much of the Caucasus
Caucasus
The Caucasus, also Caucas or Caucasia , is a geopolitical region at the border of Europe and Asia, and situated between the Black and the Caspian sea...

 from north to south, the Ayrums did not separate themselves from other social classes and one of the greatest Ayrum leaders, Budogh-Sultan Ayromlou, was known for his humble persona.

Reza's father died suddenly at Alasht
Alasht
Alasht is a city in the Central District of Savadkuh County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 976, in 287 families....

 on 26 November 1878, having had 10 children, of whom six sons and three daughters survived infancy. Upon Abbas Ali Khan's death, Reza's mother moved with Reza to her brother's house in Tehran. She remarried in 1879 and left Reza to the care of his uncle, who, in turn, sent Reza away to his friend Amir Tuman Kazim Khan, an army officer.

When Reza was sixteen years old, he joined the Persian Cossack Brigade
Persian Cossack Brigade
The Persian Cossack Brigade was an elite cavalry unit formed in 1879 in Iran. During much of their history they were the only functional, effective military unit of the Qajar Dynasty...

, in which, years later, he would rise to the rank of Brigadier
Brigadier
Brigadier is a senior military rank, the meaning of which is somewhat different in different military services. The brigadier rank is generally superior to the rank of colonel, and subordinate to major general....

. In 1903 he is reported to have been guard and servant to the Dutch consul general Frits Knobel. A picture of him in Cossack uniform standing next to the mounted Dutch consul-general was published in De Hollandsche Revue. In 1925 Maurits Wagenvoort, a friend of Knobel, wrote: "was the present autocrat the same person as the one I once spoke to in the Babi-circle of Hadsji Achont when he was gholam of his Respected Presence the Netherlands' ambassador in Tehran?" He appeared to me most eager to learn about the Western political situation. And I shall never forget the expression of disillusion on his face when, in answer to his question, 'What? Aren't the elected people's representatives the most intelligent men of the nation?' I replied, 'Not a bit of it! Perhaps they are just a trifle above your average, everyday folk'. He continued, 'And the ministers then?' 'They are somewhat brighter. But not always.' He also served in the Iranian Army, where he gained the rank of gunnery sergeant under Qajar
Qajar dynasty
The Qajar dynasty was an Iranian royal family of Turkic descent who ruled Persia from 1785 to 1925....

 Prince Abdol Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma
Abdol Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma
Prince Abdol-Hossein Mirza was one of the most prominent Qajar princes, and one of the most influential politicians of his time in Persia. He was born to Prince Nosrat Dowleh Firouz Mirza 1859, and died in November 1939 at the age of 80. He was the 16th grandson of the Qajar crown prince Abbas...

's command. He rose through the ranks, eventually holding a commission as a Brigadier General
Brigadier General
Brigadier general is a senior rank in the armed forces. It is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries, usually sitting between the ranks of colonel and major general. When appointed to a field command, a brigadier general is typically in command of a brigade consisting of around 4,000...

 in the Persian Cossack Brigade. He was the last, and only Iranian, commander of the Persian Cossack Brigade. He was also one of the last individuals to become an officer of the Neshan-e Aqdas prior to the collapse of the Qajar dynasty in 1925.

The 1921 Coup

In late 1920, the Persian Soviet Socialist Republic in Rasht
Rasht
Rasht is a city in and the capital of Gilan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 551,161, in 159,983 families.Rasht is the largest city on Iran's Caspian Sea coast. It is a major trade center between Caucasia, Russia and Iran using the port of Bandar-e Anzali...

 was preparing to march on Tehran with "a guerrilla force of 1,500 Jangalis, Kurds
Kurdish people
The Kurdish people, or Kurds , are an Iranian people native to the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a region known as Kurdistan, which includes adjacent parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey...

, Armenians
Armenians
Armenian people or Armenians are a nation and ethnic group native to the Armenian Highland.The largest concentration is in Armenia having a nearly-homogeneous population with 97.9% or 3,145,354 being ethnic Armenian....

, and Azerbaijanis", reinforced by the Soviet Red Army
Red Army
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army started out as the Soviet Union's revolutionary communist combat groups during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1922. It grew into the national army of the Soviet Union. By the 1930s the Red Army was among the largest armies in history.The "Red Army" name refers to...

. This fact, along with various other disorders, mutinies and unrest in the country created "an acute political crisis in the capital." On February 21, 1921, Reza Khan staged a coup d'état, together with Seyyed Zia'eddin Tabatabaee
Seyyed Zia'eddin Tabatabaee
Seyyed Zia'eddin Tabatabaee was an Iranian politician and the Prime Minister of Iran from February to May 1921 under Ahmad Shah, the last Shah of the Qajar dynasty....

, to get control over a country which had practically no functioning central government at the time.

Commanding a Russian-trained Cossack
Cossack
Cossacks are a group of predominantly East Slavic people who originally were members of democratic, semi-military communities in what is today Ukraine and Southern Russia inhabiting sparsely populated areas and islands in the lower Dnieper and Don basins and who played an important role in the...

 Brigade, Reza Khan marched his troops from Qazvin, 150 kilometres to the west of Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

, and seized key parts of the capital city almost without opposition and forced the government to resign. With the success of the coup, Tabatabaee became the Prime Minister of Iran
Prime Minister of Iran
Prime Minister of Iran was a political post in Iran that had existed during several different periods of time starting with the Qajar era until its most recent revival from 1979 to 1989 following the Iranian Revolution.-Prime Ministers of Qajar era:In the Qajar era, prime ministers were known by...

