Porsche 944
Overview
 
The Porsche 944 is a sports car
Sports car
A sports car is a small, usually two seat, two door automobile designed for high speed driving and maneuverability....

 built by Porsche
Porsche
Porsche Automobil Holding SE, usually shortened to Porsche SE a Societas Europaea or European Public Company, is a German based holding company with investments in the automotive industry....

 from 1982 to 1991. It was built on the same platform as the 924
Porsche 924
The Porsche 924 is an automobile produced by Porsche AG of Germany from 1976 to 1988. A two-door, 2+2 coupé, the 924 replaced the 914 as the company's entry-level model, and was the model that finally retired the 912. In production terms, the 924 was the first Porsche model powered by a...

, although 924 production continued through 1988. The 944 was intended to last into the 1990s, but major revisions planned for a 944 S3 model were eventually rolled into the 968
Porsche 968
The 968 is a sports car sold by Porsche AG from 1992 to 1995. It took over the entry-level position in Porsche's lineup from the 944, with which it shared about 20% of its parts...

 instead, which replaced the 944. The 944 was a successful model and was available as both a coupe and cabriolet in naturally aspirated and turbocharged forms.

The Porsche 924
Porsche 924
The Porsche 924 is an automobile produced by Porsche AG of Germany from 1976 to 1988. A two-door, 2+2 coupé, the 924 replaced the 914 as the company's entry-level model, and was the model that finally retired the 912. In production terms, the 924 was the first Porsche model powered by a...

 had originally been a project of VW-Porsche a joint Porsche/Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Volkswagen is a German automobile manufacturer and is the original and biggest-selling marque of the Volkswagen Group, which now also owns the Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, SEAT, and Škoda marques and the truck manufacturer Scania.Volkswagen means "people's car" in German, where it is...

 company created to develop and produce the 914
Porsche 914
The Porsche 914 or VW-Porsche 914 is a mid-engined, targa-topped two-seat roadster designed, manufactured and marketed collaboratively by Volkswagen and Porsche from 1969 to 1976.- Development :...

 which was sold in Europe as both a Porsche and a Volkswagen.
Encyclopedia
The Porsche 944 is a sports car
Sports car
A sports car is a small, usually two seat, two door automobile designed for high speed driving and maneuverability....

 built by Porsche
Porsche
Porsche Automobil Holding SE, usually shortened to Porsche SE a Societas Europaea or European Public Company, is a German based holding company with investments in the automotive industry....

 from 1982 to 1991. It was built on the same platform as the 924
Porsche 924
The Porsche 924 is an automobile produced by Porsche AG of Germany from 1976 to 1988. A two-door, 2+2 coupé, the 924 replaced the 914 as the company's entry-level model, and was the model that finally retired the 912. In production terms, the 924 was the first Porsche model powered by a...

, although 924 production continued through 1988. The 944 was intended to last into the 1990s, but major revisions planned for a 944 S3 model were eventually rolled into the 968
Porsche 968
The 968 is a sports car sold by Porsche AG from 1992 to 1995. It took over the entry-level position in Porsche's lineup from the 944, with which it shared about 20% of its parts...

 instead, which replaced the 944. The 944 was a successful model and was available as both a coupe and cabriolet in naturally aspirated and turbocharged forms.

History and model overview

Year Model Power
1983 - 1987 944 2.5L 150 hp
1988 944 2.5L 160 hp
1987 - 1988 944S 2.5L 195 hp
1989 944 2.7 L 170 hp
1989 - 1991 944S2 3.0L 210 hp
1986 - 1988 944 Turbo (951) 225 hp
1988 - 1991 944 Turbo S (951) 240 hp

The Porsche 924
Porsche 924
The Porsche 924 is an automobile produced by Porsche AG of Germany from 1976 to 1988. A two-door, 2+2 coupé, the 924 replaced the 914 as the company's entry-level model, and was the model that finally retired the 912. In production terms, the 924 was the first Porsche model powered by a...

