Quality Assurance
Overview
 
Quality assurance, or QA (in use from 1973) for short, is the systematic monitoring and evaluation of the various aspects of a project, service or facility to maximize the probability that minimum standards of quality are being attained by the production process. QA cannot absolutely guarantee the production of quality products.

Two principles included in QA are: "Fit for purpose", the product should be suitable for the intended purpose; and "Right first time", mistakes should be eliminated.
Encyclopedia
Quality assurance, or QA (in use from 1973) for short, is the systematic monitoring and evaluation of the various aspects of a project, service or facility to maximize the probability that minimum standards of quality are being attained by the production process. QA cannot absolutely guarantee the production of quality products.

Two principles included in QA are: "Fit for purpose", the product should be suitable for the intended purpose; and "Right first time", mistakes should be eliminated. QA includes regulation of the quality of raw materials, assemblies, products and components, services related to production, and management, production and inspection processes.

Quality is determined by the product users, clients or customers, not by society in general. It is not the same as 'expensive' or 'high quality'. Low priced products can be considered as having high quality if the product users determine them as such.

Initial efforts to control the quality of production

During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

, guild
Guild
A guild is an association of craftsmen in a particular trade. The earliest types of guild were formed as confraternities of workers. They were organized in a manner something between a trade union, a cartel, and a secret society...

s adopted responsibility for quality control of their members, setting and maintaining certain standards for guild membership.

Royal governments purchasing material
Material
Material is anything made of matter, constituted of one or more substances. Wood, cement, hydrogen, air and water are all examples of materials. Sometimes the term "material" is used more narrowly to refer to substances or components with certain physical properties that are used as inputs to...

 were interested in quality control as customers. For this reason, King John of England
John of England
John , also known as John Lackland , was King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death...

 appointed William Wrotham to report about the construction and repair of ships. Centuries later, Samuel Pepys
Samuel Pepys
Samuel Pepys FRS, MP, JP, was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament who is now most famous for the diary he kept for a decade while still a relatively young man...

, Secretary to the British Admiralty
Admiralty
The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the Kingdom of England, and later in the United Kingdom, responsible for the command of the Royal Navy...

, appointed multiple such overseers.

Prior to the extensive division of labor and mechanization
Mechanization
Mechanization or mechanisation is providing human operators with machinery that assists them with the muscular requirements of work or displaces muscular work. In some fields, mechanization includes the use of hand tools...

 resulting from the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times...

, it was possible for workers to control the quality of their own products. The Industrial Revolution led to a system in which large groups of people performing a specialized type of work were grouped together under the supervision of a foreman who was appointed to control the quality of work manufactured.

Wartime production

At the time of the First World War
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, manufacturing processes typically became more complex with larger numbers of workers being supervised. This period saw the widespread introduction of mass production
Mass production
Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines...

 and piecework, which created problems as workmen could now earn more money by the production of extra products
Product (business)
In general, the product is defined as a "thing produced by labor or effort" or the "result of an act or a process", and stems from the verb produce, from the Latin prōdūce ' lead or bring forth'. Since 1575, the word "product" has referred to anything produced...

, which in turn occasionally led to poor quality workmanship being passed on to the assembly line
Assembly line
An assembly line is a manufacturing process in which parts are added to a product in a sequential manner using optimally planned logistics to create a finished product much faster than with handcrafting-type methods...

s. To counter bad workmanship, full time inspector
Inspector
Inspector is both a police rank and an administrative position, both used in a number of contexts. However, it is not an equivalent rank in each police force.- Australia :...

s were introduced to identify, quarantine and ideally correct product quality failures. Quality control by inspection in the 1920s and 1930s led to the growth of quality inspection functions, separately organised from production and large enough to be headed by superintendents
Superintendent (construction)
On larger projects, it is common for most finance-related tasks and long-term scheduling to be handled by a project manager, with the superintendent's job limited to running the day-to-day operations on the construction site and controlling the short-term schedule...

.

The systematic approach to quality started in industrial manufacturing during the 1930s, mostly in the USA, when some attention was given to the cost of scrap
Scrap
Scrap is a term used to describe recyclable and other materials left over from every manner of product consumption, such as parts of vehicles, building supplies, and surplus materials. Unlike waste, scrap has significant monetary value...

 and rework
Rework
Rework is the term for the refinishing operation or repair of an electronic printed circuit board assembly. Mass processing techniques are not applicable to single device repair and/or replacement, so specialized techniques are required to replace defective components – most notably area array...

