Neruda became known as a poet while still a teenager. He wrote in a variety of styles including surrealist
poems, historical epics, overtly political manifestos, a prose autobiography, and erotically-charged love poems such as the ones in his 1924 collection Twenty Poems of Love and a Song of Despair.
Quiero hacer contigo lo que la primavera hace con los cerezos.
Me gustas cuando callas porque estás como ausente,y me oyes desde lejos, y mi voz no te toca.
Puedo escribir los versos más tristes esta noche.
Es tan corto el amor y tan largo el olvido.
Neruda became known as a poet while still a teenager. He wrote in a variety of styles including surrealist
poems, historical epics, overtly political manifestos, a prose autobiography, and erotically-charged love poems such as the ones in his 1924 collection Twenty Poems of Love and a Song of Despair. In 1971 Neruda won the Nobel Prize for Literature. Colombian
novelist Gabriel García Márquez
once called him "the greatest poet of the 20th century in any language." Neruda always wrote in green ink as it was his personal color of hope.
On July 15, 1945, at Pacaembu Stadium in São Paulo
, he read to 100,000 people in honor of Communist revolutionary leader Luís Carlos Prestes
. During his lifetime, Neruda occupied many diplomatic positions and served a stint as a senator for the Chilean Communist Party. When Conservative Chilean President González Videla
in Chile in 1948, a warrant was issued for Neruda's arrest. Friends hid him for months in a house basement in the Chilean port of Valparaíso
. Later, Neruda escaped into exile through a mountain pass near Maihue Lake
into Argentina. Years later, Neruda was a close collaborator to socialist
President Salvador Allende
. When Neruda returned to Chile after his Nobel Prize acceptance speech, Allende invited him to read at the Estadio Nacional
before 70,000 people.
Neruda was hospitalized with cancer at the time of the Chilean coup d'état led by Augusto Pinochet
. Three days after being hospitalized, Neruda died of heart failure. Already a legend in life, Neruda's death reverberated around the world. Pinochet had denied permission to transform Neruda's funeral into a public event. However, thousands of grieving Chileans disobeyed the curfew and crowded the streets.
Early yearsRicardo Eliezer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto was born on July 12, 1904 in Parral, Chile
, a city in Linares Province
in the Maule Region
, some 350 km south of Santiago
to José del Carmen Reyes Morales, a railway employee, and Rosa Basoalto, a school teacher who died two months after he was born. Neruda and his father soon moved to Temuco
, where his father married Trinidad Candia Marverde, a woman with whom he had a child nine years earlier, a boy named Rodolfo. Neruda also grew up with his half-sister Laura, one of his father's children by another woman. On September 26, 1904 the young Neruda was christened "Neftalí", his late mother's middle name. In the winter of 1914, Neruda composed his first poems.
Early careerNeruda's father opposed his son's interest in writing and literature, but Neruda received encouragement from others, including future Nobel Prize winner Gabriela Mistral
, who headed the local girls' school. On July 18, 1917, at the age of thirteen, he published his first work, an essay entitled Entusiasmo y perseverancia (Enthusiasm and Perseverance) in the local daily newspaper, La Mañana, signed Neftalí Reyes. From 1918 to mid-1920 he published numerous poems such as "Mis ojos" ("My eyes") and essays in local magazines as Neftali Reyes. In 1919, he participated in the literary contest Juegos Florales del Maule where he won third place for his poem "Comunión ideal" or "Nocturno ideal". By mid-1920, when he adopted the pseudonym of Pablo Neruda, he was a published author of poetry, prose, and journalism. The young poet wanted to find a name that would mislead his father. "Neruda" originated from the Czech poet Jan Neruda
. Years later, Pablo Neruda in recognition of the Czech poet, left a flower at the foot of his statue in Prague “Confieso que he vivido”. The first name Pablo is thought to be inspired by the French poet Paul Verlaine
In 1921, at the age of 16, Neruda moved to Santiago
to study French at the Universidad de Chile with the intention of becoming a teacher, but soon Neruda was devoting himself full time to poetry. In 1923, his first volume of verse, Crepusculario (Book of Twilights), was published, followed the next year by Veinte poemas de amor y una canción desesperada (Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair), a collection of love poems that was controversial for its eroticism, especially considering its author's young age. Both works were critically acclaimed and were translated into many languages. Over the decades, Veinte poemas would sell millions of copies and become Neruda's best-known work, though it did not go to a second edition until 1932. By the age of 20, Neruda had established an international reputation as a poet, but was facing poverty. In 1926, he published the collection Tentativa del hombre infinito (The trying of infinite man) and the novel Tentativa y su esperanza (The inhabitant and his hope).Tarn (1975) p15 In 1927, out of financial desperation, he took an honorary consulship in Rangoon
, then a part of colonial Burma
and a place of which he had never heard before.Tarn (1975) p15 Later, mired in isolation and loneliness, he worked stints in Colombo
(Java), and Singapore
. In Java he met and married his first wife, a Dutch bank employee named Maryka Antonieta Hagenaar Vogelzang. While on diplomatic service, Neruda read large amounts of poetry and experimented with many different poetic forms. He wrote the first two volumes of Residencia En La Tierra, which included many surrealistic
Spanish Civil WarAfter returning to Chile, Neruda was given diplomatic posts in Buenos Aires
and then Barcelona
, Spain.Tarn (1975) p16 He later replaced Gabriela Mistral as consul in Madrid
, where he became the center of a lively literary circle, befriending such writers as Rafael Alberti
, Federico García Lorca
, and the Peruvian poet César Vallejo
.A daughter, Malva Marina Trinidad, was born in Madrid in 1934; she was to be plagued with health problems, especially hydrocephalus
, during her short life. During this period, Neruda became slowly estranged from his wife and began a relationship with Delia del Carril, an Argentine twenty years his senior.