. Reza Khan's first role in the new government was as commander of the army, which, in April 1921, he combined with the post of Minister of War. At the same time, he took the title Sardar Sepah , or commander in chief of the army, by which he was known until he became shah.

While Reza Khan and his Cossack brigade were securing Tehran, the Persian envoy was in Moscow negotiating a treaty with the Bolshevik
Bolshevik
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists , derived from bol'shinstvo, "majority") were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903....

s for the removal of Soviet troops from Persia. Article IV of the Russo-Persian Treaty of Friendship
Russo-Persian Treaty of Friendship (1921)
The Russo-Persian Treaty of Friendship was signed on February 26, 1921 between representatives of Iran and the Soviet Russia. Based on the terms of the treaty, all previous agreements made between the signatories including the Treaty of Turkmenchay were canceled...

 allowed the Soviets to invade and occupy Persia, should they believe foreign troops were using it as a staging area for an invasion of Soviet territory. As Soviets interpreted the treaty, they could invade should events in Persia prove threatening to Soviet national security. The Soviets would hold this treaty over the heads of Persian leaders for years to come.

The coup d'état of 1921 and the emergence of Reza Shah were partially assisted by the British government, which wished to halt the Bolsheviks' penetration of Iran, particularly because of the threat it posed to the British possessions in India. It is thought that British provided "ammunition, supplies and pay" for Reza's troops. On 8 June 1932, a British Embassy report states that the British were interested in helping Reza Shah create a centralizing power. The commander of the British Forces in Iran, General Edmund Ironside, gave a situation report to the British War Office saying that a capable Persian officer was getting the command of the Cossacks and this "would solve many difficulties and enable us to depart in peace and honour."

In 1921, a number of revolts erupted against the coup. Among those, the Persian Soviet Socialist Republic, which had been established in Gilan, with Mīrzā Kūchak Khān
Mirza Kuchak Khan
Mīrzā Kūchik Khān was an early twentieth century revolutionary and is considered a national hero in modern Iranian history...

 as the prime minister. The Kurds of Khorasan also revolted in the same year.

Overthrow of the Qajar dynasty

On October 26, 1923, Reza Khan got control of Iran after a long period of efforts toward restoring the previous Qajar monarchy, and the young Ahmad Shah Qajar
Ahmad Shah Qajar
Ahmad Shah Qajar ‎ was Shah of Iran from July 16, 1909, to October 31, 1925 and the last of the Qajar dynasty.- Reign :...

 fled to exile in Europe, where he preferred to stay. Reza Shah's political court consisted mostly of intellectuals and highly-educated prominent Iranians such as Mohammad Ali Foroughi
Mohammad Ali Foroughi
Mohammad Ali Foroughi Zoka-ol-Molk was a teacher, diplomat, writer, politician and Prime Minister of Iran. He was born to a family from Isfahan and studied at the élite Dar ul-Funun in Tehran. In 1907 he became the dean of the College of Political Sciences.In 1909 Foroughi entered politics as a...

, Karim Taherzadeh Behzad and Hassan Taqizadeh. The reign of Reza Shah was a real "brain trust" that returned to the constitutional revolution's goals after almost 15 years.

Reza Shah created the foundation of a new Iran where people would participate in constructing the future of their homeland. He now called for establishment of a Republic
Republic
A republic is a form of government in which the people, or some significant portion of them, have supreme control over the government and where offices of state are elected or chosen by elected people. In modern times, a common simplified definition of a republic is a government where the head of...

, and his educative system started a massive campaign for a Republic. However, the idea of a Republic was fiercely opposed by the powerful clergymen and the feudal landlords. Therefore Reza Shah as the constitution of Iran determined, became the King of Iran. He had to combat a numerous feudal aristocrats all over Iran which sought rural power in their territories. He put a collective pressure on the Parliament against the Qajar dynasty, and in October made arrangements to depose the young Shah. He assured the landlords and the conservative clergy that he would defend Islamic law and would not undertake any radical reform. The Majlis
Majlis
' , is an Arabic term meaning "a place of sitting", used in the context of "council", to describe various types of special gatherings among common interest groups be it administrative, social or religious in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries...

, convening as a constituent assembly
Constituent assembly
A constituent assembly is a body composed for the purpose of drafting or adopting a constitution...

 on December 12, 1925, declared him the Shah as in the Constitution of Iran
Iran Constitution of 1906
The Persia Constitution of 1906 was Persia's first constitution that resulted from the Persian Constitutional Revolution and it was written by Ismail Mumtaz. It divides into five chapters with many articles that developed over several years...

.

Three days later, on December 15, 1925, he took his imperial oath and thus became the first shah of the Pahlavi dynasty
Pahlavi dynasty
The Pahlavi dynasty consisted of two Iranian/Persian monarchs, father and son Reza Shah Pahlavi and Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi The Pahlavi dynasty consisted of two Iranian/Persian monarchs, father and son Reza Shah Pahlavi (reg. 1925–1941) and Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi The Pahlavi dynasty ...

. It was not until April 25, 1926, that Reza Shah would receive his coronation
Coronation
A coronation is a ceremony marking the formal investiture of a monarch and/or their consort with regal power, usually involving the placement of a crown upon their head and the presentation of other items of regalia...

 and first place the Imperial Crown
Pahlavi Crown
The Pahlavi Crown is part of the coronation regalia used by the Pahlavi Shahanshahs of Iran and is part of the Iranian Crown Jewels.-Background:...

 on his head. At the same ceremony his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Rezā Shāh Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, Shah of Persia , ruled Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979...

, was proclaimed the Crown Prince
Crown Prince
A crown prince or crown princess is the heir or heiress apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. The wife of a crown prince is also titled crown princess....

 of Persia to rule after his father.

