Rahimuddin Khan
Overview
 
Rahimuddin Khan Afridi is a retired four-star general of the Pakistan Army
Pakistan Army
The Pakistan Army is the branch of the Pakistani Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. The Pakistan Army came into existence after the Partition of India and the resulting independence of Pakistan in 1947. It is currently headed by General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani. The Pakistan...

 who was the fourth Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee
Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, Pakistan
The Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee , is a military administrative body of high-ranking and senior uniformed military leaders and officers in the Pakistan Defense Forces who advises the civilian Government of Pakistan, National Security Council, and Defence Minister on important military matters...

 from 1984 to 1987. He was also the longest-serving Governor
Governor of Balochistan
The Governor of Balochistan is the appointed Head of State of the provincial government in Balochistan, Pakistan. The governor is designated by the Prime Minister and is normally regarded a ceremonial post...

 and martial law administrator
Martial Law Administrator of Balochistan
The Martial Law Administrator of Balochistan was the head of the military regime of Balochistan, the largest province of Pakistan. The capacity was first established when martial law was imposed by General Yahya Khan, who appointed Riaz Hussain to the post, but was never officially ratified. It...

 of Balochistan
Balochistan (Pakistan)
Balochistan is one of the four provinces or federating units of Pakistan. With an area of 134,051 mi2 or , it is the largest province of Pakistan, constituting approximately 44% of the total land mass of Pakistan. According to the 1998 population census, Balochistan had a population of...

, from 1978 to when he resigned in 1984. Rahimuddin later served as Governor
Governor of Sindh
The Governor of Sindh is the appointed Head of State of the provincial government in Sindh, Pakistan. The governor is designated by the Prime Minister and is normally regarded a ceremonial post...

 of Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

 with emergency powers in 1988, from which too he resigned. As military governor, he ended the 1973-1977 operation in Balochistan and pursued development.
Encyclopedia
Rahimuddin Khan Afridi is a retired four-star general of the Pakistan Army
Pakistan Army
The Pakistan Army is the branch of the Pakistani Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. The Pakistan Army came into existence after the Partition of India and the resulting independence of Pakistan in 1947. It is currently headed by General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani. The Pakistan...

 who was the fourth Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee
Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, Pakistan
The Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee , is a military administrative body of high-ranking and senior uniformed military leaders and officers in the Pakistan Defense Forces who advises the civilian Government of Pakistan, National Security Council, and Defence Minister on important military matters...

 from 1984 to 1987. He was also the longest-serving Governor
Governor of Balochistan
The Governor of Balochistan is the appointed Head of State of the provincial government in Balochistan, Pakistan. The governor is designated by the Prime Minister and is normally regarded a ceremonial post...

 and martial law administrator
Martial Law Administrator of Balochistan
The Martial Law Administrator of Balochistan was the head of the military regime of Balochistan, the largest province of Pakistan. The capacity was first established when martial law was imposed by General Yahya Khan, who appointed Riaz Hussain to the post, but was never officially ratified. It...

 of Balochistan
Balochistan (Pakistan)
Balochistan is one of the four provinces or federating units of Pakistan. With an area of 134,051 mi2 or , it is the largest province of Pakistan, constituting approximately 44% of the total land mass of Pakistan. According to the 1998 population census, Balochistan had a population of...

, from 1978 to when he resigned in 1984. Rahimuddin later served as Governor
Governor of Sindh
The Governor of Sindh is the appointed Head of State of the provincial government in Sindh, Pakistan. The governor is designated by the Prime Minister and is normally regarded a ceremonial post...

 of Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

 with emergency powers in 1988, from which too he resigned. As military governor, he ended the 1973-1977 operation in Balochistan and pursued development. He also controversially suppressed incoming Mujahideen rebels during the Soviet war in Afghanistan
Soviet war in Afghanistan
The Soviet war in Afghanistan was a nine-year conflict involving the Soviet Union, supporting the Marxist-Leninist government of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan against the Afghan Mujahideen and foreign "Arab–Afghan" volunteers...

.

