Power supply
Overview

A power supply is a device that supplies electrical energy
Energy
In physics, energy is an indirectly observed quantity. It is often understood as the ability a physical system has to do work on other physical systems...

to one or more electric loads
If an electric circuit has a well-defined output terminal, the circuit connected to this terminal is the load....

. The term is most commonly applied to devices that convert one form of electrical energy to another, though it may also refer to devices that convert another form of energy (e.g., mechanical, chemical, solar) to electrical energy. A regulated power supply is one that controls the output voltage or current to a specific value; the controlled value is held nearly constant despite variations in either load current or the voltage supplied by the power supply's energy source.

Every power supply must obtain the energy it supplies to its load, as well as any energy it consumes while performing that task, from an energy source.
Encyclopedia
A power supply is a device that supplies electrical energy
Energy
In physics, energy is an indirectly observed quantity. It is often understood as the ability a physical system has to do work on other physical systems...

to one or more electric loads
If an electric circuit has a well-defined output terminal, the circuit connected to this terminal is the load....

. The term is most commonly applied to devices that convert one form of electrical energy to another, though it may also refer to devices that convert another form of energy (e.g., mechanical, chemical, solar) to electrical energy. A regulated power supply is one that controls the output voltage or current to a specific value; the controlled value is held nearly constant despite variations in either load current or the voltage supplied by the power supply's energy source.

Every power supply must obtain the energy it supplies to its load, as well as any energy it consumes while performing that task, from an energy source. Depending on its design, a power supply may obtain energy from:
• Electrical energy transmission systems. Common examples of this include power supplies that convert AC
Alternating current
In alternating current the movement of electric charge periodically reverses direction. In direct current , the flow of electric charge is only in one direction....

line voltage to DC
Direct current
Direct current is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. Direct current is produced by such sources as batteries, thermocouples, solar cells, and commutator-type electric machines of the dynamo type. Direct current may flow in a conductor such as a wire, but can also flow through...

voltage.
• Energy storage
Energy storage
Energy storage is accomplished by devices or physical media that store some form of energy to perform some useful operation at a later time. A device that stores energy is sometimes called an accumulator....

devices such as batteries
Battery (electricity)
An electrical battery is one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Since the invention of the first battery in 1800 by Alessandro Volta and especially since the technically improved Daniell cell in 1836, batteries have become a common power...

and fuel cell
Fuel cell
A fuel cell is a device that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through a chemical reaction with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. Hydrogen is the most common fuel, but hydrocarbons such as natural gas and alcohols like methanol are sometimes used...

s.
• Electromechanical systems such as generators and alternator
Alternator
An alternator is an electromechanical device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy in the form of alternating current.Most alternators use a rotating magnetic field but linear alternators are occasionally used...

s.
• Solar power
Solar power
Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar radiation, along with secondary solar-powered resources such as wind and wave power, hydroelectricity and biomass, account for most of the available...

.

A power supply may be implemented as a discrete, stand-alone device or as an integral device that is hardwired to its load. In the latter case, for example, low voltage DC power supplies are commonly integrated with their loads in devices such as computer
Computer
A computer is a programmable machine designed to sequentially and automatically carry out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations. The particular sequence of operations can be changed readily, allowing the computer to solve more than one kind of problem...

s and household electronics.

Commonly specified power supply attributes include:
• The amount of voltage
Voltage
Voltage, otherwise known as electrical potential difference or electric tension is the difference in electric potential between two points — or the difference in electric potential energy per unit charge between two points...

and current it can supply to its load.
• How stable its output voltage or current is under varying line and load conditions.
• How long it can supply energy without refueling or recharging (applies to power supplies that employ portable energy sources).

## Power supplies types

Power supplies for electronic devices can be broadly divided into line-frequency (or "conventional") and switching power supplies. The line-frequency supply is usually a relatively simple design, but it becomes increasingly bulky and heavy for high-current equipment due to the need for large mains-frequency transformers and heat-sinked electronic regulation circuitry. Conventional line-frequency power supplies are sometimes called "linear," but that is a misnomer because the conversion from AC voltage to DC is inherently non-linear when the rectifiers feed into capacitive reservoirs. Linear voltage regulators produce regulated output voltage by means of an active voltage divider that consumes energy, thus making efficiency low. A switched-mode supply of the same rating as a line-frequency supply will be smaller, is usually more efficient, but will be more complex.