Modernization

Regarding modernization Reza Shah continued processes that had been started by Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, but which had been halted because of difficulties presented to the country during the First World War. During Reza Shah's sixteen years of rule, major developments, such as large road construction projects and the Trans-Iranian Railway
Trans-Iranian Railway
The Trans-Iranian Railway was a major railway building project started in 1927 and completed in 1938, under the direction of the Persian monarch, Reza Shah, and entirely with indigenous capital. It links the capital Tehran with the Persian Gulf and Caspian Sea...

 were built, modern education was introduced and the University of Tehran
University of Tehran
The University of Tehran , also known as Tehran University and UT, is Iran's oldest university. Located in Tehran, the university is among the most prestigious in the country, and is consistently selected as the first choice of many applicants in the annual nationwide entrance exam for top Iranian...

 was established. The government sponsored European educations for many Iranian students. The number of modern industrial plants increased 17-fold under Reza Shah (excluding oil installations), and the number of miles of highway increased from 2,000 to 14,000.

One important area of modernization of the new regime was public health. According to Pahlavi researcher Aban Tahmasebi, most of the Iranian cities faced a new health life, and they could finally begin to feel their life was similar to life in western countries.

Along with the modernization
Modernization
In the social sciences, modernization or modernisation refers to a model of an evolutionary transition from a 'pre-modern' or 'traditional' to a 'modern' society. The teleology of modernization is described in social evolutionism theories, existing as a template that has been generally followed by...

 of the nation, Reza Shah was the ruler during the time of the Women's Awakening (1936–1941). This movement sought the elimination of the Islamic veil from Iranian working society. Supporters held that the veil impeded physical exercise and the ability of women to enter society and contribute to the progress of the nation. This move met opposition from the religious establishment. The unveiling issue and the Women's Awakening are linked to the Marriage Law of 1931 and the Second Congress of Eastern Women in Tehran
Women's rights movement in Iran
The Iranian women's movement is based on the Iranian women's social movement for women's rights. This movement first emerged some time after the Iranian Constitutional Revolution of 1906...

 in 1932.

Reza Shah was the first Iranian Monarch in 1400 years who paid respect to the Jews
Jews
The Jews , also known as the Jewish people, are a nation and ethnoreligious group originating in the Israelites or Hebrews of the Ancient Near East. The Jewish ethnicity, nationality, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation...

 by praying in the synagogue when visiting the Jewish community of Isfahan; an act that boosted the self-esteem of the Iranian Jews and made Reza Shah their second most respected Iranian leader after Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
Cyrus II of Persia , commonly known as Cyrus the Great, also known as Cyrus the Elder, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire. Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much...

. Reza Shah's reforms opened new occupations to Jews and allowed them to leave the ghetto
Ghetto
A ghetto is a section of a city predominantly occupied by a group who live there, especially because of social, economic, or legal issues.The term was originally used in Venice to describe the area where Jews were compelled to live. The term now refers to an overcrowded urban area often associated...

.
He forbade photographing aspects of Iran he considered backwards such as camels, and he banned clerical dress and chadors in favor of Western dress. The conception of modernization in the epoch of Reza Shah has to be still researched and analyzed, because it was the locus of the process of insertion of Iranian society into the free world with Iran no longer a third world country where mostly the law hardly existed. This epoch was a real re-awaking moment for Iran.

The organization of the new Parliament

Reza Shah assisted the Ministers
Minister (government)
A minister is a politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional government. Senior ministers are members of the cabinet....

 to secure the collective agreement of intellectual
Intellectual
An intellectual is a person who uses intelligence and critical or analytical reasoning in either a professional or a personal capacity.- Terminology and endeavours :"Intellectual" can denote four types of persons:...

s, considered possible problematic characters for the evolutionary procedure of the modern Iran. Despite this awareness that he had gained in a contest, he helped them a lot like the minority of the Parliament. But at the same time the system was strict toward the people who broke the laws of the country. For example his Minister of the Imperial Court, Abdolhossein Teymourtash, was accused and convicted of corruption, bribery, and misuse of foreign currency regulations. And now the researchers of the modern history of Iran know that in the beginning of the reign he had contributed a lot to the organization of plenty of reforms. Teymourtash was removed as the Minister of Court in late 1932 and died in September 1933. There were various categories of society who were participating in the modernization of the country. There existed a variety of classes with different backgrounds of study and experiences that led to different views toward the political configuration of the Parliament and mostly the minority of Parliament had different views toward the whole process of reforms.

One of the most important procedures of constructing this new legislated society was Reza Shah’s policy to create a possibility to make the opponents of the constitution undertake a brand new duty in restoring collectively the new Iran where the acquired right to be able to go forward counted more than any sort of condemning or revenge. So these were the bases of the new parliament formed by a colorful range of Iranians.

International usage of Iran instead of Persia

In 1935, the Iranian ruler issued a letter to the League of Nations insisting the name Iran be used instead of Persia. Although (internally) the country had been referred to as Iran throughout much of its history, many countries including the English-speaking world, knew the country as Persia; a legacy of the Greeks who referred to the entire region after the province of Pars (present-day Fārs). While Persians are only one of several Indo-Iranian
Indo-Iranian
Indo-Iranian can refer to:* Indo-Iranian languages* Prehistoric Indo-Iranians * Indo-European languages* Proto-Indo-Iranian religion* Proto-Indo-Iranian language...

 ethnic groups in Iran, their home province Pars (Fārs) was a center of political power in ancient times under the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
The Achaemenid Empire , sometimes known as First Persian Empire and/or Persian Empire, was founded in the 6th century BCE by Cyrus the Great who overthrew the Median confederation...

 and Sassanid Empire
Sassanid Empire
The Sassanid Empire , known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr and Ērān in Middle Persian and resulting in the New Persian terms Iranshahr and Iran , was the last pre-Islamic Persian Empire, ruled by the Sasanian Dynasty from 224 to 651...

 as well as other Iranian dynasties hence the, somewhat misleading, usage of the name Persia (in other countries) up to 1935 when referring to Iran as a whole.

