Quebec City
Overview
 
Quebec also Québec, Quebec City or Québec City is the capital of the Canadian province
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada combine to make up the world's second-largest country by area. There are ten provinces and three territories...

 of Quebec
Quebec
Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

 and is located within the Capitale-Nationale
Capitale-Nationale
Capitale-Nationale is one of 17 administrative regions of Quebec, Canada. Quebec City, Quebec's centre of government, is located in this region. It has a land area of 18,638.7 km2...

 region. It is the second most populous city in Quebec after Montreal
Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

, which is about 233 kilometres (145 mi) to the southwest. As of the 2006 Canadian Census
Canada 2006 Census
The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. Census day was May 16, 2006. The next census following will be the 2011 Census. Canada's total population enumerated by the 2006 census was 31,612,897...

, the city has a population of 491,142, and the metropolitan area has a population of 715,515.

The narrowing of the Saint Lawrence River
Saint Lawrence River
The Saint Lawrence is a large river flowing approximately from southwest to northeast in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. It is the primary drainage conveyor of the Great Lakes Basin...

 approximate to the city's promontory, Cap-Diamant (Cape Diamond), and Lévis
Lévis, Quebec
Lévis is a city in eastern Quebec, Canada. It is located on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River, opposite Quebec City. A ferry links Old Quebec with Old Lévis, and two bridges, the Quebec Bridge and the Pierre Laporte Bridge, connect western Lévis with Quebec City. The Société de transport de...

, on the opposite bank, provided the name given to the city, Kébec, an Algonquin
Algonquin language
Algonquin is either a distinct Algonquian language closely related to the Ojibwe language or a particularly divergent Ojibwe dialect. It is spoken, alongside French and to some extent English, by the Algonquin First Nations of Quebec and Ontario...

 word meaning "where the river narrows".
Encyclopedia
Quebec also Québec, Quebec City or Québec City is the capital of the Canadian province
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada combine to make up the world's second-largest country by area. There are ten provinces and three territories...

 of Quebec
Quebec
Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

 and is located within the Capitale-Nationale
Capitale-Nationale
Capitale-Nationale is one of 17 administrative regions of Quebec, Canada. Quebec City, Quebec's centre of government, is located in this region. It has a land area of 18,638.7 km2...

 region. It is the second most populous city in Quebec after Montreal
Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

, which is about 233 kilometres (145 mi) to the southwest. As of the 2006 Canadian Census
Canada 2006 Census
The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. Census day was May 16, 2006. The next census following will be the 2011 Census. Canada's total population enumerated by the 2006 census was 31,612,897...

, the city has a population of 491,142, and the metropolitan area has a population of 715,515.

The narrowing of the Saint Lawrence River
Saint Lawrence River
The Saint Lawrence is a large river flowing approximately from southwest to northeast in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. It is the primary drainage conveyor of the Great Lakes Basin...

 approximate to the city's promontory, Cap-Diamant (Cape Diamond), and Lévis
Lévis, Quebec
Lévis is a city in eastern Quebec, Canada. It is located on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River, opposite Quebec City. A ferry links Old Quebec with Old Lévis, and two bridges, the Quebec Bridge and the Pierre Laporte Bridge, connect western Lévis with Quebec City. The Société de transport de...

, on the opposite bank, provided the name given to the city, Kébec, an Algonquin
Algonquin language
Algonquin is either a distinct Algonquian language closely related to the Ojibwe language or a particularly divergent Ojibwe dialect. It is spoken, alongside French and to some extent English, by the Algonquin First Nations of Quebec and Ontario...

 word meaning "where the river narrows". Founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain , "The Father of New France", was a French navigator, cartographer, draughtsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, ethnologist, diplomat, and chronicler. He founded New France and Quebec City on July 3, 1608....

, Quebec City is one of the oldest cities in North America. The ramparts
Ramparts of Quebec City
Located in Canada, the Ramparts of Quebec City are the only remaining fortified city walls in the Americas, north of Mexico. The English began fortifying the existing walls, after they took Quebec City from the French in the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759.The wall surrounds most of Old...

 surrounding Old Quebec
Old Quebec
Old Quebec is a historic neighbourhood of Quebec City, the capital of the province of Quebec in Canada. Comprising the Upper Town and Lower Town , the area is a UNESCO World Heritage Site...

 (Vieux-Québec) are the only remaining fortified city walls that still exist in the Americas north of Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

, and were declared a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

 by UNESCO in 1985 as the 'Historic District of Old Québec'.

The city is a major cultural centre of the French-speaking world, as well as an important tourist destination. Various festivals are held annually including the Summer Festival
Quebec City Summer Festival
The Festival d'été, or Summer Festival , has been taking place annually since 1968. It is organized by groups of businesspersons and artists of Quebec City in order to show the artistic, economic, and tourist potential of the region...

, and Winter Carnival. The city's most famous landmark is the Château Frontenac
Château Frontenac
The Château Frontenac, currently known as Fairmont Le Château Frontenac, is a grand hotel in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. It was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1980...

, a hotel which dominates the skyline. The National Assembly of Quebec
National Assembly of Quebec
The National Assembly of Quebec is the legislative body of the Province of Quebec. The Lieutenant Governor and the National Assembly compose the Parliament of Quebec, which operates in a fashion similar to those of other British-style parliamentary systems.The National Assembly was formerly the...

, the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec
Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec
The Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec is a museum in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada gathering approximately 25,000 works essentially produced in Quebec, or by Quebec artists, some of which dating from the 18th century. It also houses a library since 1987...

 (National Gallery of Quebec), and the Musée de la civilisation
Musée de la civilisation
The Musée de la civilisation is a museum located in Quebec City. It is situated in old Québec near the Saint Lawrence River...

 (Museum of Civilization) are found within or near Vieux-Québec.

Early history: from Stadacona to Seven Years War

Quebec City is one of the oldest European settlements in North America. While many of the major cities in Mexico date from the sixteenth century, among cities in Canada and the U.S.A. only St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador
St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador
St. John's is the capital and largest city in Newfoundland and Labrador, and is the oldest English-founded city in North America. It is located on the eastern tip of the Avalon Peninsula on the island of Newfoundland. With a population of 192,326 as of July 1, 2010, the St...

; Harbour Grace, Newfoundland and Labrador
Harbour Grace, Newfoundland and Labrador
Harbour Grace is a town in Conception Bay on the Avalon Peninsula in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. With roots dating back to the sixteenth century, it is one of the oldest towns in North America. It is located about 45 km northwest of the provincial capital, St. John's...

; Port Royal, Nova Scotia
Port Royal, Nova Scotia
Port Royal was the capital of Acadia from 1605 to 1710 and is now a town called Annapolis Royal in the western part of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. Initially Port Royal was located on the north shore of the Annapolis Basin, Nova Scotia, at the site of the present reconstruction of the...

; St. Augustine, Florida
St. Augustine, Florida
St. Augustine is a city in the northeast section of Florida and the county seat of St. Johns County, Florida, United States. Founded in 1565 by Spanish explorer and admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, it is the oldest continuously occupied European-established city and port in the continental United...

; Santa Fe, New Mexico
Santa Fe, New Mexico
Santa Fe is the capital of the U.S. state of New Mexico. It is the fourth-largest city in the state and is the seat of . Santa Fe had a population of 67,947 in the 2010 census...

; Jamestown, Virginia
Jamestown, Virginia
Jamestown was a settlement in the Colony of Virginia. Established by the Virginia Company of London as "James Fort" on May 14, 1607 , it was the first permanent English settlement in what is now the United States, following several earlier failed attempts, including the Lost Colony of Roanoke...

; and Tadoussac, Quebec
Tadoussac, Quebec
Tadoussac is a village in Quebec, Canada, at the confluence of the Saint Lawrence and Saguenay rivers. It was France's first trading post on the mainland of New France and an important trading post in the seventeenth century, making it the oldest continuously inhabited European settlement in...

 were created earlier than Quebec City.

French explorer Jacques Cartier
Jacques Cartier
Jacques Cartier was a French explorer of Breton origin who claimed what is now Canada for France. He was the first European to describe and map the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the shores of the Saint Lawrence River, which he named "The Country of Canadas", after the Iroquois names for the two big...

 built a fort at the site in 1535, where he stayed for the winter before going back to France in spring 1536. He came back in 1541 with the goal of building a permanent settlement. This first settlement was abandoned less than one year after its foundation, in the summer 1542, due in large part to the hostility of the natives combined with the harsh living conditions during winter.