 had originally been a project of VW-Porsche a joint Porsche/Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Volkswagen is a German automobile manufacturer and is the original and biggest-selling marque of the Volkswagen Group, which now also owns the Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, SEAT, and Škoda marques and the truck manufacturer Scania.Volkswagen means "people's car" in German, where it is...

 company created to develop and produce the 914
Porsche 914
The Porsche 914 or VW-Porsche 914 is a mid-engined, targa-topped two-seat roadster designed, manufactured and marketed collaboratively by Volkswagen and Porsche from 1969 to 1976.- Development :...

 which was sold in Europe as both a Porsche and a Volkswagen. In 1972 a replacement for the Volkswagen version of the 914, code named EA-425 began development. The model was to be sold as an Audi
Audi
Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer, from supermini to crossover SUVs in various body styles and price ranges that are marketed under the Audi brand , positioned as the premium brand within the Volkswagen Group....

 as part of the VW-Audi-Porsche marketing arrangement. Although testing had begun in the Spring of 1974 Volkswagen decided to cancel the program due to the expense of production as well as the feeling that the recently released Volkswagen Scirocco
Volkswagen Scirocco
The Scirocco is a 3-door Coupe manufactured by German automaker Volkswagen, undergoing two generations of development between 1974 and 1992 and reintroduced in a third generation in August 2008.-Etymology:...

 would fill the sports coupe sufficiently. At the time Porsche was considering introducing their own water cooled front engine 2+2 coupe to replace the 912E
Porsche 912
The Porsche 912 is a sports car that was manufactured by Porsche of Germany between 1965 and 1969 as their entry-level model. The 912 is a nimble-handling compact performance four-seat vehicle, delivering 90 SAE horsepower at 5800 rpm. It is capable of up to fuel economy. This combination is...

 and their model of 914
Porsche 914
The Porsche 914 or VW-Porsche 914 is a mid-engined, targa-topped two-seat roadster designed, manufactured and marketed collaboratively by Volkswagen and Porsche from 1969 to 1976.- Development :...

 and Volkswagen's cancellation provided an opportunity. Porsche purchased the design and finished development. The vehicle drove and handled exceptionally well and received positive reviews, but was criticized for the Audi-sourced 2 litre engine; Porsche introduced a Turbocharged 924 to increase performance, but the price was considered too high for the time, which hampered sales. Rather than scrap the design , Porsche decided to develop the 924, as they had with generations of the 911
Porsche 911
The Porsche 911 is a luxury 2-door sports coupe made by Porsche AG of Stuttgart, Germany. It has a distinctive design, rear-engined and with independent rear suspension, an evolution of the swing axle on the Porsche 356. The engine was also air-cooled until the introduction of the Type 996 in 1998...

; although model numbers would change, the 924 would provide the basis for its replacement.

Porsche re-worked the platform and abandoned the Audi engine, installing in its place a new all-alloy 2.5 litre straight-4
Straight-4
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is an internal combustion engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft....

 engine, bore 100 mm (3.9 in), stroke 78.9 mm (3.1 in), that was, in essence, half of the 928's
Porsche 928
The Porsche 928 was a sports-GT car sold by Porsche AG of Germany from 1978 to 1995. Originally intended to replace the company's iconic 911, the 928 attempted to combine the power, poise, and handling of a sports car with the refinement, comfort, and equipment of a luxury sedan to create what some...

 5.0 litre V8
V8 engine
A V8 engine is a V engine with eight cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two banks of four cylinders, in most cases set at a right angle to each other but sometimes at a narrower angle, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft....

, although very few parts were actually interchangeable. Not a natural choice for a luxury sports car, a four cylinder engine was chosen for fuel efficiency and size, because it had to be fitted from below on the Neckarsulm production line. To overcome the unbalanced secondary forces that make other four cylinder engines feel harsh, Porsche included two counter rotating balance shaft
Balance shaft
In piston engine engineering, a balance shaft is an eccentric weighted shaft which offsets vibrations in engine designs that are not inherently balanced...

s running at twice engine speed. Invented in 1904 by British engineer Frederick Lanchester
Frederick Lanchester
Frederick William Lanchester, Hon FRAeS was an English polymath and engineer who made important contributions to automotive engineering, aerodynamics and co-invented the field of operations research....