Family Roots and life

Rahimuddin Khan was born in Kaimganj
Kaimganj
Kaimganj, also rendered as Qaimganj , is a city in Farrukhabad district in the Indian State of Uttar Pradesh. Qaimganj is connected to all the villages of north India by roads and Railway network...

, Farrukhabad
Farrukhabad
Farrukhābād , is one of the important cities of Central Doab Region in the State of Uttar Pradesh in northern India. The city was founded in 1717 by Mohammed Bangash who named it after the Mughal emperor Farrukhsiyar. Farrukhabad is situated on the bank of sacred river Ganges.-Demographics: India...

, United Provinces
United Provinces of British India
The United Provinces of British India, more commonly known as the United Provinces, was a province of British India, which came into existence on 3 January 1921 as a result of the renaming of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. It corresponded approximately to the combined regions of the...

 India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. His roots are traced back to the Pashtun Afridi
Afridi
Afridi of rough hilly area in the eastern Safed Koh range, west of the Peshawar Valley and east of Torkham, and Maidan in Tirah, which can be accessed by the Kajurhi plains and the valleys of Bara and Churah in Pakistan...

 tribes of Kohat
Kohat
Kohat is a medium sized town in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It is located at 33°35'13N 71°26'29E with an altitude of 489 metres and is the capital of Kohat District. The town centres around a British-era fort, various bazaars, and a military cantonment. A British-built narrow gauge...

 in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa from where his ancestors immigrated to Rohilkhand
Rohilkhand
Rohilkhand is a region of northwestern Uttar Pradesh state of India.Rohilkhand lies on the upper Ganges alluvial plain and has an area of about 25,000 km²/10,000 square miles...

. Rahimuddin attended Jamia Millia Islamia University, founded in Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

 by his uncle Zakir Hussain
Zakir Hussain (politician)
Dr. Zakir Hussain , was the third President of India from 13 May 1967 until his death on 3 May 1969. He was the first elected Muslim president of India....

, the third President of India
President of India
The President of India is the head of state and first citizen of India, as well as the Supreme Commander of the Indian Armed Forces. President of India is also the formal head of all the three branches of Indian Democracy - Legislature, Executive and Judiciary...

.

Career in the Army

Upon the partition of India
Partition of India
The Partition of India was the partition of British India on the basis of religious demographics that led to the creation of the sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan and the Union of India on 14 and 15...

 in 1947, Rahimuddin opted for Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

, enrolling in the Pakistan Army
Pakistan Army
The Pakistan Army is the branch of the Pakistani Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. The Pakistan Army came into existence after the Partition of India and the resulting independence of Pakistan in 1947. It is currently headed by General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani. The Pakistan...

 as the first Gentleman Cadet of the Pakistan Military Academy
Pakistan Military Academy
The Pakistan Military Academy is a four-year coeducational federal service military academy. It is located at Kakul near Abbottabad in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan....

. As Captain, he helped enforce martial law in Lahore
Lahore
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

 during the anti-Ahmadi
Persecution of Ahmadis
The Persecution of Ahmadis is the religious persecution of Ahmadi Muslims as a consequence of professing their faith. They have been subject to various forms of persecution and discrimination since the movement's inception in 1889...

 riots of 1953
Lahore riots of 1953
The Lahore riots of 1953 were a series of violent agitations against the Ahmadiyya movement in the city of Lahore, Pakistan, which were quelled by the Pakistan Army. Demonstrations began around February, and soon escalated into citywide incidents of murder, looting and arson against the Ahmadi...

. He attended Command and General Staff College
Command and General Staff College
The United States Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas is a graduate school for United States Army and sister service officers, interagency representatives, and international military officers. The college was established in 1881 by William Tecumseh Sherman as a...

 at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and Command and Staff College
Command and Staff College
The Command and Staff College was established in 1907 at Quetta, Balochistan, British Raj, now in Pakistan, and is the oldest and the most prestigious institution of the Pakistan Army. It was established in 1905 in Deolali and moved to its present location at Quetta in 1907 under the name of Quetta...

 in Quetta
Quetta
is the largest city and the provincial capital of the Balochistan Province of Pakistan. Known as the "Fruit Garden of Pakistan" due to the diversity of its plant and animal wildlife, Quetta is home to the Hazarganji Chiltan National Park, which contains some of the rarest species of wildlife in the...

