Pretoria
Overview
 

Pretoria is a city located in the northern part of Gauteng Province, South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

. It is one of the country's three capital cities, serving as the executive (administrative) and de facto national capital; the others are Cape Town
Cape Town
Cape Town is the second-most populous city in South Africa, and the provincial capital and primate city of the Western Cape. As the seat of the National Parliament, it is also the legislative capital of the country. It forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality...

, the legislative
Legislature
A legislature is a kind of deliberative assembly with the power to pass, amend, and repeal laws. The law created by a legislature is called legislation or statutory law. In addition to enacting laws, legislatures usually have exclusive authority to raise or lower taxes and adopt the budget and...

 capital, and Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein is the capital city of the Free State Province of South Africa; and, as the judicial capital of the nation, one of South Africa's three national capitals – the other two being Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Pretoria, the administrative capital.Bloemfontein is popularly and...

, the judicial capital.
Pretoria is contained within the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality as one of several constituent former administrations (among which also Centurion
Centurion, Gauteng
Centurion is an area with 279,430 inhabitants in Gauteng Province of South Africa, located between Pretoria and Midrand . Formerly an independent municipality, with its own town council, it is now part of the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality...

 and Soshanguve).
Encyclopedia

Pretoria is a city located in the northern part of Gauteng Province, South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

. It is one of the country's three capital cities, serving as the executive (administrative) and de facto national capital; the others are Cape Town
Cape Town
Cape Town is the second-most populous city in South Africa, and the provincial capital and primate city of the Western Cape. As the seat of the National Parliament, it is also the legislative capital of the country. It forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality...

, the legislative
Legislature
A legislature is a kind of deliberative assembly with the power to pass, amend, and repeal laws. The law created by a legislature is called legislation or statutory law. In addition to enacting laws, legislatures usually have exclusive authority to raise or lower taxes and adopt the budget and...

 capital, and Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein is the capital city of the Free State Province of South Africa; and, as the judicial capital of the nation, one of South Africa's three national capitals – the other two being Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Pretoria, the administrative capital.Bloemfontein is popularly and...

, the judicial capital.
Pretoria is contained within the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality as one of several constituent former administrations (among which also Centurion
Centurion, Gauteng
Centurion is an area with 279,430 inhabitants in Gauteng Province of South Africa, located between Pretoria and Midrand . Formerly an independent municipality, with its own town council, it is now part of the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality...

 and Soshanguve). Pretoria itself is sometimes incorrectly referred to as "Tshwane" in a long-running and controversial proposed name change, the status of which is still being decided as of 2011.

The city's original name was Pretoria Philadelphia ("Pretoria of brotherly love"). It gave its name to the Pax Praetoriana
Pax Praetoriana
Pax Praetoriana refers to the relative stability of modern South Africa and the dominant foreign policy of the country towards the African continent and its encouragement of stable, accountable, democratic governments in other African states...

, referring to the country's relative stability.

Pretoria in South Africa is popularly known as The Jacaranda City due to the thousands of Jacaranda
Jacaranda
Jacaranda is a genus of 49 species of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae, native to tropical and subtropical regions of South America , Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean. It is also found in Asia, especially in Nepal...

 trees planted in its streets, parks and gardens.

History

The Southern Transvaal Ndebele occupied the river valley, which was to become the location of the city of Pretoria, by around 1600.

During the difaqane in Natal, another band of refugees arrived in this area under the leadership of Mzilikazi
Mzilikazi
Mzilikazi , also sometimes called Mosilikatze, was a Southern African king who founded the Matabele kingdom , Matabeleland, in what became Rhodesia and is now Zimbabwe. He was born the son of Matshobana near Mkuze, Zululand and died at Ingama, Matabeleland...

. However, they were forced to abandon their villages in their flight from a regiment of Zulu raiders in 1832.

Pretoria itself was founded in 1855 by Marthinus Pretorius
Marthinus Wessel Pretorius
The son of the famous Voortrekker leader Andries Pretorius, Marthinus Wessel Pretorius was the first president of the South African Republic, and also compiled the constitution of the Republic....

, a leader of the Voortrekkers
Voortrekkers
The Voortrekkers were emigrants during the 1830s and 1840s who left the Cape Colony moving into the interior of what is now South Africa...

, who named it after his father Andries Pretorius
Andries Pretorius
Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus Pretorius was a leader of the Boers who was instrumental in the creation of the Transvaal Republic, as well as the earlier but short-lived Natalia Republic, in present-day South Africa....

. The elder Pretorius had become a national hero of the Voortrekkers
Voortrekkers
The Voortrekkers were emigrants during the 1830s and 1840s who left the Cape Colony moving into the interior of what is now South Africa...

 after his victory over the Zulus in the Battle of Blood River
Battle of Blood River
The Battle of Blood River, so called due to the colour of water in the Ncome River turning red with blood, was fought between 470 Voortrekkers led by Andries Pretorius, and an estimated 10,000–15,000 Zulu attackers on the bank of the Ncome River on 16 December 1838, in what is today KwaZulu-Natal,...

. Andries Pretorius
Andries Pretorius
Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus Pretorius was a leader of the Boers who was instrumental in the creation of the Transvaal Republic, as well as the earlier but short-lived Natalia Republic, in present-day South Africa....

 also negotiated the Sand River Convention
Sand River Convention
The Sand River Convention was a convention whereby Great Britain formally recognised the independence of the Boers living beyond the Vaal River. In return, the Boers promised that slavery would be outlawed in the Transvaal and that they would not interfere in the Orange River Sovereignty's affairs...

 (1852), in which Britain acknowledged the independence of the Transvaal
South African Republic
The South African Republic , often informally known as the Transvaal Republic, was an independent Boer-ruled country in Southern Africa during the second half of the 19th century. Not to be confused with the present-day Republic of South Africa, it occupied the area later known as the South African...

. It became the capital of the South African Republic
South African Republic
The South African Republic , often informally known as the Transvaal Republic, was an independent Boer-ruled country in Southern Africa during the second half of the 19th century. Not to be confused with the present-day Republic of South Africa, it occupied the area later known as the South African...

 (ZAR) on 1 May 1860.
The founding of Pretoria as the capital of the South African Republic can be seen as marking the end of the Boers' settlement movements of the Great Trek
Great Trek
The Great Trek was an eastward and north-eastward migration away from British control in the Cape Colony during the 1830s and 1840s by Boers . The migrants were descended from settlers from western mainland Europe, most notably from the Netherlands, northwest Germany and French Huguenots...

.

