Orange juice
Overview
 
Orange juice is a popular beverage made from orange
Orange (fruit)
An orange—specifically, the sweet orange—is the citrus Citrus × sinensis and its fruit. It is the most commonly grown tree fruit in the world....

s. It is made by extraction from the fresh fruit, by desiccation and subsequent reconstitution of dried juice, or by concentration
Concentrate
A concentrate is a form of substance which has had the majority of its base component removed. Typically this will be the removal of water from a solution or suspension such as the removal of water from fruit juice...

 of the juice and the subsequent addition of water to the concentrate. The term "orange juice" or "OJ" is also used, both colloquially and commercially, to refer to all of these forms.
Citrus juices contain flavonoid
Flavonoid
Flavonoids , are a class of plant secondary metabolites....

s (especially in the pulp
Juice vesicles
The juice vesicles of a citrus fruit are the membranous content of the fruit’s endocarp. The vesicles contain the juice of the fruit. The pulp is usually removed from the juice by filtering it out...

), that may have health benefits.
Encyclopedia
Orange juice is a popular beverage made from orange
Orange (fruit)
An orange—specifically, the sweet orange—is the citrus Citrus × sinensis and its fruit. It is the most commonly grown tree fruit in the world....

s. It is made by extraction from the fresh fruit, by desiccation and subsequent reconstitution of dried juice, or by concentration
Concentrate
A concentrate is a form of substance which has had the majority of its base component removed. Typically this will be the removal of water from a solution or suspension such as the removal of water from fruit juice...

 of the juice and the subsequent addition of water to the concentrate. The term "orange juice" or "OJ" is also used, both colloquially and commercially, to refer to all of these forms.

Health

Citrus juices contain flavonoid
Flavonoid
Flavonoids , are a class of plant secondary metabolites....

s (especially in the pulp
Juice vesicles
The juice vesicles of a citrus fruit are the membranous content of the fruit’s endocarp. The vesicles contain the juice of the fruit. The pulp is usually removed from the juice by filtering it out...

), that may have health benefits. Orange juice is also a source of the antioxidant
Antioxidant
An antioxidant is a molecule capable of inhibiting the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that transfers electrons or hydrogen from a substance to an oxidizing agent. Oxidation reactions can produce free radicals. In turn, these radicals can start chain reactions. When...

 Hesperidin
Hesperidin
Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found abundantly in citrus fruits. Its aglycone form is called hesperetin. Its name is derived from the Hesperides nymphs of Greek mythology. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense. It acts as an antioxidant according to in vitro studies...

. Due its citric acid
Citric acid
Citric acid is a weak organic acid. It is a natural preservative/conservative and is also used to add an acidic, or sour, taste to foods and soft drinks...

 content, orange juice is acidic, with a typical pH
PH
In chemistry, pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. Pure water is said to be neutral, with a pH close to 7.0 at . Solutions with a pH less than 7 are said to be acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic or alkaline...

 of around 3.5.

Frozen concentrated orange juice

Squeezed orange juice is pasteurized
Pasteurization
Pasteurization is a process of heating a food, usually liquid, to a specific temperature for a definite length of time, and then cooling it immediately. This process slows microbial growth in food...

 and filtered before being evaporated under vacuum and heat. After removal of most of the water, this concentrated juice, about 65% sugar by weight, is then stored at about 10 °F (-12.2 °C). Essences and oils extracted during the vacuum concentration process may be added back to restore flavor.

Cans of frozen concentrate are later diluted by addition of filtered water bringing the sugar fraction down to 42%, about three times the concentration of fresh juice. When water is added to freshly thawed concentrated orange juice, it is said to be reconstituted.

Most of the orange juice sold today throughout the world is reconstituted juice. Frozen orange juice concentrate is a common drink in the United States.

Not from concentrate

Orange juice that is pasteurized after having first been concentrated is labeled as "not from concentrate". Just like "from concentrate" processing, most "not from concentrate" processing destroys the juice's natural flavor. The largest producers of "not from concentrate" use a production process where the juice is placed in aseptic storage
Aseptic processing
Aseptic processing is the process by which a sterile product is packaged in a sterile container in a way that maintains sterility...

, with the oxygen stripped from it, for up to a year. A flavor pack is added in the final step to give the juice flavor.