Quebec was founded by Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain , "The Father of New France", was a French navigator, cartographer, draughtsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, ethnologist, diplomat, and chronicler. He founded New France and Quebec City on July 3, 1608....

, a French explorer and diplomat on July 3, 1608, and at the site of a long abandoned St. Lawrence Iroquoian
Laurentian language
Laurentian, or St. Lawrence Iroquoian, was an Iroquoian language spoken until the late 16th century along the shores of the Saint Lawrence River in present-day Quebec and Ontario, Canada. It is believed to have disappeared with the extinction of the St...

 settlement called Stadacona. Champlain, also called "The Father of New France
New France
New France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Spain and Great Britain in 1763...

",
served as its administrator for the rest of his life.

The name "Canada" refers to this settlement. Although called the cradle of the Francophone
Francophone
The adjective francophone means French-speaking, typically as primary language, whether referring to individuals, groups, or places. Often, the word is used as a noun to describe a natively French-speaking person....

 population in North America, the Acadian settlement at Port-Royal antedates it. The place seemed favourable to the establishment of a permanent colony.

In 1665, there were 550 people in 70 houses living in the city. One-quarter of the people were members of religious orders: secular priests, Jesuits, Ursulines nuns and the order running the local hospital, Hotel-Dieu.

Quebec City was captured by the British in 1759 and held until 1763. It was the site of three battles during Seven Years War - the Battle of Beauport
Battle of Beauport
The Battle of Beauport, also known as the Battle of Montmorency, fought on 31 July 1759, was an important confrontation between the British and French Armed Forces during the Seven Years' War of the French province of Canada...

, a French victory (July 31, 1759); the Battle of the Plains of Abraham
Battle of the Plains of Abraham
The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, also known as the Battle of Quebec, was a pivotal battle in the Seven Years' War...

, in which British troops under General James Wolfe
James Wolfe
Major General James P. Wolfe was a British Army officer, known for his training reforms but remembered chiefly for his victory over the French in Canada...

 defeated the French General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm
Louis-Joseph de Montcalm
Louis-Joseph de Montcalm-Gozon, Marquis de Saint-Veran was a French soldier best known as the commander of the forces in North America during the Seven Years' War .Montcalm was born near Nîmes in France to a noble family, and entered military service...

 on September 13, 1759 and shortly thereafter took the city; and the final Battle of Sainte-Foy
Battle of Sainte-Foy
The Battle of Sainte-Foy, sometimes called the Battle of Quebec, was fought on April 28, 1760 near the British-held town of Quebec in the French province of Canada during the Seven Years' War . It was a victory for the French under the Chevalier de Lévis over the British army under General Murray...

, a French victory (April 28, 1760). France ceded New France
New France
New France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Spain and Great Britain in 1763...

, including the city, to Britain in 1763.

At the end of French rule in 1763, the territory of present-day Quebec City was a world of contrasts. Forests, villages, fields and pastures surrounded the town of 8 000 inhabitants. The town distinguished itself by its monumental architecture, fortifications, muddy and filthy streets, affluent homes of masonry and shacks in the suburbs St-Jean and St-Roch. Despite its urbanity and its status as capital, Quebec City remained a small colonial city with close ties to its rural surroundings. Nearby inhabitants traded their farm surpluses and firewood for imported goods from France at the two city markets.

British rule

During the American Revolution
American Revolution
The American Revolution was the political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break free from the British Empire, combining to become the United States of America...

, revolutionary troops from the southern colonies assaulted the British garrison in an attempt to 'liberate' Quebec City, in a conflict now known as the Battle of Quebec
Battle of Quebec (1775)
The Battle of Quebec was fought on December 31, 1775 between American Continental Army forces and the British defenders of the city of Quebec, early in the American Revolutionary War. The battle was the first major defeat of the war for the Americans, and it came at a high price...

. The defeat of the revolutionaries from the south put an end to the hopes that the peoples of Quebec would rise and join the American Revolution
American Revolution
The American Revolution was the political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break free from the British Empire, combining to become the United States of America...

 so that Canada would join the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
The Continental Congress was a convention of delegates called together from the Thirteen Colonies that became the governing body of the United States during the American Revolution....

 and become part of the original United States of America along with the other British colonies of continental North America. In effect, the outcome of the battle would be the effective split of British North America into two distinct political entities. The city itself was not attacked during the war of 1812, when the United States again attempted to annex Canadian lands. Fearing another American attack on Quebec City in the future, construction of the Citadelle of Quebec
Citadelle of Quebec
The Citadelle — the French name is used both in English and French — is a military installation and official residence located atop Cap Diamant, adjoining the Plains of Abraham in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada...

 began in 1820. The Americans never did attack Canada after the War of 1812, but the Citadelle continued to house a large British garrison until 1871. The Citadelle is still in use by the military and is also a tourist attraction.

In 1840, after the Province of Canada was formed, the role of capital was shared between Kingston
Kingston, Ontario
Kingston, Ontario is a Canadian city located in Eastern Ontario where the St. Lawrence River flows out of Lake Ontario. Originally a First Nations settlement called "Katarowki," , growing European exploration in the 17th Century made it an important trading post...

, Montreal
Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

, Toronto
Toronto
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the largest city in Canada. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A relatively modern city, Toronto's history dates back to the late-18th century, when its land was first purchased by the British monarchy from...

, Ottawa
Ottawa
Ottawa is the capital of Canada, the second largest city in the Province of Ontario, and the fourth largest city in the country. The city is located on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of Southern Ontario...

 and Quebec City (from 1852 to 1856 and from 1859 to 1866). In 1867, Ottawa (which was chosen to be the permanent capital of the Province of Canada) was chosen to be the capital of the Dominion of Canada. The Quebec Conference
Quebec Conference, 1864
The Quebec Conference was the second meeting held in 1864 to discuss Canadian Confederation.The 16 delegates from the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island had agreed at the close of the Charlottetown Conference to meet again at Quebec City October 1864...

 on Canadian Confederation
Canadian Confederation
Canadian Confederation was the process by which the federal Dominion of Canada was formed on July 1, 1867. On that day, three British colonies were formed into four Canadian provinces...

 was held here.

20th and 21st centuries

Quebec City was struck by the 1925 Charlevoix-Kamouraska earthquake
1925 Charlevoix-Kamouraska earthquake
The 1925 Charlevoix–Kamouraska earthquake was a major earthquake that struck the entire northeastern part of North America on February 2, 1925, reaching 6.2 on the moment magnitude scale....

.

During World War II, two conferences were held in Quebec City. The First Quebec Conference
Quebec Conference, 1943
The First Quebec Conference was a highly secret military conference held during World War II between the British, Canadian and United States governments. The conference was held in Quebec City, August 17, 1943 – August 24, 1943. It took place at the Citadelle and at the Château Frontenac. The...

 was held in 1943 with Franklin Delano Roosevelt (the United States' president at the time), Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, was a predominantly Conservative British politician and statesman known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the century and served as Prime Minister twice...

 (the United Kingdom's prime minister), William Lyon Mackenzie King
William Lyon Mackenzie King
William Lyon Mackenzie King, PC, OM, CMG was the dominant Canadian political leader from the 1920s through the 1940s. He served as the tenth Prime Minister of Canada from December 29, 1921 to June 28, 1926; from September 25, 1926 to August 7, 1930; and from October 23, 1935 to November 15, 1948...

 (Canada's prime minister) and T.V. Soong (China's
Republic of China
The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan , is a unitary sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan , which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor...

 minister of foreign affairs). The Second Quebec Conference
Second Quebec Conference
The Second Quebec Conference was a high level military conference held during World War II between the British, Canadian and American governments. The conference was held in Quebec City, September 12, 1944 - September 16, 1944, and was the second conference to be held in Quebec, after "QUADRANT"...

 was held in 1944, and was attended by Churchill and Roosevelt. They took place in the buildings of the Citadelle
Citadelle of Quebec
The Citadelle — the French name is used both in English and French — is a military installation and official residence located atop Cap Diamant, adjoining the Plains of Abraham in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada...

 and of nearby Château Frontenac
Château Frontenac
The Château Frontenac, currently known as Fairmont Le Château Frontenac, is a grand hotel in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. It was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1980...