Boer Wars

During the First Boer War
First Boer War
The First Boer War also known as the First Anglo-Boer War or the Transvaal War, was fought from 16 December 1880 until 23 March 1881-1877 annexation:...

, the city was besieged by Republican forces in December 1880 and March 1881. The peace treaty which ended the war was signed in Pretoria on 3 August 1881 at the Pretoria Convention
Pretoria Convention
The Pretoria Convention was the peace treaty that ended the First Boer War between the Transvaal Boers and the United Kingdom. The treaty was signed in Pretoria on 3 August, 1881, but was subject to ratification by the Volksraad within 3 months from the date of signature...

.

The Second Boer War
Second Boer War
The Second Boer War was fought from 11 October 1899 until 31 May 1902 between the British Empire and the Afrikaans-speaking Dutch settlers of two independent Boer republics, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State...

 (1899 to 1902) resulted in the end of the Transvaal Republic and start of British hegemony
Hegemony
Hegemony is an indirect form of imperial dominance in which the hegemon rules sub-ordinate states by the implied means of power rather than direct military force. In Ancient Greece , hegemony denoted the politico–military dominance of a city-state over other city-states...

 in South Africa. During the war, Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, was a predominantly Conservative British politician and statesman known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the century and served as Prime Minister twice...

 was imprisoned in the Staats Model School
Staats Model School
The Staatsmodelschool is situated on the corner of Van der Walt and Visagie Streets in Pretoria, Gauteng Province, Republic of South Africa. It originated from a school established in 1893 to train teachers in the Zuid Afrikaansche Republik, or ZAR....

 in Pretoria but escaped to Mozambique
Mozambique
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique , is a country in southeastern Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest...

. The city surrendered to British forces under Frederick Roberts on 5 June 1900 and the conflict was ended in Pretoria with the signing of the Peace of Vereeniging on 31 May 1902.

A number of forts
Pretoria Forts
The Pretoria Forts consisted mainly of four forts built by the government of the South African Republic just before the outbreak of the Second Anglo-Boer War around Pretoria....

 were built for the defence of the city just prior to the Second Boer War
Second Boer War
The Second Boer War was fought from 11 October 1899 until 31 May 1902 between the British Empire and the Afrikaans-speaking Dutch settlers of two independent Boer republics, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State...

, though some are today in ruins, a number of them have been preserved as national monuments.

Union of South Africa

The Boer Republics of the ZAR and the Orange Free State
Orange Free State
The Orange Free State was an independent Boer republic in southern Africa during the second half of the 19th century, and later a British colony and a province of the Union of South Africa. It is the historical precursor to the present-day Free State province...

 were united with the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
The Cape Colony, part of modern South Africa, was established by the Dutch East India Company in 1652, with the founding of Cape Town. It was subsequently occupied by the British in 1795 when the Netherlands were occupied by revolutionary France, so that the French revolutionaries could not take...

 and Natal Colony in 1910 to become the Union of South Africa
Union of South Africa
The Union of South Africa is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa. It came into being on 31 May 1910 with the unification of the previously separate colonies of the Cape, Natal, Transvaal and the Orange Free State...

. Pretoria then became the administrative capital of the whole of South Africa, with Cape Town the legislative capital. Between 1860 and 1994, the city was also the capital of the province of Transvaal
Transvaal Province
Transvaal Province was a province of the Union of South Africa from 1910 to 1961, and of its successor, the Republic of South Africa, from 1961 until the end of apartheid in 1994 when a new constitution subdivided it.-History:...

, superseding Potchefstroom in that role.

On 14 October 1931, Pretoria achieved official city status. When South Africa became a republic in 1961, Pretoria remained its administrative capital.

Post Apartheid

After the creation of new municipal structures across South Africa in 2000, the name Tshwane was adopted for the Metropolitan Municipality
Metropolitan municipality (South Africa)
In South Africa, a metropolitan municipality or Category A municipality is a municipality which executes all the functions of local government for a city or conurbation...

 that includes Pretoria and surrounding towns.

Pretoria previously had a rather sinister image as "the capital of Apartheid South Africa". However, Pretoria's political reputation was changed with the inauguration of Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999, and was the first South African president to be elected in a fully representative democratic election. Before his presidency, Mandela was an anti-apartheid activist, and the leader of Umkhonto we Sizwe, the armed wing...

 as the country's first non-apartheid President
President of South Africa
The President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under South Africa's Constitution. From 1961 to 1994, the head of state was called the State President....

 at the Union Buildings
Union Buildings
The Union Buildings form the official seat of the South African government and also house the offices of the President of South Africa. The imposing buildings are located in Pretoria, atop Meintjieskop at the Northern end of Arcadia, close to historic Church Square and the Voortrekker Monument...

 close to Pretoria CBD.

Beginning in 2005, portions of the African National Congress
African National Congress
The African National Congress is South Africa's governing Africanist political party, supported by its tripartite alliance with the Congress of South African Trade Unions and the South African Communist Party , since the establishment of non-racial democracy in April 1994. It defines itself as a...

 wished to change the name of the city to match the name of the Tshwane municipality, however this met with stiff opposition, particularly from Afrikaner civil rights groups and political parties since it denies the history of the city as founded by Pretorius.

In 1994 Peter Holmes Maluleka was elected as transitional mayor of Pretoria, until the first democratic election held later that year, making him the first black mayor of this capital of South Africa.
Maluleka later became the chairman of the Greater Pretoria Metropolitan City Council (later City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality), then was elected Speaker of the Tshwane Metro Council and in 2004 was chosen to be a member of the South African Parliament for the Soshanguve constituency.

Geography

Pretoria is situated approximately 50 km (31.1 mi) north of Johannesburg
Johannesburg
Johannesburg also known as Jozi, Jo'burg or Egoli, is the largest city in South Africa, by population. Johannesburg is the provincial capital of Gauteng, the wealthiest province in South Africa, having the largest economy of any metropolitan region in Sub-Saharan Africa...

 in the north-east of South Africa, in a transitional belt between the plateau of the Highveld
Highveld
The Highveld is a high plateau region of inland South Africa which is largely home to the largest metropolitan area in the country, the Gauteng City Region, which accounts for one-third of South Africa's population.-Location and description:...

 to the south and the lower-lying Bushveld
Bushveld
The Bushveld is a sub-tropical woodland ecoregion of Southern Africa that encompasses most of Limpopo Province and a small part of the North West Province of South Africa, the Central and North-East Districts of Botswana and the Matabeleland South and part of th Matabeleland North provinces of...

 to the north. It lies at an altitude of about 1,350 m (4,500 ft) above sea level
Above mean sea level
The term above mean sea level refers to the elevation or altitude of any object, relative to the average sea level datum. AMSL is used extensively in radio by engineers to determine the coverage area a station will be able to reach...