. He was hospitalized months before the Indo-Pakistani war of 1965
Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. This conflict became known as the Second Kashmir War fought by India and Pakistan over the disputed region of Kashmir, the first having been fought in 1947...

 with a broken ankle. In 1969, while as Colonel
Colonel
Colonel , abbreviated Col or COL, is a military rank of a senior commissioned officer. It or a corresponding rank exists in most armies and in many air forces; the naval equivalent rank is generally "Captain". It is also used in some police forces and other paramilitary rank structures...

, he was appointed sub-martial law administrator to Hyderabad
Hyderabad, Sindh
is the second largest city in the Sindh province of Pakistan. It is the seventh largest city in the country. The city was founded in 1768 by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro upon the ruins of a Mauryan fishing village along the bank of the Indus known as Neroon Kot...

 by General Yahya Khan
Yahya Khan
General Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan Qizilbash, H.Pk, HJ, S.Pk, psc was the third President of Pakistan from 1969 to 1971, following the resignation of Ayub Khan...

.

Rahimuddin then served as Chief Instructor at the Armed Forces War College at the then National Defence College
National Defence University, Islamabad
The National Defense University is an institution of higher education funded by the Ministry of Defence of Government of Pakistan, intended to facilitate high-level training, education, and the development of national security strategy...

, Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi , locally known as Pindi, is a city in the Pothohar region of Pakistan near Pakistan's capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. Rawalpindi is the fourth largest city in Pakistan after Karachi, Lahore and Faisalabad...

 until 1975. He was chosen to head the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, , is an administrative governmental and autonomous science and technology governmental department of Pakistan, responsible for development of nuclear energy and development of nuclear power sector in Pakistan...

 and incipient integrated nuclear development
Project-706
Project-706, also known as Project-726 or as the Kahuta Project, was a science effort codename of a project conducted during the Cold War and Russo-Afghan War whose objective was to develop Pakistan' first atomic weapon. The mainstream goal of the project was the development of an atomic bomb using...

 by Prime Minister
Prime Minister of Pakistan
The Prime Minister of Pakistan , is the Head of Government of Pakistan who is designated to exercise as the country's Chief Executive. By the Constitution of Pakistan, Pakistan has the parliamentary democratic system of government...

 Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that, 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. Bhutto was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party — the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan— and served as its chairman until his...

 but declined. As Lieutenant-General, he became Commander of the II Strike Corps
II Corps (Pakistan)
The II Corps, known as II Strike Corps or Army Reserve South, is army corps of Pakistan Army stationed in Multan, Punjab Province of Pakistan. The II Strike Corps is one of Pakistan's four heavy armoured corps...

 in Multan
Multan
Multan , is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. It is located in the southern part of the province on the east bank of the Chenab River, more or less in the geographic centre of the country and about from Islamabad, from Lahore and from Karachi...

 in 1976. He refused heading Inter-Services Intelligence
Inter-Services Intelligence
The Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence , is Pakistan's premier intelligence agency, responsible for providing critical national security intelligence assessment to the Government of Pakistan...

 in 1977, and was made Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee by military dictator Zia-ul-Haq in 1984, which he served as until retirement in 1987.