. With the impact of mass production
Mass production
Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines...

 required during the Second World War made it necessary to introduce an improved form of quality control known as Statistical Quality Control, or SQC. Some of the initial work for SQC is credited to Walter A. Shewhart
Walter A. Shewhart
Walter Andrew Shewhart March 18, 1891 - March 11, 1967) was an American physicist, engineer and statistician, sometimes known as the father of statistical quality control.W...

 of Bell Labs
Bell Labs
Bell Laboratories is the research and development subsidiary of the French-owned Alcatel-Lucent and previously of the American Telephone & Telegraph Company , half-owned through its Western Electric manufacturing subsidiary.Bell Laboratories operates its...

, starting with his famous one-page memorandum of 1924.

SQC includes the concept that every production piece cannot be fully inspected into acceptable and non acceptable batches. By extending the inspection phase and making inspection organizations more efficient, it provides inspectors with control tools such as sampling
Theoretical sampling
Theoretical sampling refers to the process of choosing new research sites or cases to compare with ones that have already been studied. It is one of the tools of qualitative research...

 and control chart
Control chart
Control charts, also known as Shewhart charts or process-behaviour charts, in statistical process control are tools used to determine whether or not a manufacturing or business process is in a state of statistical control.- Overview :...

s, even where 100 per cent inspection is not practicable. Standard statistical techniques allow the producer to sample and test a certain proportion of the products for quality to achieve the desired level of confidence in the quality of the entire batch or production run.

Postwar

In the period following World War II, many countries' manufacturing capabilities that had been destroyed during the war were rebuilt. General Douglas MacArthur oversaw the re-building of Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

. During this time, General MacArthur involved two key individuals in the development of modern quality concepts: W. Edwards Deming
W. Edwards Deming
William Edwards Deming was an American statistician, professor, author, lecturer and consultant. He is perhaps best known for his work in Japan...

 and Joseph Juran. Both individuals promoted the collaborative concepts of quality to Japanese business and technical groups, and these groups utilized these concepts in the redevelopment of the Japanese economy.

Although there were many individuals trying to lead United States industries towards a more comprehensive approach to quality, the U.S. continued to apply the Quality Control (QC) concepts of inspection and sampling to remove defective product from production lines, essentially ignoring advances in QA for decades.

Steps for a typical quality assurance process

There are many forms of QA processes, of varying scope and depth. The application of a particular process is often customized to the production process.

A typical process may include:
  • test of previous articles
  • plan to improve
  • design to include improvements and requirements
  • manufacture with improvements
  • review new item and improvements
  • test of the new item

Failure testing

Valuable processes to perform on a whole consumer
Consumer
Consumer is a broad label for any individuals or households that use goods generated within the economy. The concept of a consumer occurs in different contexts, so that the usage and significance of the term may vary.-Economics and marketing:...

 product is failure testing or stress testing
Stress testing
Stress testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity. It involves testing beyond normal operational capacity, often to a breaking point, in order to observe the results...

. In mechanical terms this is the operation of a product until it fails, often under stresses such as increasing vibration
Vibration
Vibration refers to mechanical oscillations about an equilibrium point. The oscillations may be periodic such as the motion of a pendulum or random such as the movement of a tire on a gravel road.Vibration is occasionally "desirable"...

, temperature
Temperature
Temperature is a physical property of matter that quantitatively expresses the common notions of hot and cold. Objects of low temperature are cold, while various degrees of higher temperatures are referred to as warm or hot...

, and humidity
Humidity
Humidity is a term for the amount of water vapor in the air, and can refer to any one of several measurements of humidity. Formally, humid air is not "moist air" but a mixture of water vapor and other constituents of air, and humidity is defined in terms of the water content of this mixture,...

. This exposes many unanticipated weakness
Weakness
Weakness is a symptom represented, medically, by a number of different conditions, including: lack of muscle strength, malaise, dizziness, or fatigue. The causes are many and can be divided into conditions that have true or perceived muscle weakness. True muscle weakness is a primary symptom of a...

es in a product, and the data is used to drive engineering and manufacturing process improvement
Process improvement
In organizational development , process improvement is a series of actions taken by a process owner to identify, analyze and improve existing business processes within an organization to meet new goals and objectives. These actions often follow a specific methodology or strategy to create...

s. Often quite simple changes can dramatically improve product service, such as changing to mold
Mold
Molds are fungi that grow in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae. Molds are not considered to be microbes but microscopic fungi that grow as single cells called yeasts...