Canned orange juice

A small fraction of fresh orange juice is canned
Canning
Canning is a method of preserving food in which the food contents are processed and sealed in an airtight container. Canning provides a typical shelf life ranging from one to five years, although under specific circumstances a freeze-dried canned product, such as canned, dried lentils, can last as...

. Canned orange juice retains Vitamin C
Vitamin C
Vitamin C or L-ascorbic acid or L-ascorbate is an essential nutrient for humans and certain other animal species. In living organisms ascorbate acts as an antioxidant by protecting the body against oxidative stress...

 much better than bottled juice..

Orange juice is a popular beverage made from orange
Orange (fruit)
An orange—specifically, the sweet orange—is the citrus Citrus × sinensis and its fruit. It is the most commonly grown tree fruit in the world....

s. It is made by extraction from the fresh fruit, by desiccation and subsequent reconstitution of dried juice, or by concentration
Concentrate
A concentrate is a form of substance which has had the majority of its base component removed. Typically this will be the removal of water from a solution or suspension such as the removal of water from fruit juice...

 of the juice and the subsequent addition of water to the concentrate. The term "orange juice" or "OJ" is also used, both colloquially and commercially, to refer to all of these forms.

Health

Citrus juices contain flavonoid
Flavonoid
Flavonoids , are a class of plant secondary metabolites....

s (especially in the pulp
Juice vesicles
The juice vesicles of a citrus fruit are the membranous content of the fruit’s endocarp. The vesicles contain the juice of the fruit. The pulp is usually removed from the juice by filtering it out...

), that may have health benefits. Orange juice is also a source of the antioxidant
Antioxidant
An antioxidant is a molecule capable of inhibiting the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that transfers electrons or hydrogen from a substance to an oxidizing agent. Oxidation reactions can produce free radicals. In turn, these radicals can start chain reactions. When...

 Hesperidin
Hesperidin
Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found abundantly in citrus fruits. Its aglycone form is called hesperetin. Its name is derived from the Hesperides nymphs of Greek mythology. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense. It acts as an antioxidant according to in vitro studies...

. Due its citric acid
Citric acid
Citric acid is a weak organic acid. It is a natural preservative/conservative and is also used to add an acidic, or sour, taste to foods and soft drinks...

 content, orange juice is acidic, with a typical pH
PH
In chemistry, pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. Pure water is said to be neutral, with a pH close to 7.0 at . Solutions with a pH less than 7 are said to be acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic or alkaline...

 of around 3.5.

Frozen concentrated orange juice

Squeezed orange juice is pasteurized
Pasteurization
Pasteurization is a process of heating a food, usually liquid, to a specific temperature for a definite length of time, and then cooling it immediately. This process slows microbial growth in food...

 and filtered before being evaporated under vacuum and heat. After removal of most of the water, this concentrated juice, about 65% sugar by weight, is then stored at about 10 °F (-12.2 °C). Essences and oils extracted during the vacuum concentration process may be added back to restore flavor.

Cans of frozen concentrate are later diluted by addition of filtered water bringing the sugar fraction down to 42%, about three times the concentration of fresh juice. When water is added to freshly thawed concentrated orange juice, it is said to be reconstituted.To prevent off-flavor, distilled or reverse osmosis
Reverse osmosis
Reverse osmosis is a membrane technical filtration method that removes many types of large molecules and ions from solutions by applying pressure to the solution when it is on one side of a selective membrane. The result is that the solute is retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and...

 filtered water should be used when reconstituting frozen juice, devoid of minerals, chlorine, etc.


Most of the orange juice sold today throughout the world is reconstituted juice. Frozen orange juice concentrate is a common drink in the United States.

Not from concentrate

Orange juice that is pasteurized after having first been concentrated is labeled as "not from concentrate". Just like "from concentrate" processing, most "not from concentrate" processing destroys the juice's natural flavor. The largest producers of "not from concentrate" use a production process where the juice is placed in aseptic storage
Aseptic processing
Aseptic processing is the process by which a sterile product is packaged in a sterile container in a way that maintains sterility...

, with the oxygen stripped from it, for up to a year. A flavor pack is added in the final step to give the juice flavor.

Canned orange juice

A small fraction of fresh orange juice is canned
Canning
Canning is a method of preserving food in which the food contents are processed and sealed in an airtight container. Canning provides a typical shelf life ranging from one to five years, although under specific circumstances a freeze-dried canned product, such as canned, dried lentils, can last as...