Judge of Mujibur Rahman's trial

In February 1971, Yahya Khan took then-Brigadier-General Rahimuddin off his 111 Brigade charge in Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi , locally known as Pindi, is a city in the Pothohar region of Pakistan near Pakistan's capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. Rawalpindi is the fourth largest city in Pakistan after Karachi, Lahore and Faisalabad...

 to preside over the military tribunal
Military tribunal
A military tribunal is a kind of military court designed to try members of enemy forces during wartime, operating outside the scope of conventional criminal and civil proceedings. The judges are military officers and fulfill the role of jurors...

 of Bengali
Bengali people
The Bengali people are an ethnic community native to the historic region of Bengal in South Asia. They speak Bengali , which is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit and Sanskrit languages. In their native language, they are referred to as বাঙালী...

 leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was a Bengali nationalist politician and the founder of Bangladesh. He headed the Awami League, served as the first President of Bangladesh and later became its Prime Minister. He headed the Awami League, served as the first President of Bangladesh and later became its...

 in Faisalabad
Faisalabad
Faisalabad , formerly known as Lyallpur, is the third largest metropolis in Pakistan, the second largest in the province of Punjab after Lahore, and a major industrial center in the heart of Pakistan. Before the foundation of the city in 1880, the area was very thinly populated. The population has...

. Rahimuddin was reportedly uncomfortable conducting the trial. He left mid-proceedings to command the brigade during the Indo-Pakistani war of 1971
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military conflict between India and Pakistan. Indian, Bangladeshi and international sources consider the beginning of the war to be Operation Chengiz Khan, Pakistan's December 3, 1971 pre-emptive strike on 11 Indian airbases...

, but was recalled by Yahya to decide the verdict. Major General Iftikhar Janjua
Iftikhar Janjua
Major General Iftikhar Khan Janjua, HJ & Bar, SPk, SQA, of the Pakistan Army is the most senior Pakistani officer to have been killed in action. He is known in Pakistan as the hero of Rann of Kutch, as he was a brigadier in command of 6 Brigade, during the fighting in April 1965 prior to the...

 instead charged Naseerullah Babar
Naseerullah Babar
Major-General Naseerullah Khan Babar , SJ, HJ, was a retired 2-star rank general officer in the Pakistan Army, and later career military officer-turned statesman from the leftist democratic soclialist, the Pakistan Peoples Party...

 with 111 Brigade. Following appeals from several officials in the United States Senate
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the United States House of Representatives comprises the United States Congress. The composition and powers of the Senate are established in Article One of the U.S. Constitution. Each...

 and House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is one of the two Houses of the United States Congress, the bicameral legislature which also includes the Senate.The composition and powers of the House are established in Article One of the Constitution...

, the Richard Nixon administration dissuaded Yahya from executing Rahimuddin's unconfirmed sentence, and Yahya's successor Bhutto rescinded the verdict. The court proceedings were never made public.

Martial law Governor of Balochistan

The military operation
Baloch Insurgency and Rahimuddin's Stabilization
The 1970s military operation in Balochistan was a a five-year conflict in which a separatist movement in Balochistan, the largest province of Pakistan, engaged with the Pakistan Army after then-Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto ordered a military operation in the region in 1973...

 in Balochistan
Balochistan (Pakistan)
Balochistan is one of the four provinces or federating units of Pakistan. With an area of 134,051 mi2 or , it is the largest province of Pakistan, constituting approximately 44% of the total land mass of Pakistan. According to the 1998 population census, Balochistan had a population of...

, initiated against anti-state insurgents in 1973, had claimed thousands of lives. Lieutenant-General Rahimuddin Khan was appointed Martial Law Administrator of Balochistan
Martial Law Administrator of Balochistan
The Martial Law Administrator of Balochistan was the head of the military regime of Balochistan, the largest province of Pakistan. The capacity was first established when martial law was imposed by General Yahya Khan, who appointed Riaz Hussain to the post, but was never officially ratified. It...

 on the condition that he remain Commander II Corps. He became provincial Governor on September 16, 1978. Rahimuddin announced a general amnesty
Amnesty
Amnesty is a legislative or executive act by which a state restores those who may have been guilty of an offense against it to the positions of innocent people, without changing the laws defining the offense. It includes more than pardon, in as much as it obliterates all legal remembrance of the...

 for belligerents willing to give up arms, and began withdrawal
Withdrawal (military)
A withdrawal is a type of military operation, generally meaning retreating forces back while maintaining contact with the enemy. A withdrawal may be undertaken as part of a general retreat, to consolidate forces, to occupy ground that is more easily defended, or to lead the enemy into an ambush...

