Phnom Penh
Overview
 
Phnom Penh is the capital and largest city of Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia , officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia...

. Located on the banks of the Mekong River, Phnom Penh has been the national capital since the French colonized Cambodia, and has grown to become the nation's center of economic and industrial activities, as well as the center of security, politics, economics, cultural heritage
Culture of Cambodia
The culture of Cambodia has had a rich and varied history dating back many centuries, and has been heavily influenced by India. Throughout Cambodia's long history, a major source of inspiration was from religion...

, and diplomacy of Cambodia.

Once known as the “Pearl of Asia”, it was considered one of the loveliest French-built cities in Indochina
Indochina
The Indochinese peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. It lies roughly southwest of China, and east of India. The name has its origins in the French, Indochine, as a combination of the names of "China" and "India", and was adopted when French colonizers in Vietnam began expanding their territory...

 in the 1920s.
Encyclopedia
Phnom Penh is the capital and largest city of Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia , officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia...

. Located on the banks of the Mekong River, Phnom Penh has been the national capital since the French colonized Cambodia, and has grown to become the nation's center of economic and industrial activities, as well as the center of security, politics, economics, cultural heritage
Culture of Cambodia
The culture of Cambodia has had a rich and varied history dating back many centuries, and has been heavily influenced by India. Throughout Cambodia's long history, a major source of inspiration was from religion...

, and diplomacy of Cambodia.

Once known as the “Pearl of Asia”, it was considered one of the loveliest French-built cities in Indochina
Indochina
The Indochinese peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. It lies roughly southwest of China, and east of India. The name has its origins in the French, Indochine, as a combination of the names of "China" and "India", and was adopted when French colonizers in Vietnam began expanding their territory...

 in the 1920s. Phnom Penh, along with Siem Reap
Siem Reap
Siem Reap is the capital city of Siem Reap Province in northwestern Cambodia, and is the gateway to Angkor region.Siem Reap has colonial and Chinese-style architecture in the Old French Quarter, and around the Old Market...

 and Sihanoukville
Sihanoukville
Sihanoukville , also known as Kampong Saom, is a province in southern Cambodia on the Gulf of Thailand. This port city is a growing Cambodian urban center, located southwest of the Cambodian capital, Phnom Penh. The province is named after King Father Norodom Sihanouk and grew up around the...

, are significant global and domestic tourist destinations for Cambodia. Founded in 1434, the city is noted for its beautiful and historical architecture and attractions. There are a number of surviving French colonial
French Colonial
French Colonial a style of architecture used by the French during colonization. Many French colonies, especially those in South-East Asia, have previously been reluctant to promote their colonial architecture as an asset for tourism, however in recent times, the new-generation of local authorities...

 buildings scattered along the grand boulevard
Boulevard
A Boulevard is type of road, usually a wide, multi-lane arterial thoroughfare, divided with a median down the centre, and roadways along each side designed as slow travel and parking lanes and for bicycle and pedestrian usage, often with an above-average quality of landscaping and scenery...

s.

Situated on the banks of the Tonlé Sap
Tonlé Sap
The Tonlé Sap is a combined lake and river system of major importance to Cambodia.The Tonlé Sap is the largest freshwater lake in South East Asia and is an ecological hot spot that was designated as a UNESCO biosphere in 1997....

, Mekong
Mekong
The Mekong is a river that runs through China, Burma, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. It is the world's 10th-longest river and the 7th-longest in Asia. Its estimated length is , and it drains an area of , discharging of water annually....

 and Bassac
Bassac River
The Bassac River is a distributary of the Tonle Sap and Mekong River. The river starts in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and flows southerly, crossing the border into Vietnam near Châu Đốc....

 rivers, the Phnom Penh metropolitan area
Metropolitan area
The term metropolitan area refers to a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metropolitan area usually encompasses multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships,...

 is home to more than 2 million of Cambodia’s population of over 14 million. The city is the wealthiest and most populous city in Cambodia and is home to the country’s political hub.

Etymology

Phnom Penh takes its name from the present Wat Phnom
Wat Phnom
Wat Phnom is a Buddhist temple located in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. It was built in 1373, and stands 27 metres above the ground. It is the tallest religious structure in the city.-History:...

 (“Hill Temple”). Legend has it that in 1372, an old nun named Lady Penh
Phnom Penh Legend
This is the legendary story of the founding of Phnom Penh.Lady Penh was a wealthy lady who lived on the outskirts of a village located in present day Phnom Penh. During the flood of the Mekong river, a hollow tree floated up to her lawn, and in the tree were four bronze statues of the Buddha. ...

 went to fetch water in the Mekong
Mekong
The Mekong is a river that runs through China, Burma, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. It is the world's 10th-longest river and the 7th-longest in Asia. Its estimated length is , and it drains an area of , discharging of water annually....

 and found a dead Kukui tree floating down the stream. Inside a hole of the Koki tree were four bronze and one stone Buddha
Buddha
In Buddhism, buddhahood is the state of perfect enlightenment attained by a buddha .In Buddhism, the term buddha usually refers to one who has become enlightened...

 statues.
Daun (Grandma) Penh brought the statues ashore and ordered people to pile up earth northeast of her house; she then used the Koki trunks to build a temple on the hill to house the five Buddha
Buddha
In Buddhism, buddhahood is the state of perfect enlightenment attained by a buddha .In Buddhism, the term buddha usually refers to one who has become enlightened...

 statues, and then named the temple after herself as Wat Phnom
Wat Phnom
Wat Phnom is a Buddhist temple located in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. It was built in 1373, and stands 27 metres above the ground. It is the tallest religious structure in the city.-History:...

 Daun Penh, which is now known as Wat Phnom, a small hill of 27 metres (88.6 ft) in height.

Phnom Penh was also previously known as Krong Chaktomuk meaning "City of Four Faces". This name refers to the junction where the Mekong
Mekong
The Mekong is a river that runs through China, Burma, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. It is the world's 10th-longest river and the 7th-longest in Asia. Its estimated length is , and it drains an area of , discharging of water annually....

, Bassac
Bassac River
The Bassac River is a distributary of the Tonle Sap and Mekong River. The river starts in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and flows southerly, crossing the border into Vietnam near Châu Đốc....

, and Tonle Sap rivers cross to form an “X” where the capital is situated. Krong Chaktomuk is an abbreviation of its ceremonial name which was given by King Ponhea Yat
Ponhea Yat
Ponhea Yat was the last king of the Khmer Empire.He was the son of Srey Soriyovong and became king in 1393. That year he was forced to flee Angkor Thom when the Siamese captured it, resettling first in Tuol Basan , and after that became flooded, to Chaktomuk .In Phnom Penh, the king ordered the...

, which in full is Krong Chaktomuk Mongkol Sakal Kampuchea Thipadei Sereythor Inthabot Borei Roth Reach Seima Maha Nokor.

This ceremonial name is composed from Pali
Páli
- External links :* *...

, and loosely translates as "The place of four rivers that gives the happiness and success of Kampuja Kingdom
Khmer Empire
The Khmer Empire was one of the most powerful empires in Southeast Asia. The empire, which grew out of the former kingdom of Chenla, at times ruled over and/or vassalized parts of modern-day Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, Burma, and Malaysia. Its greatest legacy is Angkor, the site of the capital city...

, the highest leader as well as impregnable city of the God Indra
Indra
' or is the King of the demi-gods or Devas and Lord of Heaven or Svargaloka in Hindu mythology. He is also the God of War, Storms, and Rainfall.Indra is one of the chief deities in the Rigveda...

 of the enormous Kingdom".

History

Phnom Penh first became the capital of Cambodia after Ponhea Yat
Ponhea Yat
Ponhea Yat was the last king of the Khmer Empire.He was the son of Srey Soriyovong and became king in 1393. That year he was forced to flee Angkor Thom when the Siamese captured it, resettling first in Tuol Basan , and after that became flooded, to Chaktomuk .In Phnom Penh, the king ordered the...