, and further developed and patented in 1975 by Mitsubishi Motors
Mitsubishi Motors
is a multinational automaker headquartered in Minato, Tokyo. In 2009 it was the fifth-largest Japan-based automaker and the 17th-largest in the world measured by production...

, balance shafts carry eccentric weights which produce inertial forces that balance out the unbalanced secondary forces, making a four cylinder
Straight-4
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is an internal combustion engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft....

 engine feel as smooth as a six cylinder
Straight-6
The straight-six engine or inline-six engine is a six-cylinder internal combustion engine with all six cylinders mounted in a straight line along the crankcase...

. The engine was factory-rated at 150 hp in its U.S. configuration. Revised bodywork
Coachwork
Coachwork is the body of a horse-drawn coach or carriage, a motor vehicle , a railroad car or railway carriage. Usually reserved for bodies built on a separate chassis, rather than being of unitary or monocoque construction...

 with wider wheel arches, similar to that of the 924 Carrera GT, a fresh interior and upgrades to the braking
Brake
A brake is a mechanical device which inhibits motion. Its opposite component is a clutch. The rest of this article is dedicated to various types of vehicular brakes....

 and suspension
Suspension (vehicle)
Suspension is the term given to the system of springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels. Suspension systems serve a dual purpose — contributing to the car's roadholding/handling and braking for good active safety and driving pleasure, and keeping vehicle occupants...

 systems rounded out the major changes. Porsche introduced the 944 for MY
Model year
The model year of a product is a number used worldwide, but with a high level of prominence in North America, to describe approximately when a product was produced, and indicates the coinciding base specification of that product....

 1982 to great anticipation. In addition to being slightly faster (despite having a poorer drag co-efficient than the 924), the 944 was better equipped and more refined than the 924, it had better handling and stopping power and was more comfortable to drive. The factory-claimed 0-60 mph time of less than 9 seconds (8.3 seconds according to "Porsche the Ultimate Guide" By Scott Faragher) was actually rather modest. The factory-claimed top speed of 130 mi/h was also pessimistic, Autocar having verified a top speed of 137 mi/h. The car had nearly even front to rear weight distribution (50.7% front/49.3% rear) thanks to the rear transaxle balancing out the engine in the front. This gave it very balanced, predictable handling at the limits of adhesion.

In mid-1985 the 944 underwent its first significant changes. These included : a new dash
Dash
A dash is one of several kinds of punctuation mark. Dashes appear similar to hyphens, but differ from them primarily in length, and serve different functions. The most common versions of the dash are the en dash and the em dash .-Common dashes:...

 and door panels, embedded radio antenna, upgraded alternator (from 90 amp to 115 amp), increased oil sump capacity, new front and rear cast alloy
Alloy
An alloy is a mixture or metallic solid solution composed of two or more elements. Complete solid solution alloys give single solid phase microstructure, while partial solutions give two or more phases that may or may not be homogeneous in distribution, depending on thermal history...

 control arms and semi-trailing arms, larger fuel tank, optional heated and powered seats, Porsche HiFi sound system, and revisions in the mounting of the transaxle
Transaxle
In the automotive field, a transaxle is a major mechanical component that combines the functionality of the transmission, the differential, and associated components of the driven axle into one integrated assembly....

 to reduce noise and vibration. The "cookie cutter" style wheels used in the early 944s were upgraded to new "phone dial" style wheels. (Fuchs wheels remained an option.) 1985 model year cars incorporating these changes are sometimes referred to as "1985B", "85.5" or "1985½" cars.

For the 1987 model year, the 944 was updated to incorporate anti-lock braking and air bags for increased safety. Because of the ABS system, the wheel offset changed and Fuchs wheels were no longer an option.