. Canned orange juice retains Vitamin C
Vitamin C
Vitamin C or L-ascorbic acid or L-ascorbate is an essential nutrient for humans and certain other animal species. In living organisms ascorbate acts as an antioxidant by protecting the body against oxidative stress...

 much better than bottled juice..

Orange juice is a popular beverage made from orange
Orange (fruit)
An orange—specifically, the sweet orange—is the citrus Citrus × sinensis and its fruit. It is the most commonly grown tree fruit in the world....

s. It is made by extraction from the fresh fruit, by desiccation and subsequent reconstitution of dried juice, or by concentration
Concentrate
A concentrate is a form of substance which has had the majority of its base component removed. Typically this will be the removal of water from a solution or suspension such as the removal of water from fruit juice...

 of the juice and the subsequent addition of water to the concentrate. The term "orange juice" or "OJ" is also used, both colloquially and commercially, to refer to all of these forms.

Health

Citrus juices contain flavonoid
Flavonoid
Flavonoids , are a class of plant secondary metabolites....

s (especially in the pulp
Juice vesicles
The juice vesicles of a citrus fruit are the membranous content of the fruit’s endocarp. The vesicles contain the juice of the fruit. The pulp is usually removed from the juice by filtering it out...

), that may have health benefits. Orange juice is also a source of the antioxidant
Antioxidant
An antioxidant is a molecule capable of inhibiting the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that transfers electrons or hydrogen from a substance to an oxidizing agent. Oxidation reactions can produce free radicals. In turn, these radicals can start chain reactions. When...

 Hesperidin
Hesperidin
Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found abundantly in citrus fruits. Its aglycone form is called hesperetin. Its name is derived from the Hesperides nymphs of Greek mythology. Hesperidin is believed to play a role in plant defense. It acts as an antioxidant according to in vitro studies...

. Due its citric acid
Citric acid
Citric acid is a weak organic acid. It is a natural preservative/conservative and is also used to add an acidic, or sour, taste to foods and soft drinks...

 content, orange juice is acidic, with a typical pH
PH
In chemistry, pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. Pure water is said to be neutral, with a pH close to 7.0 at . Solutions with a pH less than 7 are said to be acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic or alkaline...

 of around 3.5.

Frozen concentrated orange juice

Squeezed orange juice is pasteurized
Pasteurization
Pasteurization is a process of heating a food, usually liquid, to a specific temperature for a definite length of time, and then cooling it immediately. This process slows microbial growth in food...

 and filtered before being evaporated under vacuum and heat. After removal of most of the water, this concentrated juice, about 65% sugar by weight, is then stored at about 10 °F (-12.2 °C). Essences and oils extracted during the vacuum concentration process may be added back to restore flavor.

Cans of frozen concentrate are later diluted by addition of filtered water bringing the sugar fraction down to 42%, about three times the concentration of fresh juice. When water is added to freshly thawed concentrated orange juice, it is said to be reconstituted.To prevent off-flavor, distilled or reverse osmosis
Reverse osmosis
Reverse osmosis is a membrane technical filtration method that removes many types of large molecules and ions from solutions by applying pressure to the solution when it is on one side of a selective membrane. The result is that the solute is retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and...

 filtered water should be used when reconstituting frozen juice, devoid of minerals, chlorine, etc.


Most of the orange juice sold today throughout the world is reconstituted juice. Frozen orange juice concentrate is a common drink in the United States.

Not from concentrate

Orange juice that is pasteurized after having first been concentrated is labeled as "not from concentrate". Just like "from concentrate" processing, most "not from concentrate" processing destroys the juice's natural flavor. The largest producers of "not from concentrate" use a production process where the juice is placed in aseptic storage
Aseptic processing
Aseptic processing is the process by which a sterile product is packaged in a sterile container in a way that maintains sterility...

, with the oxygen stripped from it, for up to a year. A flavor pack is added in the final step to give the juice flavor.

Canned orange juice

A small fraction of fresh orange juice is canned
Canning
Canning is a method of preserving food in which the food contents are processed and sealed in an airtight container. Canning provides a typical shelf life ranging from one to five years, although under specific circumstances a freeze-dried canned product, such as canned, dried lentils, can last as...