, king of the Khmer Empire
Khmer Empire
The Khmer Empire was one of the most powerful empires in Southeast Asia. The empire, which grew out of the former kingdom of Chenla, at times ruled over and/or vassalized parts of modern-day Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, Burma, and Malaysia. Its greatest legacy is Angkor, the site of the capital city...

, moved the capital from Angkor Thom
Angkor Thom
Angkor Thom , located in present day Cambodia, was the last and most enduring capital city of the Khmer empire. It was established in the late twelfth century by king Jayavarman VII. It covers an area of 9 km², within which are located several monuments from earlier eras as well as those...

 after it was captured and destroyed by Siam
Thailand
Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

 a few years earlier. There is a stupa
Stupa
A stupa is a mound-like structure containing Buddhist relics, typically the remains of Buddha, used by Buddhists as a place of worship....

 behind Wat Phnom that house the remains of Ponhea Yat and the royal family as well as the remaining Buddhist statues from the Angkorean era. There are also legends
Phnom Penh Legend
This is the legendary story of the founding of Phnom Penh.Lady Penh was a wealthy lady who lived on the outskirts of a village located in present day Phnom Penh. During the flood of the Mekong river, a hollow tree floated up to her lawn, and in the tree were four bronze statues of the Buddha. ...

 that tell how Phnom Penh was created in the 17th century by Japanese immigrants who settled on the outskirts of present-day Phnom Penh.

Phnom Penh remained the royal capital for 73 years-from 1432 to 1505. It was abandoned for 360 years-from 1505 to 1865-by subsequent kings due to internal fighting between the royal pretenders. Later kings moved the capital several times and established their royal capitals at various locations in Tuol Basan (Srey Santhor), Pursat
Pursat
Pursat is the capital of Pursat Province, Cambodia. Its name derived from a type of tree.- Notes :...

, Longvek
Lovek
Longvek was a city in ancient Cambodia, the capital city of the country after the sacking of Angkor by the Siamese in 1431. Little more than a village today in Kampong Chhnang Province, it lies just north of Oudong....

, Lavear Em and Udong.

It was not until 1866, under the reign of King Norodom I
Norodom of Cambodia
Norodom I ruled as king of Cambodia from 1860 to 1904. He was the eldest son of King Ang Duong, who ruled on behalf of Siam, and half-brother of Prince Si Votha as well as the half-brother of King Sisowath. Norodom is cognate with Narottam in Sanskrit which means Best of men . Norodom was...

, that Phnom Penh became the permanent seat of government and capital of Cambodia, and also where the current Royal Palace
Royal Palace, Phnom Penh
The Royal Palace , in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, is a complex of buildings which serves as the royal residence of the king of Cambodia. Its full name in the Khmer language is Preah Barum Reachea Veang Chaktomuk...

 was built. Beginning in 1870, the French Colonialists
Colonial Cambodia
In 1863, Cambodia under king Norodom became a protectorate of France. In October 1887, the French announced the formation of the Union Indochinoise , which at that time comprised Cambodia, already an autonomous French possession, and the three regions of Vietnam...

 turned a riverside village into a city where they built hotels, schools, prisons, barracks, banks, public works offices, telegraph offices, law courts, and health services buildings. In 1872, the first glimpse of a modern city took shape when the colonial administration contracted a French contractor, Le Faucheur, to construct the first 300 concrete houses for sales and rentals to the Chinese traders
Chinese Cambodian
Chinese Cambodians are Cambodian citizens of Chinese descent. "Khmer-Chen", is used for peoples of either mixed Cambodian & Chinese descent or people of whom are Cambodian born citizens with Chinese ancestry;...

.

By the 1920s, Phnom Penh was known as the Pearl of Asia, and over the next four decades Phnom Penh continued to experience rapid growth with the building of railways to Sihanoukville
Sihanoukville
Sihanoukville , also known as Kampong Saom, is a province in southern Cambodia on the Gulf of Thailand. This port city is a growing Cambodian urban center, located southwest of the Cambodian capital, Phnom Penh. The province is named after King Father Norodom Sihanouk and grew up around the...

 and the Pochentong International Airport (now Phnom Penh International Airport
Phnom Penh International Airport
-Statistics:-International terminal profile:*Total capacity: 2 million passengers**Surface: **Waiting lounges: **VIP Lounge: **Food & Beverage: **Duty Free: *Seat capacity: 360*Check-in counters: 22*Visa, Immigration and Customs counters: 30...

). Phnom Penh's infrastructure saw major modernisation under the rule of Sihanouk.

During the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of...

, Cambodia was used as a base by the North Vietnamese Army and the Viet Cong, and thousands of refugees from across the country flooded the city to escape the fighting between their own government troops, the NVA/NLF, the South Vietnam
South Vietnam
South Vietnam was a state which governed southern Vietnam until 1975. It received international recognition in 1950 as the "State of Vietnam" and later as the "Republic of Vietnam" . Its capital was Saigon...

ese and its allies, and the Khmer Rouge
Khmer Rouge
The Khmer Rouge literally translated as Red Cambodians was the name given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea, who were the ruling party in Cambodia from 1975 to 1979, led by Pol Pot, Nuon Chea, Ieng Sary, Son Sen and Khieu Samphan...

. By 1975, the population was 3 million, the bulk of whom were refugees from the fighting. The city fell to the Khmer Rouge on April 17, 1975. All of its residents, including those who were wealthy and educated, were evacuated from the city and forced to do labour on rural farms as "new people
New people (Kampuchea)
New People were civilian Cambodians who were controlled and exploited by the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia from 1975-1979. Generally, anyone who was from an urban area was made a New Person and people from rural areas were made Old People....

". Tuol Sleng High School was taken over by Pol Pot
Pol Pot
Saloth Sar , better known as Pol Pot, , was a Cambodian Maoist revolutionary who led the Khmer Rouge from 1963 until his death in 1998. From 1976 to 1979, he served as the Prime Minister of Democratic Kampuchea....

's forces and was turned into the S-21
Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum
The Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum is a museum in Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia. The site is a former high school which was used as the notorious Security Prison 21 by the Khmer Rouge communist regime from its rise to power in 1975 to its fall in 1979...

 prison camp, where people were detained and tortured. Pol Pot sought a return to an agrarian economy and therefore killed many people perceived as educated, "lazy", or political enemies. Many others starved to death as a result of failure of the agrarian society and the sale of Cambodia's rice to China in exchange for bullets and weaponry. The former high school is now the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum
Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum
The Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum is a museum in Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia. The site is a former high school which was used as the notorious Security Prison 21 by the Khmer Rouge communist regime from its rise to power in 1975 to its fall in 1979...

, where Khmer Rouge torture devices and photos of their victims are displayed. Choeung Ek (The Killing Fields
The Killing Fields
The Killing Fields are a number of sites in Cambodia where large numbers of people were killed and buried by the Khmer Rouge regime, during its rule of the country from 1975 to 1979, immediately after the end of the Cambodian Civil War ....

), 15 kilometres (9 mi) away, where the Khmer Rouge marched prisoners from Tuol Sleng to be murdered and buried in shallow pits, is also now a memorial to those who were killed by the regime.