In early 1989 before the release of the 944S2, Porsche upgraded the 944 from the 2.5 liter engine to a 2.7 liter engine, bore 104 mm (4.1 in), stroke 78.9 mm (3.1 in), with a rated 162 hp (versus 158 hp for the 1988 2.5 liter engine) and a significant increase in torque. In addition to the increase in displacement, the new motor featured a siamesed-cylinder block design and a different cylinder head which incorporated larger valves.

944 Turbo (951/952)

For the 1986 model year Porsche introduced the 944 Turbo, known internally as the 951 (952 for right-hand drive models). This had a turbocharged
Turbocharger
A turbocharger, or turbo , from the Greek "τύρβη" is a centrifugal compressor powered by a turbine that is driven by an engine's exhaust gases. Its benefit lies with the compressor increasing the mass of air entering the engine , thereby resulting in greater performance...

 and intercooled
Intercooler
An intercooler , or charge air cooler, is an air-to-air or air-to-liquid heat exchange device used on turbocharged and supercharged internal combustion engines to improve their volumetric efficiency by increasing intake air charge density through nearly isobaric cooling, which removes...

 version of the standard car's engine that produced 220 hp (217 hp in the US) at 6000 rpm. The turbo was the world's first car using a ceramic portliner to retain exhaust gas temperature. The Turbo also featured several other changes, such as improved aerodynamics
Aerodynamics
Aerodynamics is a branch of dynamics concerned with studying the motion of air, particularly when it interacts with a moving object. Aerodynamics is a subfield of fluid dynamics and gas dynamics, with much theory shared between them. Aerodynamics is often used synonymously with gas dynamics, with...

, a strengthened gearbox with a different final drive ratio, standard external oil coolers for both the engine and transmission, standard 16 inch wheels (optional forged fuchs wheels), and a slightly stiffer suspension to handle the extra weight. Major engine component revisions, more than thirty in all, were made to the 951 to compensate for increased internal loads and heat.

Few changes occurred for the 1987 model year. They included the deletion of the transmission oil cooler, a change in suspension control arms in order to reduce the car's scrub radius, and for the first time ever offered in a production car, standard dual airbags. The engine remained the same M44/51 powerplant as in the 1986 model.
In 1988, Porsche introduced the Turbo S option package (SE in the UK). The 944 Turbo S had a more powerful engine (designation number M44/52) with 247 hp and 260 lb·ft torque (standard 944 Turbo 217 hp and 243 lb·ft). This higher output was achieved by using a larger #8 turbine housing and revised engine mapping which allowed for slightly more boost at high rpms as compared to the standard Turbo. In June 1988, Car and Driver tested the 944 Turbo S and achieved a 0-60 mph time of 5.5 seconds and a quarter mile time of 13.9 seconds at 101 mi/h. Top speed was factory rated at 162 mi/h.

The 944 Turbo S's suspension was the then state-of-the-art "M030" option consisting of Koni adjustable shocks front and rear, with ride height adjusting threaded collars on the front struts, progressive rate springs, larger rear torsion bars, harder durometer suspension bushings throughout, larger 26.8 mm (1.1 in) anti-roll bars at the front, and chassis stiffening brackets in the front frame rails. The air conditioning dryer lines are routed differently to clear the front frame brace on the drivers side. The 944 Turbo S wheels, known as the Club Sport design, were 16" forged and flat-dished, similar to the Design 90 wheel. Wheel widths were 7 inches (178 mm) in the front, and 9 inches (229 mm) in the rear; sizes of the Z-rated tires were 225/50 in the front and 245/45 in the rear. The front and rear fender edges were rolled to accommodate the larger wheels. The manual transmission
Manual transmission
A manual transmission, also known as a manual gearbox or standard transmission is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications...

 (case code designation: AOR) of the 944 Turbo S brought back the external cooler, and also featured a limited slip differential with a 40% lockup setting. The Turbo S front brakes were borrowed from the Porsche 928 S4, with larger 4 piston fixed calipers and discs; rear brakes remained the same as a standard Turbo. ABS also came standard.

