Presidio, Texas
Overview
Presidio is a city in Presidio County, Texas
Presidio County, Texas
Presidio County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. In 2000, its population was 7,304. Its county seat is Marfa. Presidio County is in the Trans-Pecos region of West Texas and is named for the ancient border settlement of Presidio del Norte.-Geography:Presidio County is triangular in...

, United States. It stands on the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
The Rio Grande is a river that flows from southwestern Colorado in the United States to the Gulf of Mexico. Along the way it forms part of the Mexico – United States border. Its length varies as its course changes...

 (Río Bravo del Norte), on the opposite side of the U.S.-Mexico border from Ojinaga, Chihuahua
Ojinaga
Ojinaga Municipality is one of the 67 municipalities of Chihuahua, in northern Mexico. The municipal seat lies at Ojinaga, a rural bordertown on the U.S.-Mexico border...

. The population was 4,167 at the 2000 census.

Presidio is on the Farm to Market Road 170
Farm to Market Road 170
Farm to Market Road 170, Farm Road 170, or FM 170 is a highway maintained by the Texas Department of Transportation in Presidio and Brewster counties in Texas. The route, known locally as the River Road, runs along the United States side of the Rio Grande which in Texas forms the international...

, and Texas State Highway 67, 18 miles (29 km) south of Shafter
Shafter, Texas
Shafter is an unincorporated community in Presidio County, Texas, United States. The Texas Attorney General's Office gives a population of 11 as of the 2000 Census. It was named in honor of General William Shafter, who at one point commanded the nearby Fort Davis. In the early 1900s six silver...

 in southern Presidio County. Presidio is about 240 miles from El Paso
El Paso, Texas
El Paso, is a city in and the county seat of El Paso County, Texas, United States, and lies in far West Texas. In the 2010 census, the city had a population of 649,121. It is the sixth largest city in Texas and the 19th largest city in the United States...

, which is the closest major city to this town.
The junction of the Conchos and Rio Grande rivers at Presidio was settled thousands of years ago by hunting and gathering Indians.
Encyclopedia
Presidio is a city in Presidio County, Texas
Presidio County, Texas
Presidio County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. In 2000, its population was 7,304. Its county seat is Marfa. Presidio County is in the Trans-Pecos region of West Texas and is named for the ancient border settlement of Presidio del Norte.-Geography:Presidio County is triangular in...

, United States. It stands on the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
The Rio Grande is a river that flows from southwestern Colorado in the United States to the Gulf of Mexico. Along the way it forms part of the Mexico – United States border. Its length varies as its course changes...

 (Río Bravo del Norte), on the opposite side of the U.S.-Mexico border from Ojinaga, Chihuahua
Ojinaga
Ojinaga Municipality is one of the 67 municipalities of Chihuahua, in northern Mexico. The municipal seat lies at Ojinaga, a rural bordertown on the U.S.-Mexico border...

. The population was 4,167 at the 2000 census.

Presidio is on the Farm to Market Road 170
Farm to Market Road 170
Farm to Market Road 170, Farm Road 170, or FM 170 is a highway maintained by the Texas Department of Transportation in Presidio and Brewster counties in Texas. The route, known locally as the River Road, runs along the United States side of the Rio Grande which in Texas forms the international...

, and Texas State Highway 67, 18 miles (29 km) south of Shafter
Shafter, Texas
Shafter is an unincorporated community in Presidio County, Texas, United States. The Texas Attorney General's Office gives a population of 11 as of the 2000 Census. It was named in honor of General William Shafter, who at one point commanded the nearby Fort Davis. In the early 1900s six silver...

 in southern Presidio County. Presidio is about 240 miles from El Paso
El Paso, Texas
El Paso, is a city in and the county seat of El Paso County, Texas, United States, and lies in far West Texas. In the 2010 census, the city had a population of 649,121. It is the sixth largest city in Texas and the 19th largest city in the United States...

, which is the closest major city to this town.

History

The junction of the Conchos and Rio Grande rivers at Presidio was settled thousands of years ago by hunting and gathering Indians. By 1200 AD, the local Indians had adopted agriculture and lived in small, closely knit settlements, which the Spaniards later called pueblos. See La Junta Indians
La Junta Indians
La Junta Indians is a collective name for the Indians living near the junction of the Rio Grande and Conchos rivers on the borders of present day Texas and Mexico. These people were first visited by Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca in 1535...



The first Spaniards came to Presidio in 1535, when Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca was a Spanish explorer of the New World, one of four survivors of the Narváez expedition...

 and his three companions stopped at the Indian pueblo, placed a cross on the mountainside, and called the village La Junta de las Cruces. On December 10, 1582, Antonio de Espejo
Antonio de Espejo
Antonio de Espejo was a Spanish explorer who led an expedition into New Mexico and Arizona in 1582-1583. The expedition created interest in establishing a Spanish colony among the Pueblo Indians of the Rio Grande valley.-Life:...

 and his company arrived at the site and called the pueblo San Juan Evangelista. By 1681, the area of Presidio was known as La Junta de los Ríos, or the Junction of the Rivers. In 1683 Juan Sabeata
Juan Sabeata
Juan Sabeata was a Jumano Indian leader in present day Texas who tried to forge an alliance with the Spanish or French to help his people fend off the encroachments of the Apaches on their territory. -Life:...

, the chief of the Jumano Indian nation, reported having seen a fiery cross on the mountain at Presidio and requested that a mission be established at La Junta. The settlement in 1684 became known as La Navidad en Las Cruces. The missions La Navidad en las Cruces, San Francisco de los Julimes, San Antonio de los Puliques, Apostol Santiago, and Santa María de la Redonda may have been established on the Texas side of the Rio Grande at La Junta.

About 1760, a penal colony and military garrison of sixty men were established near Presidio. In 1830, the name of the area around Presidio was changed from La Junta de los Rios to Presidio del Norte. White American settlers came to Presidio in 1848 after the Mexican War. Among them was John Spencer, who operated a horse ranch on the United States side of the Rio Grande near Presidio. Ben Leaton and Milton Faver, former scalp hunters for the Mexican government, built private forts in the area. The handful of Anglo settlers who came to the region were assimilated into the Hispanic population and their descendants are primarily Spanish speakers today.

During the Mexican Revolution, General Pancho Villa
Pancho Villa
José Doroteo Arango Arámbula – better known by his pseudonym Francisco Villa or its hypocorism Pancho Villa – was one of the most prominent Mexican Revolutionary generals....

 often used Ojinaga
Ojinaga
Ojinaga Municipality is one of the 67 municipalities of Chihuahua, in northern Mexico. The municipal seat lies at Ojinaga, a rural bordertown on the U.S.-Mexico border...

 as his headquarters for operations and visited Presidio on numerous occasions.

In 1849 a Comanche
Comanche
The Comanche are a Native American ethnic group whose historic range consisted of present-day eastern New Mexico, southern Colorado, northeastern Arizona, southern Kansas, all of Oklahoma, and most of northwest Texas. Historically, the Comanches were hunter-gatherers, with a typical Plains Indian...

 raid almost destroyed Presidio, and in 1850 Indians drove off most of the cattle in town. A post office was established at Presidio in 1868, and the first public school was opened in 1887.

In 1897, President William McKinley
William McKinley
William McKinley, Jr. was the 25th President of the United States . He is best known for winning fiercely fought elections, while supporting the gold standard and high tariffs; he succeeded in forging a Republican coalition that for the most part dominated national politics until the 1930s...

 appointed George B. Jackson
George B. Jackson
George B. Jackson was a businessman, sheep rancher, and Republican politician from San Angelo who was believed to have been the wealthiest African American in Texas during the second half of the 19th century.-Background:...

, an African American
African American
African Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have at least partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa and are the direct descendants of enslaved Africans within the boundaries of the present United States...

 former buffalo soldier
Buffalo Soldier
Buffalo Soldiers originally were members of the U.S. 10th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army, formed on September 21, 1866 at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas....

 as customs collector at Presidio, a position that he held until his death in 1900. Jackson, a businessman from San Angelo
San Angelo, Texas
San Angelo is a city in the state of Texas. Located in West Central Texas it is the county seat of Tom Green County. As of 2010 according to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total population of 93,200...

, was considered the "wealthiest colored man in Texas" in the second half of the 19th century.