Critics and Defenders

A man as vigorous and authoritarian as the Shahanshah
King of Kings
King of Kings is a title that has been used by several monarchies and empires throughout history. The title originates in the Ancient Near East. It is broadly the equivalent of the later title Emperor....

 (Persian: شاه شاهان) was bound to have detractors. They contended he was nothing more than another Oriental despot, who caused several of his enemies to be murdered, tortured, kidnapped, and imprisoned. They claim he slapped Cabinet Ministers, assaulted priests, kicked irksome subjects in the crotch (it is said that, for tiresome gabbing, he once even booted Crown Prince Mohammed Reza
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Rezā Shāh Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, Shah of Persia , ruled Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979...

 into a palace fountain). They insist that Iran was ruled entirely by fear; bribery was still prevalent, taxation overpowering and Iran's 136-man National Assembly, the Majlis, and the Cabinet solidly puppetized. By this time, they contend, the One-Man New Deal had turned into a One-Man Corporate State, owning everything worth owning.

On the other hand, there were others who watched the Shah work over a period of years and admired him greatly. First of all, they argue that it is unfair to apply Western standards to Iran. Then, they point to some of the flowers of civilization which have blossomed in the West since 1933. They recall that, unlike Kemal Atatürk
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was an Ottoman and Turkish army officer, revolutionary statesman, writer, and the first President of Turkey. He is credited with being the founder of the Republic of Turkey....

, he had no elite of European-educated intellectuals to help him. "Reza Khan made Iran out of nothing," they say and, knowing Persia and Persians, they insist that force was the only way.

One of the first acts of the new Government after the 1921 entrance into Teheran was to tear up the treaty with the U.S.S.R.. The Bolsheviks condemned the aggressive foreign policy of Imperial Russia, promised never to interfere in Persia's internal affairs, but reserved the right to occupy it temporarily in the event another power used Persia for an attack on Soviet Russia.

As the Shah grew in power, his mistrust of British Imperialism
Imperialism
Imperialism, as defined by Dictionary of Human Geography, is "the creation and/or maintenance of an unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationships, usually between states and often in the form of an empire, based on domination and subordination." The imperialism of the last 500 years,...

 grew with it and he began to spit in the Lion's eye. In 1931, he forbade Imperial Airways to fly over Iranian territory. More staggering was his sudden cancellation, in 1932, of the old William Knox D'Arcy contract which had now burgeoned into the British Government-controlled Anglo-Persian (later Anglo-Iranian) Oil Co. Iran was getting 16% of the net profits. The Shah wanted 21%. The British took the dispute before the League of Nations. The Shah got what he wanted; the British got 30 more years on their concession.

Foreign affairs and influence

Reza Shah initiated change in foreign affairs as well. The Shah worked to balance British influence with other foreigners and generally to diminish foreign influence in Iran.

In 1931, as said before, he refused to allow Imperial Airways to fly in Persian airspace, instead giving the concession to German-owned Lufthansa Airlines. The next year he surprised the British by unilaterally canceling the oil concession awarded to William Knox D'Arcy
William Knox D'Arcy
William Knox D'Arcy was one of the principal founders of the oil and petrochemical industry in Persia .-Early life:...

 (and then called Anglo-Persian Oil Company
Anglo-Persian Oil Company
The Anglo-Persian Oil Company was founded in 1908 following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran. It was the first company to extract petroleum from the Middle East...

), which was slated to expire in 1961. The concession granted Persia 16% of the net profits from APOC oil operations. The Shah wanted 21%. Following a brief challenge by the British before the League of Nations, the British acquiesced. He previously hired American consultants to develop and implement Western-style financial and administrative systems. Among them was U.S. economist Dr. Arthur Millspaugh
Arthur Millspaugh
Arthur Chester Millspaugh, PhD, was a former adviser at the U.S. State Department’s Office of the Foreign Trade, who was hired to re-organize the Finance Ministry of Iran from 1922–1927 and 1942-1945....

, who acted as the nation's Finance Minister. Reza Shah also purchased ships from Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 and hired Italians to teach his troops the intricacies of naval warfare. He also imported hundreds of German technicians and advisors for various projects. Mindful of Persia's long period of subservience to British and Russian authority, Reza Shah was careful to avoid giving any one foreign nation too much control. He also insisted that foreign advisors be employed by the Persian government, so that they would not be answerable to foreign powers. This was based upon his experience with Anglo-Persian, which was owned and operated by the British government.

In his campaign against foreign influence, he annulled the 19th-century capitulations to Europeans in 1928. Under these, Europeans in Iran had enjoyed the privilege of being subject to their own consular courts rather than to the Iranian judiciary. The right to print money was moved from the British Imperial Bank to his National Bank of Iran (Bank-i Melli Iran), as was the administration of the telegraph system, from the Indo-European Telegraph Company to the Iranian government, in addition to the collection of customs by Belgian officials. He eventually fired Millspaugh, and prohibited foreigners from administering schools, owning land or traveling in the provinces without police permission.

Not all observers agree that the Shah minimized foreign influence. One complaint about his development program was that the north-south railway line he had built was uneconomical, only serving the British, who had a military presence in the south of Iran and desired the ability to transfer their troops north to Russia, as part of their strategic defence plan. In contrast, the Shah's regime did not develop what critics believe was an economically justifiable east-west railway system.