, in a warm, sheltered, fertile valley, surrounded by the hills of the Magaliesberg
Magaliesberg
The Magaliesberg is a mountain range extending from Pretoria in the north of the Gauteng Province to a point south of Pilanesberg, in the North West Province, South Africa...

 range.

Climate

The city has a moderately dry subtropical climate, specifically a humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

 (Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

: Cwa), with long hot and rainy summers and short cool and dry winters. The average annual temperature is 18.7 °C (65.7 °F). This is rather high considering its relatively high altitude of about 1350 metres and is due mainly to its sheltered valley position, which acts as a heat trap and cuts it off from cool southerly and south-easterly air masses for much of the year.
Rain falls mainly in the summer months, with drought conditions prevailing over the winter months, when frosts may be sharp. Snowfall is an extremely rare event, occurring once or twice in a century.

Central Business District

The Central Business District (CBD) of Pretoria has been the traditional centre of government and commerce, although today many corporate offices, small businesses, shops and government departments are situated in the sprawling suburbs of the city rather than the CBD. However to bring service delivery back to the people, various Government departments are returning to the CBD. National Departments with their Head Office in the CBD include: Department of Health, Basic Education, Transport, Higher Education and Training, Sport and Recreation, Justice and Constitutional Development, Water and Environmental Affairs and the National Treasury.

Demographics

Depending on the definition of the city limits, the population ranges from 600,000 to 1.2 million. The main languages spoken in the Tshwane municipality are Pedi, Afrikaans
Afrikaans
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language, spoken natively in South Africa and Namibia. It is a daughter language of Dutch, originating in its 17th century dialects, collectively referred to as Cape Dutch .Afrikaans is a daughter language of Dutch; see , , , , , .Afrikaans was historically called Cape...

, Tswana, Tsonga
Tsonga language
The Tsonga or Xitsonga language is spoken in southern Africa by the Tsonga people, also known as the Shangaan.- Classification :Tsonga belongs to the Bantu branch of the Niger–Congo languages...

, Zulu
Zulu language
Zulu is the language of the Zulu people with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority of whom live in South Africa. Zulu is the most widely spoken home language in South Africa as well as being understood by over 50% of the population...

 and English. Ndebele
Southern Ndebele language
The Southern Ndebele language is an African language belonging to the Nguni group of Bantu languages, and spoken by the amaNdebele . There are two dialects of Southern Ndebele in South Africa:* the Northern Transvaal Ndebele or Nrebele...

 and Sotho are also widely spoken. The whole Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality had a population of 1,985,997 at the 2001 census. The city of Pretoria has the largest white population of anywhere on the African continent. Since its founding it has been a major Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Afrikaners are an ethnic group in Southern Africa descended from almost equal numbers of Dutch, French and German settlers whose native tongue is Afrikaans: a Germanic language which derives primarily from 17th century Dutch, and a variety of other languages.-Related ethno-linguistic groups:The...

 population centre, and currently there are roughly 400,000 Afrikaners living in or around the city.

Even since the end of Apartheid, Pretoria itself still has a white majority, albeit an ever increasing black middle-class. However in the townships of Soshanguve and Atteridgeville
Atteridgeville
Atteridgeville, part of the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, is a township located on the west of Pretoria, South Africa. It is bordered to the west by Saulsville, to the east by Proclamation Hill; to the south by Laudium and to the north by Lotus Gardens.-History:Atteridgeville was...

 blacks make up close to all of the population. The largest white ethnic group are the Afrikaners and the largest black ethnic group are the Northern Sothos.

If one considers the lower estimate for the population of Pretoria, this includes largely former-white designated areas and there is therefore a white majority. However if one includes the geographically separate townships, this increases Pretoria's population beyond a million and makes whites a minority.

Pretoria's Indians
Indian South Africans
Indian South Africans are people of Indian descent living in South Africa and mostly live in and around the city of Durban, making it 'the largest 'Indian' city outside India'. Most Indians in South Africa are descendents of migrants from colonial India during late 19th-century through early...

 mostly live in the Indian township of Laudium and surrounding areas, or in white suburbs.

Architecture



Pretoria has over the years had very diverse cultural influences and this is reflected in the architectural styles that can be found in the city. It ranges from British Colonial Architecture to Art Deco
Art Deco
Art deco , or deco, is an eclectic artistic and design style that began in Paris in the 1920s and flourished internationally throughout the 1930s, into the World War II era. The style influenced all areas of design, including architecture and interior design, industrial design, fashion and...

 with a good mix of uniquely South African style mixed in.

Some of the notable structures in Pretoria include the Union Buildings
Union Buildings
The Union Buildings form the official seat of the South African government and also house the offices of the President of South Africa. The imposing buildings are located in Pretoria, atop Meintjieskop at the Northern end of Arcadia, close to historic Church Square and the Voortrekker Monument...

, Voortrekker Monument
Voortrekker Monument
The Voortrekker Monument is a monument in the city of Pretoria, South Africa. The massive granite structure, built to honour the Voortrekkers who left the Cape Colony between 1835 and 1854, was designed by the architect Gerard Moerdijk who had the idea to design a "monument that would stand a...

, the main campus of the University of South Africa
University of South Africa
The University of South Africa is a distance education university, with headquarters in Pretoria, South Africa. With approximately 300 000 enrolled students, it qualifies as one of the world's mega universities.-History:...

, Mahlamba Ndlopfu
Mahlamba Ndlopfu
Mahlamba Ndlopfu is the Official Residence for the President of South Africa in Bryntirion, Pretoria.The house, formerly called Libertas, was designed by Architect Gerard Moerdijk in a traditional Cape Dutch style and completed in 1940 as the official residence for the Prime Minister of South...

 (the President's House), Reserve Bank of South Africa (Office Tower) and the Telkom Lukas Rand Transmission Tower. Other known structures and buildings include the Loftus Versfeld Stadium
Loftus Versfeld Stadium
Loftus Versfeld Stadium is a rugby and association football stadium situated in Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa. The stadium has a capacity of 51,762 for rugby union and hosted the 2009 Currie Cup final...

, The South African State Theatre
State Theatre, South Africa
The State Theatre in Pretoria, South Africa is the largest theatre complex in Africa....

, University of Pretoria
University of Pretoria
The University of Pretoria is a multi campus public research university located in Pretoria, the administrative and de facto capital of South Africa...

, and Head Quarters of the Department of International Relations and Co-Operation (modern architecture).