### Battery

A battery is a device that converts stored chemical energy to electrical energy. Batteries are commonly used as energy sources in many household and industrial applications.

There are two types of batteries: primary batteries (disposable batteries), which are designed to be used once and discarded, and secondary batteries (rechargeable batteries), which are designed to be recharged and used multiple times. Batteries come in many sizes, from miniature cells used in hearing aid
Hearing aid
A hearing aid is an electroacoustic device which typically fits in or behind the wearer's ear, and is designed to amplify and modulate sound for the wearer. Earlier devices, known as "ear trumpets" or "ear horns", were passive funnel-like amplification cones designed to gather sound energy and...

s and wristwatches to room-size battery banks that serve as backup power supplies in telephone exchange
Telephone exchange
In the field of telecommunications, a telephone exchange or telephone switch is a system of electronic components that connects telephone calls...

s and computer data center
Data center
A data center is a facility used to house computer systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems...

s.

### DC power supply

An AC
Alternating current
In alternating current the movement of electric charge periodically reverses direction. In direct current , the flow of electric charge is only in one direction....

powered unregulated power supply usually uses a transformer
Transformer
A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors—the transformer's coils. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic field...

to convert the voltage from the wall outlet (mains) to a different, nowadays usually lower, voltage. If it is used to produce DC
Direct current
Direct current is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. Direct current is produced by such sources as batteries, thermocouples, solar cells, and commutator-type electric machines of the dynamo type. Direct current may flow in a conductor such as a wire, but can also flow through...

, a rectifier
Rectifier
A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current , which periodically reverses direction, to direct current , which flows in only one direction. The process is known as rectification...

is used to convert alternating voltage to a pulsating direct voltage, followed by a filter
Electronic filter
Electronic filters are electronic circuits which perform signal processing functions, specifically to remove unwanted frequency components from the signal, to enhance wanted ones, or both...

, comprising one or more capacitor
Capacitor
A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy in an electric field. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two electrical conductors separated by a dielectric ; for example, one common construction consists of metal foils separated...

s, resistor
Resistor
A linear resistor is a linear, passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor's terminals. Thus, the ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor's...

s, and sometimes inductor
Inductor
An inductor is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy in a magnetic field. An inductor's ability to store magnetic energy is measured by its inductance, in units of henries...

s, to filter out (smooth) most of the pulsation. A small remaining unwanted alternating voltage component at mains or twice mains power frequency
Utility frequency
The utility frequency, line frequency or mains frequency is the frequency at which alternating current is transmitted from a power plant to the end-user. In most parts of the world this is 50 Hz, although in the Americas it is typically 60 Hz...

(depending upon whether half- or full-wave rectification is used)—ripple—is unavoidably superimposed on the direct output voltage.

For purposes such as charging batteries the ripple is not a problem, and the simplest unregulated mains-powered DC power supply circuit consists of a transformer driving a single diode
Diode
In electronics, a diode is a type of two-terminal electronic component with a nonlinear current–voltage characteristic. A semiconductor diode, the most common type today, is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material connected to two electrical terminals...

in series with a resistor
Resistor
A linear resistor is a linear, passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor's terminals. Thus, the ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor's...

.

Before the introduction of solid-state electronics, equipment used valves
Vacuum tube
In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube , or thermionic valve , reduced to simply "tube" or "valve" in everyday parlance, is a device that relies on the flow of electric current through a vacuum...

(vacuum tubes) which required high voltages; power supplies used step-up transformers, rectifiers, and filters to generate one or more direct voltages of some hundreds of volts, and a low alternating voltage for filaments. Only the most advanced equipment used expensive and bulky regulated power supplies.

### AC power supply

An AC power supply typically takes the voltage from a wall outlet (mains supply) and lowers it to the desired voltage (e.g. 9 VAC). As well as lowering the voltage some filtering may take place.