As Spain became engulfed in civil war, Neruda became intensely politicized for the first time. His experiences of the Spanish Civil War
and its aftermath moved him away from distinctive, privately focused work in the direction of collective obligation. Neruda became an ardent communist, and remained so for the rest of his life. The radical leftist politics of his literary friends, as well as that of del Carril, were contributing factors, but the most important catalyst was the execution of García Lorca by forces loyal to the Spanish dictator Franco
. By means of his speeches and writings, Neruda threw his support behind the Republican
side, publishing the collection España en el corazón (Spain in The Heart, 1938). Consequently, he lost his post as consul due to his political militancy. Neruda's marriage broke down and couple divorced in 1936. She moved to Monte Carlo
and then to the Netherlands with their only child, and he would never see either of them again. After leaving his wife, he lived with Delia del Carril in France.
Following the election in 1938 of President Pedro Aguirre Cerda
, whom Neruda supported, the poet was appointed special consul for Spanish emigration in Paris. There Neruda was given responsibility for what he called "the noblest mission I have ever undertaken": shipping 2,000 Spanish refugees, who had been housed by the French in squalid camps
, to Chile on an old boat called the Winnipeg
. Neruda is sometimes charged with only selecting communists for emigration while excluding others who had fought on the side of the Republic. Others deny these accusations, pointing out that Neruda chose only a few hundred of the refugees personally; the rest were selected by the Service for the Evacuation of Spanish Refugees, set up by Juan Negrín
, president of the Spanish Republican government in Exile
MexicoNeruda's next diplomatic post was as Consul General in Mexico City, where he spent the years 1940 to 1943.Tarn (1975) p17 While in Mexico, he married del Carril, and learned that his daughter Malva had died, age eight, in Nazi-occupied Netherlands from various health problems.He also became a friend of the Stalinist assassin Vittorio Vidali
After the failed 1940 assassination attempt against Leon Trotsky
, Neruda arranged a Chilean visa for the Mexican painter David Alfaro Siqueiros
who was accused of having been one of the assassination conspirators. Neruda later said he did it at the request of Mexican President Manuel Ávila Camacho
. This enabled Siqueiros, then jailed, to leave Mexico for Chile, where he stayed at Neruda's private residence. In exchange for Neruda's assistance, Siqueiros spent over a year painting a mural in a school in Chillán
. Neruda's relationship with Siqueiros attracted criticism and Neruda dismissed the allegations that his intent had been to help an assassin as "sensationalist politico-literary harassment". In Mexico, Pablo Neruda met the famous Mexican writer Octavio Paz
with whom he nearly came to blows in 1942.
Return to ChileIn 1943, following his return to Chile, Neruda made a tour of Peru, where he visited Machu Picchu
. The austere beauty of the Inca citadel later inspired Alturas de Macchu Picchu, a book-length poem in twelve parts which he completed in 1945 and which marked a growing awareness and interest in the ancient civilizations of the Americas: themes he was to explore further in Canto General
. In this work, Neruda celebrated the achievement of Machu Picchu, but also condemned the slavery which had made it possible. In the Canto XII, he called upon the dead of many centuries to be born again and to speak through him. Martín Espada
, poet and professor of creative writing at the University of Massachusetts
, has hailed the work as a masterpiece, declaring that "there is no greater political poem".