On 21 March 1935, he issued a decree asking foreign delegates to use the term Iran in formal correspondence, in accordance with the fact that Persia was a term used for a country identified as Iran in the Persian language
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

. It was, however, attributed more to the Iranian people than others, particularly the language. Opponents claimed that this act brought cultural damage to the country and separated Iran from its past in the West (see Iran naming dispute
Iran naming dispute
In the Western world, Persia was historically the common name for Iran. In 1935, Reza Shah asked foreign delegates to use the term Iran in formal correspondence. Since then, in the Western World, the use of the word "Iran" has become more common...

). The name Iran means “Land of the Aryans”.

Tired of the opportunistic policies of both Britain
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

, the Shah circumscribed contacts with foreign embassies. Relations with the Soviet Union had already deteriorated because of that country's commercial policies, which in the 1920s and 1930s adversely affected Iran. In 1932 the Shah offended Britain by canceling the agreement under which the Anglo-Persian Oil Company produced and exported Iran's oil. Although a new and improved agreement was eventually signed, it did not satisfy Iran's demands and left bad feeling on both sides. To counterbalance British and Soviet influence, Reza Shah encouraged German commercial enterprise in Iran. On the eve of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, Germany was Iran's largest trading partner.
The Germans agreed to sell the Shah the steel factory he coveted and considered a sine qua non of progress and modernity. Nevertheless, according to the British embassy reports from Tehran in 1940, the total number of German citizens in Iran — from technicians to spies — was no more than a thousand.

His foreign policy, which had consisted essentially of playing the Soviet Union off against Great Britain, failed when those two powers joined in 1941 to fight the Germans. To supply the Soviet forces with war material through Iran, the two allies jointly occupied the country in August 1941.

Later years of reign

Any serious discussion of the reign of Reza Shah would be meaningless without demarcating several distinct periods. During the first period, which lasted from 1925–1932, the country benefited greatly from the contributions of many of the country's best and brightest, to whom should accrue the credit for laying the foundations of modern Iran. All the worthwhile efforts of Reza Shah's reign were either completed or conceived in the 1925–1938 period, a period during which he required the assistance of reformists to gain the requisite legitimacy to consolidate this modern reign. In particular, Abdolhossein Teymourtash assisted by Farman Farma, Davar
Davar
Davar was a Hebrew-language daily newspaper published in the Mandate Palestine and Israel between 1925 and May 1996.-History:Davar was established by Moshe Beilinson and Berl Katznelson, with Katznelson as its first editor. The first edition was published on 1 June 1925 under the name Davar - Iton...

 and a huge number of modern educated Iranians, proved adept at masterminding the implementation of many reforms demanded since the failed constitutional revolution of 1905–1911. The preservation and promotion of the country's historic heritage, the provision of public education, construction of a national railway, abolition of capitulation agreements, and the establishment of a national bank had all been advocated by intellectuals since the tumult of the constitutional revolution.

The later years of his reign were dedicated to institutionalizing the educational system of Iran and also to the industrialization of the country. He knew that the system of the constitutional monarchy in Iran after him had to stand on a solid basis of the collective participation of all Iranians, and that it was indispensable to create educational centers all over Iran. Another important thing that he tried to accomplish in his last years of his reign was the system of text-charging, that had not ever existed in Iran, which was so important in making progress in the citizen’s vision of the modern society. Thus, in that way the citizen would have the right to ask for the result of his work in society.

Another hardworking area was the kind of solid alliance that Reza Shah’s cabinet tried to create with all of Iran’s neighbors, in particular Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

 and a confederation of Middle Eastern countries. Unfortunately, with the death of Kemal Atatürk and the start of the Second World War these projected were left to the post-war regeneration of the total life of that region.

The parliament assented to his decrees, the free press was suppressed, and the swift incarceration of political leaders like Mossadegh, the murder of others such as Teymourtash, Sardar Asad, Firouz, Modarres, Arbab Keikhosro and the suicide of Davar
Davar
Davar was a Hebrew-language daily newspaper published in the Mandate Palestine and Israel between 1925 and May 1996.-History:Davar was established by Moshe Beilinson and Berl Katznelson, with Katznelson as its first editor. The first edition was published on 1 June 1925 under the name Davar - Iton...

, ensured that any progress was stillborn and the formation of a democratic process unattainable. He treated the urban middle class, the managers, and technocrats
Technocracy (bureaucratic)
Technocracy is a form of government where technical experts are in control of decision making in their respective fields. Economists, engineers, scientists, health professionals, and those who have knowledge, expertise or skills would compose the governing body...

 with an Iron Fist
Iron Fist
Iron Fist is a fictional character, a comic book superhero in the , and a practitioner of martial arts. Created by Roy Thomas and Gil Kane, he first appeared in Marvel Premiere #15...

; as a result his state-owned industries remained unproductive and inefficient. The bureaucracy fell apart, since officials preferred sycophancy, when anyone could be whisked away to prison for even the whiff of disobeying his whims. He confiscated land from the Qajars and from his rivals and into his own estates. The corruption continued under his rule and even became institutionalized. Progress toward modernization was spotty and isolated. He became totally dependent on his military force and the army, which in return regularly received up to 50 percent of the public revenue to guarantee its loyalty.

Although the landed upper class lost its influence during his reign, his new regime aroused opposition not from the gentry
Gentry
Gentry denotes "well-born and well-bred people" of high social class, especially in the past....

 but mainly from Iranian "tribes, the clergy, and the young generation of the new intelligentsia. The tribes bore the brunt of the new order."