### Linear regulated power supply

The voltage produced by an unregulated power supply will vary depending on the load and on variations in the AC supply voltage. For critical electronics applications a linear regulator
Linear regulator
In electronics, a linear regulator is a voltage regulator based on an active device operating in its "linear region" or passive devices like Zener diodes operated in their breakdown region...

may be used to set the voltage to a precise value, stabilized against fluctuations in input voltage and load. The regulator also greatly reduces the ripple and noise in the output direct current. Linear regulators often provide current limiting, protecting the power supply and attached circuit from overcurrent.

Adjustable linear power supplies are common laboratory and service shop test equipment, allowing the output voltage to be adjusted over a range. For example, a bench power supply used by circuit designers may be adjustable up to 30 volts and up to 5 amperes output. Some can be driven by an external signal, for example, for applications requiring a pulsed output.

#### AC/DC supply

In the past, mains electricity was supplied as DC in some regions, AC in others. Transformers cannot be used for DC, but a simple, cheap unregulated power supply could run directly from either AC or DC mains without using a transformer. The power supply consisted of a rectifier and a filter capacitor
Filter capacitor
Filter capacitors are any capacitors used for filtering. Filter capacitors are common in electrical and electronic work, and cover a number of applications, such as:* Glitch removal on Direct current power rails...

. When operating from DC, the rectifier was essentially a conductor, having no effect; it was included to allow operation from AC or DC without modification.

### Switched-mode power supply

A switched-mode power supply
Switched-mode power supply
A switched-mode power supply is an electronic power supply that incorporates a switching regulator in order to be highly efficient in the conversion of electrical power...

(SMPS) works on a different principle. AC input, usually at mains voltage, is rectified without the use of a mains transformer, to obtain a DC voltage. This voltage is then switched on and off at a high speed by electronic switching circuitry, which may then pass through a high-frequency, hence small, light, and cheap, transformer or inductor. The duty cycle
Duty cycle
In engineering, the duty cycle of a machine or system is the time that it spends in an active state as a fraction of the total time under consideration....

of the output square wave increases as power output requirements increase. Switched-mode power supplies are always regulated. If the SMPS uses a properly-insulated high-frequency transformer, the output will be electrically isolated
Electrical insulation
thumb|250px|[[Coaxial Cable]] with dielectric insulator supporting a central coreThis article refers to electrical insulation. For insulation of heat, see Thermal insulation...

from the mains, essential for safety.

The input power slicing occurs at a very high speed (typically 10 kHz — 1 MHz). High frequency and high voltages in this first stage permit much smaller transformer
Transformer
A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors—the transformer's coils. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic field...

s and smoothing capacitors than in a power supply operating at mains frequency, as linear supplies do. After the transformer secondary, the AC is again rectified to DC. To keep output voltage constant, the power supply needs a sophisticated feedback controller to monitor current drawn by the load.

SMPSs often include safety features such as current limiting or a crowbar circuit
Crowbar (circuit)
A crowbar circuit is an electrical circuit used to prevent an overvoltage condition of a power supply unit from damaging the circuits attached to the power supply. It operates by putting a short circuit or low resistance path across the voltage source, much as if one dropped a tool of the same name...

to help protect the device and the user from harm. In the event that an abnormal high-current power draw is detected, the switched-mode supply can assume this is a direct short and will shut itself down before damage is done. For decades PC power supplies have provided a power good signal to the motherboard whose absence prevents operation when abnormal supply voltages are present.

SMPSs have an absolute limit on their minimum current output. They are only able to output above a certain power level and cannot function below that point. In a no-load condition the frequency of the power slicing circuit increases to great speed, causing the isolated transformer to act as a Tesla coil
Tesla coil
A Tesla coil is a type of resonant transformer circuit invented by Nikola Tesla around 1891. It is used to produce high voltage, low current, high frequency alternating current electricity. Tesla coils produce higher current than the other source of high voltage discharges, electrostatic machines...