Neruda and StalinismBolstered by his experiences in the Spanish Civil War, Neruda, like many left-leaning intellectuals of his generation, came to admire the Soviet Union
of Joseph Stalin
, partly for the role it played in defeating Nazi Germany
.This is echoed in poems such as poems "Canto a Stalingrado" (1942) and "Nuevo canto de amor a Stalingrado" (1943). In 1953 Neruda was awarded the Stalin Peace Prize. On Stalin's death that same year, Neruda wrote an ode to him, as he also (during World War II
) wrote poetry in praise of Fulgencio Batista
"Saludo a Batista", ("Salute to Batista") and later to Fidel Castro
. His fervent Stalinism eventually drove a wedge between Neruda and longtime friend Octavio Paz
who commented that "Neruda became more and more Stalinist, while I became less and less enchanted with Stalin". Their differences came to a head after the 1939 Nazi-Soviet Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact when they almost came to blows in an argument over Stalin. Although Paz still considered Neruda "the greatest poet of his generation", in an essay on Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
he wrote that when he thinks of "Neruda and other famous Stalinist writers and poets, I feel the gooseflesh that I get from reading certain passages of the Inferno
. No doubt they began in good faith [...] but insensibly, commitment by commitment, they saw themselves becoming entangled in a mesh of lies, falsehoods, deceits and perjuries, until they lost their souls". Neruda called Lenin the "great genius of this century". His speech of June 5, 1946) gives a tribute to the late Soviet leader Mikhail Kalinin
, who for Neruda was "man of noble life", "the great constructor of the future", and "a comrade of arms of Lenin and Stalin".
Neruda later came to rue his support of the Soviet leader; after Nikita Khrushchev
's famous Secret Speech at the Soviet 20th Party Congress in 1956, which denounced the "cult of personality
" that surrounded Stalin and accused him of committing crimes during the Great Purges, Neruda wrote in his memoirs "I had contributed to my share to the personality cult," explaining that "in those days, Stalin seemed to us the conqueror who had crushed Hitler's armies".Feinstein (2005) p312-313 Of a subsequent visit to China in 1957, Neruda would write: "What has estranged me from the Chinese revolutionary process has not been Mao Tse-tung
but Mao Tse-tungism", which he dubbed Mao Tse-Stalinism: "the repetition of a cult of a Socialist deity". However, despite his disillusionment with Stalin, Neruda never lost his essential faith in communist theory and remained loyal to "the Party". Anxious not to give ammunition to his ideological enemies, he would later refuse publicly to condemn the Soviet repression of dissident writers like Boris Pasternak
and Joseph Brodsky
: an attitude with which even some of his staunchest admirers disagreed.
On March 4, 1945 Neruda was elected a Communist party senator
for the northern provinces of Antofagasta
in the arid and inhospitable Atacama Desert
. He officially joined the Communist Party of Chile
four months later. In 1946, Radical Party presidential candidate Gabriel González Videla
asked Neruda to act as his campaign manager. González Videla was supported by a coalition of left-wing parties and Neruda fervently campaigned on his behalf. Once in office, however, González Videla turned against the Communist Party. The breaking point for Senator Neruda was the violent repression of a Communist-led miners' strike in Lota
on October 1947, where striking workers were herded into island military prisons and a concentration camp in the town of Pisagua
. Neruda's criticism of González Videla culminated in a dramatic speech in the Chilean senate on January 6, 1948, which became known as "Yo acuso" ("I accuse"), in the course of which he read out the names of the miners and their families who were imprisoned at the concentration camp.
ExileA few weeks later in 1948, finding himself threatened with arrest, Neruda went into hiding and he and his wife were smuggled from house to house hidden by supporters and admirers for the next thirteen months. While in hiding, Senator Neruda was removed from office and in September 1948 the Communist Party was banned altogether under the Ley de Defensa Permanente de la Democracia (Law for the Permanent Defense of Democracy), called by critics the Ley Maldita (Accursed Law), which eliminated over 26,000 people from the electoral registers, thus stripping them of their right to vote. Neruda moved later to Valdivia
in southern Chile. From Valdivia he moved to Fundo Huishue a forestry estate in the vicinities of Huishue Lake
. Neruda's life underground ended in March 1949 when he fled over the Lilpela Pass
on the Andes Mountains to Argentina
on horseback. He would dramatically recount his escape from Chile in his Nobel Prize lecture.
Once out of Chile, he spent the next three years in exile. In Buenos Aires
, Neruda took advantage of the slight resemblance between him and his friend, the future Nobel Prize-winning novelist and cultural attaché to the Guatemalan embassy, Miguel Ángel Asturias
, to travel to Europe using Asturias's passport.Feinstein (2005) p236-7 Pablo Picasso
arranged his entrance into Paris and Neruda made a surprise appearance there to a stunned World Congress of Peace Forces, while the Chilean government denied that the poet could have escaped the country. Neruda spent those three years traveling extensively throughout Europe as well as taking trips to India, China, Sri Lanka
and the Soviet Union
. His trip to Mexico in late 1949 was lengthened due to a serious bout of phlebitis
.Feinstein (2005) p290 A Chilean singer named Matilde Urrutia
was hired to care for him and they began an affair that would, years later, culminate in marriage. During his exile, Urrutia would travel from country to country shadowing him and they would arrange meetings whenever they could. Matilde Urrutia was the muse for "Los versos del Capitán", which he later published anonymously in 1952.