. A large part of the D-Day
D-Day
D-Day is a term often used in military parlance to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. "D-Day" often represents a variable, designating the day upon which some significant event will occur or has occurred; see Military designation of days and hours for similar...

Landings plans were made during those meetings.

Capital

Throughout its over four hundred years of existence, Quebec City has served as a capital. From 1608 to 1627 and 1632 to 1763, it was capital of French Canada and all of New France
New France
New France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Spain and Great Britain in 1763...

; from 1763 to 1791, it was the capital of the Province of Quebec
Province of Quebec (1763-1791)
The Province of Quebec was a colony in North America created by Great Britain after the Seven Years' War. Great Britain acquired Canada by the Treaty of Paris when King Louis XV of France and his advisors chose to keep the territory of Guadeloupe for its valuable sugar crops instead of New France...

; from 1791 to 1841, it was the capital of Lower Canada
Lower Canada
The Province of Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence...

; from 1852 to 1856 and from 1859 to 1866, it was capital of the Province of Canada
Province of Canada
The Province of Canada, United Province of Canada, or the United Canadas was a British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867. Its formation reflected recommendations made by John Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham in the Report on the Affairs of British North America following the Rebellions of...

; and since 1867, it has been capital of the Province of Quebec
Quebec
Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

. The administrative region in which Quebec City is situated is officially referred to as Capitale-Nationale
Capitale-Nationale
Capitale-Nationale is one of 17 administrative regions of Quebec, Canada. Quebec City, Quebec's centre of government, is located in this region. It has a land area of 18,638.7 km2...

 and the term "national capital" is used to refer to Quebec City itself at provincial level.

Geography

Quebec City is located in the Saint Lawrence River
Saint Lawrence River
The Saint Lawrence is a large river flowing approximately from southwest to northeast in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. It is the primary drainage conveyor of the Great Lakes Basin...

 valley, on the north bank of the Saint Lawrence River near its meeting with the St. Charles River. The region is low-lying and flat. The river valley has rich, arable soil, which makes this region the most fertile in the province. The Laurentian Mountains
Laurentian mountains
The Laurentian Mountains are a mountain range in southern Quebec, Canada, north of the St. Lawrence River and Ottawa River, rising to a highest point of 1166 metres at Mont Raoul Blanchard, north east of Quebec City in the Reserve Faunique des Laurentides. The Gatineau, L'Assomption, Lièvre,...

 lie to the north of the city.

Upper Town lies on the top of Cap-Diamant
Cap Diamant
Cap Diamant is the official name of the cape and promontory on which Quebec City is located, formed by the confluence of a bend in the St. Lawrence River to the south and east, and the much smaller St. Charles River to the north....

 (Cape Diamond) promontory. A high stone wall surrounds this portion of the city. The Plains of Abraham
Plains of Abraham
The Plains of Abraham is a historic area within The Battlefields Park in Quebec City, Quebec, that was originally grazing land, but became famous as the site of the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, which took place on 13 September 1759. Though written into the history books, housing and minor...

 are located near the edge of the promontory. Lower Town is located at shore level, below Cap-Diamant.

Climate

Quebec City lies at the confluence of several climatic regions. Usually, the climate
Climate
Climate encompasses the statistics of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological elemental measurements in a given region over long periods...

 is classified as humid continental
Humid continental climate
A humid continental climate is a climatic region typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters....

 or hemiboreal
Hemiboreal
Hemiboreal means halfway between the temperate and subarctic zones. The term is most frequently used in the context of ecosystems.-Botany:...

 (Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Dfb).

Quebec City experiences four distinct seasons.
Summers are warm, with periods of hotter and humid weather with average high temperatures of 22 - 25 °C (72 - 77 °F) and lows of 11 - 13 °C (51 - 56 °F). Winters are often cold, windy and snowy with average high temperatures -5 to -8 °C (18 - 23 °F) and lows -13 to -18 °C (0 - 8 °F). Spring and Fall, although short, brings chilly to warm temperatures. Late heat waves as well as "Indian summer
Indian summer
An Indian summer is a meteorological phenomenon that occurs in the autumn. It refers to a period of considerably above normal temperatures, accompanied by dry and hazy conditions, usually after there has been a killing frost...

s" are a common occurrence.

Annual precipitation is around 1230 millimetres (48 in), including 316 cm (124.4 in) of snowfall. The city experiences around 1,905 hours of sunshine annually, with summer being the sunniest, but also slightly the wettest season.

Boroughs and Districts

On January 1, 2002, the 12 former towns of Sainte-Foy
Sainte-Foy, Quebec
Sainte-Foy is a former city in central Quebec, Canada on the Saint Lawrence River. It was amalgamated into Quebec City on January 1, 2002. Most of Sainte-Foy is in the Borough of Sainte-Foy–Sillery–Cap-Rouge....

, Beauport
Beauport, Quebec
Beauport is a borough of Quebec City, Quebec, Canada on the Saint Lawrence River.Beauport is a northeastern suburb of Quebec City. Manufactures include paint, construction materials, printers, and hospital supplies. Food transportation is important to the economy...

, Charlesbourg
Charlesbourg, Quebec
Founded in 1659, Charlesbourg is a borough of Quebec City, in the northeastern part of the city and West of the city of Beauport. Incorporated in 1976 following the merger of the cities of Orsainville, Notre-Dame-des-Laurentides, the town of Charlesbourg and the municipality of Charlesbourg-Est...

, Sillery
Sillery, Quebec
Sillery is a former city in central Quebec, Canada. Located just west of old Quebec City, Sillery was among the many outlying municipalities amalgamated into an expanded Quebec City on January 1, 2002. Its former territory now forms part of the new Borough of Sainte-Foy—Sillery—Cap-Rouge...

, Loretteville
Loretteville, Quebec
Loretteville is a former city in central Quebec, Canada. It was amalgamated into Quebec City on January 1, 2002. It is located within the Borough of La Haute-Saint-Charles. Population : 13,737.Loretteville was the birthplace of pop singer Mitsou....

, Val-Bélair
Val-Bélair, Quebec
Val-Bélair is a former city in central Quebec, Canada. It was amalgamated into Quebec City on January 1, 2002. It is located within the Borough of La Haute-Saint-Charles.Population: 21,332-See also:* Municipal reorganization in Quebec----...

, Cap-Rouge
Cap-Rouge, Quebec
Cap-Rouge is located in central Quebec, Canada on the Saint Lawrence River within Quebec City. Originally a town on its own, Cap-Rouge was incorporated within Québec on January 1, 2002 and is now part of the Borough Sainte-Foy–Sillery–Cap-Rouge.-History:...

, Saint-Émile, Vanier
Vanier, Quebec
Vanier is a former city in central Quebec, Canada. It was amalgamated into Quebec City in 2002. It is located within the Borough of Les Rivières. Population : 11,504...

, L'Ancienne-Lorette
L'Ancienne-Lorette, Quebec
L'Ancienne-Lorette is a city in central Quebec, Canada. It is a suburb of and an enclave within Quebec City. It was merged with Quebec City from January 1, 2002, to December 31, 2005, but was re-established as a separate city on January 1, 2006....

, Saint-Augustin-de-Desmaures
Saint-Augustin-de-Desmaures, Quebec
Saint-Augustin-de-Desmaures is a city in central Quebec, Canada, on the Saint Lawrence River, adjacent to Quebec City.The town was founded in 1691 by three families...

 and Lac-Saint-Charles were annexed by Quebec City. This was one of several municipal mergers
Municipal reorganization in Quebec
The most recent episode of municipal reorganization in Quebec, Canada, was undertaken in 2002 by the Parti Québécois Government of Quebec, headed by Premier Lucien Bouchard and his successor Bernard Landry....

 which took place across Quebec on that date. Following a demerger referendum, L'Ancienne-Lorette and Saint-Augustin-de-Desmaures were reconstituted as separate municipalities on January 1, 2006, but the other former municipalities remain part of Quebec City. On November 1, 2009, the Quebec City re-organized its boroughs, reducing the number from 8 to 6.