, causing damage due to the resulting very high voltage power spikes. Switched-mode supplies with protection circuits may briefly turn on but then shut down when no load has been detected. A very small low-power dummy load
A dummy load is a device used to simulate an electrical load, usually for testing purposes.-Radio:In radio this device is also known as a dummy antenna or a radio frequency termination. It is a device used in place of an antenna to aid in testing a radio transmitter...

such as a ceramic power resistor or 10-watt light bulb can be attached to the supply to allow it to run with no primary load attached.

Power factor
Power factor
The power factor of an AC electric power system is defined as the ratio of the real power flowing to the load over the apparent power in the circuit, and is a dimensionless number between 0 and 1 . Real power is the capacity of the circuit for performing work in a particular time...

has become a recent issue of concern for computer manufacturers. Switched mode power supplies have traditionally been a source of power line harmonics
Power system harmonics
Power system harmonics are integer multiples of the fundamental power system frequency. Power system harmonics are created by non-linear devices connected to the power system...

and have a very poor power factor. Many computer power supplies built in the last few years now include power factor correction built right into the switched-mode supply, and may advertise the fact that they offer 1.0 power factor.

By slicing up the sinusoidal AC wave into very small discrete pieces, a portion of unused alternating current stays in the power line as very small spikes of power that cannot be utilized by AC motors and results in waste heating of power line transformers. Hundreds of switched mode power supplies in a building can result in poor power quality for other customers surrounding that building, and high electric bills for the company if they are billed according to their power factor in addition to the actual power used. Filtering capacitor banks may be needed on the building power mains to suppress and absorb these negative power factor effects.

Some switch-mode power supplies use L-C resonance in the primary circuit to convert what would otherwise be a square wave into a sinusoidal waveform. This can decrease the losses in the switching devices and reduce RF harmonics of the switching frequency, but it adds to the circuit complexity and places higher demands on design tolerances.

### Programmable power supply

Programmable power supplies allow for remote control of the output voltage through an analog input signal or a computer interface such as RS232 or GPIB. Variable properties include voltage, current, and frequency (for AC output units). These supplies are composed of a processor, voltage/current programming circuits, current shunt, and voltage/current read-back circuits. Additional features can include overcurrent, overvoltage, and short circuit protection, and temperature compensation. Programmable power supplies also come in a variety of forms including modular, board-mounted, wall-mounted, floor-mounted or bench top.

Programmable power supplies can furnish DC, AC, or AC with a DC offset. The AC output can be either single-phase or three-phase. Single-phase is generally used for low-voltage, while three-phase is more common for high-voltage power supplies.

Programmable power supplies are now used in many applications. Some examples include automated equipment testing, crystal growth
Crystal growth
A crystal is a solid material whose constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are arranged in an orderly repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. Crystal growth is a major stage of a crystallization process, and consists in the addition of new atoms, ions, or polymer strings into...

monitoring, and differential thermal analysis
Thermal analysis
Thermal analysis is a branch of materials science where the properties of materials are studied as they change with temperature. Several methods are commonly used - these are distinguished from one another by the property which is measured:...

.

### Uninterruptible power supply

An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) takes its power from two or more sources simultaneously. It is usually powered directly from the AC mains, while simultaneously charging a storage battery. Should there be a dropout or failure of the mains, the battery instantly takes over so that the load never experiences an interruption. Such a scheme can supply power as long as the battery charge suffices, e.g., in a computer installation, giving the operator sufficient time to effect an orderly system shutdown without loss of data. Other UPS schemes may use an internal combustion engine or turbine to continuously supply power to a system in parallel with power coming from the AC . The engine-driven generators would normally be idling, but could come to full power in a matter of a few seconds in order to keep vital equipment running without interruption. Such a scheme might be found in hospitals or telephone central offices.

### High-voltage power supply

High voltage refers to an output on the order of hundreds or thousands of volts. High-voltage supplies use a linear setup to produce an output voltage in this range.