While in Mexico, Neruda also published his lengthy epic poem Canto General
, a Whitmanesque
catalog of the history, geography, and flora and fauna of South America, accompanied by Neruda's observations and experiences. Many of them dealt with his time underground in Chile, which is when he composed much of the poem. In fact, he had carried the manuscript with him on his escape on horseback. A month later, a different edition of five thousand copies was boldly published in Chile by the outlawed Communist Party based on a manuscript Neruda had left behind. In Mexico, he was granted honorary Mexican citizenship.Tarn (1975) p22 Neruda's 1952 stay in a villa owned by Italian historian Edwin Cerio
on the island of Capri
was fictionalized in Antonio Skarmeta
's 1985 novel Ardiente Paciencia (Ardent Patience, later known as El cartero de Neruda, or Neruda's Postman), which inspired the popular film Il Postino
("The Postman", 1994).Feinstein (2005) p278
Return to Chile
as its candidate for the September 1952 presidential elections and was keen to have the presence of Neruda, by now Chile's most prominent left-wing literary figure, to support the campaign. Neruda returned to Chile in August of that year and rejoined Delia del Carril, who had traveled ahead of him some months earlier, but the marriage was crumbling. Del Carril eventually learned of his affair with Matilde Urrutia and he sent her back to Chile in 1955. She convinced the Chilean officials to lift his arrest allowing Urrutia and Neruda to go to Capri, Italy. Now united with Urrutia, Neruda would, aside from many foreign trips and a stint as Allende's ambassador to France from 1970 to 1973, spend the rest of his life in Chile.
By this time, Neruda enjoyed worldwide fame as a poet, and his books were being translated into virtually all the major languages of the world. He vigorously denounced the U.S. during the Cuban missile crisis
and later in the decade he would likewise repeatedly condemn the U.S. for the Vietnam War
. But being one of the most prestigious and outspoken left-wing intellectuals alive, he also attracted opposition from ideological opponents. The Congress for Cultural Freedom, an anti-communist organization covertly established and funded by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency
, adopted Neruda as one of its primary targets and launched a campaign to undermine his reputation, reviving the old claim he had been an accomplice in the attack on Trotsky in Mexico City in 1940.Feinstein (2005) p487 The campaign became more intense when it became known that Neruda was a candidate for the 1964 Nobel prize, which was eventually awarded to Jean-Paul Sartre
.Feinstein (2005) p334-5
conference in New York City.Feinstein (2005) p341-5 Officially, he was barred from entering the U.S. because he was a communist, but the conference organizer, playwright Arthur Miller
, eventually prevailed upon the Johnson
Administration to grant Neruda a visa. Neruda gave readings to packed halls, and even recorded some poems for the Library of Congress
. Miller later opined that Neruda's adherence to his communist ideals of the 1930s was a result of his protracted exclusion from "bourgeois society". Due to the presence of many Eastern Bloc
writers, Mexican writer Carlos Fuentes
later wrote that the PEN conference marked a "beginning of the end" of the Cold War
Upon Neruda's return to Chile, he stopped in Peru, where he gave readings to enthusiastic crowds in Lima and Arequipa
and was received by President Fernando Belaúnde Terry
. However, this visit also prompted an unpleasant backlash; because the Peruvian government had come out against the government of Fidel Castro
, July 1966 saw more then one hundred Cuban intellectuals retaliate against the poet by signing a letter that charged Neruda with colluding with the enemy, calling him an example of the "tepid, pro-Yankee revisionism" then prevalent in Latin America. The affair was particularly painful for Neruda because of his previous outspoken support for the Cuban revolution, and he never visited the island again, even after receiving an invitation in 1968.
After the death of Che Guevara
in 1967, Neruda wrote several articles regretting the loss of a "great hero".Feinstein (2005) p326 At the same time, he told his friend Aida Figueroa not to cry for Che, but for Luis Emilio Recabarren
, the father of the Chilean communist movement, who preached a pacifist revolution over Che's violent ways.
, who later won the election and was inaugurated in 1970 as the first democratically elected socialist head of state.Tarn (1975) p22Feinstein (2005) p367 Shortly thereafter, Allende appointed Neruda the Chilean ambassador to France, lasting from 1970–1972; his final diplomatic posting. During his stint in Paris, Neruda helped to renegotiate the external debt of Chile, billions owed to European and American banks, but within months of his arrival in Paris his health began to deteriorate. Neruda returned to Chile two and half years later due to his failing health.
In 1971, Neruda was awarded the Nobel Prize
, a decision that did not come easily because some of the committee members had not forgotten Neruda's past praise of Stalinist dictatorship. But his Swedish translator, Artur Lundkvist
, did his best to ensure the Chilean received the prize.Feinstein (2005) p333 "A poet", Neruda stated in his Stockholm speech of acceptance of the Nobel Prize, "is at the same time a force for solidarity and for solitude." The following year Neruda was awarded the prestigious Golden Wreath Award at the Struga Poetry Evenings
As the disturbances of 1973
unfolded, Neruda, then terminally ill with prostate cancer
, was devastated by the mounting attacks on the Allende government.The military coup led by General Augusto Pinochet
on September 11 saw Neruda's hopes for a Marxist
Chile destroyed. Shortly thereafter, during a search of the house and grounds at Isla Negra by Chilean armed forces at which Neruda was present, the poet famously remarked: "Look around—there's only one thing of danger for you here—poetry." Feinstein (2005) p413
Neruda died of heart failure on the evening of September 23, 1973, at Santiago's Santa María Clinic. The funeral took place amidst a massive police
presence, and mourners took advantage of the occasion to protest against the new regime, established just a couple of weeks before. Neruda's house was broken into and his papers and books taken or destroyed.
