Proton conductor
A proton conductor is an electrolyte
In chemistry, an electrolyte is any substance containing free ions that make the substance electrically conductive. The most typical electrolyte is an ionic solution, but molten electrolytes and solid electrolytes are also possible....

, typically a solid electrolyte, in which H+
Hydron (chemistry)
In chemistry, a hydron is the general name for a cationic form of atomic hydrogen : most commonly a "proton". However, hydron includes cations of hydrogen regardless of their isotopic composition: thus it refers collectively to protons , deuterons , and tritons...

 are the primary charge carriers.


For practical applications, proton conductors are usually solid materials. Typical materials are polymers or ceramic. Typically the pores in practical materials are small such that proton
The proton is a subatomic particle with the symbol or and a positive electric charge of 1 elementary charge. One or more protons are present in the nucleus of each atom, along with neutrons. The number of protons in each atom is its atomic number....

s dominate direct current and transport of bulk solvent is prevented. Ice
Ice is water frozen into the solid state. Usually ice is the phase known as ice Ih, which is the most abundant of the varying solid phases on the Earth's surface. It can appear transparent or opaque bluish-white color, depending on the presence of impurities or air inclusions...

 is a proton conductor, albeit a relatively poor one.

Proton conduction was first suggested by Alfred Rene Jean Paul Ubbelohde (14 December 1907 - 7 January 1988) and S. E. Rogers.

When in the form of thin membrane
Proton exchange membrane
A proton exchange membrane or polymer electrolyte membrane is a semipermeable membrane generally made from ionomers and designed to conduct protons while being impermeable to gases such as oxygen or hydrogen...

s, proton conductors are an essential part of small, inexpensive fuel cells
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell
Proton exchange membrane fuel cells, also known as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells , are a type of fuel cell being developed for transport applications as well as for stationary fuel cell applications and portable fuel cell applications. Their distinguishing features include lower...

. The polymer nafion
Nafion is a sulfonated tetrafluoroethylene based fluoropolymer-copolymer discovered in the late 1960s by Walther Grot of DuPont. It is the first of a class of synthetic polymers with ionic properties which are called ionomers...

is a typical proton conductor in fuel cells.

High proton conductivity has been reported among alkaline-earth cerates and zirconate based perovskite materials such as acceptor doped SrCeO3, BaCeO3 and BaZrO3. Relatively high proton conductivity has also been found in rare-earth ortho-niobates and ortho-tantalates as well as rare-earth tungstates.
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