Additional features available on high-voltage supplies can include the ability to reverse the output polarity
Polarity symbols
Many electrical devices use direct current power, often provided by a AC to DC adapter, also known as a wall wart or power brick...

along with the use of circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and, by interrupting continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical flow...

s and special connectors
SHV connector
The SHV connector is a type of RF connector used for terminating a coaxial cable.The connector uses a bayonet mount similar to those of the BNC and MHV connectors, but is easily distinguished due to its very thick and protruding insulator...

intended to minimize arcing and accidental contact with human hands. Some supplies provide analog inputs (i.e. 0-10V) that can be used to control the output voltage, effectively turning them into high-voltage amplifier
Amplifier
Generally, an amplifier or simply amp, is a device for increasing the power of a signal.In popular use, the term usually describes an electronic amplifier, in which the input "signal" is usually a voltage or a current. In audio applications, amplifiers drive the loudspeakers used in PA systems to...

s albeit with very limited bandwidth.

### Voltage multipliers

A voltage multiplier is an electrical circuit that converts AC electrical power from a lower voltage to a higher DC voltage, typically by means of a network of capacitors and diodes. The input voltage may be doubled (voltage doubler), tripled (voltage tripler), quadrupled (voltage quadrupler), and so on. These circuits allow high voltages to be obtained using a much lower voltage AC source.

Typically, voltage multipliers are composed of half-wave rectifiers, capacitors, and diodes. For example, a voltage tripler consists of three half-wave rectifiers, three capacitors, and three diodes (as in the Cockcroft Walton multiplier). Full-wave rectifiers may be used in a different configuration to achieve even higher voltages. Also, both parallel and series configurations are available. For parallel multipliers, a higher voltage rating is required at each consecutive multiplication stage, but less capacitance is required. The voltage rating of the capacitors determines the maximum output voltage.

Voltage multipliers have many applications. For example, voltage multipliers can be found in everyday items like televisions and photocopiers. Other applications can be found in the laboratory, such as cathode ray tubes, oscilloscopes, and photomultiplier tubes.

### Computer power supply

A modern computer power supply is a switch with on and off supply designed to convert 110-240 V AC power from the mains supply, to several output both positive (and historically negative) DC voltages in the range + 12V,-12V,+5V,+5VBs and +3.3V. The first generation of computers power supplies were linear devices, but as cost became a driving factor, and weight became important, switched mode supplies are almost universal.

The diverse collection of output voltages also have widely varying current draw requirements, which are difficult to all be supplied from the same switched-mode source. Consequently most modern computer power supplies actually consist of several different switched mode supplies, each producing just one voltage component and each able to vary its output based on component power requirements, and all are linked together to shut down as a group in the event of a fault condition.

### Welding power supply

Arc welding
Arc welding
Arc welding is a type of welding that uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and the base material to melt the metals at the welding point. They can use either direct or alternating current, and consumable or non-consumable electrodes...

uses electricity to melt the surfaces of the metal
Metal
A metal , is an element, compound, or alloy that is a good conductor of both electricity and heat. Metals are usually malleable and shiny, that is they reflect most of incident light...

s in order to join them together through coalescence. The electricity is provided by a welding power supply, and can either be AC
Alternating current
In alternating current the movement of electric charge periodically reverses direction. In direct current , the flow of electric charge is only in one direction....

or DC
Direct current
Direct current is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. Direct current is produced by such sources as batteries, thermocouples, solar cells, and commutator-type electric machines of the dynamo type. Direct current may flow in a conductor such as a wire, but can also flow through...

. Arc welding typically requires high currents typically between 100 and 350 amps
Ampere
The ampere , often shortened to amp, is the SI unit of electric current and is one of the seven SI base units. It is named after André-Marie Ampère , French mathematician and physicist, considered the father of electrodynamics...

. Some types of welding can use as few as 10 amps, while some applications of spot welding
Spot welding
Spot welding is a process in which contacting metal surfaces are joined by the heat obtained from resistance to electric current flow. Work-pieces are held together under pressure exerted by electrodes. Typically the sheets are in the thickness range...

employ currents as high as 60,000 amps for an extremely short time. Older welding power supplies consisted of transformers or engines
Internal combustion engine
The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high -pressure gases produced by combustion apply direct force to some component of the engine...

driving generators
Electrical generator
In electricity generation, an electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. A generator forces electric charge to flow through an external electrical circuit. It is analogous to a water pump, which causes water to flow...

. More recent supplies use semiconductors and microprocessors reducing their size and weight.

A power supply that is built into an AC mains power plug
Domestic AC power plugs and sockets
AC power plugs and sockets are devices for removably connecting electrically operated devices to the power supply. Electrical plugs and sockets differ by country in rating, shape, size and type of connectors...

is known as a "plug pack" or "plug-in adapter", or by slang terms such as "wall wart". They are even more diverse than their names; often with either the same kind of DC plug
DC connector
A DC connector is an electrical connector for supplying direct current power. Unlike domestic AC power plugs and sockets, DC connectors are not generally standardized....

offering different voltage or polarity
Polarity symbols
Many electrical devices use direct current power, often provided by a AC to DC adapter, also known as a wall wart or power brick...

, or a different plug offering the same voltage. "Universal" adapters attempt to replace missing or damaged ones, using multiple plugs and selectors for different voltages and polarities
Polarity symbols
Many electrical devices use direct current power, often provided by a AC to DC adapter, also known as a wall wart or power brick...

. Replacement power supplies must match the voltage of, and supply at least as much current as, the original power supply.

The least expensive AC units consist only of a small transformer
Transformer
A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors—the transformer's coils. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic field...

, while DC adapters include a few additional diodes. Whether or not a load is connected to the power adapter, the transformer has a magnetic field continuously present and normally cannot be completely turned off unless unplugged.

Because they consume standby power
Standby power
Standby power, also called vampire power, vampire draw, phantom load, or leaking electricity , refers to the electric power consumed by electronic and electrical appliances while they are switched off Standby power, also called vampire power, vampire draw, phantom load, or leaking electricity...

, they are sometimes known as "electricity vampires" and may be plugged into a power strip
Power strip
A power strip is a block of electrical sockets that attaches to the end of a flexible cable and allows multiple electrical devices to be plugged in. As such it can be considered a type of trailing socket though that term is more often used for single and double cable mounted sockets...

to allow turning them off. Expensive switched-mode power supplies can cut off leaky electrolyte-capacitors, use powerless MOSFET
MOSFET
The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor is a transistor used for amplifying or switching electronic signals. The basic principle of this kind of transistor was first patented by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld in 1925...

s, and reduce their working frequency to get a gulp of energy once in a while to power, for example, a clock, which would otherwise need a battery
Battery (electricity)
An electrical battery is one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Since the invention of the first battery in 1800 by Alessandro Volta and especially since the technically improved Daniell cell in 1836, batteries have become a common power...

.

Power supplies often include some type of overload protection that protects the power supply from load faults (e.g., short circuits) that might otherwise cause damage by overheating components or, in the worst case, electrical fire. Fuses
Fuse (electrical)
In electronics and electrical engineering, a fuse is a type of low resistance resistor that acts as a sacrificial device to provide overcurrent protection, of either the load or source circuit...

and circuit breakers are two commonly used mechanisms for overload protection.

A fuse contains a short piece of wire which melts if too much current flows. This effectively disconnects the power supply from its load, and the equipment stops working until the problem that caused the overload is identified and the fuse is replaced.
Some power supplies use a very thin wire link
Fusible links include mechanical and electrical devices.A mechanical fusible link is a device consisting of two strips of metal soldered together with a fusible alloy that is designed to melt at a specific temperature, thus allowing the two pieces to separate...

soldered in place as a fuse. Fuses in power supply units may be replaceable by the end user, but fuses in consumer equipment may require tools to access and change.

One benefit of using a circuit breaker as opposed to a fuse is that it can simply be reset instead of having to replace the blown fuse. A circuit breaker contains an element that heats, bends and triggers a spring which shuts the circuit down. Once the element cools, and the problem is identified the breaker can be reset and the power restored.

Some PSUs use a thermal cutout buried in the transformer rather than a fuse. The advantage is it allows greater current to be drawn for limited time than the unit can supply continuously. Some such cutouts are self resetting, some are single use only.