In 1974 his Memoirs appeared under the title I Confess I Have Lived, updated to the last days of the poet’s life, and including a final segment describing the death of Salvador Allende during the storming of the Moneda Palace by Pinochet and other generals – occurring only twelve days before Neruda died. Matilde Urrutia subsequently compiled and edited for publication the memoirs and possibly his final poem "Right Comrade, It's the Hour of the Garden". These and other activities brought her into conflict with Pinochet's government, which continually sought to curtail Neruda's influence on the Chilean collective consciousness. Urrutia's own memoir, My Life with Pablo Neruda, was published posthumously in 1986.
In June 2011, a Chilean judge ordered that an investigation be launched following suggestions that Neruda may have been poisoned by the Pinochet regime for his pro-Allende
stance and political views at the time of his death.
Neruda owned three houses in Chile; today they are all open to the public as museums: La Chascona in Santiago, La Sebastiana in Valparaíso
, and Casa de Isla Negra
in Isla Negra
, where he and Matilde Urrutia are buried. A bust of Neruda stands on the south side of the Organization of American States
building in Washington D.C.
BorgesDuring the late 1960s, Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges
was asked for his opinion of Pablo Neruda. After describing a brief meeting with him when both were young, Borges stated, "I think of him as a very fine poet, a very fine poet. I don't admire him as a man, I think of him as a very mean man." When asked for the reasons for this, Borges continued,
"Well, he wrote a book -- well, maybe here I'm being political -- he wrote a book about the tyrants of South America, and then he had several stanzas against the United States. Now he knows that that's rubbish. And he had not a word against Perón. Because he had a lawsuit in Buenos AiresBuenos AiresBuenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina, and the second-largest metropolitan area in South America, after São Paulo. It is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern coast of the South American continent...
, that was explained to me afterwards, and he didn't care to risk anything. And so, when he was supposed to be writing at the top of his voice, full of noble indignation, he had not a word to say against Perón. And he was married to an Argentine lady, he knew that many of his friends had been sent to jail. He knew all about the state of our country, but not a word against him. At the same time, he was speaking against the United States, knowing the whole thing was a lie, no? But, of course, that doesn't mean anything against his poetry. Neruda is a very fine poet, a great poet in fact. And when they gave Miguel de AsturiasMiguel Ángel AsturiasMiguel Ángel Asturias Rosales was a Nobel Prize–winning Guatemalan poet, novelist, playwright, journalist and diplomat...
the Nobel PrizeNobel PrizeThe Nobel Prizes are annual international awards bestowed by Scandinavian committees in recognition of cultural and scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the prizes in 1895...
, I said that it should have been given to Neruda! Now when I was in ChileChileChile ,officially the Republic of Chile , is a country in South America occupying a long, narrow coastal strip between the Andes mountains to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far...
, and we were on different political sides, I think he did the best thing to do. He went on a holiday during the three or four days I was there so there was no occasion for our meeting. But I think he was acting politely, no? Because he knew that people would be playing him up against me, no? I mean, I was an Argentine, poet, he was a Chilean poet, he's on the side of the Communists, I'm against them. So I felt he was behaving very wisely in avoiding a meeting that would have been quite uncomfortable for both of us."
- Greek composer Mikis TheodorakisMikis TheodorakisMikis Theodorakis is one of the most renowned Greek songwriters and composers. Internationally, he is probably best known for his songs and for his scores for the films Zorba the Greek , Z , and Serpico .Politically, he identified with the left until the late 1980s; in 1989, he ran as an...
set to music the famous Canto General.
- Austrian avantgarde composer Michael GielenMichael Gielen-Professional career:Gielen was born in Dresden, Germany, to opera director Josef Gielen. Through his mother, Rose, he is the nephew of Eduard Steuermann and Salka Steuermann Viertel. He began his career as a pianist in Buenos Aires, where he studied with Erwin Leuchter and gave an early...
set to music Un Día Sobresale (Ein Tag Tritt Hervor. Pentaphonie für obligates Klavier, fünf Soloinstrumente und fünf Gruppen zu je fünf Musikern mit Worten von Pablo Neruda. 1960-3).
- Mexican composer Daniel CatánDaniel CatánDaniel Catán was a Mexican composer of Russian Sephardic Jewish descent known particularly for his operas and his creative friendship with the tenor Plácido Domingo.-Career:...
wrote an opera Il Postino (2010), whose premiere production featured Spanish tenor Plácido DomingoPlácido DomingoPlácido Domingo KBE , born José Plácido Domingo Embil, is a Spanish tenor and conductor known for his versatile and strong voice, possessing a ringing and dramatic tone throughout its range...
portraying Pablo Neruda.