Parks and gardens

Pretoria is home to the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa
National Zoological Gardens of South Africa
The National Zoological Gardens of South Africa is the national zoo of South Africa. It is situated in the city of Pretoria and was founded by J. W. B...

 as well as the Pretoria National Botanical Garden
Pretoria National Botanical Garden
The Pretoria National Botanical Garden is one of South Africa's National Botanical Gardens.The gardens were established in 1946, just east of Pretoria, Gauteng and serves as the headquarters for the South African National Biodiversity Institute....

, one of the National Botanical Gardens in South Africa. There are also a number of smaller parks and gardens located throughout the city, including the Austin Roberts
Austin Roberts
Austin Roberts was a South African zoologist. He is best known for his Birds of South Africa, first published in 1940. He also studied the mammalian fauna of the region: his work The mammals of South Africa was published posthumously in 1951...

 Bird Sanctuary.

Railway

Commuter rail services around Pretoria are operated by Metrorail
Metrorail Gauteng
Metrorail Gauteng is a network of commuter rail services in Gauteng province in South Africa, serving the Greater Johannesburg metropolitan area as well as Pretoria and its suburbs...

. The routes, originating from the city centre, extend south to Germiston and Johannesburg
Johannesburg
Johannesburg also known as Jozi, Jo'burg or Egoli, is the largest city in South Africa, by population. Johannesburg is the provincial capital of Gauteng, the wealthiest province in South Africa, having the largest economy of any metropolitan region in Sub-Saharan Africa...

, west to Atteridgeville
Atteridgeville
Atteridgeville, part of the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, is a township located on the west of Pretoria, South Africa. It is bordered to the west by Saulsville, to the east by Proclamation Hill; to the south by Laudium and to the north by Lotus Gardens.-History:Atteridgeville was...

, northwest to Ga-Rankuwa
Ga-Rankuwa
Ga-Rankuwa is a township located about 37 km north of Pretoria. Provincially it falls under Gauteng province but it used to be under North West Province, as it once fell under Bophuthatswana region ruled by Lucas Mangope under the apartheid regime....

, north to Soshanguve and east to Mamelodi.

The Gautrain
Gautrain
Gautrain is an mass rapid transit railway system in Gauteng Province, South Africa, which links Johannesburg, Pretoria, and OR Tambo International Airport...

 high-speed railway line runs from the eastern suburb of Hatfield
Hatfield, Pretoria
Hatfield is a suburb in Pretoria with a high density of students and student accommodation due to hosting the University of Pretoria's main campus...

 to Pretoria Station
Pretoria railway station
Pretoria railway station is the central station in Pretoria, the executive capital of South Africa. It is located between Pretoria's central business district and Salvokop, in a 1910 building designed by Herbert Baker...

 and then southwards to Centurion
Centurion, Gauteng
Centurion is an area with 279,430 inhabitants in Gauteng Province of South Africa, located between Pretoria and Midrand . Formerly an independent municipality, with its own town council, it is now part of the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality...

, Sandton
Sandton, Gauteng
Sandton is a wealthy area situated within the metro of Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa. The name comes from the combination of two of its suburbs, Sandown and Bryanston...

, OR Tambo International Airport and Johannesburg.

Pretoria Station is a departure point for the Blue Train
Blue Train (South Africa)
The Blue Train travels an approximately journey in South Africa between Pretoria and Cape Town. It is one of the most luxurious train journeys in the world...

 luxury train. Rovos Rail, a luxury mainline train safari service operates from the colonial-style railway station at Capital Park. The South African Friends of the Rail have recently moved their vintage train trip operations from the Capital Park station to the Hercules station.

Buses

Various bus companies exist in Pretoria, of which Putco is one of the oldest and most recognised. Tshwane(Pretoria) municipality provides for the rest of the bus transport and to view the time table please visit them at Tshwane Bus Booklet.

Road

The N1 is the major freeway that runs through Pretoria. The N1 Eastern Bypass bisects the large expanse of the eastern suburbs, routing traffic from Johannesburg
Johannesburg
Johannesburg also known as Jozi, Jo'burg or Egoli, is the largest city in South Africa, by population. Johannesburg is the provincial capital of Gauteng, the wealthiest province in South Africa, having the largest economy of any metropolitan region in Sub-Saharan Africa...

 to Polokwane
Polokwane
Polokwane, meaning "Place of Safety",is a city in the Polokwane Local Municipality and the capital of the Limpopo province, South Africa. It is also often referred to by its former name, Pietersburg. Polokwane is a major urban centre, the biggest and most important north of Gauteng. The population...

 and the north of the country. The N4 Platinum Highway forms the Northern Bypass and routes traffic from Witbank
Witbank
Witbank , also known as eMalahleni is a city situated on the Highveld of Mpumalanga, South Africa, within the eMalahleni Local Municipality. The name Witbank is Afrikaans for White Ridge and is named after a white sandstone outcrop where wagon transport drivers rested...

 to Rustenburg. The N4 runs east-west through South Africa, connecting Maputo
Maputo
Maputo, also known as Lourenço Marques, is the capital and largest city of Mozambique. It is known as the City of Acacias in reference to acacia trees commonly found along its avenues and the Pearl of the Indian Ocean. It was famous for the inscription "This is Portugal" on the walkway of its...

 to Gaborone
Gaborone
' is the capital and largest city of Botswana with a population of 191,776 based on a 2006 survey, about 10% of the total population of Botswana....

. Other major freeways include the N14 which links Pretoria with Johannesburg's West Rand, and the R21 which links the city with OR Tambo International Airport.

Airports

For scheduled air services, Pretoria is served by Johannesburg's airports: OR Tambo International, 45 kilometres (28 mi) south of central Pretoria; and Lanseria
Lanseria Airport
Lanseria International Airport is a privately owned international airport that is situated north of Randburg and Sandton to the north west of Johannesburg, South Africa. The airport can handle aircraft up to the Boeing 757-300 and Airbus A319.-History:...

, 35 kilometres (21.7 mi) south-west of the city. Wonderboom Airport
Wonderboom Airport
Wonderboom Airport , is located north of Pretoria, South Africa. The airport handles general aviation flights, and may offer scheduled passenger service in the near future.-History:...

 in the suburb of Wonderboom in the north of Pretoria services light commercial and private aircraft. There are two military air bases to the south of the city, Swartkop
AFB Swartkop
AFB Swartkop is an air force base in South Africa. It is managed as part of AFB Waterkloof and houses one of the three branches of the South African Air Force Museum...

 and Waterkloof
AFB Waterkloof
Air Force Base Waterkloof is an airbase of the South African Air Force. It is situated on the outskirts of Pretoria, and is the SAAF's busiest airbase.The base's name, Waterkloof, is Afrikaans, it means Water Ravine in English....