### Current limiting

Some supplies use current limiting instead of cutting off power if overloaded. The two types of current limiting used are electronic limiting and impedance limiting. The former is common on lab bench PSUs, the latter is common on supplies of less than 3 watts output.

A foldback current limiter
Foldback (power supply design)
Foldback is a design feature that functions as follows. When overcurrent is drawn by the load, the supply reduces output voltage and current to well below the current limit. This approach has been used in power supplies and power amplifiers....

reduces the output current to much less than the maximum non-fault current.

## Power conversion

The term "power supply" is sometimes restricted to those devices that convert some other form of energy into electricity (such as solar power and fuel cells and generators). A more accurate term for devices that convert one form of electric power into another form (such as transformers and linear regulators) is power converter
Power converter
A power converter is an electrical or electro-mechanical device for converting electrical energy. It may be converting AC to or from DC, or the voltage or frequency, or some combination of these.Amongst the many devices that are used for this purpose are;...

. The most common conversion is from AC
Alternating current
In alternating current the movement of electric charge periodically reverses direction. In direct current , the flow of electric charge is only in one direction....

to DC
Direct current
Direct current is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. Direct current is produced by such sources as batteries, thermocouples, solar cells, and commutator-type electric machines of the dynamo type. Direct current may flow in a conductor such as a wire, but can also flow through...

.

## Mechanical power supplies

• Flywheel
Flywheel
A flywheel is a rotating mechanical device that is used to store rotational energy. Flywheels have a significant moment of inertia, and thus resist changes in rotational speed. The amount of energy stored in a flywheel is proportional to the square of its rotational speed...

s coupled to electrical generator
Electrical generator
In electricity generation, an electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. A generator forces electric charge to flow through an external electrical circuit. It is analogous to a water pump, which causes water to flow...

s or alternator
Alternator
An alternator is an electromechanical device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy in the form of alternating current.Most alternators use a rotating magnetic field but linear alternators are occasionally used...

s
• Compulsator
Compulsator
A compensated pulsed alternator, also known by the portmanteau compulsator, is a form of power supply.As the name suggests, it is an alternator that is "compensated" to make it better at delivering pulses of electrical energy than a normal alternator.- Description and operation:The principle is...

s
• Explosively pumped flux compression generator
Explosively pumped flux compression generator
An explosively pumped flux compression generator is a device used to generate a high-power electromagnetic pulse by compressing magnetic flux using high explosive....

s

## Terminology

• SCP - Short circuit protection
• OPP - Overpower (overload) protection
• OCP - Overcurrent protection
• OTP - Overtemperature protection
• OVP - Overvoltage protection
• UVP - Undervoltage protection
• UPS - Uninterruptable Power Supply
• PSU - Power Supply Unit
• SMPSU - Switch-Mode Power Supply Unit

• Electricity generation
Electricity generation
Electricity generation is the process of generating electric energy from other forms of energy.The fundamental principles of electricity generation were discovered during the 1820s and early 1830s by the British scientist Michael Faraday...

• EHT Power Supply
Extra high tension
The definition of extra high tension or extra high voltage depends on the context of the discussion.In electric power transmission engineering this refers to equipment designed for more than 235,000 volts between conductors....

• Mains power around the world
• Voltage regulator
Voltage regulator
A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. A voltage regulator may be a simple "feed-forward" design or may include negative feedback control loops. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or electronic components...

• Sense (electronics)
Sense (electronics)
In electronics, sense is a technique used in power supplies to produce the correct voltage for a load. Although simple batteries naturally maintain a steady voltage , a power supply must use a feedback system to make adjustments based on the difference between its intended output and its actual...

• Power cord
Power cord
A power cord, line cord, or mains cable is a cable that temporarily connects an appliance to the mains electricity supply via a wall socket or extension cord. The terms are generally used for cables using a power plug to connect to a single-phase alternating current power source at the local line...

• Wall wart
Wall wart
The AC adapter, AC/DC adapter or AC/DC converter is a type of external power supply, often enclosed in what looks like an over-sized AC plug. Other names include plug pack, plug-in adapter, adapter block, domestic mains adapter, line power adapter, or power adapter...