. He also dismantled the present political system and isolated policy makers and feudal figures coupled with authoritarian government, causing the separatist movement
Baloch nationalism
Baloch nationalism is a movement which claims that the Baloch people, an ethno-linguistic group mainly found in Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan are a nation...

 to grind to a standstill.

Rahimuddin's term also saw sustained development. His electricity expansion from Quetta to Loralai
Loralai
Loralai is the principal city of Loralai District in the northeast of the Balochistan Province of Pakistan. It was formerly known as Bori. It is four thousand seven hundred feet above the sea level....

 converted vast areas with sub-soil water into orchards. Following the Soviet invasion
Soviet war in Afghanistan
The Soviet war in Afghanistan was a nine-year conflict involving the Soviet Union, supporting the Marxist-Leninist government of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan against the Afghan Mujahideen and foreign "Arab–Afghan" volunteers...

 of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

, Rahimuddin used the resultant foreign attention on Balochistan by introducing an externally financed development programme. Forty million dollars (USD) were committed by the end of 1987, by which time Rahimuddin had resigned. He expedited the regulation of Pakistan Petroleum Limited
Pakistan Petroleum Limited
Pakistan Petroleum Limited is a Pakistan based oil company, it was incorporated June 5, 1950, when it inherited the assets and liabilities of the Burmah Oil Company Ltd. which initially holds 70% of the share with the rest mostly held by the Government of Pakistan...

, the exploration company charged with the Sui gas field
Sui gas field
Sui gas field is the biggest natural gas field in Pakistan. It is located near Sui in Balochistan. The gas field was discovered in the late 1952 and the commercial exploitation of the field began in 1955....

. He consolidated the then-contentious integration of Gwadar
Gwadar
Gwadar also known as Godar is a developing port city on the southwestern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan. It is the district headquarters of Gwadar District in Balochistan province and has a population of approximately 50,000.Gwadar is strategically located at the apex of the Arabian Sea and at the...

 into Balochistan, notified as a district in 1977. Addressing the province's literacy rate, the lowest in the country, he administered the freeing up of resources towards education, created girls' incentive programs, and had several girls' schools built in the Dera Bugti District
Dera Bugti District
Dera Bugti is a district located in the south west of Balochistan province of Pakistan. Dera Bugti is named after its headquarter town 'Dera Bugti'. Dera means `abode' or `habitat', while `Bugti' is the name of the major Baloch tribe. Thus Dera Bugti means the abode of the Bugtis, the dominant...

. As part of his infrastructure schemes, he also forced his way in extending electricity to vast areas with subsoil
Subsoil
Subsoil, or substrata, is the layer of soil under the topsoil on the surface of the ground. The subsoil may include substances such as clay and/or sand that has only been partially broken down by air, sunlight, water, wind etc., to produce true soil...

 water.

Containment of Afghan refugees

With the Soviet war in Afghanistan, the Zia government began militarily and financially aiding the anti-communist Afghan mujahideen. Millions of Afghan refugees, believed to be the largest refugee population in the world, crossed over the porous border largely through to Balochistan and the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. Whereas in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa under the pro-guerrilla governor General Fazle Haq
Fazle Haq
Lieutenant General Fazle Haq was a 3-star rank general in the Pakistan Army, and former Martial Law Administrator of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. He was the "Corps-Commander" of the XI Corps, and commanded all the Pakistan Army assets assigned in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province...

, heroin freely entered with the mujahideen, to pay for sophisticated weaponry under General Rahimuddin tightly controlled barbed wire
Barbed wire
Barbed wire, also known as barb wire , is a type of fencing wire constructed with sharp edges or points arranged at intervals along the strand. It is used to construct inexpensive fences and is used atop walls surrounding secured property...

 military camps were established to prevent movement of the refugees within Balochistan throughout the duration of the nine-year war. In retrospect, this prevented drugs and weaponry from infiltrating the province, despite becoming widespread in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.