.

Media

Since Pretoria forms part the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, most radio, television and paper media is the same as what can be found in the rest of the metro area.

Museums

  • African Window
    African Window
    The African Window is a building in Pretoria, Gauteng, which houses the Ditsong National Museum of Cultural History of South Africa. The DNMCH was amalgamated with the Pretoria-based Transvaal Museum for Natural History The African Window is a building in Pretoria, Gauteng, which houses the...

  • Freedom Park
    Freedom Park (South Africa)
    Freedom Park is situated on Salvokop in Pretoria. It includes a memorial with a list of the names of those killed in the Boer Wars, World War I, World War II as well as apartheid....

  • Kruger House (Residence of the president of the ZAR, Paul Kruger
    Paul Kruger
    Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger , better known as Paul Kruger and affectionately known as Uncle Paul was State President of the South African Republic...

    ).
  • Mapungubwe Museum
    Mapungubwe Museum
    The Mapungubwe Museumat the University of Pretoria houses the national treasures of Mapungubwe, South Africa, a 13th century Iron Age site in the Limpopo Valley and a World Heritage Site...

  • Melrose House
    Melrose House
    Melrose House is a stately mansion located in Pretoria, South Africa. Built in 1886 by the prosperous Pretoria businessman George Jesse Heys. it was named after the famous Melrose Abbey in Scotland. Melrose House gained fame during the Second Boer War when Lord Roberts requisitioned it as the...

     (The Treaty of Vereeniging
    Treaty of Vereeniging
    The Treaty of Vereeniging was the peace treaty, signed on 31 May 1902, that ended the South African War between the South African Republic and the Republic of the Orange Free State, on the one side, and the British Empire on the other.This settlement provided for the end of hostilities and...

     which ended the Anglo-Boer War was signed here in 1902)
  • Pretoria Forts
    Pretoria Forts
    The Pretoria Forts consisted mainly of four forts built by the government of the South African Republic just before the outbreak of the Second Anglo-Boer War around Pretoria....

  • Transvaal Museum
    Transvaal Museum
    ""The Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, formerly Transvaal Museum, is a natural history museum situated in Pretoria, South Africa....

  • Van Wouw Museum
    Van Wouw Museum
    The Van Wouw Museum, housed in Anton Van Wouw's last residence, a Dutch national monument. Besides documents, photos, paintings and tools the exhibits are mainly bronze maquettes and casts of Van Wouw's sculptural work.-Anton van Wouw :...

  • Voortrekker Monument
    Voortrekker Monument
    The Voortrekker Monument is a monument in the city of Pretoria, South Africa. The massive granite structure, built to honour the Voortrekkers who left the Cape Colony between 1835 and 1854, was designed by the architect Gerard Moerdijk who had the idea to design a "monument that would stand a...


Music

A number of popular South African bands and musicians are originally from Pretoria. These include Desmond and the Tutus, Seether
Seether
Seether is a post-grunge/alternative metal band from Pretoria, South Africa, formed in 1999. The band is currently signed to Wind-up Records...

, Zebra & Giraffe
Zebra & Giraffe
Zebra & Giraffe is an alternative rock band from South Africa. The band's debut album, Collected Memories, was released on 5 May 2008.-Greg Carlin:...

, popular mostwako rapper JR, and DJ Mujava
DJ Mujava
Elvis Maswanganyi, better known as DJ Mujava, is a South African DJ.-Early life and background:He was raised in the Pretorian town of Attridgeville, where local taxi drivers distributed CDs of his music to their fares.-Career:...

 who was raised in the town of Attridgeville.

The song "Marching to Pretoria" refers to this city. The opening line of The Beatles
The Beatles
The Beatles were an English rock band, active throughout the 1960s and one of the most commercially successful and critically acclaimed acts in the history of popular music. Formed in Liverpool, by 1962 the group consisted of John Lennon , Paul McCartney , George Harrison and Ringo Starr...

' song I Am the Walrus
I Am the Walrus
"I Am the Walrus" is a 1967 song by The Beatles, written by John Lennon and credited to Lennon–McCartney. Lennon claimed he wrote the first two lines on separate acid trips. The song was in the Beatles' 1967 television film and album Magical Mystery Tour, and was the B-side to the #1 hit "Hello,...

, "I am he as you are he as you are me and we are all together", is based on the song "Marching to Pretoria", which contains the lyric "I'm with you and you're with me and we are all together".

Sport

One of the most popular sports in Pretoria is rugby union
Rugby union
Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

. Loftus Versfeld
Loftus Versfeld Stadium
Loftus Versfeld Stadium is a rugby and association football stadium situated in Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa. The stadium has a capacity of 51,762 for rugby union and hosted the 2009 Currie Cup final...

 is home to the Blue Bulls
Blue Bulls
The Blue Bulls, for sponsorship reasons known as the Vodacom Blue Bulls, or more popularly by their Afrikaans name die Blou Bulle, are a South African rugby union team that participates in the annual Currie Cup tournament...

, who compete in the domestic Currie Cup
Currie Cup
The Currie Cup tournament is South Africa's premier domestic rugby union competition, played each winter and spring , featuring teams representing either entire provinces or substantial regions within provinces...

, and also to the Bulls franchise in the international Super Rugby
Super 14
Super Rugby is the largest and pre-eminent professional Rugby union competition in the Southern Hemisphere...

 competition. The Super Rugby Bulls, which are operated by the Blue Bulls, won the competition in 2007
2007 Super 14 season
The 2007 Super 14 season started in February 2007 with preseason matches held from mid-January. It finished on 19 May with the final at ABSA Stadium in Durban, in the first final between two South African teams in the history of Super Rugby...

, 2009
2009 Super 14 season
The 2009 Super 14 season kicked off in February 2009 with pre-season matches held from mid-January. It finished on 30 May, when the Bulls won their second Super Rugby title with a decisive 61–17 victory over the Waikato Chiefs at Loftus Versfeld stadium in Pretoria, South Africa. The 2009 season...

 and 2010
2010 Super 14 season
The 2010 Super 14 season kicked off in February 2010 with pre-season matches held from mid-January. It finished on 29 May. The 2010 season was the fifth and last season of the expanded Super 14 format. The schedule, which covers 3½ months, featured a total of 94 matches, with each team playing one...

. Loftus Versfeld also hosts the soccer side Mamelodi Sundowns
Mamelodi Sundowns
Mamelodi Sundowns are a South African football club that plays in the Premier Soccer League.Since 2003, Sundowns are owned by rand billionaire Patrice Motsepe....

.

Pretoria also hosted matches during the 1995 Rugby World Cup
1995 Rugby World Cup
The 1995 Rugby World Cup was the third Rugby World Cup. It was hosted and won by South Africa, and was the first Rugby World Cup in which every match was held in one country....

. Loftus Versfeld was used for matches of soccer in the 2010 FIFA World Cup
2010 FIFA World Cup
The 2010 FIFA World Cup was the 19th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams. It took place in South Africa from 11 June to 11 July 2010...

. There are two soccer teams in the city campaigning in the Premier Soccer League
Premier Soccer League
Premier Soccer League is the trading name of the National Soccer League of South Africa. The top league is the ABSA Premiership, sponsored by ABSA...

. They are Mamelodi Sundowns
Mamelodi Sundowns
Mamelodi Sundowns are a South African football club that plays in the Premier Soccer League.Since 2003, Sundowns are owned by rand billionaire Patrice Motsepe....

 and Supersport United
Supersport United
SuperSport United is a South African football club based in Pretoria that plays in the Premier Soccer League.The club was originally known as Pretoria City. City was purchased by M-Net in 1994. M-Net got approval from the National Soccer League and the club was renamed.United is known as...

. Supersport United are the reigning PSL Champions.

Cricket
Cricket
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

 is also popular game in the city. As there is no international cricket stadium in the city, it does not host any major cricket tournament, although the nearby situated Centurion
Centurion, Gauteng
Centurion is an area with 279,430 inhabitants in Gauteng Province of South Africa, located between Pretoria and Midrand . Formerly an independent municipality, with its own town council, it is now part of the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality...

 has Supersport Park which is an international cricket stadium and has hosted many important tournaments such as 2003 Cricket World Cup
2003 Cricket World Cup
-Group stage tables and results:The top three teams from each pool qualify for the next stage, carrying forward the points already scored against fellow qualifiers, plus a quarter of the points scored against the teams that failed to qualify.-Pool A:...

, 2007 ICC World Twenty20, 2009 IPL and 2009 ICC Champions Trophy.

Churches

  • Anglican Diocese of Pretoria
    Anglican Diocese of Pretoria
    -History:The diocese originally covered the whole of the South African Republic, which later became the Transvaal province of South Africa. In 1922 the Diocese of Johannesburg, covering the Southern Transvaal, was formed. In the 1980s and 1990s several new dioceses were formed.The northernmost part...

  • Apostolic Faith Mission of South Africa
    Apostolic Faith Mission of South Africa
    The Apostolic Faith Mission of South Africa is a classical Pentecostal Christian denomination in South Africa. With 1.2 million adherents, it is South Africa's largest Pentecostal church. Dr. Isak Burger has led the AFM as president since 1996 when the white and black branches of the church were...

  • Central Baptist Church
    Central Baptist Church
    -United States:* Central Baptist Church , listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Florida* Central Baptist Church , listed on the NRHP in Oklahoma...

  • Evangelical Lutheran Church in Southern Africa
    Evangelical Lutheran Church in Southern Africa
    The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Southern Africa is a Lutheran church in South Africa. The Church has 580,000 baptized members. in seven Dioceses in South Africa, Botswana and Swaziland. It became a member of the Lutheran World Federation in 1976 after it was formed out of four previous Synods in...

  • Hatfield Christian Church
    Hatfield Christian Church
    Hatfield Christian Church is a charismatic Christian church located in Waterkloof Glen, an eastern suburb of Pretoria. The church is affiliated with The Christian Network . Hatfield Christian Church is one of the largest churches in Pretoria, with an estimated attendance exceeding 5,000...

  • Methodist Church of Southern Africa
    Methodist Church of Southern Africa
    The Methodist Church of Southern Africa is a member church of the World Methodist Council.Methodism in Southern Africa began as a result of lay Christian work by an Irish soldier of the English Regiment, John Irwin, who was stationed at the Cape and began to hold prayer meetings as early as 1795...

  • Nederduits Gereformeerde Kerk
    Nederduits Gereformeerde Kerk
    The Nederduits Gereformeerde Kerk is a Reformed Christian denomination in South Africa. It also has a presence in neighboring countries, such as Namibia, Swaziland, and parts of Botswana and Zimbabwe...

  • Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Pretoria
  • Seventh-day Adventist Church
    Seventh-day Adventist Church
    The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the original seventh day of the Judeo-Christian week, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent second coming of Jesus Christ...

  • The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

Commerce and Industry

As the national administrative (executive) capital of South Africa, Pretoria is the seat of government and houses the headquarters of the main government departments and ministries. As the de facto capital city, it also hosts the foreign embassies and diplomatic missions. The city is a major commercial centre and an important industrial centre. Its main industries are iron and steel works, copper casting, and the manufacture of automobiles, railway carriages and heavy machinery.

Pretoria has a number of industrial areas, business districts and small home businesses. A number of chambers of commerce exist for Pretoria and it's business community including Pretoriaweb a business networking group that meets once a month to discuss the issues of doing business in Pretoria. The members of Pretoriaweb also discuss issues in various social media environments and on the website.

Tertiary education

Pretoria is one of South Africa's leading academic cities, it is home to both the largest residential university in the country, the Tshwane University of Technology
Tshwane University of Technology
Tshwane University of Technology is a higher education institution in South Africa that came into being through a merger of three technikons — Technikon Northern Gauteng, Technikon North-West and Technikon Pretoria....

 and the largest distance education
Distance education
Distance education or distance learning is a field of education that focuses on teaching methods and technology with the aim of delivering teaching, often on an individual basis, to students who are not physically present in a traditional educational setting such as a classroom...

 university (the University of South Africa
University of South Africa
The University of South Africa is a distance education university, with headquarters in Pretoria, South Africa. With approximately 300 000 enrolled students, it qualifies as one of the world's mega universities.-History:...

, more commonly known by its acronym, UNISA). The University of Pretoria
University of Pretoria
The University of Pretoria is a multi campus public research university located in Pretoria, the administrative and de facto capital of South Africa...

 (colloquially known as Tuks or Tukkies), one of South Africa's leading research and teaching universities, and the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research
The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research is South Africa's central and premier scientific research and development organisation. It was established by an act of parliament in 1945 and is situated on its own campus in the city of Pretoria...

 (CSIR) are also located in the city.

Secondary education

  • Afrikaanse Hoër Meisieskool
    Afrikaanse Hoër Meisieskool
    The [Afrikaanse Hoër Meisieskool] is a public, Afrikaans-speaking high school for girls in Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa. It is the sister school of the Afrikaanse Hoër Seunskool.-History:...