- Folk rock / progressive rock group Los JaivasLos JaivasLos Jaivas are a Chilean musical group who perform in folk, rock, and progressive rock styles.-History:Los Jaivas appeared in Chilean music in 1963 as a progressive-rock-andino group, mixing rock with South American ancestral music...
, famous in Chile, used Las Alturas de Macchu Picchu as the text for their album of the same name.
- Peter LiebersonPeter LiebersonPeter Lieberson was an American composer. He was ballerina and choreographer Vera Zorina and Goddard Lieberson, president of Columbia Records....
composed Neruda Songs (2005) and Songs of Love and Sorrow (2010) based on Cien Sonetos de AmorCien Sonetos de Amoris a collection of sonnets written by the Chilean poet and Nobel Laureate Pablo Neruda originally published in Argentina in 1959. Dedicated to his beloved wife , Matilde Urrutia, it is divided into the four stages of the day: morning, afternoon, evening, and night.The sonnets have been translated...
- Jazz vocalist Luciana SouzaLuciana SouzaLuciana Souza is a Brazilian jazz singer and composer who has crossed over into classical music.Daughter of poet Tereza Souza and singer-composer-guitarist Walter Santos, she grew up in São Paulo. She is a graduate of the Berklee College of Music in Boston from which she received a Bachelor's...
released an album called "Neruda" (2004) featuring 10 of Neruda's poems set to the music of Federico MompouFederico MompouFrederic Mompou i Dencausse was a Catalan Spanish composer and pianist. He is best known for his solo piano music and his songs.-Life:...
- The South African musician Johnny Clegg drew heavily on Neruda in his early work with the band JulukaJulukaJuluka was a South African music band formed in 1969 by Johnny Clegg and Sipho Mchunu. Juluka means "sweat", and was the name of a bull owned by Mchunu.-Career:...
- On the back on Jackson BrowneJackson BrowneJackson Browne is an American singer-songwriter and musician who has sold over 17 million albums in the United States alone....
's album The PretenderThe Pretender (album)The Pretender is the fourth album by American singer/songwriter Jackson Browne, released in 1976 . It peaked at #5 on Billboard's album chart. The singles from the album were "Here Come Those Tears Again" which reached number 23 and "The Pretender" which peaked at number 58...
, there is a poem by Neruda
- Canadian rock group Red Rider named their 1983 LP/CD release, Neruda.
- Pop band Sixpence None the RicherSixpence None the RicherSixpence None the Richer is an American rock/pop band that formed in New Braunfels, Texas, eventually settling in Nashville, Tennessee. They are best known for their songs "Kiss Me" and "Breathe Your Name" and their covers of "Don't Dream It's Over" and "There She Goes". The name of the band is...
set his poem "Puedo Escribir" to music on their platinum selling self-titled album (1997).
- The group "Brazilian Girls" turned "Poema 15" ("Poem 15") from Veinte poemas de amor y una canción desesperada (20 love poems and a song of despair) into their song "Me Gusta Cuando Callas" from their self-titled album.
- With permission from the Fundación Neruda, Marco KatzMarco KatzMarco Katz plays trombone and arranges and composes music for Band, Brass quintet, and other musical ensembles. Reviewer Adam Gaines writes, "Katz's compositions are a real highlight of the disc...
composed a song cycle based on the volume Piedras del cielo for voice and piano.
- The Occitan singer Joanda composed the song Pablo Neruda
- American contemporary composer Morten Lauridsen set Neruda's poem "Soneto de la Noche" to music as part of his cycle "Nocturnes" from 2005.
- Juan Luis GuerraJuan Luis GuerraJuan Luis Guerra is a singer, songwriter and producer from the Dominican Republic who has sold over 30 million records, and won numerous awards including 12 Latin Grammy Awards, two Grammy Awards, and two Latin Billboard Music Awards...
credits Neruda for two phrases for his song, "Bachata Rosa".
- Neruda's 1952 stay in a villa on the island of CapriCapriCapri is an Italian island in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Sorrentine Peninsula, on the south side of the Gulf of Naples, in the Campania region of Southern Italy...
was fictionalized in Chilean author Antonio SkarmetaAntonio SkármetaAntonio Skármeta is a Chilean writer, born November 7, 1940 in Antofagasta, Chile. He was born to Croatian immigrants from the Adriatic island of Brač, region of Dalmatia....
's 1985 novel Ardiente Paciencia (published as Burning Patience, later known as El cartero de Neruda, or Neruda's Postman).