-resistant paint
Paint
Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition which after application to a substrate in a thin layer is converted to an opaque solid film. One may also consider the digital mimicry thereof...

 or adding lock-washer placement to the training
Training
The term training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of...

 for new assembly personnel.

Statistical control

Many organizations use statistical process control
Statistical process control
Statistical process control is the application of statistical methods to the monitoring and control of a process to ensure that it operates at its full potential to produce conforming product. Under SPC, a process behaves predictably to produce as much conforming product as possible with the least...

 to bring the organization
Organization
An organization is a social group which distributes tasks for a collective goal. The word itself is derived from the Greek word organon, itself derived from the better-known word ergon - as we know `organ` - and it means a compartment for a particular job.There are a variety of legal types of...

 to Six Sigma
Six Sigma
Six Sigma is a business management strategy originally developed by Motorola, USA in 1986. , it is widely used in many sectors of industry.Six Sigma seeks to improve the quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of defects and minimizing variability in manufacturing and...

 levels of quality, in other words, so that the likelihood of an unexpected failure is confined to six standard deviation
Standard deviation
Standard deviation is a widely used measure of variability or diversity used in statistics and probability theory. It shows how much variation or "dispersion" there is from the average...

s on the normal distribution. This probability is less than four one-millionths. Items controlled often include clerical tasks such as order-entry as well as conventional manufacturing tasks.

Traditional statistical process controls in manufacturing operations usually proceed by randomly sampling and testing a fraction of the output. Variances in critical tolerances are continuously tracked and where necessary corrected before bad parts are produced.

Total quality management

The quality of products is dependent upon that of the participating constituents, some of which are sustainable and effectively controlled while others are not. The process(es) which are managed with QA pertain to Total Quality Management
Total Quality Management
Total quality management or TQM is an integrative philosophy of management for continuously improving the quality of products and processes....

.

If the specification does not reflect the true quality requirements, the product's quality cannot be guaranteed. For instance, the parameters for a pressure vessel should cover not only the material and dimension
Dimension
In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a space or object is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it. Thus a line has a dimension of one because only one coordinate is needed to specify a point on it...

s but operating, environmental, safety
Safety
Safety is the state of being "safe" , the condition of being protected against physical, social, spiritual, financial, political, emotional, occupational, psychological, educational or other types or consequences of failure, damage, error, accidents, harm or any other event which could be...

, reliability
Reliability engineering
Reliability engineering is an engineering field, that deals with the study, evaluation, and life-cycle management of reliability: the ability of a system or component to perform its required functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time. It is often measured as a probability of...

 and maintainability
Maintainability
In engineering, maintainability is the ease with which a product can be maintained in order to:* isolate defects or their cause* correct defects or their cause* meet new requirements* make future maintenance easier, or* cope with a changed environment...

 requirements.

QA in software development

The following are examples of QA models relating to the software development process.

Models and standards

ISO 17025 is an international standard
International standard
International standards are standards developed by international standards organizations. International standards are available for consideration and use, worldwide...

 that specifies the general requirements for the competence to carry out tests and or calibration
Calibration
Calibration is a comparison between measurements – one of known magnitude or correctness made or set with one device and another measurement made in as similar a way as possible with a second device....

s. There are 15 management requirements and 10 technical requirements. These requirements outline what a laboratory must do to become accredited.
Management system refers to the organization's structure for managing its processes or activities that transform inputs of resources into a product or service which meets
the organization's objectives, such as satisfying the customer's quality requirements, complying with regulations, or meeting environmental objectives.

The CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration
Capability Maturity Model Integration
Capability Maturity Model Integration is a process improvement approach whose goal is to help organizations improve their performance. CMMI can be used to guide process improvement across a project, a division, or an entire organization...

) model is widely used to implement Quality Assurance (PPQA) in an organization. The CMMI maturity levels can be divided into 5 steps, which a company can achieve by performing specific activities within the organization. (CMMI QA processes are excellent for companies like NASA, and may even be adapted for agile development style).