Mistaken identity in Al-Zulfikar hijack

In March 1981, the Al-Zulfikar terrorist organization hijacked a Pakistan International Airlines
Pakistan International Airlines
Pakistan International Airlines Corporation commonly known as PIA, is the flag carrier airline of Pakistan. The airline has its head office on the grounds of Jinnah International Airport in Karachi. and operates scheduled services to 24 domestic destinations and 38 international destinations in 27...

 airplane from Karachi
Karachi
Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and the main financial centre of Pakistan, as well as the capital of the province of Sindh. The city has an estimated population of 13 to 15 million, while the total metropolitan area has a population of over 18 million...

 to Kabul
Kabul
Kabul , spelt Caubul in some classic literatures, is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan. It is also the capital of the Kabul Province, located in the eastern section of Afghanistan...

. Formed by Murtaza Bhutto
Murtaza Bhutto
Dr. Mir Ghulam Murtaza Bhutto was a Pakistani politician and the Member of the Parliament of Pakistan, representing Pakistan People's Party from the Larkana constituency...

, Al-Zulfikar was created to overthrow the military dictatorship
Military dictatorship
A military dictatorship is a form of government where in the political power resides with the military. It is similar but not identical to a stratocracy, a state ruled directly by the military....

 that had ousted Bhutto's father, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. The hijackers threatened to murder hostages if state authorities did not release specific political prisoner
Political prisoner
According to the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, a political prisoner is ‘someone who is in prison because they have opposed or criticized the government of their own country’....

s. Upon the state's refusal, Al-Zulfikar shot and killed passenger Captain Tariq Rahim, a man Murtaza Bhutto mistakenly believed to be the son of General Rahimuddin Khan. The decision to kill Rahim was taken after consultations between Murtaza and KHAD
KHAD
Khadamat-e Etela'at-e Dawlati translates directly to English as: "Government Information Agency". However, this phrase is more correctly translated as Government Intelligence Service...

 chief Mohammad Najibullah
Mohammad Najibullah
Mohammad Najibullah Ahmadzai , originally merely Najibullah, was the fourth and last President of the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. He is also considered the second President of the Republic of Afghanistan.-Early years:Najibullah was born in August 1947 to the Ahmadzai...

. Tariq Rahim had actually been a former aide-de-camp
Aide-de-camp
An aide-de-camp is a personal assistant, secretary, or adjutant to a person of high rank, usually a senior military officer or a head of state...

 to the elder Bhutto. The episode was ended when Zia-ul-Haq released the prisoners.

Governor of Sindh

Following Zia-ul-Haq's dismissing the government in 1988, Rahimuddin became Governor
Governor of Sindh
The Governor of Sindh is the appointed Head of State of the provincial government in Sindh, Pakistan. The governor is designated by the Prime Minister and is normally regarded a ceremonial post...

 of Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

. Governor's rule was imposed citing a collapse of administration. Rahimuddin controversially dismissed Z.A. Nizami from the directorate of Karachi Development Authority
Karachi Development Authority
Karachi Development Authority was established to develop Karachi under master plans. KDA was established in 1957. KDA owns undeveloped land in the city which it sell to real state development companies in Karachi....

, and banned illegal construction. He also immediately began pushing through legislature for administrative reform. He moved to create separate police forces for the city and the rural areas, but this was resisted after his resignation by those fearing greater complications in the Sindhi
Sindhi people
Sindhis are a Sindhi speaking socio-ethnic group of people originating from Sindh, a province Formerly of British India, now in Pakistan. Today Sindhis that live in Pakistan belong to various religious denominations including Islam, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, Sikhism and Christianity...

-Muhajir relationship. Special riot control
Riot control
Riot control refers to the measures used by police, military, or other security forces to control, disperse, and arrest civilians who are involved in a riot, demonstration, or protest. Law enforcement officers or soldiers have long used non-lethal weapons such as batons and whips to disperse crowds...

 officers were trained to cope with ethnic riots or student challenges, and river and forest police were also set up to battle dacoity
Dacoity
Dacoity is a term used for "banditry" in India. The spelling is the anglicized version of the Hindi word and as a colloquial Anglo-Indian word with this meaning, also appears in the Glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases Banditry is criminal activity involving robbery by groups of...