- In 2008 the writer Roberto AmpueroRoberto AmpueroRoberto Ampuero is a Chilean author, columnist, and a university professor. His first novel ¿Quién mató a Kristián Kustermann? was published in 1993 and in it he introduced his private eye, Cayetano Brulé, winning the Revista del Libro prize of El Mercurio. Since then the detective has appeared...
published a novel El caso Neruda, about his private eye Cayetano Brulé, where Pablo Neruda is one of the protagonists.
- The Dreamer (2010) is a children's fictional biography of Neruda, "a shy Chilean boy whose spirit develops and thrives despite his father's relentless negativity". Written by Pam Muñoz RyanPam Muñoz RyanPam Muñoz Ryan is a Mexican-American author.Muñoz Ryan began writing when she was encouraged by a professor while in graduate school. "It took me a number or years to make that leap of faith," she states when commenting on becoming a full-time writer...
and illustrated by Peter SísPeter SisPeter Sís is an award-winning children's book writer and illustrator. Sís attended the Academy of Applied Arts in Prague and the Royal College of Art in London...
, the text and illustrations are printed in Neruda's signature green ink.
- The Italian film Il PostinoIl PostinoIl Postino is a 1994 Italian film directed by Michael Radford. The film was originally released in the U.S. as The Postman, a straight translation of the Italian title...
, inspired by Antonio SkármetaAntonio SkármetaAntonio Skármeta is a Chilean writer, born November 7, 1940 in Antofagasta, Chile. He was born to Croatian immigrants from the Adriatic island of Brač, region of Dalmatia....
's 1985 novel Ardiente Paciencia (Ardent Patience, later known as El cartero de Neruda, or Neruda's Postman), centres on the story of Pablo Neruda (Philippe NoiretPhilippe NoiretPhilippe Noiret was a French film actor.-Biography:Noiret's father was in the clothes trade. Philippe was an indifferent scholar and attended several prestigious Paris schools, including the Lycée Janson de Sailly. He failed several times to pass his baccalauréat exams, so he decided to study...
) living in exile on Salina IslandSalina IslandSalina is an island in the Aeolian Islands north of Sicily, southern Italy. It is the second largest island in the archipelago.Salina is divided between three comuni: Santa Marina on the eastern coast, Malfa to the north, and Leni to the south-west. From Leni down towards the sea are the villages...
near SicilySicilySicily is a region of Italy, and is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. Along with the surrounding minor islands, it constitutes an autonomous region of Italy, the Regione Autonoma Siciliana Sicily has a rich and unique culture, especially with regard to the arts, music, literature,...
during the 1950s. While there, he befriends the local postman and inspires in him a love of poetry.
- Pablo Neruda: The Poet's Calling is a documentary film about Neruda's life, times, and poetry, directed by Mexican director Carlos BoladoCarlos BoladoCarlos Bolado is a Mexican filmmaker.He studied cinematography and sociology both in the same university, the UNAM. He has worked as a soundman and editor on several films. After making several short films, he ventured into the genre of film features with the film Baja California: The Limit of Time...
and Mark Eisner.}
- Neruda is a 120 min documentary about his life and poetry including interviews with his friends like Volodia TeitelboimVolodia TeitelboimVolodia Valentín Teitelboim Volosky was a Chilean lawyer, politician and author.Born in Chillán to Jewish immigrants , Teitelboim was interested in literature from an early age...
, Jose Balmes, Jorge EdwardsJorge EdwardsJorge Edwards Valdés is a Chilean novelist, journalist and diplomat. He is currently the Chilean ambassador to France.-Life and career:...
, Andrej Wosnessenski, Mikis TheodorakisMikis TheodorakisMikis Theodorakis is one of the most renowned Greek songwriters and composers. Internationally, he is probably best known for his songs and for his scores for the films Zorba the Greek , Z , and Serpico .Politically, he identified with the left until the late 1980s; in 1989, he ran as an...
. This film was directed by the German filmmaker Ebbo Demant and broadcast 2004 in the European culture TV channel ARTE and the German public-service broadcaster ARDARDArd, ARD, Ards or ARDS may refer to:Ard:*Ard or scratch-plough, a type of plough consisting of a simple spike dragged through the soil*Ard, alternate name of Arad, Iran, a city in Fars Province...
- Perales Contreras, Jaime "Paz and Neruda: A Clash of Literary Titans", Americas Magazine, (Organization of American States). July 2008.
- Feinstein, Adam Pablo Neruda: A Passion for Life, Bloomsbury, 2004. ISBN 1-58234-410-8
- Neruda, Pablo. Memoirs (translation of Confieso que he vivido: Memorias), translated by Hardie St. Martin, Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1977. (1991 edition is ISBN 0-374-20660-0)
- Tarn, Nathaniel, Ed (1975) Pablo Neruda: Selected Poems Penguin.
- Burgin, RichardRichard BurginFor the American writer, see Richard Burgin Richard Burgin was a Polish-American violinist, best known as associate conductor and the concertmaster of the Boston Symphony Orchestra .-Early life:...
