RIS (file format)
RIS is a standardized tag format developed by Research Information Systems, Incorporated (the format name refers to the company) to enable citation programs to exchange data.
It is supported by a number of reference managers
Reference management software
Reference management software, citation management software or personal bibliographic management software is software for scholars and authors to use for recording and utilising bibliographic citations . Once a citation has been recorded, it can be used time and again in generating bibliographies,...

. Many digital libraries, like IEEE Xplore
IEEE Xplore
IEEE Xplore is a scholarly research database that indexes, abstracts, and provides full-text for articles and papers on computer science, electrical engineering and electronics. The database mainly covers material from IEEE and IET. The IEEE Xplore database contains over two million...

, Scopus
Scopus, officially named SciVerse Scopus, is a bibliographic database containing abstracts and citations for academic journal articles. It covers nearly 18,000 titles from over 5,000 international publishers, including coverage of 16,500 peer-reviewed journals in the scientific, technical, medical,...

, the ACM Portal
ACM Portal
The ACM Portal is an online service of the Association for Computer Machinery. Its core are two main sections: ACM Digital Library , and the Guide to Computing Literature....

, ScienceDirect
ScienceDirect is one of the largest online collections of published scientific research in the world. It is operated by the publisher Elsevier and contains nearly 10 million articles from over 2,500 journals and over 6,000 e-books, reference works, book series and handbooks issued by Elsevier...

, and SpringerLink
Springer Science+Business Media
- Selected publications :* Encyclopaedia of Mathematics* Ergebnisse der Mathematik und ihrer Grenzgebiete * Graduate Texts in Mathematics * Grothendieck's Séminaire de géométrie algébrique...

, can export citations in this format.


The RIS file format
File format
A file format is a particular way that information is encoded for storage in a computer file.Since a disk drive, or indeed any computer storage, can store only bits, the computer must have some way of converting information to 0s and 1s and vice-versa. There are different kinds of formats for...

 — two letters, two spaces and a dash — is a tagged
Tag (metadata)
In online computer systems terminology, a tag is a non-hierarchical keyword or term assigned to a piece of information . This kind of metadata helps describe an item and allows it to be found again by browsing or searching...

 format for expressing bibliographic citation
Broadly, a citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source . More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression Broadly, a citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source). More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated...

s. According to the specifications, the lines must end by the ASCII
The American Standard Code for Information Interchange is a character-encoding scheme based on the ordering of the English alphabet. ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that use text...

 carriage return
Carriage return
Carriage return, often shortened to return, refers to a control character or mechanism used to start a new line of text.Originally, the term "carriage return" referred to a mechanism or lever on a typewriter...

 and line feed characters. Note that this is the convention on Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows is a series of operating systems produced by Microsoft.Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces . Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal...

, while in other contemporary operating systems, particularly Unix
Unix is a multitasking, multi-user computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs, including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Brian Kernighan, Douglas McIlroy, and Joe Ossanna...

, end of line
In computing, a newline, also known as a line break or end-of-line marker, is a special character or sequence of characters signifying the end of a line of text. The name comes from the fact that the next character after the newline will appear on a new line—that is, on the next line below the...

 is typically marked by line feed only.

Example record

This is an example of how the article "Claude E. Shannon. A mathematical theory of communication. Bell System Technical Journal, 27:379–423, July 1948" would be expressed in the RIS file format:

AU - Shannon,Claude E.
PY - 1948/07//
TI - A Mathematical Theory of Communication
JO - Bell System Technical Journal
SP - 379
EP - 423
VL - 27
ER -


Excerpt of main RIS tags. Except for TY and ER, order of tags is free (for a comprehensive matrix of tags and reference types please submit a support request on the EndNote or Reference Manager web site for "Creating a Direct Export Link").

TY - Type of reference (must be the first tag)
A2 - Secondary Author (each author on its own line preceded by the tag)
A3 - Tertiary Author (each author on its own line preceded by the tag)
A4 - Subsidiary Author (each author on its own line preceded by the tag)
AB - Abstract
AD - Author Address
AN - Accession Number
AU - Author (each author on its own line preceded by the tag)
C1 - Custom 1
C2 - Custom 2
C3 - Custom 3
C4 - Custom 4
C5 - Custom 5
C6 - Custom 6
C7 - Custom 7
C8 - Custom 8
CA - Caption
CN - Call Number
CY - Place Published
DA - Date
DB - Name of Database
DP - Database Provider
EP - End Page
ET - Edition
IS - Number
J2 - Alternate Title (this field is used for the abbreviated title of a book or journal name)
KW - Keywords (keywords should be entered each on its own line preceded by the tag)
L1 - File Attachments (this is a link to a local file on the users system not a URL link)
L4 - Figure (this is also meant to be a link to a local file on the users's system and not a URL link)
LA - Language
LB - Label
M1 - Number
M3 - Type of Work
N1 - Notes
NV - Number of Volumes
OP - Original Publication
PB - Publisher
PY - Year
RI - Reviewed Item
RN - Research Notes
RP - Reprint Edition
SE - Section
SP - Start Page
ST - Short Title
T2 - Secondary Title
T3 - Tertiary Title
TA - Translated Author
TI - Title
TT - Translated Title
VL - Volume
Y2 - Access Date
ER - End of Reference (must be the last tag)

Type of reference

Type of reference preceded by the TY - tag can abbreviated as follows:

ABST - Abstract
ADVS - Audiovisual material
AGGR - Aggregated Database
ANCIENT - Ancient Text
ART - Art Work
BILL - Bill
BLOG - Blog
BOOK - Whole book
CASE - Case
CHAP - Book chapter
CHART - Chart
CLSWK - Classical Work
COMP - Computer program
CONF - Conference proceeding
CPAPER - Conference paper
CTLG - Catalog
DATA - Data file
DBASE - Online Database
DICT - Dictionary
EBOOK - Electronic Book
ECHAP - Electronic Book Section
EDBOOK - Edited Book
EJOUR - Electronic Article
ELEC - Web Page
ENCYC - Encyclopedia
EQUA - Equation
FIGURE - Figure
GEN - Generic
GOVDOC - Government Document
GRANT - Grant
HEAR - Hearing
ICOMM - Internet Communication
INPR - In Press
JFULL - Journal (full)
JOUR - Journal
LEGAL - Legal Rule or Regulation
MANSCPT - Manuscript
MAP - Map
MGZN - Magazine article
MPCT - Motion picture
MULTI - Online Multimedia
MUSIC - Music score
NEWS - Newspaper
PAMP - Pamphlet
PAT - Patent
PCOMM - Personal communication
RPRT - Report
SER - Serial publication
SLIDE - Slide
SOUND - Sound recording
STAND - Standard
STAT - Statute
THES - Thesis/Dissertation
UNPB - Unpublished work
VIDEO - Video recording

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.