Company quality

During the 1980s, the concept of “company quality” with the focus on management
Management
Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively...

 and people
People
People is a plurality of human beings or other beings possessing enough qualities constituting personhood. It has two usages:* as the plural of person or a group of people People is a plurality of human beings or other beings possessing enough qualities constituting personhood. It has two usages:*...

 came to the fore. It was realized that, if all departments
Departmentalization
Departmentalization refers to the process of grouping activities into departments.Division of labour creates specialists who need coordination. This coordination is facilitated by grouping specialists together in departments....

 approached quality with an open mind, success was possible if the management led the quality improvement process.

The company-wide quality approach places an emphasis on four aspects :-
  1. Elements such as controls, job management, adequate processes, performance and integrity criteria and identification of records
  2. Competence such as knowledge, skills, experience, qualifications
  3. Soft elements, such as personnel integrity
    Integrity
    Integrity is a concept of consistency of actions, values, methods, measures, principles, expectations, and outcomes. In ethics, integrity is regarded as the honesty and truthfulness or accuracy of one's actions...

    , confidence
    Confidence
    Confidence is generally described as a state of being certain either that a hypothesis or prediction is correct or that a chosen course of action is the best or most effective. Self-confidence is having confidence in oneself. Arrogance or hubris in this comparison, is having unmerited...

    , organizational culture
    Organizational culture
    Organizational culture is defined as “A pattern of shared basic assumptions invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration" that have worked well enough to be considered valid and therefore, to be taught to...

    , motivation
    Motivation
    Motivation is the driving force by which humans achieve their goals. Motivation is said to be intrinsic or extrinsic. The term is generally used for humans but it can also be used to describe the causes for animal behavior as well. This article refers to human motivation...

    , team spirit
    Team Spirit
    Team Spirit was a joint military training exercise of United States Forces Korea and the Military of South Korea held between 1976 and 1993. The exercise was scheduled from 1994 to 1996 but cancelled in each year as part of diplomacy to encourage the Government of North Korea to disable the North...

     and quality relationships.
  4. Infrastructure (as it enhances or limits functionality)


The quality of the outputs is at risk if any of these aspects is deficient.

QA is not limited to the manufacturing, and can be applied to any business or non-business activity:
  • Design work
  • Administrative services
  • Consulting
  • Banking
  • Insurance
  • Computer software development
  • Retailing
  • Transportation
  • Education
  • Translation


It comprises a quality improvement process, which is generic in the sense it can be applied to any of these activities and it establishes a behavior pattern, which supports the achievement of quality.

This in turn is supported by quality management practices which can include a number of business systems and which are usually specific to the activities of the business unit concerned.

In manufacturing and construction
Construction
In the fields of architecture and civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure. Far from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of human multitasking...

 activities, these business practices can be equated to the models for quality assurance defined by the International Standards contained in the ISO 9000
ISO 9000
The ISO 9000 family of standards relates to quality management systems and is designed to help organizations ensure they meet the needs of customers and other stakeholders . The standards are published by ISO, the International Organization for Standardization, and available through National...

 series and the specified Specifications for quality systems.

In the system of Company Quality, the work being carried out was shop floor inspection which did not reveal the major quality problems. This led to quality assurance or total quality control, which has come into being recently.

Using contractors and/or consultants

Consultant
Consultant
A consultant is a professional who provides professional or expert advice in a particular area such as management, accountancy, the environment, entertainment, technology, law , human resources, marketing, emergency management, food production, medicine, finance, life management, economics, public...

s and contractors are sometimes employed when introducing new quality practices and methods, particularly where the relevant skills and expertise are not available within the organization or when allocating the available internal resources are not available. Consultants and contractors will often employ Quality Management Systems (QMS), auditing and procedural documentation writing CMMI, Six Sigma
Six Sigma
Six Sigma is a business management strategy originally developed by Motorola, USA in 1986. , it is widely used in many sectors of industry.Six Sigma seeks to improve the quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of defects and minimizing variability in manufacturing and...

, Measurement Systems Analysis
Measurement Systems Analysis
A Measurement System Analysis is a specially designed experiment that seeks to identify the components of variation in the measurement....

 (MSA), Quality Function Deployment
Quality function deployment
Quality function deployment is a “method to transform user demands into design quality, to deploy the functions forming quality, and to deploy methods for achieving the design quality into subsystems and component parts, and ultimately to specific elements of the manufacturing process.”, as...