World War II and forced abdication

In August 1941, the Allied
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War . Former Axis states contributing to the Allied victory are not considered Allied states...

 powers Britain
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 invaded and occupied Iran by a massive air, land, and naval assault, (see Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran
Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran
The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran was the Allied invasion of the Imperial State of Iran during World War II, by British, Commonwealth, and Soviet armed forces. The invasion from August 25 to September 17, 1941, was codenamed Operation Countenance...

) subsequently forcing Reza Shah to abdicate
Abdication
Abdication occurs when a monarch, such as a king or emperor, renounces his office.-Terminology:The word abdication comes derives from the Latin abdicatio. meaning to disown or renounce...

 in favour of his son (see also Persian Corridor
Persian Corridor
The Persian Corridor is the name for a supply route through Iran into Soviet Azerbaijan by which British aid and American Lend-Lease supplies were transferred to the Soviet Union during World War II.-Background:...

).

The Shah received with disbelief, as a personal humiliation and defeat, the news that fifteen Iranian divisions had surrendered without much resistance. Some of his troops dispersed and went home, while others were locked up in their barracks by the Allies.

The British left the Shah a face-saving way out:
The Anglo-Soviet invasion was instigated in response to Reza Shah's declaration of Neutrality in World War II and refusal to allow Iranian territory to be used to train, supply, and act as a transport corridor to ship arms to Russia for its war effort against Germany. Reza Shah further refused the Allies' requests to expel German nationals residing in Iran, and denied the use of the railway to the Allies. However according to the British embassy reports from Tehran in 1940, the total number of German citizens in Iran - from technicians to spies - was no more than a thousand.

Because of its importance in the allied victory, Iran was subsequently called "The Bridge of Victory" by Winston Churchill.

Reza Shah was forced, by the invading British, to abdicate in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Rezā Shāh Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, Shah of Persia , ruled Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979...

 who replaced his father as Shah on the throne on September 16, 1941.

Death

Reza Shah was then moved by invading British forces into exile
Exile
Exile means to be away from one's home , while either being explicitly refused permission to return and/or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return...

 to British territories, first to Mauritius
Mauritius
Mauritius , officially the Republic of Mauritius is an island nation off the southeast coast of the African continent in the southwest Indian Ocean, about east of Madagascar...

, then to Durban
Durban
Durban is the largest city in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal and the third largest city in South Africa. It forms part of the eThekwini metropolitan municipality. Durban is famous for being the busiest port in South Africa. It is also seen as one of the major centres of tourism...

, thence Johannesburg
Johannesburg
Johannesburg also known as Jozi, Jo'burg or Egoli, is the largest city in South Africa, by population. Johannesburg is the provincial capital of Gauteng, the wealthiest province in South Africa, having the largest economy of any metropolitan region in Sub-Saharan Africa...

, South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

, where according to his British captors, he died on July 26, 1944 of a heart ailment about which he had been complaining for many years. (His personal doctor had boosted the King's morale in exile by telling him that he was suffering from chronic indigestion and not heart ailment. He lived on a diet of plain rice and boiled chicken in the last years of his life.) He was sixty-six years old at the time of his death.

After his passing, his body was carried to Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

, where it was embalmed and kept at the royal Al Rifa'i Mosque
Al Rifa'i Mosque
The Al-Rifa'i Mosque Al-Refai, Al-Refa'i, and named in English the Royal Mosque), is located in Cairo, Egypt, in Midan al-Qal'a, adjacent to the Cairo Citadel. The building is located opposite the Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Hassan, which dates from around 1361, and was architecturally conceived as...

 in Cairo
Cairo
Cairo , is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the 16th largest metropolitan area in the world. Nicknamed "The City of a Thousand Minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life...

, (also the future burial place of his son, the exiled Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Rezā Shāh Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, Shah of Persia , ruled Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979...

). Many years later, the remains were flown back to Iran, where the embalming was removed, and buried in a beautifully designed and decorated mausoleum
Mausoleum
A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or persons. A monument without the interment is a cenotaph. A mausoleum may be considered a type of tomb or the tomb may be considered to be within the...

built in his honor at town of Ray
Ray, Iran
Rey or Ray , also known as Rhages and formerly as Arsacia, is the capital of Rey County, Tehran Province, Iran, and is the oldest existing city in the province....

, in the southern suburbs of the capital, Tehran. Satellite map The Iranian parliament (Majlis) later designated the title "the Great" to be added to his name. On 14 January 1979, shortly before the Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
The Iranian Revolution refers to events involving the overthrow of Iran's monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and its replacement with an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the...

, the remains were moved back to Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

 and buried in the Al Rifa'i Mosque
Al Rifa'i Mosque
The Al-Rifa'i Mosque Al-Refai, Al-Refa'i, and named in English the Royal Mosque), is located in Cairo, Egypt, in Midan al-Qal'a, adjacent to the Cairo Citadel. The building is located opposite the Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Hassan, which dates from around 1361, and was architecturally conceived as...

 in Cairo
Cairo
Cairo , is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the 16th largest metropolitan area in the world. Nicknamed "The City of a Thousand Minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life...

.

Following the Revolution in 1979, Reza Shah's mausoleum
Reza Shah's mausoleum
Reza Shah's Mausoleum, located in Ray south of Tehran, was the burial ground of Reza Shah, the penultimate king of Iran.In the early days of the Iranian Revolution in May 1979, Reza Shah's mausoleum was destroyed in an act of desecration of the dead and gross vandalism by bulldozers and dynamite...

 was destroyed by the newly formed Islamic state, at the direction of Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Ayatollah is a high ranking title given to Usuli Twelver Shī‘ah clerics. Those who carry the title are experts in Islamic studies such as jurisprudence, ethics, and philosophy and usually teach in Islamic seminaries. The next lower clerical rank is Hojatoleslam wal-muslemin...