  • Afrikaanse Hoër Seunskool
    Afrikaanse Hoër Seunskool
    The Afrikaanse Hoër Seunskool also known as Affies, is a public high school for boys situated in the city of Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa, opposite Loftus Versfeld, the rugby stadium and home of the Bulls and Blue Bulls.The school's founding on 28 January 1920 marked the establishment of the...

  • Christian Brothers' College, Mount Edmund
    Christian Brothers' College, Mount Edmund
    The Christian Brothers' College, Mount Edmund is a private, Roman Catholic high school in Pretoria, South Africa.-St Gabriel's :...

  • Clapham High School
  • Deutsche Schule Pretoria
  • The Glen High School
    The Glen High School
    The Glen High School is a public, English medium co-ed high school located in Waterkloof Glen, Pretoria, in the Gauteng province of South Africa...

  • Hillview High School
    Hillview High School
    Hillview High School is a public English medium co-ed high school located in Roseville, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa.-Location:The school was founded in 1955 on the site of the former Prinshof Primary School near the city centre. The school moved from the city centre to Franzina Street in...

  • Hoërskool Akasia
  • Hoërskool C.R. Swart
  • Hoërskool Centurion
  • Hoërskool Die Wilgers
  • Hoërskool Eldoraigne
  • Hoërskool Garsfontein
  • Hoërskool Gerrit Maritz
  • Hoerskool Hendrik Verwoerd
  • Hoërskool Hercules
  • Hoërskool Langenhoven
  • Hoërskool Menlopark
    Hoërskool Menlopark
    Die Hoërskool Menlopark is a public Afrikaans medium co-educational high school located in Menlo Park, Pretoria, in the Gauteng province of South Africa. Learners call themselves Parkies...

  • Hoërskool Montana
  • Hoërskool f.h Odenaal
  • Hoërskool Oos-Moot
  • Hoërskool Overkruin
  • Hoërskool Pretoria Noord
  • Hoërskool Silverton
  • Hoërskool Voortrekkerhoogte
  • Hoërskool Waterkloof
    Hoërskool waterkloof
    Hoërskool Waterkloof is an Afrikaans high school situated in the wealthy eastern suburbs of Pretoria, South Africa. It had grown to become the largest Afrikaans school in the world by 2004, with 2,200 pupils and 140 teachers. It is also one of the top schools in Pretoria and has been...

  • Hoërskool Wonderboom
  • HTS John Vorster
  • Pretoria Boys High School
    Pretoria Boys High School
    Pretoria Boys High School, also known as Boys High or PBHS, is a public, fee charging, English medium high school for boys located in Brooklyn, Pretoria, in the Gauteng province of South Africa....

  • Pretoria High School for Girls
    Pretoria High School for Girls
    Pretoria High School for Girls, also called Girls High or PHSG, is a public, fee charging, English medium high school for girls located in Hatfield, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa.-Second Anglo-Boer War:...

  • Pretoria Muslim School
    Pretoria Muslim School
    The Pretoria Muslim School also now known as the Tshwane Muslim School has been ranked in the top 100 schools in Gauteng. It is located in Laudium...

  • Pretoria Technical High School
  • Pretoria West High School
  • Pro Arte Alphen Park
  • St. Mary's Diocesan School for Girls, Pretoria
    St. Mary's Diocesan School for Girls, Pretoria
    St. Mary's DSG is situated in Hillcrest, Pretoria in Gauteng, South Africa.St Mary's is a girls' boarding school with an Anglican foundation, but also admits day students...

  • Willowridge High School (Pretoria)
    Willowridge High School (Pretoria)
    Willowridge High School,, is a public, English medium co-ed high school located in The Willows, Pretoria, in the Gauteng province of South Africa....



Change of name

On 26 May 2005 the South African Geographical Names Council
South African Geographical Names Council
The South African Geographical Names Council is the official government body of South Africa that advises the executive branch of the central government on new geographical names as well as the changing of existing geographical names.- Purpose of the Council :The Council was established by the...

 (SAGNC), which is linked to the Directorate of Heritage in the Department of Arts and Culture, approved changing the name of Pretoria to Tshwane, which is already the name of the Metropolitan Municipality in which Pretoria, and a number of surrounding towns are located. Although the name change was approved by the SAGNC, it has not yet been approved by the Minister of Arts and Culture. The matter is currently under consideration while he has requested further research on the matter. Should the Minister approve the name change, the name will be published in the Government Gazette, giving the public opportunity to comment on the matter. The Minister can then refer that public response back to the SAGNC, before presenting his recommendation before parliament, who will vote on the change. Various public interest groups have warned that the name change will be challenged in court, should the minister approve the renaming. The long process involved made it unlikely the name would change anytime soon, if ever, even assuming the Minister had approved the change in early 2006.

The Tshwane Metro Council has advertised Tshwane as "Africa's leading capital city" since the name change was approved by the SAGNC in 2005. This has led to further controversy, however, as the name of the city had not yet been changed officially, and the council was, at best, acting prematurely. Following a complaint lodged with the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA), it was ruled that such advertisements are deliberately misleading and should be withdrawn from all media. Despite the rulings of the ASA, Tshwane Metro Council failed to discontinue their "City of Tshwane" advertisements. As a result, the ASA requested that Tshwane Metro pay for advertisements in which it admits that it has misled the public. Refusing to abide by the ASA's request, the Metro Council was banned consequently from placing any advertisements in the South African media that refer to Tshwane as the capital. ASA may still place additional sanctions on the Metro Council that would prevent it from placing any advertisements in the South African media, including council notices and employment vacancies.

After the ruling, the Metro Council continued to place Tshwane advertisements, but placed them on council-owned advertising boards and busstops throughout the municipal area. In August 2007, an internal memo was leaked to the media in which the Tshwane mayor sought advice from the premier of Gauteng on whether the municipality could be called the "City of Tshwane" instead of just "Tshwane". This could increase confusion about the distinction between the city of Pretoria and the municipality of Tshwane.

In early 2010 it was again rumoured that the South African government would make a decision regarding the name, however, a media briefing regarding name changes, where it may have been discussed, was cancelled shortly before taking place. Rumours of the name change provoked outrage from Afrikaner civil rights and political groups. It later emerged that the registration of the municipality as a geographic place had been published in the government gazette as it had been too late to withdraw the name from the publication, but it was announced that the name had been withdrawn, pending "further work" by officials. The following week, the registration of "Tshwane" was officially withdrawn in the Government Gazette., The retraction had reportedly been ordered at the behest of the Deputy President of South Africa
Deputy President of South Africa
The Deputy President of South Africa is the acting President of South Africa when the President is outside the country's borders, unable to fulfill the duties of the office, or when the Presidency is vacant. The Deputy President is also a member of the National Assembly and the Cabinet...