The Khmer Rouge
Khmer Rouge
The Khmer Rouge literally translated as Red Cambodians was the name given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea, who were the ruling party in Cambodia from 1975 to 1979, led by Pol Pot, Nuon Chea, Ieng Sary, Son Sen and Khieu Samphan...

 were driven out of Phnom Penh by the Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

ese in 1979, and people began to return to the city. Vietnam is historically a state with which Cambodia has had many conflicts, therefore this liberation was and is viewed with mixed emotions by the Cambodians. A period of reconstruction began, spurred by the continuing stability of government, attracting new foreign investment and aid by countries including France, Australia, and Japan. Loans were made from the Asian Development Bank
Asian Development Bank
The Asian Development Bank is a regional development bank established on 22 August 1966 to facilitate economic development of countries in Asia...

 and the World Bank
World Bank
The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programmes.The World Bank's official goal is the reduction of poverty...

 to reinstate a clean water supply, roads and other infrastructure. The 1998 Census put Phnom Penh's population at 862,000; and the 2008 census was 1.3 million.

Geography

Phnom Penh is located in the south-central region of Cambodia, and is fully surrounded by the Kandal Province
Kandal Province
Kandal is a province of Cambodia. Its capital is Ta Khmao town . The province completely surrounds, but does not include, the national capital Phnom Penh...

. The municipality is situated on the banks of the Tonlé Sap
Tonlé Sap
The Tonlé Sap is a combined lake and river system of major importance to Cambodia.The Tonlé Sap is the largest freshwater lake in South East Asia and is an ecological hot spot that was designated as a UNESCO biosphere in 1997....

, Mekong
Mekong
The Mekong is a river that runs through China, Burma, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. It is the world's 10th-longest river and the 7th-longest in Asia. Its estimated length is , and it drains an area of , discharging of water annually....

, and Bassac
Bassac
Bassac may refer to:* BASSAC, the British Association of Settlements and Social Action Centres - a membership body for British community organisations, including members of the settlement movement...

 rivers. These rivers provide potential freshwater and other natural resources to the city. Phnom Penh and the surrounding areas consists of the typical wet plain area for Cambodia. Phnom Penh rises 11.89m or (39 ft) which causes problems for the city of potential flooding by the monsoon season which sometimes over flow the banks of the river.

The city, located at 11.55°N 104.91667°E (11°33' North, 104°55' East,), covers an area of 678.46 square kilometres (262 sq mi), with some 11401 hectares (28,172 acre) in the municipality and 26106 hectares (64,509 acre) of roads. The agricultural land in the municipality amounts to 34.685 square kilometres (13 sq mi) with some 1.476 square kilometres (365 acre) under irrigation
Irrigation
Irrigation may be defined as the science of artificial application of water to the land or soil. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall...

.

Climate

Phnom Penh has a tropical wet and dry climate. The climate is hot year-round with only minor variations. City temperatures range from 18° to 38 °C (64° to 100 °F) and experiences tropical monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

s. Southwest monsoons blow inland bringing moisture-laden winds from the Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand
The Gulf of Thailand , also known in to Malays as Teluk Siam literally meant Gulf of Siam, is a shallow arm of the South China Sea.-Geography:...

 and Indian Ocean from May to October. The northeast monsoon ushers in the dry season, which lasts from November to March. The city experiences the heaviest precipitation from September to October with the driest period occurring from January to February.

The city has two distinct seasons. The rainy season, which runs from May to October, which temperatures can rise up to 40 °C (104 °F) around April and is generally accompanied with high humidity. The dry season lasts from November to April when temperatures can drop to 22 °C (72 °F). The best months to visit the city are November to January when temperatures and humidity are lower.

Administration

Phnom Penh is a municipality
Municipality
A municipality is essentially an urban administrative division having corporate status and usually powers of self-government. It can also be used to mean the governing body of a municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district...

 standing at 678.46 square kilometres (262 sq mi) and is governed with a status that is equal to provinces of Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia , officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia...

. As such, it has a similar political structure to its provinces. The municipality is subdivided into 7 administrative divisions called Khan
Administrative divisions of Cambodia
Cambodia is divided into twenty-three provinces and the capital Phnom Penh. Provinces are further subdivided into districts and municipalities . Districts are divided into communes and quarters , then further divided into villages...

s (districts) and of the 7 Khans, Dangkao, Meanchey
Meanchey
Meanchey District is located in the southeastern part of Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The district is subdivided into 8 Sangkats and 30 Kroms. The district has an area of 43.79 km². According to the 1998 census of Cambodia, it had a population of 157,112....

 and Russei Keo are considered the outskirts of the city. All Khans are under the governance of the Phnom Penh Municipality. The Khans are further subdivided into 76 Sangkats (communes), and 637 Krom
KROM
KROM is a Spanish Adult Contemporary radio station in San Antonio, Texas, broadcasting at 92.9 FM. It is owned by Univision Radio. Prior to the current format, the station was a Rhythmic Contemporary Hit Radio station known as KITY, or Power 93 until 1990....

s.

The municipality is governed by the Governor who acts as the top executive of the city and manages the general affairs as well as overlooking the Municipal Military Police, Municipal Police and Bureau of Urban Affairs. Below the Governor is the First Vice Governor and 5 Vice Governors. The Chief of Cabinet who holds the same status as the Vice Governors, heads the Cabinet that consists of 8 Deputy Chiefs of Cabinet which in turn are in charge of the 27 Administrative Departments. Every khan (district) also has a head Chief.
http://www.citynet-ap.org/En/user/resource/docs/241.pdf
List of Phnom Penh Administrative Districts
Name of district (khan) Number of communes (sangkat) Number of villages (phum) Population as of 2008
Chamkarmon  12 sangkats 95 kroms 182,004
Dangkao  15 sangkats 143 kroms 257,724
Daun Penh
Daun Penh
Daun Penh is a major district in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Many major businesses in Phnom Penh like Sorya Shopping Center and Mokod Pich Jewelry Enterprise are located here. The district has an area of 7.44 km²...

 
11 sangkats 134 kroms 126,550
Meanchey
Meanchey
Meanchey District is located in the southeastern part of Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The district is subdivided into 8 Sangkats and 30 Kroms. The district has an area of 43.79 km². According to the 1998 census of Cambodia, it had a population of 157,112....

 
8 sangkats 30 kroms 327,801
Prampi Makara  8 sangkats 33 kroms 91,895
Russey Keo  12 sangkats 59 kroms 196,684
Sen Sok  3 sangkats 147,967
Tuol Kork
Tuol Kork
Tuol Kork is a district in the city of Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Tuol Kork is well-known for the large villas in its northern part of the district. This district is subdivided into 10 Sangkats and 143 Kroms.Postal Code of Toul Kork District...

 
10 sangkats 143 kroms 171,200

Demographics

As of 2008, Phnom Penh had a population of 2,009,264 people, with a total population density of 5,358 inhabitants per square kilometre (13,877/sq mi) in a 375 km2 (145 sq mi) city area. The population growth in the city is 3.92%.

Phnom Penh is mostly inhabited by Cambodians (or Khmers) – they represent 90% of the population of the city. There are large minorities of Chinese, Vietnamese, and other small ethnic groups who are Thai, Budong, Mnong Preh, Kuy, Chong, and Chams. The state religion is Theravada Buddhism, more than 90% of the people in Phnom Penh are Buddhists with the Chams practicing Islam over the years since 1993, there has also been an increase in the practice of Christianity which was practically wiped out after 1975 when the Khmer Rouge took over. English and French are widely used in the city, but the official language is Khmer.

Economy

Phnom Penh Skyline
Phnom Penh's is Cambodia's economic center as it accounts for a large portion of the Cambodian economy. Double-digit economic growth rates in recent years have triggered an economic boom in Phnom Penh, with new hotels, restaurants, bars, high rises, and residential buildings springing up around the city.