 Sadeq Khalkhali, which was sanctioned by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
Ruhollah Khomeini
Grand Ayatollah Sayyed Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini was an Iranian religious leader and politician, and leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran...

. Many other historical sites were destroyed shortly thereafter.

Legacy

  • Iranian Railway.
  • Iranian treasury.
  • Creation of the first university in Iran.
  • Eradication of malaria.
  • Eradication of corruption in civil servants, paying wages in time so people didn't have to rely on bribes.
  • Creation of schoolbooks; before Reza Shah the Islamic madreseh was the only form of schooling and the Koran the only widely available book.
  • Creation of birth certificates for all Iranians.


Reza Shah's main critics were the so-called "new intelligentsia", often educated in Europe, for whom the Shah "was not a state-builder but an `oriental despot` ... not a reformer but a plutocrat strengthening the landed upper class; not a real nationalist but a jack-booted Cossack
Cossack
Cossacks are a group of predominantly East Slavic people who originally were members of democratic, semi-military communities in what is today Ukraine and Southern Russia inhabiting sparsely populated areas and islands in the lower Dnieper and Don basins and who played an important role in the...

 trained by the Tsarists and brought to power by British imperialists. His defenders included Ahmad Kasravi
Ahmad Kasravi
Ahmad Kasravi , was a notable Iranian linguist, historian, and reformer.Born in Hokmabad , Tabriz, Iran, Kasravi was an Iranian Azeri Initially, Kasravi enrolled in a seminary. Later, he joined the Iranian Constitutional Revolution...

, an older intellectual who defended the Shah saying
Our younger intellectuals cannot possibly understand, and thus cannot possibly judge Reza Shah. They cannot because they were too young to remember the chaotic and desperate conditions out of which he arose.

Family=

Reza Shah's first wife, whom he married in 1894, was Maryam Khanum (died 1904). They had one daughter:
  • Hamdamsaltaneh Pahlavi
    Hamdamsaltaneh Pahlavi
    HIH Princess Hamdamsaltaneh Pahlavi , first child and daughter of Reza Shah Pahlavi of Iran and Maryam Khanum , born 22nd February 1903 in Tehran, married Hadi Atabay, and had issue :...

     (1903–1992)


His second wife was Tadj ol-Molouk
Tadj ol-Molouk
Tadj ol-Molouk of Iran was the daughter of General Teymūr Khan Ayromlou, and the Queen Consort of Reza Shah, founder of the Pahlavi dynasty and Shah of Iran between 1915 and 1941. The title she was given after becoming Queen means "Crown of the King" in the Persian language...

 (1896–1982), by whom he had four children:
  • Princess Shams Pahlavi
    Shams Pahlavi
    Princess Shams ul-Mulk Pahlavi Persian:شمس پهلوی was the elder sister of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran...

     (1917–1996)
  • Mohammad-Rezā Shāh Pahlavi (1919–1980)
  • Princess Ashraf Pahlavi
    Ashraf Pahlavi
    Princess Ashraf ul-Mulki Pahlavi , is the twin sister of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the late Shah of Iran and the Pahlavi Dynasty. She currently resides in Paris, France. Princess Ashraf is the oldest living member of her family...

     (b. 1919)
  • Prince Ali Reza Pahlavi
    Ali Reza Pahlavi I
    Ali Reza Pahlavi was Reza Shah Pahlavi's second son, and the brother of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Following Reza Shah's deposition and exile, Ali Reza accompanied his father into exile in Mauritius and then into Johannesburg, South Africa...

     (1922–1954)


In 1922 (divorced 1923), Reza Shah married Turan (Qamar al Molk) Amir Soleimani (1904 1995), by whom he had one son:
  • Gholam Reza Pahlavi (b. 1923)


Reza Shah's fourth wife was Esmat Dowlatshahi (1904–1995), by whom he had five children:
  • Abdul Reza Pahlavi (1924–2004)
  • Ahmad Reza Pahlavi (1925–1981)
  • Mahmud Reza Pahlavi (1926–2001)
  • Fatimeh Pahlavi (1928–1987)
  • Hamid Reza Pahlavi (1932–1992)

Honours

  • Decoration of the Imperial Portrait, 1st Class of the Persian Empire
    Qajar dynasty
    The Qajar dynasty was an Iranian royal family of Turkic descent who ruled Persia from 1785 to 1925....

    -1923
  • Nishan-i-Aqdas, 1st Class of the Persian Empire
    Qajar dynasty
    The Qajar dynasty was an Iranian royal family of Turkic descent who ruled Persia from 1785 to 1925....

    -1923
  • Order of the Lion and Sun, 1st Class of the Persian Empire
    Qajar dynasty
    The Qajar dynasty was an Iranian royal family of Turkic descent who ruled Persia from 1785 to 1925....

    -1923
  • Grand Collar of the Order of the Supreme Sun of the Kingdom of Afghanistan
    Kingdom of Afghanistan
    The Kingdom of Afghanistan was an Islamic monarchy in south Central Asia established in 1926 as a successor state to the Emirate of Afghanistan, following the ascension to the throne by Amanullah Khan and his proclaming Afghanistan a kingdom in 1926, after 7 years on the throne...

    -1928
  • Knight of the Order of the White Eagle of Poland
    Poland
    Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

    -1929
  • Collar of the Order of Muhammad 'Ali of the Kingdom of Egypt
    Kingdom of Egypt
    The Kingdom of Egypt was the first modern Egyptian state, lasting from 1922 to 1953. The Kingdom was created in 1922 when the British government unilaterally ended its protectorate over Egypt, in place since 1914. Sultan Fuad I became the first king of the new state...