Quebec City has thirty-five districts in six borough
Borough
A borough is an administrative division in various countries. In principle, the term borough designates a self-governing township although, in practice, official use of the term varies widely....

s. All districts are numbered, and most are named. In most cases the name of the district is similar to a historical town or village it replaced, but not always. Districts each elect their own council, which are part of public consultations with the city government. The numbering system was based on the 2002-2009 borough boundaries, so post-2009 the numbers do not correspond completely with the boroughs.

Former Muncipalities (10)

  • Quebec
  • Beauport
    Beauport, Quebec
    Beauport is a borough of Quebec City, Quebec, Canada on the Saint Lawrence River.Beauport is a northeastern suburb of Quebec City. Manufactures include paint, construction materials, printers, and hospital supplies. Food transportation is important to the economy...

  • Cap-Rouge
    Cap-Rouge, Quebec
    Cap-Rouge is located in central Quebec, Canada on the Saint Lawrence River within Quebec City. Originally a town on its own, Cap-Rouge was incorporated within Québec on January 1, 2002 and is now part of the Borough Sainte-Foy–Sillery–Cap-Rouge.-History:...

  • Charlesbourg
    Charlesbourg, Quebec
    Founded in 1659, Charlesbourg is a borough of Quebec City, in the northeastern part of the city and West of the city of Beauport. Incorporated in 1976 following the merger of the cities of Orsainville, Notre-Dame-des-Laurentides, the town of Charlesbourg and the municipality of Charlesbourg-Est...

  • Lac-Saint-Charles
  • Loretteville
    Loretteville, Quebec
    Loretteville is a former city in central Quebec, Canada. It was amalgamated into Quebec City on January 1, 2002. It is located within the Borough of La Haute-Saint-Charles. Population : 13,737.Loretteville was the birthplace of pop singer Mitsou....

  • Sainte-Foy
    Sainte-Foy, Quebec
    Sainte-Foy is a former city in central Quebec, Canada on the Saint Lawrence River. It was amalgamated into Quebec City on January 1, 2002. Most of Sainte-Foy is in the Borough of Sainte-Foy–Sillery–Cap-Rouge....

  • Saint-Émile
  • Sillery
    Sillery, Quebec
    Sillery is a former city in central Quebec, Canada. Located just west of old Quebec City, Sillery was among the many outlying municipalities amalgamated into an expanded Quebec City on January 1, 2002. Its former territory now forms part of the new Borough of Sainte-Foy—Sillery—Cap-Rouge...

  • Val-Bélair
    Val-Bélair, Quebec
    Val-Bélair is a former city in central Quebec, Canada. It was amalgamated into Quebec City on January 1, 2002. It is located within the Borough of La Haute-Saint-Charles.Population: 21,332-See also:* Municipal reorganization in Quebec----...

  • Vanier
    Vanier, Quebec
    Vanier is a former city in central Quebec, Canada. It was amalgamated into Quebec City in 2002. It is located within the Borough of Les Rivières. Population : 11,504...


Demerged Muncipalities (2)

  • L'Ancienne-Lorette
    L'Ancienne-Lorette, Quebec
    L'Ancienne-Lorette is a city in central Quebec, Canada. It is a suburb of and an enclave within Quebec City. It was merged with Quebec City from January 1, 2002, to December 31, 2005, but was re-established as a separate city on January 1, 2006....

  • Saint-Augustin-de-Desmaures
    Saint-Augustin-de-Desmaures, Quebec
    Saint-Augustin-de-Desmaures is a city in central Quebec, Canada, on the Saint Lawrence River, adjacent to Quebec City.The town was founded in 1691 by three families...



Borough Districts
1/6 La Cité–Limoilou
La Cité–Limoilou
La Cité–Limoilou is the central borough of Quebec City, the oldest , and the most populous, comprising 21.85% of the city's total population...

La Cité: 1-1 Vieux-Québec—Cap-Blanc—colline Parlementaire · 1-2 Saint-Roch · 1-3 Saint-Jean-Baptiste · 1-4 Montcalm · 1-5 Saint-Sauveur · 1-6 Saint-Sacrement · Limoilou: 6-1 Vieux-Limoilou · 6-2 Lairet · 6-3 Maizerets
Maizerets
Maizerets is a part of the Limoilou borough of Quebec City, Quebec, Canada that has a population of 7,197.- External links :...

2 Les Rivières
Les Rivières (Quebec City)
Les Rivières is a borough of Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. Population : 59,920. It comprises 5 neighborhoods: Neufchâtel-Est, Lebourgneuf, Duberger, Les Saules and Vanier. Except for Vanier, all of theses neighborhoods were part of the pre-2002 city of Quebec.-Description:Les Rivières is one of the...

2-1 Neufchâtel-Est–Lebourgneuf · 2-2 Duberger-Les Saules · 2-3 Vanier
3/8 Sainte-Foy–Sillery–Cap-Rouge
Sainte-Foy–Sillery–Cap-Rouge
Sainte-Foy–Sillery–Cap-Rouge is a borough of Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. It comprises Sillery, most of Sainte-Foy and Cap-Rouge.As of November 1, 2009, Sainte-Foy–Sillery–Cap-Rouge is one of the six boroughs of Quebec City.-See also:...

3-2 Cité universitaire · 3-3 Saint-Louis · 3-4 Plateau · 3-5 Pointe-de-Ste-Foy 8-2 · L'Aéroport · 8-3 Cap-Rouge
4 Charlesbourg
Charlesbourg, Quebec
Founded in 1659, Charlesbourg is a borough of Quebec City, in the northeastern part of the city and West of the city of Beauport. Incorporated in 1976 following the merger of the cities of Orsainville, Notre-Dame-des-Laurentides, the town of Charlesbourg and the municipality of Charlesbourg-Est...

4-1 Notre-Dame-des-Laurentides · 4-2 Quartier 4-2 · 4-3 Quartier 4-3 · 4-4 Jésuites, Quebec City · 4-5 Quartier 4-5 · 4-6 Quartier 4-6
5 Beauport
Beauport, Quebec
Beauport is a borough of Quebec City, Quebec, Canada on the Saint Lawrence River.Beauport is a northeastern suburb of Quebec City. Manufactures include paint, construction materials, printers, and hospital supplies. Food transportation is important to the economy...

5-1 Quartier 5-1 · 5-2 Quartier 5-2 · 5-3 Chutes-Montmorency · 5-4 Quartier 5-4 · 5-5 Vieux-Moulin
7/8 La Haute-Saint-Charles 7-1 Lac-Saint-Charles
Lac-Saint-Charles, Quebec City
Lac-Saint-Charles is a former city in Quebec and is now a district of the Quebec City borough of La Haute-Saint-CharlesIt has been created in 1946 until his designation as a district of Quebec City in 2002....

 · 7-2 Saint-Émile · 7-3 Loretteville · 7-4 Des Châtels · 8-1 Val-Bélair

Demographics


According to the 2006 census, there were 491,142 people residing in Quebec City proper, and 715,515 people in the city's census metropolitan area. Of the former total, 48.2% were male and 51.8% were female. Children under five accounted for approximately 4.7% of the resident population of Quebec City. This compares with 5.2% in the province of Quebec, and 5.6% for Canada overall.

While Montreal is considered by many to have a bilingual population, in which many of its residents have a working knowledge of both French and English, Quebec City and its surrounding region are largely Francophone
Francophone
The adjective francophone means French-speaking, typically as primary language, whether referring to individuals, groups, or places. Often, the word is used as a noun to describe a natively French-speaking person....

. The vast majority of city residents are native French-speakers. The English-speaking community peaked in relative terms during the 1860s, when 40% of Quebec City's residents were Anglophone
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

. Today, Anglophones make up only 1.5% of the population of both the city and its metropolitan area. However, the annual Quebec Winter Carnival attracts both Francophone and Anglophone tourists alike, so the Anglophone population increases considerably during the duration of the event.

According to the Statistics Canada website, 94.55% of Quebec City's population speaks French as their mother tongue. While nearly everyone speaks French as their first language, more than a third can speak both French and English.

Languages

Mother tongue Population Percentage
French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

456,225 94.55%
English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

7,030 1.46%
English and French 1,460 0.31%
Other languages 17,825 3.69%
165,340 34.26%


In 2001, 13.0% of the resident population in Quebec City was of retirement age (65 and over for males and females) compared with 13.2% in Canada. The average age is 39.5 years of age compared to 37.6 years of age for Canada as a whole.

