Physical disability
Overview
 
A physical disability is any impairment
Impairment
Impairment may refer to:* A medical condition that leads to disability* In accounting, a downward revaluation of fixed assets* In health, any loss or abnormality of physiological, psychological, or anatomical structure or function, whether permanent or temporary...

 which limits the physical function of one or more limbs or fine
Fine motor skill
Fine motor skills are the coordination of small muscle movements which occur e.g., in the fingers, usually in coordination with the eyes. In application to motor skills of hands the term dexterity is commonly used....

 or gross motor ability
Gross motor skill
Gross motor skills are the abilities usually acquired during infancy and early childhood as part of a child's motor development. By the time they reach two years of age, almost all children are able to stand up, walk and run, walk up stairs, etc...

. Other physical disabilities
Disability
A disability may be physical, cognitive, mental, sensory, emotional, developmental or some combination of these.Many people would rather be referred to as a person with a disability instead of handicapped...

 include impairments which limit other facets of daily living, such as respiratory disorders
Respiratory disease
Respiratory disease is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms, and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the...

 and epilepsy
Epilepsy
Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by seizures. These seizures are transient signs and/or symptoms of abnormal, excessive or hypersynchronous neuronal activity in the brain.About 50 million people worldwide have epilepsy, and nearly two out of every three new cases...

.
Prenatal causes: Those disabilities that are acquired before birth. These may be due to diseases that have harmed the mother during pregnancy
Pregnancy
Pregnancy refers to the fertilization and development of one or more offspring, known as a fetus or embryo, in a woman's uterus. In a pregnancy, there can be multiple gestations, as in the case of twins or triplets...

, or genetic incompatibilities
Genetic disorder
A genetic disorder is an illness caused by abnormalities in genes or chromosomes, especially a condition that is present from before birth. Most genetic disorders are quite rare and affect one person in every several thousands or millions....

 between the parents.

Perinatal causes: Those disabilities that are acquired during birth.
Encyclopedia
A physical disability is any impairment
Impairment
Impairment may refer to:* A medical condition that leads to disability* In accounting, a downward revaluation of fixed assets* In health, any loss or abnormality of physiological, psychological, or anatomical structure or function, whether permanent or temporary...

 which limits the physical function of one or more limbs or fine
Fine motor skill
Fine motor skills are the coordination of small muscle movements which occur e.g., in the fingers, usually in coordination with the eyes. In application to motor skills of hands the term dexterity is commonly used....

 or gross motor ability
Gross motor skill
Gross motor skills are the abilities usually acquired during infancy and early childhood as part of a child's motor development. By the time they reach two years of age, almost all children are able to stand up, walk and run, walk up stairs, etc...

. Other physical disabilities
Disability
A disability may be physical, cognitive, mental, sensory, emotional, developmental or some combination of these.Many people would rather be referred to as a person with a disability instead of handicapped...

 include impairments which limit other facets of daily living, such as respiratory disorders
Respiratory disease
Respiratory disease is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms, and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the...

 and epilepsy
Epilepsy
Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by seizures. These seizures are transient signs and/or symptoms of abnormal, excessive or hypersynchronous neuronal activity in the brain.About 50 million people worldwide have epilepsy, and nearly two out of every three new cases...

.

Causes of physical disabilities

Prenatal causes: Those disabilities that are acquired before birth. These may be due to diseases that have harmed the mother during pregnancy
Pregnancy
Pregnancy refers to the fertilization and development of one or more offspring, known as a fetus or embryo, in a woman's uterus. In a pregnancy, there can be multiple gestations, as in the case of twins or triplets...

, or genetic incompatibilities
Genetic disorder
A genetic disorder is an illness caused by abnormalities in genes or chromosomes, especially a condition that is present from before birth. Most genetic disorders are quite rare and affect one person in every several thousands or millions....

 between the parents.

Perinatal causes: Those disabilities that are acquired during birth. This could be due to prolonged lack of oxygen
Perinatal asphyxia
Perinatal asphyxia or neonatal asphyxia is the medical condition resulting from deprivation of oxygen to a newborn infant that lasts long enough during the birth process to cause physical harm, usually to the brain...

 or the obstruction of the respiratory tract, damage to the brain during birth (due to the accidental misuse of forceps
Forceps in childbirth
Forceps are a surgical instrument that resembles a pair of tongs and can be used in surgery for grabbing, maneuvering, or removing various things within or from the body...

, for example) or the baby being born prematurely.

Postnatal causes: Those disabilities gained after birth. They can be due to accidents, infection
Infection
An infection is the colonization of a host organism by parasite species. Infecting parasites seek to use the host's resources to reproduce, often resulting in disease...

 or other illnesses
Illness
Illness is a state of poor health. Illness is sometimes considered another word for disease. Others maintain that fine distinctions exist...

.

Types of physical disabilities

Mobility impairment is a category of disability that includes people with varying types of physical disabilities. This type of disability includes upper limb disability, manual dexterity and disability in co-ordination with different organs of the body. Disability in mobility can either be a congenital or acquired with age problem. This problem could also be the consequence of some disease. People who have a broken skeletal structure also fall into this category of disability.

Visual impairment
Visual impairment
Visual impairment is vision loss to such a degree as to qualify as an additional support need through a significant limitation of visual capability resulting from either disease, trauma, or congenital or degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional means, such as refractive...

 is another type of physical impairment. There are hundreds of thousands of people that greatly suffer from minor to various serious vision injuries or impairments. These types of injuries can also result into some severe problems or diseases like blindness and ocular trauma, to name a few. Some of the common types of vision impairments include scratched cornea, scratches on the sclera, diabetes-related eye conditions, dry eyes and corneal graft.

Hearing impairment
Hearing impairment
-Definition:Deafness is the inability for the ear to interpret certain or all frequencies of sound.-Environmental Situations:Deafness can be caused by environmental situations such as noise, trauma, or other ear defections...

 is the category of physical impairment that includes people that are completely or partially deaf. People who are only partly deaf can sometimes make use of hearing-aids to improve their hearing ability.
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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