 (QFD), Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
Failure mode and effects analysis
A failure modes and effects analysis is a procedure in product development and operations management for analysis of potential failure modes within a system for classification by the severity and likelihood of the failures...

 (FMEA), and Advance Product Quality Planning (APQP).

Quality assurance in European vocational education & training

With the formulation of a joint quality strategy, the European Union seeks to fostering the overall attractiveness of vocational education & training (VET) in Europe. In order to promote this process, a set of new policy instruments were implemented, such as CQAF (Common Quality Assurance Framework) and replacement EQARF (European Quality Assurance Reference framework), which shall allow for EC-wide comparison of QA in VET and building the capacities for a common quality assurance policy and quality culture in VET throughout Europe. Furthermore the new policy instruments shall allow for an increased transparency and mutual trust between national VET systems.

In line with the European quality strategy, the member states subsequently have implemented national structures (QANRPs: reference points for quality assurance in VET), who closely collaborate with national stakeholders in order to meet the requirements and priorities of the national VET systems and support activities to training providers in order to guarantee the implementation and commitment at all levels. At European level, the cooperation between QANRPs will be ensured through the EQAVET network.

Over the past few years, with financial support of the European Union as well as the EU member states, numerous pilot initiatives have been developed, most of which are concerned with the promotion and development of quality in VET throughout Europe. Examples can be found in the project database ADAM, which keeps comprehensive information about innovation & transfer projects sponsored by the EU.

A practical example might be seen in the BEQUAL project, which has developed a benchmarking tool for training providers, who with the help of the online-tool can benchmark their quality performance in line with the CQAF quality process model. Furthermore the project offers a database with European good practice on quality assurance in the field of vocational education & training.

A different approach was developed by the European VETWORKS project. The project builds on the observation, that over the past years there’s rapid growing VET networks throughout Europe, with a strong tendency to interlocking educational activities across organisations and sectors. It is argued that the vast majority of instruments and methods of quality assurance available for educational planning, monitoring and evaluation on provider level do not meet the new requirements. They are designed for managing the quality of either individual organisations or discrete training processes and structures, and this way are systematically counting out collaborative quality processes within newly emerging learning networks. The VETWORKS approach therefore shall allow local networks to examine their strengths and weaknesses in the area of vocational education & training. When local networks understand the factors that contribute to their success and those that pose challenges, they can better undertake strategies to maximize their strengths and effectively address their weaknesses.

Recent experience in place-based learning strategies, shows that learning communities often deploy three key success areas (Faris, 2007):
  • Partnership - learning to build links between all sectors and mobilize their shared resources;
  • Participation - learning to involve the public in the policy process as well as learning opportunities;
  • Performance - learning to assess progress and benchmark good practice.


The SPEAK-tool, adopted under the VETWORKS initiative to each of these areas deploys indicative descriptors, which local networks can use to determine achievements in their activities towards building on local VET quality. Following the EQARF process model, each indicative descriptor can be assigned a certain stage of the P-D-C-A cycle. This not only allows for compliance with the EQARF principles, but rather extends the original model by deploying a separate network level, bridging between systems and institute level. The quality process cycle employs four key areas of activity, typically found in quality management systems: quality planning, control, assurance and improvement. Each area of activity is focused on a specific quality issue, such as what do we want to achieve?, which concrete operations are required to ensure achievement? what have we achieved? what needs to be improved? indicative descriptors and process cycle define the core elements of quality management in VET networks. SPEAK aims at using quality assurance on a new range by systematically taking advantage of the EQARF and combining it with state-of-the-art methodologies of self-evaluation, especially the SPEAK instrument. By using SPEAK, stakeholders and managers of educational networks and programmes will be able to link progress indicators available for provider, network and system level:
  • provider level: SPEAK helps to systematically gain knowledge about VET providers’ “performance” in their working environment (at the market, or in the network),

  • network level: SPEAK helps to evaluate progress-indices, and measure the total operating performance of educational networks and organizations, by connecting relevant data on all actors´ levels: collaborators, volunteers, management etc.

  • system level: SPEAK helps to reflect and concretize descriptors available for the system level in the light of local VET strategies and programmes.


Finally, on the basis of different analysis options SPEAK also can help to get essential insights in long-term effects of educational programs and requirements for change. The below table reflects this construction principle.