 Kgalema Motlanthe, acting on behalf of President Jacob Zuma, as minister of Arts and Culture Lulu Xingwana had acted contrary to the position of the ANC, which is that Pretoria, and the municipality are separate entities, which was subsequently articulated by ANC secretary general Gwede Mantashe
Gwede Mantashe
Gwede Mantashe is a South African politician, holding posts of ANC secretary general and chairperson of the South African Communist Party.- Posts :...

.

In March 2010, the "Tshwane Royal House Committee", claiming to be descendents of Chief Tshwane, called for the name to be changed, and for the descendents of Chief Tshwane to be recognised, and to be made part of the administration of the municipality.

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Pretoria is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with:
Bethlehem
Bethlehem
Bethlehem is a Palestinian city in the central West Bank of the Jordan River, near Israel and approximately south of Jerusalem, with a population of about 30,000 people. It is the capital of the Bethlehem Governorate of the Palestinian National Authority and a hub of Palestinian culture and tourism...

, Palestinian Authority Johannesburg
Johannesburg
Johannesburg also known as Jozi, Jo'burg or Egoli, is the largest city in South Africa, by population. Johannesburg is the provincial capital of Gauteng, the wealthiest province in South Africa, having the largest economy of any metropolitan region in Sub-Saharan Africa...

, South Africa Washington, D.C., United States
Taipei
Taipei
Taipei City is the capital of the Republic of China and the central city of the largest metropolitan area of Taiwan. Situated at the northern tip of the island, Taipei is located on the Tamsui River, and is about 25 km southwest of Keelung, its port on the Pacific Ocean...

, Taiwan Kiev
Kiev
Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and the largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River. The population as of the 2001 census was 2,611,300. However, higher numbers have been cited in the press....

, Ukraine. Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

, Iran
Baku
Baku
Baku , sometimes spelled as Baki or Bakou, is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. It is located on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, which projects into the Caspian Sea. The city consists of two principal...

, Azerbaijan Amman
Amman
Amman is the capital of Jordan. It is the country's political, cultural and commercial centre and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. The Greater Amman area has a population of 2,842,629 as of 2010. The population of Amman is expected to jump from 2.8 million to almost...

, Jordan Delft
Delft
Delft is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland , the Netherlands. It is located between Rotterdam and The Hague....

, Netherlands

Shopping Malls

  • Atterbury Boulevard
  • Atterbury Value Mart
  • Brooklyn Mall*
  • Brooklyn Design Square
  • Centurion Mall (upon Hennops River)*
  • Hatfield Plaza*
  • Irene Village Mall*
  • Kolonnade Centre*
  • Mall @ Reds*
  • Menlyn Retail Park
  • Menlyn Park
    Menlyn Park
    At 118 989m2, Menlyn Park Shopping Centre is Pretoria's largest shopping centre situated at the corner of Lois Avenue and Atterbury Road close to the N1 Highway....

    *
  • Parkview Centre
  • Sammy Marks Shopping Centre
  • Sancardia Shopping Centre
  • Sterland Mall*
  • Sunny Park
  • The Grove Shopping Centre*
  • Woodlands Boulevard
    Woodlands Boulevard
    Woodlands Boulevard is 71 000 m² located corner Garsfontein Rd and De Villebois Mareuil Drive, in Pretoria East. The extension was completed during October 2010 and it now crosses Philadelphia Road....

    *
  • Wonderboom Junction Shopping Centre
  • Wonderpark Shopping Centre*

Note: Malls marked with an asterisk are malls with at least a 4-screen cinema complex. Kolonnade Centre is the only mall in the city with a public ice-skating rink.

Places of interest

  • Pretoria National Botanical Garden
    Pretoria National Botanical Garden
    The Pretoria National Botanical Garden is one of South Africa's National Botanical Gardens.The gardens were established in 1946, just east of Pretoria, Gauteng and serves as the headquarters for the South African National Biodiversity Institute....

  • The National Zoological Gardens of South Africa
    National Zoological Gardens of South Africa
    The National Zoological Gardens of South Africa is the national zoo of South Africa. It is situated in the city of Pretoria and was founded by J. W. B...

  • Church Square
    Church Square, Pretoria
    Church Square or Kerkplein , is the historic centre of the city of Pretoria, South Africa.Its most prominent feature is the statue of the Boer leader and president of the South African Republic Paul Kruger at its centre...

  • Union Buildings
    Union Buildings
    The Union Buildings form the official seat of the South African government and also house the offices of the President of South Africa. The imposing buildings are located in Pretoria, atop Meintjieskop at the Northern end of Arcadia, close to historic Church Square and the Voortrekker Monument...

  • Marabastad
  • Menlyn Park
    Menlyn Park
    At 118 989m2, Menlyn Park Shopping Centre is Pretoria's largest shopping centre situated at the corner of Lois Avenue and Atterbury Road close to the N1 Highway....

  • Voortrekker Monument
    Voortrekker Monument
    The Voortrekker Monument is a monument in the city of Pretoria, South Africa. The massive granite structure, built to honour the Voortrekkers who left the Cape Colony between 1835 and 1854, was designed by the architect Gerard Moerdijk who had the idea to design a "monument that would stand a...

  • Hatfield Square

Nature Reserves

  • Groenkloof Nature Reserve
  • Rietvlei Nature Reserve
    Rietvlei Nature Reserve
    The Rietvlei Nature Reserve is located in Pretoria and is about in size. Located within the reserve is the Rietvlei Dam.-Trees:Both indigenous and exotics species of trees can be found in the reserve.Indigenous* Common hook thorn Acacia caffra...

  • Moreletaspruit Nature Reserve
  • Faerie Glen Nature Reserve
  • Wonderboom Nature Reserve
    Wonderboom Nature Reserve
    The Wonderboom Nature Reserve is a 1 km² reserve centered on a wild willowleaf fig tree Ficus salicifolia that is more than a thousand years old, found towards the north of the Magaliesberg Mountains in the Northern portion of the Pretoria Metropole, South Africa.The famous tree is situated at...


See also

  • List of Pretoria suburbs
  • Ptawug
    Ptawug
    Pretoria Wireless Users Group is a South African wireless users group. It is non-profit community organization providing a Wireless community network in Pretoria, the capital of South Africa....

     Pretoria Wireless Users Group—a free, non-profit, community wireless network in Pretoria
  • Symbolism of the Voortrekker Monument

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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