(1968) Conversations with Jorge Luis Borges, Holt, Rhinehart, & Winston
- Consuelo HernándezConsuelo HernándezConsuelo Hernández is a Colombian /U.S. poet, scholar, literary critic and Associate Professor of Latin American studies at American University since 1995....
.“El Antiorientalismo en Pablo Neruda;” Voces y perspectivas en la poesia latinoamericanana del siglo XX. Madrid: Visor 2009.
- Pablo Neruda, Selected Poems ed. Ilan Stavans 2003
- Translating Neruda: The Way to Macchu Picchu John Felstiner 1980
- Pablo Neruda. Durán, Manuel., 1981
- Pablo Neruda: all poets the poet . Bizzarro, Salvatore., 1979
- The poetry of Pablo Neruda. Costa, René de., 1979
- Pablo Neruda: Memoirs (Confieso que he vivido: Memorias) / tr. St. Martin, Hardie., 1977
- The Essential Neruda / ed. Mark Eisner, intro by Lawrence Ferlinghetti (City Lights), 2004 Americas Magazine, Jaime Perales Contreras
Books of English translations of Neruda
- World's End (Copper Canyon PressCopper Canyon PressCopper Canyon Press is an independent, non-profit small press, specializing in the publication of poetry and located in the picturesque town of Port Townsend, Washington. Since 1972, the Press has published poetry exclusively and has established an international reputation for its commitment to...
, 2009) (translated by William O'Daly)
- The Hands of the Day (Copper Canyon Press, 2008) (translated by William O'Daly)
- The Book of Questions (Copper Canyon Press, 1991, 2001) (translated by William O'Daly)
- The Yellow Heart (Copper Canyon Press, 1990, 2002) (translated by William O'Daly)
- Stones of the Sky (Copper Canyon Press, 1990, 2002) (translated by William O'Daly)
- The Sea and the Bells (Copper Canyon Press, 1988, 2002) (translated by William O'Daly)
- Winter Garden (Copper Canyon Press, 1987, 2002) (translated by James Nolan)
- The Separate Rose (Copper Canyon Press, 1985) (translated by William O'Daly)
- Still Another Day (Copper Canyon Press, 1984, 2005) (translated by William O'Daly)
- On the Blue Shore of Silence: Poems of the Sea (Rayo Harper Collins, 2004) (translated by Alastair ReidAlastair ReidAlastair Reid is a poet and a scholar of South American literature from Galloway in Scotland. He is known for his lighthearted style of poems and for his translations of South American poets Jorge Luis Borges and Pablo Neruda. Although he is famous for translations, his own poems are gaining note...
, epilogue Antonio SkármetaAntonio SkármetaAntonio Skármeta is a Chilean writer, born November 7, 1940 in Antofagasta, Chile. He was born to Croatian immigrants from the Adriatic island of Brač, region of Dalmatia....
- Intimacies: Poems of Love (Harper Collins, 2008) (translated by Alastair ReidAlastair ReidAlastair Reid is a poet and a scholar of South American literature from Galloway in Scotland. He is known for his lighthearted style of poems and for his translations of South American poets Jorge Luis Borges and Pablo Neruda. Although he is famous for translations, his own poems are gaining note...
- The Essential Neruda: Selected Poems (City Lights, 2004) (translated by Robert HassRobert HassRobert L. Hass is an American poet. He served as Poet Laureate of the United States from 1995 to 1997. He was awarded the 2007 National Book Award and the 2008 Pulitzer Prize for Time and Materials.-Life:...
, Jack Hirschman, Mark Eisner, Forrest Gander, Stephen Mitchell, Stephen Kessler, and John Felstiner. Preface by Lawrence FerlinghettiLawrence FerlinghettiLawrence Ferlinghetti is an American poet, painter, liberal activist, and the co-founder of City Lights Booksellers & Publishers...
- Profile at the Poetry Foundation
- Profile at Poets.org with poems and articles
- Profile at Emory University
- Nobel Biography
- "Celebrating Chilean Poet Pablo Neruda", Amy Goodman of Democracy Now! interviews Martín EspadaMartín EspadaMartín Espada is a Latino poet, and professor at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, where he teaches poetry. Puerto Rico has frequently been featured as a theme in his poems.- Life and career :Espada was born in Brooklyn, New York...
, poet and professor at the University of Massachusetts AmherstUniversity of Massachusetts AmherstThe University of Massachusetts Amherst is a public research and land-grant university in Amherst, Massachusetts, United States and the flagship of the University of Massachusetts system...
- NPR Morning Edition on Neruda's Centennial 12 July 2004 (audio 4 mins) "Pablo Neruda's 'Poems of the Sea'" 5 April 2004 (Audio, 8 mins)
- "The ecstasist: Pablo Neruda and his passions." The New Yorker. 8 September 2003
- "Neruda, Chilean Poet-Politician, Wins Nobel Prize in Literature" New York Times 22 October 1971 and "Songs of himself" New York Times, Robert Bly 23 May 1982
- "Neruda's Chile". Daily Telegraph 18 September 2010