The main economy is based on commercial interests such as garments, trading, and small and medium enterprises. In the past few years the property business has been booming as real estate is now getting very expensive in the city. Tourism is also a major contributor in the capital as more shopping and commercial centers open, making Phnom Penh one of the major tourist destinations in the country along with Siem Reap
Siem Reap
Siem Reap is the capital city of Siem Reap Province in northwestern Cambodia, and is the gateway to Angkor region.Siem Reap has colonial and Chinese-style architecture in the Old French Quarter, and around the Old Market...

 and Sihanoukville
Sihanoukville
Sihanoukville , also known as Kampong Saom, is a province in southern Cambodia on the Gulf of Thailand. This port city is a growing Cambodian urban center, located southwest of the Cambodian capital, Phnom Penh. The province is named after King Father Norodom Sihanouk and grew up around the...

. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council, tourism in Cambodia made up 17.5 percent (US$2,053 million) of Cambodia’s GDP in 2009 and account for 13.7 percent of total employment. One of the most popular areas in Phnom Penh for tourists is Sisowath Quay
Sisowath Quay
Sisowath Quay is a historic riverside located in Phnom Penh parallel to Sisowath Boulevard in the Chamkarmon district. The quay is situated along the junction of the Mekong and Tonle Sap River and is situated near the Royal Palace of Cambodia....

, alongside the Tonle Sap River. Sisowath Quay is a 3-mile strip of road that includes restaurants, bars, and hotels.

The billion new urban development, Camko City, is meant to bolster the city landscape. The Bureau of Urban Affairs of Phnom Penh Municipality has plans to expand and construct new infrastructure to accommodate the growing population and economy. High rise buildings will be constructed at the entrance of the city and near the lakes and riverbanks. Furthermore, new roads, canals, and a railway system will be used to connect Camko City and Phnom Penh.

Other projects include:
  • Grand Phnom Penh International City
  • De Castle Royal Condominium
  • International Finance Complex
  • Gold Tower 42
  • OCIC Tower
  • River Palace


With booming economic growth seen since the 1990s, new shops have opened as well as western-style malls such as Sorya Shopping Center
Sorya Shopping Center
Sorya Shopping Center is currently the largest modern shopping complex in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. With an area of 40,000 square meters, it has eight stories containing shops catering to the various needs of customers. For the clients comfort, it is facilitated with a central air conditioning system,...

 and the new Sovanna Shopping Center. Two international franchises have also opened up in Phnom Penh. Dairy Queen
Dairy Queen
Dairy Queen, often abbreviated DQ, is a chain of soft serve and fast food restaurants owned by International Dairy Queen, Inc, who also owns Orange Julius and Karmelkorn. The name "Dairy Queen" is taken from the name of their soft serve product, which the company refers to as "Dairy Queen" or...

 has already opened up inside Phnom Penh International Airport
Phnom Penh International Airport
-Statistics:-International terminal profile:*Total capacity: 2 million passengers**Surface: **Waiting lounges: **VIP Lounge: **Food & Beverage: **Duty Free: *Seat capacity: 360*Check-in counters: 22*Visa, Immigration and Customs counters: 30...

 and Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC
KFC
KFC, founded and also known as Kentucky Fried Chicken, is a chain of fast food restaurants based in Louisville, Kentucky, in the United States. KFC has been a brand and operating segment, termed a concept of Yum! Brands since 1997 when that company was spun off from PepsiCo as Tricon Global...

) has opened up a restaurant on Monivong Boulevard
Monivong Boulevard
Monivong Boulevard is a central boulevard and thoroughfare of Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia. Named after King Monivong of Cambodia, it crosses the city from north to south. Most streets in Phnom Penh have numbers rather than names and Monivong boulevard is also known as street 93...

 and plans to open more soon. The same company that opened up KFC in Cambodia
Yum! Brands
Yum! Brands, Inc. or Yum! is a United States-based Fortune 500 corporation. Yum! operates or licenses Taco Bell, KFC, Pizza Hut, and WingStreet restaurants worldwide....

 has now obtained franchise rights to open Pizza Hut
Pizza Hut
Pizza Hut is an American restaurant chain and international franchise that offers different styles of pizza along with side dishes including pasta, buffalo wings, breadsticks, and garlic bread....

 in the country. In addition, Swensen's
Swensen's
Swensen's is a global chain of ice cream restaurants that started in San Francisco, California.-History:The company was started in 1948 by Earle Swensen. Swensen opened his first shop at the corner of Union and Hyde Streets, along the cable car tracks in Russian Hill in San Francisco at what had...

 ice cream
Ice cream
Ice cream is a frozen dessert usually made from dairy products, such as milk and cream, and often combined with fruits or other ingredients and flavours. Most varieties contain sugar, although some are made with other sweeteners...

 restaurants was also opened in Sorya Shopping Center.

The Central market Phsar Thmei is a major tourist hot spot. The four wings of the yellow colored market are teeming with numerous stalls selling gold and silver jewellery, antique coins, clothing, clocks, flowers, food, fabrics and shoes. Phsar Thmei is also going under a major renovation project, with fresh paint on the exterior and interior, and the creation of newer stalls.

Cambodia Angkor Air
Cambodia Angkor Air
Cambodia Angkor Air is the national flag carrier airline of Cambodia, headquartered in Phnom Penh. It commenced operations on 28 July 2009. The airline is owned by the Cambodian Government and Vietnam Airlines , the latter allowing for codeshare flights.-History:Cambodia Angkor Air was founded on...

 has its head office in Phnom Penh.

Education

The Royal University of Phnom Penh
Royal University of Phnom Penh
The Royal University of Phnom Penh is Cambodia’s oldest and largest university located in the capital Phnom Penh. It hosts more than 10000 students across a range of undergraduate and postgraduate programs...

 (RUPP) is the oldest and largest institution of higher education
Education in Cambodia
-History:Traditional education in Cambodia was handled by the local wat, and the Bhikkhu were the teachers. The students were almost entirely young boys, and the education was limited to memorizing Buddhist chants in Pali. During the period of the French protectorate, an educational system based on...

 in Cambodia. As of 2008, the university has over 10,000 students across three campuses, and offers a wide range of high-quality courses within the Faculty of Science, the Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, and the Institute of Foreign Languages (IFL). There are about fifty higher institutions in Cambodia, most of which have no small campuses. Several international charities, like A New Day Cambodia
A New Day Cambodia
A New Day Cambodia , founded in the United States in 2007, is an international relief and development organization whose goal is to provide shelter, food, and education for impoverished children in Phnom Penh, Cambodia...

, operate independent educational facilities in addition to public schools for students.

The Buddhist Institute was founded on May 12, 1930 and is the principal state Buddhist institution in Cambodia.

Culture

Phnom Penh is notable for Ka tieu Phnom Penh, its variation on rice-noodle soup. Phnom Penh also has its own dialect of Khmer
Khmer language
Khmer , or Cambodian, is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia. It is the second most widely spoken Austroasiatic language , with speakers in the tens of millions. Khmer has been considerably influenced by Sanskrit and Pali, especially in the royal and religious...

. Speakers of the Phnom Penh dialect often elide syllables, which has earned it the reputation for being lazy speech. Phnom Penh is also known for its influence on New Khmer Architecture
New Khmer Architecture
New Khmer Architecture was an architectural movement in Cambodia during the 1950s and 1960s. The style blended elements of the Modern Movement with two distinctly Cambodian traditions: the grand tradition of Angkor, and the vernacular tradition of ordinary people's houses...

. The city is the most modern of Cambodian cities. It is both the economic and cultural center of Cambodia.

The two most visited museums in the city are the National Museum, which is the country's leading historical and archaeological museum, and Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum
Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum
The Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum is a museum in Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia. The site is a former high school which was used as the notorious Security Prison 21 by the Khmer Rouge communist regime from its rise to power in 1975 to its fall in 1979...

, a former Khmer Rouge prison.

Chaul Chnam Thmey April 13–15

Phnom Penh gets lively for Cambodian New Year
Cambodian New Year
Cambodian New Year or Chaul Chnam Thmey in the Khmer language, literally "Enter Year New", is the name of the Cambodian holiday that celebrates the New Year. The holiday lasts for three days beginning on New Year's day, which usually falls on April 13 or 14th, which is the end of the harvesting...