    -1932
  • Collar of the Grand Order of the Hashimites of the Kingdom of Iraq
    Kingdom of Iraq
    The Kingdom of Iraq was the sovereign state of Iraq during and after the British Mandate of Mesopotamia. The League of Nations mandate started in 1920. The kingdom began in August 1921 with the coronation of Faisal bin al-Hussein bin Ali al-Hashemi as King Faisal I...

    -1932
  • Knight of the Order of the Seraphim
    Order of the Seraphim
    The Royal Order of the Seraphim is a Swedish Royal order of chivalry created by King Frederick I of Sweden on 23 February 1748, together with the Order of the Sword and the Order of the Polar Star...

     of Sweden
    Sweden
    Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

    -1934
  • Knight of the Order of the Elephant
    Order of the Elephant
    The Order of the Elephant is the highest order of Denmark. It has origins in the 15th century, but has officially existed since 1693, and since the establishment of constitutional monarchy in 1849, is now almost exclusively bestowed on royalty and heads of state.- History :A Danish religious...

     of Denmark
    Denmark
    Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

    -1937
  • Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold of Belgium
    Belgium
    Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

    -1937
  • Grand Cross of the Legion d'honneur
    Légion d'honneur
    The Legion of Honour, or in full the National Order of the Legion of Honour is a French order established by Napoleon Bonaparte, First Consul of the Consulat which succeeded to the First Republic, on 19 May 1802...

     of France
    France
    The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

    -1937
  • Knight of the Order of the Most Holy Annunciation
    Order of the Most Holy Annunciation
    The Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation is an order of chivalry, or knighthood, originating in mediæval Italy. It eventually was the pinnacle of the honours system in the Kingdom of Italy, which ceased to be a national order when the kingdom became a republic in 1946...

     of the Kingdom of Italy
    Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)
    The Kingdom of Italy was a state forged in 1861 by the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which was its legal predecessor state...

    -1939
  • Grand Cross of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
    Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
    The Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus is an order of chivalry awarded by the House of Savoy, the heads of which were formerly Kings of Italy...

     of the Kingdom of Italy
    Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)
    The Kingdom of Italy was a state forged in 1861 by the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which was its legal predecessor state...

    -1939
  • Chain of Fuad I of the Kingdom of Egypt
    Kingdom of Egypt
    The Kingdom of Egypt was the first modern Egyptian state, lasting from 1922 to 1953. The Kingdom was created in 1922 when the British government unilaterally ended its protectorate over Egypt, in place since 1914. Sultan Fuad I became the first king of the new state...

    -1939

See also

  • Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran
    Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran
    The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran was the Allied invasion of the Imperial State of Iran during World War II, by British, Commonwealth, and Soviet armed forces. The invasion from August 25 to September 17, 1941, was codenamed Operation Countenance...

  • Abolhassan Diba
    Abolhassan Diba
    Abolhassan Diba was born in Tabriz, Iran to a well-established family which can trace its line from the 8th century. His mother was a princess of the Qajar dynasty and his father was a Private Aide to the Crown Prince . At birth, he was given the Qajar title of "Saghat-ed-Dowleh"...

  • Amir Abdollah Tahmasebi
    Amir Abdollah Tahmasebi
    Abdollah Khan Amir Tahmasebi was a senior military commander, instrumental in the fall of the Qajar dynasty and rise to power of Reza Shah Pahlavi....

  • Sar-Lashkar Muhammad-Hussein Ayrom
  • Abdolhossein Teymourtash
  • Sar Lashgar Buzarjomehri
  • Mahmud Khan Puladeen
    Mahmud Khan Puladeen
    Major General Mahmud Khan Pulādeen was a senior military leader of the Reza Shah Pahlavi era.In 1921, he served as personal guard to Seyyed Zia'eddin Tabatabaee...

  • Amanullah Jahanbani
    Amanullah Jahanbani
    Sepahbod Amanullah Jahanbani was a senior general of Reza Shah Pahlavi.At the age of 10, Jahānbāni was sent to St. Petersburg for schooling, and returned to Iran as a ranked military officer in World War I. During a second trip, after completing his studies in Europe, he continued climbing in...

  • Colonel Pesian
    Colonel Pesian
    Colonel Mohammad Taqi-Khan Pessian , born into an aristocratic family in Tabriz, was a popular military leader of Iran and became a national hero after his assassination...

  • Khaz'al Khan
    Khaz'al Khan
    Sheikh Khaz'al ibn Jabir Al kaabi, GCIE, KCSI , Muaz us-Sultana, and Sardar-e-Aqdas , was the ruler of the semi-autonomous Sheikhdom of "Mohammerah")....

  • Sepahbod Ahmad Amir-Ahmadi
  • General Fazlollah Zahedi
    Fazlollah Zahedi
    Mohammad Fazlollah Zahedi was an Iranian general and statesman who replaced democratically elected Iranian Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadeq through a western-backed coup d'état, in which he played a major role.-Early years:Born in Hamedan in 1897, Fazlollah Zahedi was the son of Abol Hassan...

  • A.P. World History Leader
  • Human rights in the Pahlavi Dynasty
  • Reza Shah's mausoleum
    Reza Shah's mausoleum
    Reza Shah's Mausoleum, located in Ray south of Tehran, was the burial ground of Reza Shah, the penultimate king of Iran.In the early days of the Iranian Revolution in May 1979, Reza Shah's mausoleum was destroyed in an act of desecration of the dead and gross vandalism by bulldozers and dynamite...


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK