President of Algeria
The President of Algeria is the head of state and chief executive of Algeria
Algeria , officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria , also formally referred to as the Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwest Africa with Algiers as its capital.In terms of land area, it is the largest country in Africa and the Arab...

, as well as the Commander-in-Chief
A commander-in-chief is the commander of a nation's military forces or significant element of those forces. In the latter case, the force element may be defined as those forces within a particular region or those forces which are associated by function. As a practical term it refers to the military...

 of the Algerian armed forces
Military of Algeria
The People’s National Army is the armed forces of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria. Algeria has a large and reasonably well-equipped military to counter foreign and domestic threats...


History of the office

The Tripoli Program, which served as Algeria's constitution when it won its war for independence from France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 in 1962, established the President as the head of state with a Prime Minister assisting in the operation of government. Internal political maneuvering resulted in a new constitution in 1963 that abolished the Prime Minister position and devolved all executive power upon the office of the President. For the first four decades of independence government was controlled as a one-party state by the National Liberation Front
National Liberation Front (Algeria)
The National Liberation Front is a socialist political party in Algeria. It was set up on November 1, 1954 as a merger of other smaller groups, to obtain independence for Algeria from France.- Anticolonial struggle :...

 or FLN. The presidency was held by a succession of FLN members; Ahmed Ben Bella
Ahmed Ben Bella
Mohamed Ahmed Ben Bella was a soldier and Algerian revolutionary, who became the first President of Algeria.-Youth:...

, Houari Boumédienne and Chadli Bendjedid
Chadli Bendjedid
Chadli Bendjedid was the sixth President of Algeria from February 9, 1979 to January 11, 1992.-Early career:...

. The constitution written in 1976 maintained the executive power of the Presidency, but the modifications of 1979 stripped the head of government status from the office.

Towards the end of the eighties there was a liberalization of the FLN
National Liberation Front (Algeria)
The National Liberation Front is a socialist political party in Algeria. It was set up on November 1, 1954 as a merger of other smaller groups, to obtain independence for Algeria from France.- Anticolonial struggle :...

 regime. However, when the Islamic Salvation Front
Islamic Salvation Front
The Islamic Salvation Front is an outlawed Islamist political party in Algeria.-Goals:...

 won parliamentary elections in 1991, the military forced Chadli Bendjedid to dissolve the parliament and resign on 11 January 1992. The military declared a state of emergency and took over government of the country, establishing a five-member High Council of State
High Council of State
The High Council of State in Algeria was a collective presidency set up by the military in 1992 following the annulled elections in December 1991.It consisted of:*Mohamed Boudiaf *Ali Kafi *Redha Malek, Prime Minister...

. The council appointed a President, Muhammad Boudiaf
Muhammad Boudiaf
Mohamed Boudiaf , also called Si Tayeb el Watani, was an Algerian political leader and one of the founders of the revolutionary Front de libération nationale that led the Algerian War of Independence .- Early years in the nationalist movement :Mohamed Boudiaf was born in...

, to take office for a three-year term to facilitate a transfer back to normal elections for the office. However Boudiaf was assassinated, and succeeded by Ali Kafi
Ali Kafi
Ali Hussain Kafi was chairman of the High Council of State of Algeria from July 2, 1992 to January 31, 1994. He was selected as chairman four days after the death of Muhammad Boudiaf....

. Meanwhile the country descended into a period of civil war
Algerian Civil War
The Algerian Civil War was an armed conflict between the Algerian government and various Islamist rebel groups which began in 1991. It is estimated to have cost between 150,000 and 200,000 lives, in a population of about 25,010,000 in 1990 and 31,193,917 in 2000.More than 70 journalists were...

, between the military government and Islamic guerrillas. Kafi was replaced in 1994 by Liamine Zéroual
Liamine Zéroual
Liamine Zéroual was the ninth President of Algeria from 31 January 1994 to 27 April 1999.He was born in Batna and joined the National Liberation Army in 1957, at the age of 16, to fight French rule of Algeria. After independence, he received training in Cairo, Moscow, and Paris...

, who called the first of these elections in 1995, winning the full five-year term easily in disputed in election as the civil war was continuing. He called another early election in 1999, with the Islamic insurgency mostly suppressed. Abdelaziz Bouteflika
Abdelaziz Bouteflika
Abdelaziz Bouteflika is the ninth President of Algeria. He has been in office since 1999. He continued emergency rule until 24 February 2011, and presided over the end of the bloody Algerian Civil War in 2002...

 won this election
Algerian presidential election, 1999
The 1999 Algerian presidential election took place on 15 April 1999 to elect the President of Algeria. Abdelaziz Bouteflika was elected with 73.8% of the vote after the other six candidates withdrew on the eve of the election.-Background:...

 after all other candidates dropped out. He won re-election
Algerian presidential election, 2004
Presidential elections were held in Algeria on April 8, 2004. The incumbent president, Abdelaziz Bouteflika, was re-elected with 85.0 percent of the vote.-Candidates:*Ali Benflis: candidate of the Front for National Liberation...

 on 8 April 2004, in elections that were also disputed, and won again in 2009
Algerian presidential election, 2009
A presidential election was held in Algeria on 9 April 2009. It was described in a US Embassy in Algiers cable as "carefully choreographed and heavily controlled", with the official turnout figure "exaggerated".- Removal of term limit :...

, relatively unchallenged; his term ends in 2014.

External links

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