In the five years between 1996 and 2001, the population of Quebec City grew by 1.7%, compared with an increase of 1.4% for the province of Quebec as a whole. The population density of Quebec City averaged 216.4 people per square kilometre, compared with an average of 5.3 for the province as a whole.

At the time of the 2001 census, the population of the Quebec City authority was 682,757, but was 710,700 when encompassing the Greater Quebec City Area, compared with a resident population in the province of Quebec of 7,237,479 people.

According to the 2001 census, over 90% of the population was Roman Catholic. The city also contains small Protestant, Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

 and Jewish communities.

Economy

Most jobs in Quebec City are concentrated in public administration, defence, services, commerce, transport and tourism. As the provincial capital, the city benefits from being a regional administrative and services centre: apropos, the provincial government is the largest employer in the city, employing 27,900 people as of 2007. CHUQ (the local hospital network)
Centre hospitalier universitaire de Québec
Centre hospitalier universitaire de Québec is a network of three teaching hospitals affiliated with the medical school of Université Laval and several specialized institutions in Quebec City....

 is the city's largest institutional employer, with more than 10,000 employees in 2007. In 2008, the unemployment rate in Quebec City was 4.5%, well below provincial and national averages (7.3% and 6.6%, respectively).

Around 10% of jobs are in manufacturing. Principal products include pulp and paper, processed food, metal/wood items, chemicals, electronics and electrical equipment, and printed materials. The city hosts the headquarters of a variety of prominent companies, including: Industrial Alliance
Industrial Alliance
Industrial Alliance is a Canadian insurance company with a diversified business ranging from wealth management to group pensions. It is a major player in the Canadian market where it serves three million people across the country and ranks fourth among insurance companies however, the company has...

, La Capitale, Promutuel, SSQ, and Union Canadienne in the insurance sector; Beenox
Beenox
Beenox is a video game developer, established in Québec City, Québec. Founded in 2000 by Dominique Brown. Beenox has been awarded with the Quebec's Best Employer 2008 title and is among the Top 50 of the World’s best video game developers published in March 2008 by the Game Developers Research...

, Frima Studio
Frima Studio
Based in Quebec City and founded in 2003, Frima Studio is a Canadian multiplatform game developer. The studio develops products across multiple platforms, including the Web, console, handheld, iPhone, iPad, TV and mobile...

 and Sarbakan
Sarbakan
Sarbakan is a video game studio based in Quebec City. Ten years after its foundation in 1998 by Guy Boucher, Sarbakan had delivered over 600 games, mostly web-based, and started shifting its focus from flash game development to console digital download gaming....

 in the computer games industry; Amalgame, Cossette and Vision 7 in marketing and advertising; Institut National d'Optique (INO)
Institut National d'Optique (INO)
The Institut National d'Optique is a Quebec City based private corporation founded in 1985. INO is a technological design and development firm for optic and photonic "solutions" for SMEs and large corporations. It claims to be home to the largest concentration of skills in the field and serves...

, EXFO
EXFO
EXFO is a provider of test and service assurance solutions for wireless and wireline network operators and equipment manufacturers in the global telecommunications industry...

 in technology not forgetting the Desjardins Group, the area's largest employer in the financial sector.

The security and defence industries are quite prominent, and have given birth to an industrial pole: Technopôle Defence and Security.

Architecture

Much of the city's most notable architecture is located east of the fortification walls in Vieux-Québec (Old Quebec) and Place Royale
Old Quebec
Old Quebec is a historic neighbourhood of Quebec City, the capital of the province of Quebec in Canada. Comprising the Upper Town and Lower Town , the area is a UNESCO World Heritage Site...

. This area has a distinct European feel with its stone buildings and winding streets lined with shops and restaurants. Porte St-Louis and Porte St-Jean are the main gates through the walls from the modern section of downtown; the Kent Gate was a gift to the province from Queen Victoria and the foundation stone was laid by the Queen's daughter, Princess Louise, Marchioness of Lorne
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
The Princess Louise was a member of the British Royal Family, the sixth child and fourth daughter of Queen Victoria and her husband, Albert, Prince Consort.Louise's early life was spent moving between the various royal residences in the...

, on June 11, 1879. West of the walls are the Parliament Hill district and the Plains of Abraham
Plains of Abraham
The Plains of Abraham is a historic area within The Battlefields Park in Quebec City, Quebec, that was originally grazing land, but became famous as the site of the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, which took place on 13 September 1759. Though written into the history books, housing and minor...

.

The Upper Town is linked by the Escalier «casse-cou» (literally "neck-breaking" steps) and the Old Quebec Funicular
Old Quebec Funicular
The Old Quebec Funicular is a funicular railway in the Old Quebec neighbourhood of the city of Quebec in Canada. It links the Haute-Ville to the Basse-Ville , which includes such sites as the ancient Notre Dame des Victoires church, the historic Petit Champlain district, the port, and the Musée...

 to the Lower Town, which includes such sites as the ancient Notre Dame des Victoires
Notre Dame des Victoires
Notre-Dame-des-Victoires is a small Roman Catholic stone church in the Lower Town of Quebec City. Construction was started in 1687 on site of Champlain's habitationand was completed in 1723....

 church, the historic Petit Champlain
Petit Champlain
Petit Champlain is a neighbourhood in Quebec City, Canada. It is located in the district of Vieux-Québec–Cap-Blanc–colline Parlementaire in the borough of La Cité–Limoilou, near Place Royale. Its main street is the Rue du Petit-Champlain at the foot of Cap Diamant...

 district, the port, and the Musée de la Civilisation
Musée de la civilisation
The Musée de la civilisation is a museum located in Quebec City. It is situated in old Québec near the Saint Lawrence River...

 (Museum of Civilization). The Lower Town is filled with original architecture and street designs, dating back to the city's beginnings. Murals and statues are also featured. The Lower Town is also noted for its wide variety of boutiques, many featuring hand-crafted goods.

Quebec city's downtown is on the lower part of the town. Its epicentre is adjacent to the old town, spanning from the Saint-Roch district, throughout the Saint Sauveur, Saint-Sacrement and Limoilou quarters. Some interpretations consider Quebec's Down town to be the central southern portion of the town ranging from the old city and Saint Roch, all the way west to the Quebec city Bridge.

Quebec City's skyline is dominated by the massive Château Frontenac
Château Frontenac
The Château Frontenac, currently known as Fairmont Le Château Frontenac, is a grand hotel in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. It was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1980...

 Hotel, perched on top of Cap-Diamant. It was designed by architect Bruce Price
Bruce Price
Bruce Price was the American architect of many of the Canadian Pacific Railway's Château-type stations and hotels...

, as one of a series of "château" style hotels built for the Canadian Pacific Railway
Canadian Pacific Railway
The Canadian Pacific Railway , formerly also known as CP Rail between 1968 and 1996, is a historic Canadian Class I railway founded in 1881 and now operated by Canadian Pacific Railway Limited, which began operations as legal owner in a corporate restructuring in 2001...

 company. The railway company sought to encourage luxury tourism and bring wealthy travelers to its trains. The hotel is beside the Terrasse Dufferin (Dufferin Terrace), a walkway along the edge of the cliff, offering beautiful views of the Saint Lawrence River.

The Terrasse Dufferin leads toward the nearby Plains of Abraham
Plains of Abraham
The Plains of Abraham is a historic area within The Battlefields Park in Quebec City, Quebec, that was originally grazing land, but became famous as the site of the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, which took place on 13 September 1759. Though written into the history books, housing and minor...

, site of the battle in which the British took Quebec from France, and the Citadelle of Quebec
Citadelle of Quebec
The Citadelle — the French name is used both in English and French — is a military installation and official residence located atop Cap Diamant, adjoining the Plains of Abraham in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada...

, a Canadian Forces
Canadian Forces
The Canadian Forces , officially the Canadian Armed Forces , are the unified armed forces of Canada, as constituted by the National Defence Act, which states: "The Canadian Forces are the armed forces of Her Majesty raised by Canada and consist of one Service called the Canadian Armed Forces."...

 installation and the federal vice-regal secondary residence
Governor General of Canada
The Governor General of Canada is the federal viceregal representative of the Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II...

. The Parliament Building
Parliament Building (Quebec)
The Parliament Building is an eight-floor building and home to the Parliament of Quebec in Quebec City. The building was designed by architect Eugène-Étienne Taché and was built from 1877 to 1886. With the frontal tower, the building stands at 52 metres or 171 feet in height...

, the meeting place of the Parliament of Quebec, is also near the Citadelle
Citadelle
Citadelle is the French word for "citadel". It may refer to:*Citadelle of Quebec, in Quebec City, Canada*Citadelle Laferrière, in Northern Haiti...

.

Near the Château Frontenac is Notre-Dame de Québec Cathedral
Notre-Dame de Québec Cathedral
The Cathedral-minor basilica of Notre-Dame de Québec , located at 20, rue de Buade, Quebec City, Quebec, is the primate church of Canada and seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Quebec, the oldest see in the New World north of Mexico.It is also the parish church of the oldest parish in North...

, mother church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Quebec
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Quebec
The Archdiocese of Québec is the oldest Catholic see in the New World north of Mexico. The archdiocese was founded as the Apostolic Vicariate of New France in 1658 and was elevated to a Diocese in 1674 and an Archdiocese in 1819...

. It is the first church in the New World
New World
The New World is one of the names used for the Western Hemisphere, specifically America and sometimes Oceania . The term originated in the late 15th century, when America had been recently discovered by European explorers, expanding the geographical horizon of the people of the European middle...

 to be raised to a basilica
Basilica
The Latin word basilica , was originally used to describe a Roman public building, usually located in the forum of a Roman town. Public basilicas began to appear in Hellenistic cities in the 2nd century BC.The term was also applied to buildings used for religious purposes...

 and is the primatial
Primate (religion)
Primate is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. Depending on the particular tradition, it can denote either jurisdictional authority or ceremonial precedence ....

 church of Canada.

There are 33 National Historic Sites of Canada in Quebec City.

Culture

Quebec City is known for its Winter Carnival, its summer music festival and for its Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day
Fête nationale du Québec
Quebec's National Holiday is celebrated annually on June 24, St. John the Baptist DayIn Quebec, the national holiday is a paid statutory public holiday covered under the Act Respecting Labour Standards...

 celebrations.

Tourist attractions located near Quebec City include Montmorency Falls
Montmorency Falls
The Montmorency Falls are a large waterfall on the Montmorency River in Quebec, Canada. The falls are located on the boundary between the borough of Beauport, Quebec City, and Boischatel, about 12 km from the heart of old Quebec City...

, the Basilica of Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré
Basilica of Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré
The Basilica of Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré is a basilica set along the Saint Lawrence River in Quebec, Canada, east of Quebec City. It has been credited by the Roman Catholic Church with many miracles of curing the sick and disabled. It is an important Catholic sanctuary which receives about a...

, the Mont-Sainte-Anne
Mont-Sainte-Anne
Mont-Sainte-Anne is a ski resort in the city of Beaupré, Quebec, Canada, located about northeast of Quebec City. The mountain has a summit elevation of 800 metres above sea level and a vertical drop of 625 m . There are 66 trails covering on three different sides of the mountain...

 ski resort
Ski resort
A ski resort is a resort developed for skiing and other winter sports. In Europe a ski resort is a town or village in a ski area - a mountainous area, where there are ski trails and supporting services such as hotels and other accommodation, restaurants, equipment rental and a ski lift system...

, and the Ice Hotel
Ice Hotel (Québec)
The Ice Hotel near Quebec City, Quebec, Canada is the first ice hotel in North America.-History:The Ice Hotel opened on New Year's Day in 2001...

.

Jardin zoologique du Québec, reopened in 2002 after two years of restorations but closed in 2006 after a political decision. It featured 750 specimens of 300 different species of animals. The zoo specialized in winged fauna and garden themes, but also presented several species of mammals. While it emphasized the indigenous fauna of Quebec, one of its principal attractions was the Indo-Australian greenhouse, featuring fauna and flora from these areas.

Parc Aquarium du Québec
Parc Aquarium du Quebec
Aquarium du Québec is a public aquarium located in Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Canada. The facility is home to more than 10,000 animals representing more than 300 species...

, reopened in 2002 on a site overlooking the Saint Lawrence River
Saint Lawrence River
The Saint Lawrence is a large river flowing approximately from southwest to northeast in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. It is the primary drainage conveyor of the Great Lakes Basin...

, presents more than 10,000 specimens of mammals, reptiles, fish and other aquatic fauna of North America and the Arctic
Arctic
The Arctic is a region located at the northern-most part of the Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean and parts of Canada, Russia, Greenland, the United States, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland. The Arctic region consists of a vast, ice-covered ocean, surrounded by treeless permafrost...

. Polar bear
Polar Bear
The polar bear is a bear native largely within the Arctic Circle encompassing the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses. It is the world's largest land carnivore and also the largest bear, together with the omnivorous Kodiak Bear, which is approximately the same size...

s and various species of seal
Pinniped
Pinnipeds or fin-footed mammals are a widely distributed and diverse group of semiaquatic marine mammals comprising the families Odobenidae , Otariidae , and Phocidae .-Overview: Pinnipeds are typically sleek-bodied and barrel-shaped...

s of the Arctic sector and the "Large Ocean", a large basin offering visitors a view from underneath, form part of the principal attractions.

There are a number of historic sites, art galleries and museums in Quebec City, such as Citadelle of Quebec
Citadelle of Quebec
The Citadelle — the French name is used both in English and French — is a military installation and official residence located atop Cap Diamant, adjoining the Plains of Abraham in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada...

, Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec
Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec
The Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec is a museum in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada gathering approximately 25,000 works essentially produced in Quebec, or by Quebec artists, some of which dating from the 18th century. It also houses a library since 1987...

, Ursulines of Quebec
Ursulines of Quebec
The Ursuline Convent of Quebec City, , founded in 1639, is the oldest institution of learning for women in North America...

, and Musée de la civilisation
Musée de la civilisation
The Musée de la civilisation is a museum located in Quebec City. It is situated in old Québec near the Saint Lawrence River...


Sports

As well as having a number of local sports teams, Quebec City has hosted a number of sporting events. The Special Olympics Canada National Winter Games
Special Olympics Canada
Special Olympics Canada is a national organization founded in 1969 to help people with intellectual disabilities develop self-confidence and social skills through sports training and competition.-About:...

 was held in the city from February 26 to March 1, 2008. Quebec City co-hosted with Halifax, Nova Scotia, the 2008 IIHF World Championship
2008 IIHF World Championship
The 2008 IIHF World Championship was played between May 2 and May 18, 2008 in the Canadian cities of Halifax and Quebec City . The two venues were the Halifax Metro Centre and the Colisée Pepsi...

. Regular sporting events held in the city, include the Challenge Bell
Bell Challenge
The Bell Challenge is a WTA Tour Tier III tennis tournament held in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada since 1993. The tournament is played on indoor hardcourts....

, a Women's Tennis Association
Women's Tennis Association
The Women's Tennis Association , founded in 1973 by Billie Jean King, is the principal organizing body of Women's Professional Tennis. It governs the WTA Tour which is the worldwide professional tennis tour for women. Its counterpart organization in the men's professional game is the Association of...

 tournament; Crashed Ice
Crashed Ice
Crashed Ice is a winter extreme sporting event, which involves downhill skating in an urban environment, on a track which includes steep turns and high vertical drops. It is sponsored by Red Bull....

, an extreme downhill skating race; Quebec City International Pee-Wee Tournament, a minor hockey
Minor hockey
Minor hockey is an umbrella term for amateur ice hockey which is played below the junior age level. Players are classified by age, with each age group playing in its own league. The rules, especially as it relates to body contact, vary from class to class...

 tournament; and the Tour de Québec International cycling stage race.

The city has a professional baseball team, the Capitales de Québec
Quebec Capitales
The Québec Capitales are a professional baseball team based in Quebec City, in Canada. The Capitales are a member of the Canadian-American Association of Professional Baseball, which is not affiliated with Major League Baseball...

 which plays in the Canadian American Association of Professional Baseball. The team was established in 1999, and originally played in the Northern League. The team has three league titles, won in 2006, 2009 and 2010. The team's stadium is the Stade Municipal
Stade Municipal (Quebec City)
Stade Municipal is a stadium in Quebec City, Quebec. It is primarily used for baseball, and is the home field of the Quebec Capitales Canadian-American Association of Professional Baseball minor league baseball team. It originally opened in 1938. It holds 4,800 people and is located in the...

.

Other teams include the local football team, the Rouge & Or
Laval Rouge-et-Or
Rouge et Or is the name of Université Laval's varsity sports teams.Home games are all held in the PEPS indoor and outdoor sports facilities.Université Laval is located in Quebec City.-Varsity teams:Laval Rouge et Or teams compete in:...

 of the Université Laval
Université Laval
Laval University is the oldest centre of education in Canada and was the first institution in North America to offer higher education in French...

; the basketball team, the Quebec Kebs of the National Basketball League of Canada
National Basketball League of Canada
The National Basketball League of Canada is a Canadian professional men's basketball league founded in 2011. For the first season, three teams formerly of the Premier Basketball League have joined, with four expansion teams officially joining to form the NBL's "Original Seven".-Current:These are...

; the junior hockey team, Quebec Remparts
Québec Remparts
There have been two junior ice hockey franchises known as the Quebec Remparts that played in the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League. The first franchise played from 1969 to 1985; the current franchise has played since 1997. Both franchises were based out of Quebec City, Quebec...

 of the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League
Quebec Major Junior Hockey League
The Quebec Major Junior Hockey League is one of the three major junior ice hockey leagues which constitute the Canadian Hockey League...

; the football teams, Quebec City Monarks
Quebec City Monarks
The Quebec City Monarks are the Quebec City Canadian football team in the Ligue de Football Majeur du Quebec .They have won the regular season league championship as well as the Silver Cup in 2005, 2006, and 2007 since joining the league in 2003....

 and Quebec City Rebelles
Quebec City Rebelles
The Quebec City Rebelles are a Canadian football team based in Quebec City in the Ligue de football majeur du Québec.-External links:* *...

 of the Ligue de football majeur du Québec; the women's hockey team Quebec Phoenix of the Canadian Women's Hockey League
Canadian Women's Hockey League
The Canadian Women's Hockey League is one of two major women's ice hockey leagues in Canada. The league was founded in 2007. The league currently has six ice hockey teams: three in Ontario, one in Quebec, one in Alberta and one in Boston, Massachusetts....

; and soccer club Quebec Arsenal of the W-League
W-League
The USL W-League is a national women's soccer league in the United States on the 2nd level of women's soccer in the United States soccer pyramid, alongside the Women's Premier Soccer League and below Women's Professional Soccer....

.

The city had a hockey team, the Quebec Nordiques
Quebec Nordiques
The Quebec Nordiques were a professional ice hockey team based in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. The Nordiques played in the World Hockey Association and the National Hockey League...

, which played in the World Hockey Association
World Hockey Association
The World Hockey Association was a professional ice hockey league that operated in North America from 1972 to 1979. It was the first major competition for the National Hockey League since the collapse of the Western Hockey League in 1926...

 (WHA) from 1972 to 1979 and then in the National Hockey League
National Hockey League
The National Hockey League is an unincorporated not-for-profit association which operates a major professional ice hockey league of 30 franchised member clubs, of which 7 are currently located in Canada and 23 in the United States...

 (NHL) from 1979 to 1995, maintaining a strong rivalry with the Montreal Canadiens
Montreal Canadiens
The Montreal Canadiens are a professional ice hockey team based in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. They are members of the Northeast Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League . The club is officially known as ...

. Due to financial problems, the team moved to Denver, Colorado
Denver, Colorado
The City and County of Denver is the capital and the most populous city of the U.S. state of Colorado. Denver is a consolidated city-county, located in the South Platte River Valley on the western edge of the High Plains just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains...

 in 1995, becoming the Colorado Avalanche
Colorado Avalanche
The Colorado Avalanche are a professional ice hockey team based in Denver, Colorado, United States. They are members of the Northwest Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League . The Avalanche have won the Stanley Cup twice, in 1995–96 and 2000–01. The franchise...

.

Government

The current mayor of Quebec City is Régis Labeaume, who was elected in a special election on December 2, 2007, following the death in office of Andrée P. Boucher, an independent, on August 24. Jacques Joli-Coeur
Jacques Joli-Coeur
Jacques Joli-Cœur is a politician from the Renouveau municipal de Québec in Quebec, Canada. A city councillor and deputy mayor, he was the interim mayor of Quebec City following the death of Andrée Boucher on August 24, 2007....

 of the Renouveau municipal de Québec
Renouveau municipal de Québec
The Renouveau municipal de Québec is a political party in the city of Québec, Quebec, Canada that contests municipal elections. It was created on February 26, 2001, after the amalgamation of Quebec City and surrounding suburban municipalities. In 2007, the party currently holds 24 of the 37 seats...

 party served as interim mayor between Boucher's death and the by-election.

Quebec City is the seat of the judicial district
Judicial districts of Quebec
The province of Quebec is divided into 36 judicial districts by the , R.S.Q., chapter D-11. Each district has a seat where the courthouse is located, although some have more than one courthouse, service point, or itinerant court location....

 of Québec (one of the Province of Quebec's 36 judicial districts).

Education

Université Laval
Université Laval
Laval University is the oldest centre of education in Canada and was the first institution in North America to offer higher education in French...

 is located in the western end of the city, in the borough of Sainte-Foy
Sainte-Foy, Quebec
Sainte-Foy is a former city in central Quebec, Canada on the Saint Lawrence River. It was amalgamated into Quebec City on January 1, 2002. Most of Sainte-Foy is in the Borough of Sainte-Foy–Sillery–Cap-Rouge....

. However, the school of architecture of Université Laval is located in Old Quebec.
The main campus of the Université du Québec
Université du Québec
The University of Quebec is a system of ten provincially-run public universities in Quebec, Canada. Its headquarters are in Quebec City. The university coordinates university programs for more than 87,000 students. It offers more than 300 programs...

 system is also located in Quebec City, including its specialized schools École nationale d'administration publique
École nationale d'administration publique
The École nationale d'administration publique , located in Quebec City, Quebec, was established in 1969 by the Quebec government, as a way of obtaining a professional public administration during a period when a number of social and structural changes were taking place within the province...

, Institut national de la recherche scientifique
Institut national de la recherche scientifique
The Institut national de la recherche scientifique is the research-oriented branch of Université du Québec which only offer graduate studies...

, and Télé-université
Télé-université
Télé-université, or TÉLUQ, is a component of the Université du Québec à Montréal. TÉLUQ became a component of UQAM in June 2005. The enabling legislation is An Act respecting educational institutions at the university level. -Programs:...

 (TELUQ), the distance learning component of the Université du Québec à Montréal
Université du Québec à Montréal
The Université du Québec à Montréal is one of four universities in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.-Basic facts:The UQAM is the largest constituent element of the Université du Québec , a public university system with other branches in Gatineau , Rimouski, Rouyn-Noranda, Quebec City, Chicoutimi, and...

.

Numerous CEGEP
Cégep
CEGEP is an acronym for , which is literally translated as "College of General and Vocational Education" but commonly called "General and Vocational College" in circles not influenced by Quebec English. It refers to the public post-secondary education collegiate institutions exclusive to the...

s are located in Quebec city, including Collège François-Xavier-Garneau
Collège François-Xavier-Garneau
Collège François-Xavier-Garneau is a CEGEP college in Quebec, Canada.-History:The college traces its origins to the merger of several institutions which became public ones in 1967, when the Quebec system of CEGEPs was created...

, Cégep O'Sullivan, Cégep Limoilou
Cégep Limoilou
Cégep Limoilou is a French-language CEGEP in the province of Quebec, situated in Limoilou, a borough of Quebec City.Cégep Limoilou offers pre-university and technical programs, continuing education and corporate services...

, Cégep de Sainte-Foy
Cégep de Sainte-Foy
Cégep de Sainte-Foy is a French-language CEGEP in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. It is located in the borough of Sainte-Foy–Sillery–Cap-Rouge. There are nearly 8,000 students registered at the college, making it one of the largest in the province outside of Montreal. It was founded in 1967.-External...

 and Champlain College St. Lawrence
Champlain College St. Lawrence
St. Lawrence College is a campus belonging to Champlain Regional College. The campus is located in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, and is the only English-language Cégep to serve the region.-History:...

, as well as private institutions such as Collège Notre-Dame-de-Foy, Collège Mérici, Collège Bart, Collège CDI
CDI College
CDI College is a for-profit college in Canada. It offers programs in the business, technology and health care fields. There are 15 campus locations; 5 in British Columbia, 5 in Alberta, 1 in Manitoba and 4 in Quebec....

 and Collège Multihexa.

Quebec City has the oldest educational institution for women in North America, the Ursulines of Quebec
Ursulines of Quebec
The Ursuline Convent of Quebec City, , founded in 1639, is the oldest institution of learning for women in North America...

 monastery, located at 12 Rue Donnacona.

Transport

Roads
Two bridges, the Quebec Bridge
Quebec Bridge
right|thumb|Lifting the centre span in place was considered to be a major engineering achievement. Photo caption from [[Popular Mechanics]] Magazine, December 1917...

 and Pierre Laporte Bridge
Pierre Laporte Bridge
The Pierre Laporte Bridge is the longest main span suspension bridge in Canada. It crosses the Saint Lawrence River approximately west of the famous Quebec Bridge between historic Quebec City and Lévis, Quebec....

 connect the city with the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River
Saint Lawrence River
The Saint Lawrence is a large river flowing approximately from southwest to northeast in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. It is the primary drainage conveyor of the Great Lakes Basin...

, as does a ferry service to Lévis
Levis
-People:*François de Gaston, Chevalier de Lévis , French soldier best known for his command in Canada in 1760*George Levis , American college basketball player and coach*Georges Lévis , French adult comic artist-Places:Canada...

, and Orleans Island Bridge connects Quebec City with the Orleans Island
Île d'Orléans
Île d'Orléans is located in the Saint Lawrence River about east of downtown Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. The island was one of the first parts of the province to be colonized by the French, and a large percentage of French Canadians can trace ancestry to early residents of the island...

. The city is a major hub in the Quebec provincial road network, fanning out from both sides of the river with an extensive autoroute system.

Several important motorways of the Quebec road network pass by Quebec City, of which Autoroute 40
Quebec Autoroute 40
Autoroute 40 is a major highway on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River in Quebec, Canada. It is one of the two main connections between Montreal and Quebec City...

 connects it towards the west to Montreal and Route 175
Quebec route 175
Route 175 is a major north/south highway on both sides of the St. Lawrence River in Quebec, Canada. Its southern terminus is in Saint-Lambert-de-Lauzon at the junction of Route 218 and its northern terminus is in Saguenay at the junction of Route 172, in the former city of Chicoutimi...

 connects it towards the north to Chicoutimi.

Three principal expressways cross the agglomeration from the north to the south (starting from the west): Autoroute Henri-IV
Quebec Autoroute 573
Autoroute 573 is a short spur road located in Quebec City, Quebec, connecting Autoroute 73 and Autoroute 40 to Route 369. It facilitates access to the CFB Valcartier military base.The portion north of Avenue Industrielle is a two-lane road with intersections....

, Autoroute Robert-Bourassa
Quebec Autoroute 740
Autoroute 740 is a short connecting highway in Quebec City, Canada. Its southern end is at the Université Laval from Boulevard Laurier. Its northern end is at Autoroute 40 at the shopping mall Les Galeries de la Capitale...

, and Autoroute Laurentienne
Quebec Autoroute 73
Autoroute 73 is an important Autoroute in east-central Quebec, Canada...

. Three other motorways cross the western part of town (from north to south): Autoroute Félix Leclerc
Quebec Autoroute 40
Autoroute 40 is a major highway on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River in Quebec, Canada. It is one of the two main connections between Montreal and Quebec City...

 (known by the inhabitants as "Autoroute de la Capitale"), Autoroute Charest
Quebec Autoroute 440 (Quebec City)
Autoroute 440 is a superhighway located in Quebec City. It includes two separate segments, respectively named Autoroute Charest and Autoroute Dufferin-Montmorency...

, as well as Champlain Boulevard, which goes along the river to the Downtown area, then another Autoroute called Dufferin-Montmorency
Quebec Autoroute 440 (Quebec City)
Autoroute 440 is a superhighway located in Quebec City. It includes two separate segments, respectively named Autoroute Charest and Autoroute Dufferin-Montmorency...

 allows easier access to the extreme east of the city.
Public transit

The Réseau de transport de la Capitale
Réseau de transport de la Capitale
The Réseau de transport de la Capitale was established in 2002 with the merger of Société de transport de la Communauté urbaine de Québec and la Société de transport de Québec to provide urban public transit services in the Quebec City area....

 is responsible for public transit in the region. The RTC operates a fleet of buses and has recently implemented articulated buses. The RTC is studying the return of a tram system to help ease overcrowding on its busiest lines as well as attract new users to public transit. The $900-million revitalization project needs approval from higher levels of government since the city does not have the financial resources to fund such an ambitious project on its own.

Rail transport is operated by VIA Rail
VIA Rail
Via Rail Canada is an independent crown corporation offering intercity passenger rail services in Canada. It is headquartered near Montreal Central Station at 3 Place Ville-Marie in Montreal, Quebec....

 at the (Gare du Palais). The station is the eastern terminus of the railway's main Quebec City-Windsor Corridor
Quebec City-Windsor Corridor
Quebec City – Windsor Corridor is the most densely-populated and heavily-industrialized region of Canada. As its name suggests, it extends from Quebec City in the east to Windsor, Ontario in the west, spanning . With more than 18 million people, it contained 51% of the country's population and...

.
An inter-city bus station, with connections to the provincial long-distance bus network, is adjacent to the train station.

Air and sea
Quebec City is served by Jean Lesage International Airport, located in the West of the city. The city also has a large major port on the St-Lawrence in the first, fifth and sixth boroughs.

Public safety

Quebec City is protected by Service de police de la Ville de Québec
Service de police de la Ville de Québec
The Service de police de la Ville de Québec is the police force of Quebec City, Quebec.The force patrols from four stations:* Arrondissements de Beauport et de Charlesbourg* Arrondissement de La Cité-Limoilou...

 and Service de protection contre les incendies de Québec
Service de protection contre les incendies de Québec
Service de protection contre les incendies de Québec is responsible for fire prevention and suppression in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada...

. Quebec City has one of the lowest crime rates in Canada. The city reported no murders in 2007, a streak that stretched back to October 31, 2006.

Partner cities

Beirut
Beirut
Beirut is the capital and largest city of Lebanon, with a population ranging from 1 million to more than 2 million . Located on a peninsula at the midpoint of Lebanon's Mediterranean coastline, it serves as the country's largest and main seaport, and also forms the Beirut Metropolitan...

, Lebanon Bordeaux
Bordeaux
Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne River in the Gironde department in southwestern France.The Bordeaux-Arcachon-Libourne metropolitan area, has a population of 1,010,000 and constitutes the sixth-largest urban area in France. It is the capital of the Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture...

, Aquitaine
Aquitaine
Aquitaine , archaic Guyenne/Guienne , is one of the 27 regions of France, in the south-western part of metropolitan France, along the Atlantic Ocean and the Pyrenees mountain range on the border with Spain. It comprises the 5 departments of Dordogne, :Lot et Garonne, :Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Landes...

, France (since 1962) Calgary
Calgary
Calgary is a city in the Province of Alberta, Canada. It is located in the south of the province, in an area of foothills and prairie, approximately east of the front ranges of the Canadian Rockies...

, Alberta, Canada (since 1956) Namur
Namur (city)
Namur is a city and municipality in Wallonia, in southern Belgium. It is both the capital of the province of Namur and of Wallonia....

, Wallonia, Belgium (since 1999) Ouagadougou
Ouagadougou
Ouagadougou is the capital of Burkina Faso and the administrative, communications, cultural and economic center of the nation. It is also the country's largest city, with a population of 1,475,223 . The city's name is often shortened to Ouaga. The inhabitants are called ouagalais...

, Burkina Faso (since 2000) Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

, France (since 2003) St. Petersburg, Russia (since 2002) Xi'an
Xi'an
Xi'an is the capital of the Shaanxi province, and a sub-provincial city in the People's Republic of China. One of the oldest cities in China, with more than 3,100 years of history, the city was known as Chang'an before the Ming Dynasty...

, Shaanxi
Shaanxi
' is a province in the central part of Mainland China, and it includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River in addition to the Qinling Mountains across the southern part of this province...

, China (since 2001)

External links


Multimedia

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