, with increasing numbers of tourists getting in on the action. This is usually the warmest part of the year, water gets thrown around adding to the party atmosphere along with dancing and music. The date changes year-by-year but this holiday always lasts three days or often stretches into the weekend. This festival marks the turn of the year based on the ancient Khmer calendar and also marks the end of the harvest done during the year
Water Festival November
The largest annual festival in Phnom Penh, this lively gathering celebrates the reversing of the flow of the Tonlé Sap
Tonlé Sap
The Tonlé Sap is a combined lake and river system of major importance to Cambodia.The Tonlé Sap is the largest freshwater lake in South East Asia and is an ecological hot spot that was designated as a UNESCO biosphere in 1997....

 river. The holiday lasts three days as people flood into the city to enjoy the fireworks, colorful boat races, live concerts, eating and partying. The boat racing dates back to ancient times marking the strengths of the Khmer marine forces during the Khmer Empire
Khmer Empire
The Khmer Empire was one of the most powerful empires in Southeast Asia. The empire, which grew out of the former kingdom of Chenla, at times ruled over and/or vassalized parts of modern-day Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, Burma, and Malaysia. Its greatest legacy is Angkor, the site of the capital city...

.

On November 22, 2010 at least 348 people were crushed to death in a bridge stampede
Phnom Penh stampede
The Phnom Penh stampede occurred on 22 November 2010 when 347 people were killed in a human stampede during the Khmer Water Festival celebrations in the Cambodian capital, Phnom Penh.-Background:...

 at the festival.

Pchum Ben October 7–9

Pchum Ben is a very important aspect of Cambodian culture. It may be translated as "gathering together" to make offerings and is a time of reunion, commemoration, express love and appreciation for one's ancestors. By offering food and good karma to those possibly trapped in the spirit world, living relatives help assuage their misery and guide them back into the cycle of reincarnation

Visak Bochea May
Vesākha is an annual holiday observed traditionally by Buddhists in Cambodia.Sometimes informally called "Buddha's Birthday", it actually encompasses the birth, enlightenment (nirvāṇa), and passing away (Parinirvāna) of Gautama Buddha.

Cityscape and Architecture

The oldest structure is the Wat Phnom
Wat Phnom
Wat Phnom is a Buddhist temple located in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. It was built in 1373, and stands 27 metres above the ground. It is the tallest religious structure in the city.-History:...

 from the founding days of the city, constructed in 1373. The main tourist attractions are the Royal Palace
Royal Palace, Phnom Penh
The Royal Palace , in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, is a complex of buildings which serves as the royal residence of the king of Cambodia. Its full name in the Khmer language is Preah Barum Reachea Veang Chaktomuk...

 with the Silver Pagoda
Silver Pagoda, Phnom Penh
The Silver Pagoda is located on the south side of the Royal Palace, Phnom Penh. Formerly, it was known as Wat Ubosoth Ratanaram. The temple's official name is Preah Vihear Preah Keo Morakot but is commonly referred to as Wat Preah Keo in Khmer....

, the National Museum
National Museum, Phnom Penh
The National Museum of Cambodia in Phnom Penh is Cambodia's largest museum of cultural history and is the country's leading historical and archaeological museum.- Overview :...

, constructed during the French colonial era in the late 19th century in the classical Khmer style hosts a vast collection of Khmer antiquities; the Independence Monument
Independence Monument, Phnom Penh
The Independence Monument in Phnom Penh, capital of Cambodia, was built in 1958 for Cambodia's independence from France in 1953.. It stands on the intersection of Norodom Boulevard and Sihanouk Boulevard in the centre of the city. It is in the form of a lotus-shaped stupa, of the style seen at the...

 (Khmer: Vimean Akareach), although modern from the 1950s, is also constructed in the ancient Khmer style.

The French, who were the colonial masters from the 19th century to the 1940s, also left their mark, with various colonial villas, French churches, boulevard
Boulevard
A Boulevard is type of road, usually a wide, multi-lane arterial thoroughfare, divided with a median down the centre, and roadways along each side designed as slow travel and parking lanes and for bicycle and pedestrian usage, often with an above-average quality of landscaping and scenery...

s, and the Art deco market Phsar Thom Thmei. A notable landmark of the colonial era is the Hotel Le Royal.

Starting with independence from the French in the 1950s and lasting until the era of the Khmer Rouge in the 1970s, Phnom Penh underwent tremendous growth as the capital city of a newly independent country. King Sihanouk was eager to present a new style of architecture and thus invigorate the process of nation building. A new golden era of architecture took off, with various projects and young Khmer architects, often educated in France, given opportunities to design and construct. This new movement was called "New Khmer Architecture" and was often characterised by a fusion of Bauhaus
Bauhaus
', commonly known simply as Bauhaus, was a school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught. It operated from 1919 to 1933. At that time the German term stood for "School of Building".The Bauhaus school was founded by...

, European post-modern architecture, and traditional elements from Angkor
Angkor
Angkor is a region of Cambodia that served as the seat of the Khmer Empire, which flourished from approximately the 9th to 15th centuries. The word Angkor is derived from the Sanskrit nagara , meaning "city"...

. The most prominent architect was Vann Molyvann
Vann Molyvann
Vann Molyvann is a Cambodian architect. During the Sangkum Reastr Niyum regime Prince Norodom Sihanouk enacted a development policy encompassing the whole kingdom with the construction of new towns, infrastructure and architecture...

, who was nominated chief national architect by the king himself in 1956. Molyvann created landmark buildings such as the Preah Suramarit National Theatre
Preah Suramarit National Theatre
The Preah Suramarit Theatre or the Bassac Theatre is the former national theatre of Cambodia in the capital Phnom Penh. Designed by chief national architect Vann Molyvann in 1966, it opened in 1968 as the Grand Théâtre Preah Bat Norodom Suramarit...

 and the Council of Ministers building, other architects helped construct the newly founded Royal Khmer University, the Institute of Foreign Languages and the National Sports Centre. With the growth of the upper and entrepreneurial middle class, new suburbs were built in the 1950s and 60s.

Although these buildings survived the Khmer Rouge era and the civil war, today they are under threat due to economic development and financial speculation. Villas and gardens from that era are being destroyed and redeveloped to make place for bigger structures. The landmark National Theatre by Molyvann was ripped down in 2008. A movement is rising in Cambodia to preserve this modernist heritage. Old villas are sometimes being converted into boutique hotel
Boutique hotel
Boutique hotel is a term popularized in North America and the United Kingdom to describe intimate, usually luxurious or unique hotel environments. Boutique hotels differentiate themselves from larger chain/branded hotels and motels by providing personalized accommodation and services / facilities...

s, such as the Knai Bang Chatt.

Monuments and memorials to the genocide during the Khmer Rouge era in the 1970s are the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum
Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum
The Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum is a museum in Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia. The site is a former high school which was used as the notorious Security Prison 21 by the Khmer Rouge communist regime from its rise to power in 1975 to its fall in 1979...

 (a former high school used as a concentration camp) and on the outskirt of the city the Choeung Ek Genocide Center
Choeung Ek
Choeung Ek , the site of a former orchard and Chinese graveyard about 17 km south of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, is the best-known of the sites known as The Killing Fields, where the Khmer Rouge regime executed about 17,000 people between 1975 and 1979. Mass graves containing 8,895 bodies were...

. The Cambodia-Vietnam Friendship Monument
Cambodia-Vietnam Friendship Monument
The Cambodia-Vietnam Friendship Monument in Phnom Penh, capital of Cambodia, is a large concrete monument commemorating the former alliance between Vietnam and Cambodia...

 was commissioned by the Vietnamese communists as symbol of Khmer-Vietnamese "friendship" during the late 1970s following the liberation of Cambodia from the Khmer Rouge.

Khmer

  • Sralagn' Khmer
    Sralagn' Khmer
    Sralagn' Khmer is a Khmer language newspaper published in Cambodia with its headquarters in Phnom Penh....

  • Chakraval Daily
    Chakraval Daily
    Chakraval Daily is a Khmer language newspaper published in Cambodia with its headquarters in Phnom Penh....

  • Kampuchea Thmei Daily
    Kampuchea Thmei Daily
    Kampuchea Thmei Daily is a daily newspaper published in Cambodia. The papers headquarters are in Phnom Penh. The newspaper focuses on business and politics....

  • Kampuchea Thnai Nes
    Kampuchea Thnai Nes
    Kampuchea Thnai Nes is a Khmer language newspaper published in Cambodia with its headquarters in Phnom Penh....

    (Cambodia Today)
  • Kanychok Sangkhum
    Kanychok Sangkhum
    Kanychok Sangkhum is a Khmer language newspaper published in Cambodia with its headquarters in Phnom Penh....

  • Koh Santepheap
    Koh Santepheap
    Koh Santepheap is a Khmer language newspaper published in Cambodia with its headquarters in Phnom Penh....

    (Island of Peace)
  • Moneaksekar Khmer
    Moneaksekar Khmer
    Moneaksekar Khmer is a Khmer language newspaper published in Cambodia with its headquarters in Phnom Penh. It is published by the Sam Rainsy party....

    (Khmer Conscience) – Published by the Sam Rainsy
    Sam Rainsy
    Sam Rainsy is a Cambodian politician.Sam Rainsy was born in Phnom Penh, son of Sam Sary, a member of Cambodia's government for a time in the 1950s. He moved to France in 1965, studied there and then worked in a variety of Parisian financial companies...

     Party.
  • Rasmei Kampuchea (Light of Kampuchea) – Cambodia's largest daily, it circulates about 18,000 copies.
  • Samleng Yuvachun
    Samleng Yuvachun
    Samleng Yuvachun is a Khmer language newspaper published in Cambodia with its headquarters in Phnom Penh....

    (Voice of Khmer Youth)
  • Udomkate Khmer
    Udomkate Khmer
    Udomkate Khmer is a Khmer language newspaper published in Cambodia with its headquarters in Phnom Penh.Around the time of the National Assembly elections in 2003, Udomkate Khmer shifted its support to FUNCINPEC. Since that shift, the owner of the paper is reported to have obtained a senior...

    (Khmer Ideal)
  • Wat Phnom Daily
    Wat Phnom Daily
    Wat Phnom Daily is a Khmer language newspaper published in Cambodia with its headquarters in Phnom Penh....


English

  • Phnom Penh Post
    Phnom Penh Post
    The Phnom Penh Post is a daily English-language newspaper published in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Founded in 1992 by publisher Michael Hayes, it is Cambodia's oldest English-language newspaper. It is printed in full-color tabloid format. The Phnom Penh Post is also available in Khmer language...

    , a daily English-language
    English language
    English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

     newspaper published in Phnom Penh.
  • The Cambodia Daily
    The Cambodia Daily
    The Cambodia Daily is Cambodia's first English-language daily newspaper. It was started in 1993 by Bernard Krisher, an American journalist. Krisher hired two young and relatively inexperienced journalists, Barton Biggs and Robin McDowell, as the paper's first editors. The first issue was published...

    , an English-language
    English language
    English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

     daily newspaper.

Chinese

  • 《柬華日報》(Jianhua Daily), a daily Chinese-language
    Chinese language
    The Chinese language is a language or language family consisting of varieties which are mutually intelligible to varying degrees. Originally the indigenous languages spoken by the Han Chinese in China, it forms one of the branches of Sino-Tibetan family of languages...

     newspaper published in Phnom Penh.
  • 《星洲日報》(Sinchew Daily), a Chinese-language
    Chinese language
    The Chinese language is a language or language family consisting of varieties which are mutually intelligible to varying degrees. Originally the indigenous languages spoken by the Han Chinese in China, it forms one of the branches of Sino-Tibetan family of languages...

     daily newspaper.
  • 《華商日報》(Huashang Daily), a Chinese-language
    Chinese language
    The Chinese language is a language or language family consisting of varieties which are mutually intelligible to varying degrees. Originally the indigenous languages spoken by the Han Chinese in China, it forms one of the branches of Sino-Tibetan family of languages...

     daily newspaper.
  • 《新柬埔寨》(New Cambodia), a Chinese-language
    Chinese language
    The Chinese language is a language or language family consisting of varieties which are mutually intelligible to varying degrees. Originally the indigenous languages spoken by the Han Chinese in China, it forms one of the branches of Sino-Tibetan family of languages...

     daily newspaper.

Magazines

  • AsiaLIFE Guide
    AsiaLIFE Guide
    AsiaLIFE Guide is an English-language lifestyle magazine published in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.- History :Originally established as AsiaLIFE Phnom Penh in December 2006 by Mark Jackson, Jonny Edbrooke and Nick Ross, Asia Life is the leading English-language lifestyle magazine in the Cambodian capital...

     Phnom Penh
    , a monthly English-language
    English language
    English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

     lifestyle magazine published in Phnom Penh.
  • Pocket Guide Cambodia publishes four separate guides aimed at English-speaking residents and visitors. Titles include Drinking & Dining, Out & About, After Dark, Door 2 Door as well as one Khmer-language guide called Sabay Sabay targeting the emerging young professional marketplace
  • F Magazine, the first fashion-forward magazine in Cambodia. Bi-lingual, written in English and Khmer.

French newspapers

  • Cambodge Soir
    Cambodge Soir
    Cambodge Soir was a weekly newspaper published in Cambodia and it was the most important French language Cambodian newspaper of the country. It was edited in Phnom Penh and distributed in different Cambodian provinces, among French speaking foreigners and Cambodians...

    a weekly French-language
    French language
    French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

     newspaper published in Phnom Penh.

Sport

The martial arts of Bokator
Bokator
Bokator, or more formally, Labokkatao is a Cambodian martial art that includes close hand-to-hand combat, ground techniques and weapons. Possibly the oldest existing fighting system in Cambodia, oral tradition indicates that bokator or an early form thereof was the close quarter combat system used...

, Pradal Serey
Pradal Serey
Pradal serey is an unarmed martial art from Cambodia. In Khmer the word pradal means fighting or boxing and serey means free. Originally used for warfare, pradal serey is now one of Cambodia's national sports...

 (Khmer kick boxing) and Khmer traditional wrestling
Khmer Traditional Wrestling
Khmer traditional wrestling is a folk wrestling style from Cambodia. It has been practiced as far back as the Angkor period and is depicted on the bas-reliefs of certain temples. Although predominantly a male sport today, Khmer wrestling was once practiced by both sexes as female wrestlers are...

 have venues in Phnom Penh watched by dedicated spectators. Cambodia has increasingly become involved in modern sports over the last 30 years. As with the rest of the country, football and the martial arts are particularly popular.

The most prominent of venues in the city is the Phnom Penh National Olympic Stadium with a capacity of 50,000. Built in 1964, it is home to the Cambodian national football team, although the country never hosted the Olympic Games. Noted clubs include Phnom Penh Empire
Phnom Penh Empire
Phnom Penh Crown FC, is a football club from Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Formerly the team was called Samart United, Hello United, Phnom Penh United and Phnom Penh Empire before taking their current name, Phnom Penh Crown FC in 2009...

, Khemara Keila FC and Military Police
Military Police (Cambodian football club)
Military Police, also known as National Police, is an association football club from Siem Reap, Cambodia. They won the Cambodian League in 2000.-References:...

. After completion in 1964, Phnom Penh National Olympic Stadium was one of the largest in Asia. Today it is the 6th largest stadium in Southeast Asia.
Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia, South-East Asia, South East Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia. The region lies on the intersection of geological plates, with heavy seismic...



Olympic Stadium is the largest sports center in the Phnom Penh District. Volleyball, basketball, and tai-kwon-do games are often hosted at the stadium. The National Sports Centre of Cambodia is famous for hosting swimming, boxing, and volleyball competitions.

Transport

Phnom Penh International Airport
Phnom Penh International Airport
-Statistics:-International terminal profile:*Total capacity: 2 million passengers**Surface: **Waiting lounges: **VIP Lounge: **Food & Beverage: **Duty Free: *Seat capacity: 360*Check-in counters: 22*Visa, Immigration and Customs counters: 30...

 is the second-largest and second-busiest airport in Cambodia after Angkor International Airport
Angkor International Airport
Siem Reap International Airport is the airport in Cambodia handling the greatest number of passengers. It is located in Siem Reap, home of Angkor Wat.The full architecture design of the airport was developed by Archetype Group...

 in Siem Reap
Siem Reap
Siem Reap is the capital city of Siem Reap Province in northwestern Cambodia, and is the gateway to Angkor region.Siem Reap has colonial and Chinese-style architecture in the Old French Quarter, and around the Old Market...

. It is located 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) west of central Phnom Penh. Taxis, pick-ups, and minibuses leave the city for destinations all over the country, but are fast losing ground to cheaper and more comfortable buses. Phnom Penh also has a rail service.

Cambodia's national flag carrier
Flag carrier
A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given country, enjoys preferential rights or privileges, accorded by the government, for international operations. It may be a state-run, state-owned or private but...

, Cambodia Angkor Air
Cambodia Angkor Air
Cambodia Angkor Air is the national flag carrier airline of Cambodia, headquartered in Phnom Penh. It commenced operations on 28 July 2009. The airline is owned by the Cambodian Government and Vietnam Airlines , the latter allowing for codeshare flights.-History:Cambodia Angkor Air was founded on...

, launched in 2009, is headquartered in Phnom Penh and has its main hub there, with an additional hub at the Angkor International Airport. Budget flights from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia to Phnom Penh are operated by AirAsia, a regional low-cost carrier. Other budget flights include Jetstar Asia Airways
Jetstar Asia Airways
Jetstar Asia Airways Private Limited , operating as Jetstar Asia, is a low-cost airline headquartered in Singapore. It is the Asian offshoot of Qantas Jetstar Airways...

 (a subsidiary of QANTAS
Qantas
Qantas Airways Limited is the flag carrier of Australia. The name was originally "QANTAS", an initialism for "Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services". Nicknamed "The Flying Kangaroo", the airline is based in Sydney, with its main hub at Sydney Airport...

) who provide daily flights from Singapore.

Air France announced October 20, 2010, that it will begin to serve Phnom Penh from Paris-Charles de Gaulle starting March 27, 2011.
There are numerous bus companies, including Phnom Penh Public Transport and GST Express, running services to most provincial capitals, including Sihanoukville, Kampong Chhnang, Udong and Takéo
Takéo
Takéo is the capital of Takéo Province, Cambodia. As of 1998 it had a population of 39,186. The town and province is known for its silk weaving and the province is home to about 10,000 of the total of 15,000 Cambodian weavers. Most silk weavers in the villages are near the national highway in the...

. Phnom Penh Sorya Transport Co. offers bus travel to several provincial destinations along the National Routes and to Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City , formerly named Saigon is the largest city in Vietnam...

. Motorcycles and bicycles are popular forms of travel in the city.

Although the city is 290 kilometres (180.2 mi) from the sea, it is home to Cambodia's main freshwater port, a major port on the Mekong River valley, and it is linked to the South China Sea
South China Sea
The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Singapore and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around...

 via a channel of the Mekong delta in Vietnam.

Local means of public transportation within the city include the cycle rickshaw
Cycle rickshaw
The cycle rickshaw is a small-scale local means of transport; it is also known by a variety of other names such as velotaxi, pedicab, bikecab, cyclo, becak, trisikad, or trishaw or, simply, rickshaw which also refers to auto rickshaws, and the, now uncommon, rickshaws pulled by a person on foot...

, known in Khmer as "cyclo", and motorcycle taxis known as "tuk-tuk." Private forms of transportation include bicycles and automobiles.

Highways

As the capital of Cambodia, a number of National Highways connect the city with various parts of the country:
National Highway Code Length Origin Terminal
National Highway 1
National Highway 1 (Cambodia)
National Highway 1 or National Road No.1 is one of the national highways of Cambodia. With a length of , it connects the capital of Phnom Penh with Bavet, Svay Rieng Province on the border with Vietnam....

 
10001 167.1103.83 Phnom Penh Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

ese Border
National Highway 2
National Highway 2 (Cambodia)
National Highway 2 or National Road No.2 is one of the national highways of Cambodia. With a length of , it connects the capital of Phnom Penh with Vietnam....

 
10002 120.674.94 Phnom Penh Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

ese Border
National Highway 3
National Highway 3 (Cambodia)
National Highway 3 or National Road No.3 is one of the national highways of Cambodia. With a length of , it connects the capital of Phnom Penh with Veal Rinh. The road underwent significant refurbishment in 2008 and forms part of an international "North-South economic corridor" from Kunming in...

 
10003 202125.52 Phnom Penh Sihanoukville
Sihanoukville
Sihanoukville , also known as Kampong Saom, is a province in southern Cambodia on the Gulf of Thailand. This port city is a growing Cambodian urban center, located southwest of the Cambodian capital, Phnom Penh. The province is named after King Father Norodom Sihanouk and grew up around the...

National Highway 4
National Highway 4 (Cambodia)
National Highway 4 or National Road No.4 is one of the national highways of Cambodia. With a length of , it connects the capital of Phnom Penh with Sihanoukville in the south-west. Sihanoukville is the only sea international port of Cambodia. In consequence, NH4 is one of the most important...

 
10004 226140.43 Phnom Penh Sihanoukville
Sihanoukville
Sihanoukville , also known as Kampong Saom, is a province in southern Cambodia on the Gulf of Thailand. This port city is a growing Cambodian urban center, located southwest of the Cambodian capital, Phnom Penh. The province is named after King Father Norodom Sihanouk and grew up around the...

National Highway 5
National Highway 5 (Cambodia)
National Highway 5 or National Road No.5 is one of the national highways of Cambodia. With a length of , it connects the capital of Phnom Penh with Thailand....

 
10005 407.45253.18 Phnom Penh Thai
Thailand
Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

 Border
National Highway 6
National Highway 6 (Cambodia)
National Highway 6 or National Road No.6 is one of the national highways of Cambodia. At long, it connects the capital of Phnom Penh with Banteay Meanchey....

 
10006 416258.49 Phnom Penh Banteay Meanchey
National Highway 7
National Highway 7 (Cambodia)
National Highway 7 or National Road No.7 is one of the national highways of Cambodia. With a length of 509.17 km it connects Skuon with Trapeang Kreal, international border checkpoint with Laos...

 
10007 509.17316.38 Phnom Penh Lao
Laos
Laos Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao, officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Burma and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south and Thailand to the west...

 Border

Water supply

Water supply in Phnom Penh has improved dramatically in terms of access, service quality, efficiency, cost recovery and governance between 1993 and 2006. The number of customers was multiplied by nine, service quality improved from intermittent to continuous supply, water losses were cut dramatically and the city’s water utility went from being bankrupt to making a modest profit. These achievements were recognized through international awards such as the 2006 Ramon Magsaysay Award
Ramon Magsaysay Award
The Ramon Magsaysay Award is an annual award established to perpetuate former Philippine President Ramon Magsaysay's example of integrity in government, courageous service to the people, and pragmatic idealism within a democratic society. The Ramon Magsaysay Award is often considered Asia's Nobel...

 and the 2010 Stockholm Industry Water Award
Stockholm Industry Water Award
The Stockholm Industry Water Award recognizes impressive contributions made by businesses and industries to improve the world water situation. The honorary prize has been awarded annually since its inception in 2000 with an aim to encourage and reward improved business performance, production and...

. The city's water utility is the Phnom Penh Water Supply Authority (PPWSA). Its main water sources are the Mekong River, the Tonle Sap
Tonlé Sap
The Tonlé Sap is a combined lake and river system of major importance to Cambodia.The Tonlé Sap is the largest freshwater lake in South East Asia and is an ecological hot spot that was designated as a UNESCO biosphere in 1997....

 Lake and groundwater.

Notable people

  • Chea Sovann (born 2001), actor
  • Yim Guechse
    Yim Guechse
    Guechse Yim is an Cambodian poet and author, who lives in Germany.- Life and work:Guechse Yim went in 1971 to the GDR and studied at the Karl-Marx-Universität in Leipzig in linguistics. In 1976 he went to West-Berlin and studied library science at the FU Berlin until 1981.Guechse Yim writes in Khmer...

     (born 1946), poet and author
  • Patricia Hy-Boulais
    Patricia Hy-Boulais
    Patricia Hy-Boulais is a former tennis player. Representing Hong Kong early in her career, Hy-Boulais became a citizen of Canada in 1991...

     (born 1965), former professional tennis player
  • Vann Molyvann
    Vann Molyvann
    Vann Molyvann is a Cambodian architect. During the Sangkum Reastr Niyum regime Prince Norodom Sihanouk enacted a development policy encompassing the whole kingdom with the construction of new towns, infrastructure and architecture...

     (born 1926), architect
  • Vann Nath
    Vann Nath
    Vann Nath was a Cambodian painter, artist, writer and human rights activist who was one of a diverse group of writers from 22 countries to receive the prestigious Lillian Hellman/Hammett Award which recognizes courage in the face of political persecution which he faced during the Khmer Rouge...

     (born 1946), painter
  • Rithy Panh
    Rithy Panh
    Rithy Panh is an internationally and critically acclaimed Cambodian documentary film director and screenwriter.The French-schooled director's films focus on the aftermath of the genocidal Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia...

     (born 1964), film director
  • Sam Rainsy
    Sam Rainsy
    Sam Rainsy is a Cambodian politician.Sam Rainsy was born in Phnom Penh, son of Sam Sary, a member of Cambodia's government for a time in the 1950s. He moved to France in 1965, studied there and then worked in a variety of Parisian financial companies...

     (born 1949), politician
  • Mu Sochua
    Mu Sochua
    Mu Sochua is an elected Sam Rainsy Party opposition member of the Cambodian parliament and a mother of three children. In 2005, she received the Leadership Award in Washington, DC, from the Vital Voices Foundation, co-founded by Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton...

     (born 1954), politician
  • Norodom Ranariddh
    Norodom Ranariddh
    Prince Norodom Ranariddh is the second son of former king Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia and a half brother of the current king, Norodom Sihamoni.-Biography:...

     (born 1944), politician
  • Norodom Sihamoni
    Norodom Sihamoni
    Norodom Sihamoni is the current reigning King of Cambodia. He is the eldest son of Norodom Sihanouk and Norodom Monineath Sihanouk. Previously Cambodia's ambassador to UNESCO, he was named by a nine-member throne council to become the next king after his father Norodom Sihanouk abdicated in 2004...

     (born 1953), king of Cambodia since 2004
  • Norodom Sihanouk
    Norodom Sihanouk
    Norodom Sihanouk regular script was the King of Cambodia from 1941 to 1955 and again from 1993 until his semi-retirement and voluntary abdication on 7 October 2004 in favor of his son, the current King Norodom Sihamoni...

     (born 1922), king of Cambodia until 2004
  • Loung Ung
    Loung Ung
    Loung Ung is a Cambodian American human-rights activist, an internationally-recognized lecturer, and the national spokesperson for the Campaign for a Landmine-Free World...

     (born 1970), author

Twin towns / Sister cities

Phnom Penh is twinned with: Long Beach
Long Beach, California
Long Beach is a city situated in Los Angeles County in Southern California, on the Pacific coast of the United States. The city is the 36th-largest city in the nation and the seventh-largest in California. As of 2010, its population was 462,257...

, California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 Lowell
Lowell, Massachusetts
Lowell is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, USA. According to the 2010 census, the city's population was 106,519. It is the fourth largest city in the state. Lowell and Cambridge are the county seats of Middlesex County...

, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. It is bordered by Rhode Island and Connecticut to the south, New York to the west, and Vermont and New Hampshire to the north; at its east lies the Atlantic Ocean. As of the 2010...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 Providence
Providence, Rhode Island
Providence is the capital and most populous city of Rhode Island and was one of the first cities established in the United States. Located in Providence County, it is the third largest city in the New England region...

, Rhode Island
Rhode Island
The state of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, more commonly referred to as Rhode Island , is a state in the New England region of the United States. It is the smallest U.S. state by area...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 Savannakhet
Savannakhet
Savannakhet or Kaysone Phomvihane is a city in western Laos and the capital of the Savannakhet Province, previously known as Khanthabouli . This is the second-largest city in Laos, after Vientiane. The city is birthtown of Kaysone Phomvihane, former president of Laos, and was named after him in...

, Laos
Laos
Laos Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao, officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Burma and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south and Thailand to the west...

 Vientiane
Vientiane
-Geography:Vientiane is situated on a bend of the Mekong river, which forms the border with Thailand at this point.-Climate:Vientiane features a tropical wet and dry climate with a distinct monsoon season and a dry season. Vientiane’s dry season spans from November through March. April marks the...

, Laos
Laos
Laos Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao, officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Burma and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south and Thailand to the west...

 Mandalay
Mandalay
Mandalay is the second-largest city and the last royal capital of Burma. Located north of Yangon on the east bank of the Irrawaddy River, the city has a population of one million, and is the capital of Mandalay Region ....

, Myanmar
Myanmar
Burma , officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar , is a country in Southeast Asia. Burma is bordered by China on the northeast, Laos on the east, Thailand on the southeast, Bangladesh on the west, India on the northwest, the Bay of Bengal to the southwest, and the Andaman Sea on the south....

 Busan
Busan
Busan , formerly spelled Pusan is South Korea's second largest metropolis after Seoul, with a population of around 3.6 million. The Metropolitan area population is 4,399,515 as of 2010. It is the largest port city in South Korea and the fifth largest port in the world...

, South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

 Incheon
Incheon
The Incheon Metropolitan City is located in northwestern South Korea. The city was home to just 4,700 people when Jemulpo port was built in 1883. Today 2.76 million people live in the city, making it Korea’s third most populous city after Seoul and Busan Metropolitan City...

, South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

 Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City , formerly named Saigon is the largest city in Vietnam...

, Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

 Hanoi
Hanoi
Hanoi , is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city. Its population in 2009 was estimated at 2.6 million for urban districts, 6.5 million for the metropolitan jurisdiction. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam...

, Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

 Cần Thơ, Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

 Lam Dong, Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

 Shanghai
Shanghai
Shanghai is the largest city by population in China and the largest city proper in the world. It is one of the four province-level municipalities in the People's Republic of China, with a total population of over 23 million as of 2010...

, China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 Tianjin
Tianjin
' is a metropolis in northern China and one of the five national central cities of the People's Republic of China. It is governed as a direct-controlled municipality, one of four such designations, and is, thus, under direct administration of the central government...

, China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 Kunming, China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 Changsha, China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...


External links

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