Journals


Issues

  • Almeida, E., Alvaro, A., Meria, S. (2007, September 3–4). A Component quality assurance process. Foundations of Software Engineering, doi: http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1295074.1295093
  • Feldman, S. (2005, February). Quality assurance: much more than testing. Queue, 3(1), doi: http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1046931.1046943
  • Meisinger, M., Wagner, S. (2006, November 6). Integrating a Model of Analytical Quality Assurance into the V-Modell XT. Foundations of Software Engineering, 38-45.doi: http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1188895.1188906

Books

  • Majcen N., Taylor P. (Editors): Practical examples on traceability, measurement uncertainty and validation in chemistry, Vol 1; ISBN 978-92-79-12021-3, 2010.
  • Pyzdek, T, "Quality Engineering Handbook", 2003, ISBN 0-8247-4614-7
  • Godfrey, A. B., "Juran's Quality Handbook", 1999, ISBN 0-07-034003-X

See also

  • Best practice
    Best practice
    A best practice is a method or technique that has consistently shown results superior to those achieved with other means, and that is used as a benchmark...

  • Data quality
    Data quality
    Data are of high quality "if they are fit for their intended uses in operations, decision making and planning" . Alternatively, the data are deemed of high quality if they correctly represent the real-world construct to which they refer...

  • Data integrity
    Data integrity
    Data Integrity in its broadest meaning refers to the trustworthiness of system resources over their entire life cycle. In more analytic terms, it is "the representational faithfulness of information to the true state of the object that the information represents, where representational faithfulness...

  • Farm assurance
    Farm assurance
    Farm assurance is product certification for agricultural products that emphasises the principles of quality assurance. The emphasis on quality assurance means that, in addition to product inspection, farm assurance schemes may include standards and certification for traceability, production...

  • GxP
    GxP
    GxP is a general term for Good Practice quality guidelines and regulations. These guidelines are used in many fields, including the pharmaceutical and food industries....

    , a general term for Good Practice quality guidelines and regulations
  • ISO 9000
    ISO 9000
    The ISO 9000 family of standards relates to quality management systems and is designed to help organizations ensure they meet the needs of customers and other stakeholders . The standards are published by ISO, the International Organization for Standardization, and available through National...

  • Mission assurance
    Mission assurance
    Mission Assurance is a full life-cycle engineering process to identify and mitigate design, production, test, and field support deficiencies of mission success.- Aspects of Mission Assurance :...

  • Program assurance
    Program assurance
    Program assurance is a systematic approach to measure the likelihood of success of a program and proposing improvements that will ensure success.It is used for:*performing internal and independent reviews and assessments for program performance,...

  • Quality control
    Quality control
    Quality control, or QC for short, is a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production. This approach places an emphasis on three aspects:...

  • Quality infrastructure
    Quality infrastructure
    Quality infrastructure relates to all fields of metrology, standardization and testing, of quality management and conformity assessment, including certification and accreditation...

  • Quality management
    Quality management
    The term Quality management has a specific meaning within many business sectors. This specific definition, which does not aim to assure 'good quality' by the more general definition , can be considered to have four main components: quality planning, quality control, quality assurance and quality...

  • Quality management system
    Quality management system
    A quality management system can be expressed as the organizational structure, procedures, processes and resources needed to implement quality management.-Elements of a Quality Management System:# Organizational structure# Responsibilities# Methods...

  • Ringtest
    Ringtest
    A ringtest is part of an external quality assurance programme for a measuring method. Usually a reference institute sends identical samples which have to be analysed for special parameters to different laboratories. The industrial, medical or research laboratory gets a limited time with a deadline...

    , part of a quality assurance programme in which identical samples are analysed by different laboratories
  • Software testing
    Software testing
    Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. Software testing can also provide an objective, independent view of the software to allow the business to appreciate and understand the risks of software...

  • Software quality assurance
    Software quality assurance
    Software quality assurance consists of a means of monitoring the software engineering processes and methods used to ensure quality. The methods by which this is accomplished are many and varied, and may include ensuring conformance to one or more standards, such as ISO 9000 or a model such as...

  • Total Quality Management
    Total Quality Management
    Total quality management or TQM is an integrative philosophy of management for continuously improving the quality of products and processes....

  • Verification and validation
    Verification and Validation
    In software project management, software testing, and software engineering, verification and validation is the process of checking that a software system meets specifications and that it fulfills its intended purpose...


External links

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