In 1930 the Kansas City, Mexico and Orient Railway
Kansas City, Mexico and Orient Railway
The Kansas City, Mexico and Orient Railway, started in 1900 by American railroad entrepreneur Arthur Edward Stilwell, was the predecessor to the Chihuahua al Pacífico railroad in Mexico. It was intended to reach the Pacific Ocean at Topolobampo, Sinaloa...

 reached Presidio, and the town incorporated. The population grew from ninety-six in 1925 to 1,671 in 1988, but the number of businesses declined from seventy in 1933 to twenty-two in 1988. At the end of 1988, Presidio experienced a population boom, due in part to previously undocumented resident aliens enrolled in the amnesty program. The population in 1990 was 3,422. Population reached 4,877 by 1998, and is expected to top 10,000 by the year 2013 at present growth rates.

As of 2007, Presidio's local economy is based largely upon employment at Presidio Independent School District
Presidio Independent School District
Presidio Independent School District is a public school district based in Presidio, Texas .In addition to Presidio the district also serves the unincorporated areas of Candelaria, Chinati, and Ruidosa....

, United States Customs and Border Protection, and local retail businesses. Formerly, Presidio was home to several truck-farming operations, focused mainly on onions and cantaloupes. Those operations ceased in the late 1990s.

The 1959 movie "Rio Bravo" featured the town.

In 2010, Presidio built the world's largest sodium-sulfur battery
Sodium-sulfur battery
A sodium–sulfur battery or liquid metal battery is a type of molten metal battery constructed from sodium and sulfur . This type of battery has a high energy density, high efficiency of charge/discharge and long cycle life, and is fabricated from inexpensive materials...

 to provide power when the city's lone line to the United States power grid
Electric power transmission
Electric-power transmission is the bulk transfer of electrical energy, from generating power plants to Electrical substations located near demand centers...

 goes down.

Geography

Presidio is located at 29°33′41"N 104°21′59"W (29.561272, -104.366522).

According to the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

, the city has a total area of 2.6 square miles (6.7 km²), all land. Presidio is located near the confluence of the Rio Conchos
Rio Conchos
The Rio Conchos is a large river in the Mexican state of Chihuahua. It joins the Río Bravo del Norte at the town of Ojinaga, Chihuahua.-Description:...

 and Rio Grande rivers. The Rio Conchos flows in a northeasterly direction from its source in the Sierra Madre
Sierra Madre Occidental
The Sierra Madre Occidental is a mountain range in western Mexico.-Setting:The range runs north to south, from just south of the Sonora–Arizona border southeast through eastern Sonora, western Chihuahua, Sinaloa, Durango, Zacatecas, Nayarit, Jalisco, Aguascalientes to Guanajuato, where it joins...

 in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. Commonly referred to as "La Junta" (the joining), the two rivers resulted in plentiful water, creating a flood plain that is ideal for farming.

Demographics

As of the census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

of 2000, there were 4,167 people, 1,285 households, and 1,033 families residing in the city. The population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 was 1,620.1 people per square mile (626.0/km²). There were 1,541 housing units at an average density of 599.1 per square mile (231.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 83.39% White, 0.10% African American, 0.14% Native American, 0.05% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 15.43% from other races
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, and 0.86% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 94.12% of the population.

There were 1,285 households out of which 49.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.6% were married couples
Marriage
Marriage is a social union or legal contract between people that creates kinship. It is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually intimate and sexual, are acknowledged in a variety of ways, depending on the culture or subculture in which it is found...

 living together, 14.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 19.6% were non-families. 18.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.24 and the average family size was 3.73.

In the city the population was spread out with 37.2% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 17.4% from 45 to 64, and 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females there were 89.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $18,031, and the median income for a family was $19,601. Males had a median income of $20,469 versus $15,000 for females. The per capita income
Per capita income
Per capita income or income per person is a measure of mean income within an economic aggregate, such as a country or city. It is calculated by taking a measure of all sources of income in the aggregate and dividing it by the total population...

 for the city was $7,098. About 40.4% of families and 43.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 48.3% of those under age 18 and 64.5% of those age 65 or over.

Diplomatic missions

The Consulate of Mexico in Presidio
Diplomatic missions of Mexico
This is a list of diplomatic missions of Mexico, excluding honorary consulates. Mexico's foreign service started in 1822, the year after the signing of the Treaty of Cordoba which marked the beginning of Mexico's independence...

 is in the city.

Education

The City of Presidio is served by the Presidio Independent School District
Presidio Independent School District
Presidio Independent School District is a public school district based in Presidio, Texas .In addition to Presidio the district also serves the unincorporated areas of Candelaria, Chinati, and Ruidosa....

, which includes Presidio Elementary School, Franco Middle School, and Presidio High School.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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