. Ghulam Ishaq Khan
Ghulam Ishaq Khan
Ghulam Ishaq Khan , abbreviated as GIK, was the seventh President of Pakistan from August 17, 1988 until July 18, 1993 and a career statesman from the start to the end of cold war...

 became acting President after Zia's death in an aircrash on 17 August, and moved for the re-introduction of the Chief Minister of Sindh
Chief Minister of Sindh
The Chief Minister of Sindh is elected by the Provincial Assembly of Sindh to serve as the head of the provincial government in Sindh, Pakistan. The current Chief Minister is Qaim Ali Shah, who belongs to Pakistan Peoples Party...

 office, relegating the Governorship to a ceremonial post. Rahimuddin abruptly resigned following this attempt to limit his vast gubernatorial powers.

Legacy

Rahimuddin Khan's governorships were easily the periods of greatest power for both offices. Foreign Policy Centre
Foreign Policy Centre
The Foreign Policy Centre is a British think tank specialising in foreign policy. It was formed in 1998 and launched by Tony Blair with the aim of developing a "vision of a fair and rule-based world order". It is pro-European. It has its origins on the centre-left of British politics, but works...

 held that "the province's tribal sardars were taken out of the pale of politics for the first time," which nationalist Khair Bakhsh Marri since admitted "was the low ebb of our freedom movement". Despite deepening animosity against the army, much development is credited to Rahimuddin's term focusing on infrastructure
Infrastructure
Infrastructure is basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function...

 and education
Education
Education in its broadest, general sense is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people lives on from one generation to the next. Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts...

. However, his maneuvers for an increased share in gas revenue for Balochistan were overturned by the government in 1985. Rahimuddin additionally oversaw the construction of nuclear test sites in Chaghai
Chaghai
Chaghai is area in Balochistan region in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran.* Chagai Hills, a Pakistani nuclear test site and a region of landform in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Iran.* Chagai-I, refers to five Pakistan's nuclear tests....

 where tests were conducted
Chagai-I
The Chagai-I was a codename referring to the five underground nuclear tests conducted by Pakistan at 15:15hrs in 28th May of 1998. It was named Chagai-I, as the tests were conducted in the Chagai District...

 under Nawaz Sharif
Nawaz Sharif
Mian Mohammad Nawaz Sharif is a Pakistani conservative politician and steel magnate who served as 12th Prime Minister of Pakistan in two non-consecutive terms from November 1990 to July 1993, and from February 1997 to October 12, 1999...

 in 1998. He also maintained a unique reputation for integrity
Integrity
Integrity is a concept of consistency of actions, values, methods, measures, principles, expectations, and outcomes. In ethics, integrity is regarded as the honesty and truthfulness or accuracy of one's actions...

 during the corruption allegations-ridden Zia and Ghulam Ishaq regimes. As a result of Rahimuddin's containment, Balochistan remained relatively free of foreign militancy until the US war in Afghanistan triggered a fresh influx of the Taliban from 2001 onwards.

See also

  • Establishment (Pakistan)
    Establishment (Pakistan)
    The Establishment is a term used commonly by Pakistani political scientists and also by political scholars and analysts around the world for the powerful military-dominant oligarchy in Pakistan...

  • 1970s Operation in Balochistan
  • 1953 Lahore riots
  • Military history of Pakistan
    Military history of Pakistan
    The military history of Pakistan encompasses an immense panorama of conflicts and struggles extending for more than 2,000 years across areas including modern Pakistan, and the greater Indian subcontinent, although Pakistan as a modern nation-state itself dates only from post 1947.The military holds...

  • History of Balochistan
    History of Balochistan
    Balochistan is known to be the largest province and one of the four provinces of today's Pakistan. The British Empire on October 1, as paramount power in the region reached a security agreement with the princely state of Kalat which was ruled by the Khan of Kalat 1887 but the kingdom retained its...

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