The 944 Turbo S interior featured full power seats for both driver and passenger, where the majority of the factory-built Turbo S models sported a "Burgundy plaid" (Silver Rose edition) but other interior/exterior colors were available. A 10 speaker sound system and equalizer + amp was a common option.

In 1989 the 'S' designation was dropped from the 944 Turbo S, and all 944 Turbos featured the 'S' package as standard.

944 S

In 1987, the 944 S was introduced. The 944S featured a normally aspirated, dual overhead cam 16 valve 192 PS version of the 2.5 litre engine. This marked the first use of four valve
Valve
A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Valves are technically pipe fittings, but are usually discussed as a separate category...

 per cylinder head
Cylinder head
In an internal combustion engine, the cylinder head sits above the cylinders on top of the cylinder block. It closes in the top of the cylinder, forming the combustion chamber. This joint is sealed by a head gasket...

s in the 944 series. Performance was quoted as 0 – 100 km/h (62 mph) in 7.8 seconds and 230 km/h (142.9 mph) top speed.

Dual air bags were optional on the 944S, as was ABS.

944 S2

In 1989 944S2 was introduced, and powered by a 211 PS 3.0 L engine, bore 104 mm (4.1 in), stroke 88 mm (3.5 in), the largest production 4 cylinder engine of its time. The 944S2 had the same rounded nose and a rear valance found on the Turbo model. This was the first example of the use of an integrated front bumper, where the fender & hood profiles would merge smoothly with the bumper...a design feature that has only now seen widespread adoption on nearly all cars. The S2 was also available as a cabriolet, a first for the 944 line. Performance was quoted as 0-60 mph in 6.6 seconds (0–100 km/h 6.8 s), with a top speed of 240 km/h (149.1 mph) (manual transmission). The 944S2 also received a revised transmission and gearing to better suit the 3.0 liter powerplant.
This car is raced around the world and in the british championship called the Porsche Motorsport Championship.

944 Turbo Cabriolet

In February 1991 Porsche released the 944 Turbo Cabriolet, which combined the Turbo S's 250 hp engine with the cabriolet body. Porsche initially announced that 600 would be made; ultimately 625 were built, 100 of which were right-hand drive for the United Kingdom, Japanese, Australian and South African market. None were imported to the US.

End of the line

In early 1990, Porsche engineers began working on what they had intended to be the third evolution of the 944, the S3. As they progressed with the development process, they realized that so many parts were being changed that they had produced an almost entirely new vehicle. Porsche consequently shifted development from the 944 S3 to the car that would replace the 944 entirely, the 968
Porsche 968
The 968 is a sports car sold by Porsche AG from 1992 to 1995. It took over the entry-level position in Porsche's lineup from the 944, with which it shared about 20% of its parts...

. The 944's final year of production was 1991; in 1992 the 968 debuted. The 968 was sold alongside the 928
Porsche 928
The Porsche 928 was a sports-GT car sold by Porsche AG of Germany from 1978 to 1995. Originally intended to replace the company's iconic 911, the 928 attempted to combine the power, poise, and handling of a sports car with the refinement, comfort, and equipment of a luxury sedan to create what some...

 through 1995, when both models were discontinued.

Collectibility

The number of surviving 944s is falling due to the high maintenance costs.{http://www.hemmings.com/users/236884/ride/7360.html} The post-1985 cars, Turbos, and S variants are considered more desirable than the earlier cars; having improved interiors, suspensions, and engines. The pre-1985 cars are valued due to their lighter curb weight and "no-nonsense" interior layout.

The Porsche 944 has proven to be successful and increasingly popular in amateur road course racing.{http://www.notarealporsche.com/#/porsche-944/4543494342} The 944-Spec classhttp://www.944-Spec.org/ caters to the 1983 to 1988 8-valve 944, and the 944 Cuphttp://www.44cup.com/ series has classes for all 924/944/968 and 944 Turbo models. Competitive racing events are held by the National Auto Sport Association
National Auto Sport Association
The National Auto Sport Association is an American motorsports organization promoting road racing and high-performance driver education....

 and other organizations, as well as compatible rules that allow the same cars to race with the Sports Car Club of America
Sports Car Club of America
The Sports Car Club of America is a club and sanctioning body supporting road racing, rallying, and autocross in the United States. Formed in 1944, it runs many programs for both amateur and professional racers.-History:...

, Porsche Club of America
Porsche Club of America
The Porsche Club of America is an organization of Porsche enthusiasts in the United States and Canada. It is organized into 139 regions, which are grouped into 13 zones...

, and Porsche Owner's Club.

Awards

The 944 was on Car and Driver
Car and Driver
Car and Driver is an American automotive enthusiast magazine. Its total circulation is 1.31 million. It is owned by Hearst Magazines, who purchased prior owner Hachette Filipacchi Media U.S. in 2011...

's
Ten Best list
Car and Driver Ten Best
Car and Driver magazine annually nominates a list of what it considers the Ten Best cars and Five Best trucks.All production vehicles for sale in that calendar year are considered with these restrictions:# The vehicle must be on sale by January...

from 1983 through 1985, and the Turbo made the list for 1986.

In 1984, Car and Driver named the 944 the Best Handling Production Car in America.

Production

In total 163,192 cars in the 944 family were produced between 1982 and 1991. This high number made it the most successful car line in Porsche's history until the respective introductions of the Boxster and 997 Carrera.

944

A total of 113,070 944s were made between 1982 and 1989, with 56,921 being exported to the United States.

















































































Model Year Production Rest of World US Notes
1982 3921 3921    
1983 14633 9127 5506  
1984 26539 9921 16618  
1985 23720 17553 6167  
1986 17010 6109 10901  
1987 10689 2343 8346  
1988 5965 2226 3731 8 to Aus.
1989 10593 4941 5652  
Totals 113070 56141 56921  

944 Turbo (951)

A total of 25,245 944 Turbos were made, with 13,982 being exported to the United States.











































































Model Year Production Rest of World US Notes
1985 178 178    
1986 10937* 3424 7513  
1987 4955 1546 + 88 CUP 3210 + 11 CUP  
1988 4097 ** 1875 + 94 CUP 1874 + 99 CUP in addition,
126 SP Can., 30 CUP Aus.
1989 4103 1333 1385 1385 Can
1990 1251 1107 144  
1991 938 † 938    
Totals 25245 9331 13982 30 Aus, 1511
Can

* - Includes 12 Turbo S / (SE in UK 952), factory built prototypes of which 10 were exported to markets outside Germany.


** - Includes 1635 Turbo S / (SE in UK 952)


† - Includes 251 Turbo Cabriolet. A different source, Jerry Sloniger's
article in the October 1991 issue of Excellence, indicates that the
factory built 525, of which 255 were exported to markets outside Germany.

"CUP" designates a cup car
special edition race car.

944S2

A total of around 14,071 944S2s were made between 1989–1991, with 3,650 being exported to the United States. 12,831 944S models were produced from 1987 to 1988, with 8,703 being exported to the United States.












































Model Year Production Rest of World US Notes
1989 7632 4941 2691 51 Aus
1990 3321 2872 449 71 Aus
1991 3118 2608 510 6 Aus
Totals     3650  

944S2 Cabriolet










































Model Year Production Rest of World US Notes
1989 ? ? 16  
1990 3938 2114 1824  
1991 1702 1140 562  
Totals     2402  

944 Special Editions























Model Year Type Production Notes
1981 944 GTP/R Le Mans 1  
1986–1989 944 Turbo Cup 150 or more

Further reading

  • Morgan, P (1998). Original Porsche 924/944/968: The Guide to All Models 1975-95 Including Turbos and Limited Edition. Motorbooks International Inc. ISBN 1-901432-05-X

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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