. Canned orange juice retains Vitamin C
Vitamin C
Vitamin C or L-ascorbic acid or L-ascorbate is an essential nutrient for humans and certain other animal species. In living organisms ascorbate acts as an antioxidant by protecting the body against oxidative stress...

 much better than bottled juice..http://books.google.com/books?id=g_5IAAAAYAAJ&dq=editions:LCCNsa65001040&lr= However, the canned product loses flavor when stored at room temperature for over 12 weeks.Yiu H. Hu, József Barta Handbook of Fruits and Fruit Processing. Blackwell Publishing, 2006. p. 327.

Major orange juice brands

In the US, the major orange juice brand is Tropicana Products
Tropicana Products
Tropicana Products is an American based company, and was founded in 1947 by Anthony T. Rossi in Bradenton, Florida, U.S.A. Since 1998, it has been owned by PepsiCo, Inc. Tropicana's headquarters are in Chicago, Illinois.-Anthony T. Rossi:...

 (owned by PepsiCo Inc.
PepsiCo
PepsiCo Inc. is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Purchase, New York, United States, with interests in the manufacturing, marketing and distribution of grain-based snack foods, beverages, and other products. PepsiCo was formed in 1965 with the merger of the Pepsi-Cola Company...

), which possesses nearly 65% of the market share. Tropicana also has a large presence in Latin America, Europe and Central Asia. Competing products include Minute Maid
Minute Maid
Minute Maid is a product line of beverages, usually associated with lemonade or orange juice, but now extends to soft drinks of many kinds, including Hi-C...

 (of The Coca-Cola Company
Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola is a carbonated soft drink sold in stores, restaurants, and vending machines in more than 200 countries. It is produced by The Coca-Cola Company of Atlanta, Georgia, and is often referred to simply as Coke...

) and Florida's Natural (a Florida-based agricultural cooperative that differentiates itself from the competition by using only Florida grown oranges; Tropicana and Simply Orange
Simply Orange
The Simply Orange Juice Company is an Apopka, Florida-based company that was founded in 2001 and is currently a brand of The Coca-Cola Company. They make a number of not-from-concentrate orange and other fruit juices that are sold chilled in a distinctly shaped plastic bottle...

 use a mix of domestic and foreign stock).
In Australia, Daily Juice (owned by National Foods
National Foods
National Foods is an Australian company and subsidiary of holding company Lion Nathan National Foods , wholly owned by the Japanese Kirin Holdings Company Limited, and consequently the Mitsubishi Group....

) is a major brand of partially fresh partially preservedStatement from National Foods orange juice. The Original Juice Co. (owned by Golden Circle) produced a fresh no-concentrate (with no preservatives) form of juice marketed as part of their 'Black Label' range of juice products. Both these products, along with other brands, are sold in the refrigerated section of supermarkets throughout Australia.

Additives

Some producers add citric acid
Citric acid
Citric acid is a weak organic acid. It is a natural preservative/conservative and is also used to add an acidic, or sour, taste to foods and soft drinks...

 or ascorbic acid
Ascorbic acid
Ascorbic acid is a naturally occurring organic compound with antioxidant properties. It is a white solid, but impure samples can appear yellowish. It dissolves well in water to give mildly acidic solutions. Ascorbic acid is one form of vitamin C. The name is derived from a- and scorbutus , the...

 to juice beyond what is naturally found in the orange. Some also include other nutrients such as calcium
Calcium
Calcium is the chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It has an atomic mass of 40.078 amu. Calcium is a soft gray alkaline earth metal, and is the fifth-most-abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust...

 and Vitamin D
Vitamin D
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids. In humans, vitamin D is unique both because it functions as a prohormone and because the body can synthesize it when sun exposure is adequate ....

, not found naturally in oranges. Low-acid varieties of orange juice are also available. Omega-3 fatty acid
Omega-3 fatty acid
N−3 fatty acids are essential unsaturated fatty acids with a double bond starting after the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain....

s are sometimes added to orange juice from fish oils.New York Times Article on Orange Juice Additives

Color

Orange juice usually varies between shades of orange and yellow, though some ruby red or blood orange varieties are a reddish-orange or even pinkish. This is due to different pigmentation in ruby red oranges. The name 'orange juice' is thus given to the drink because of the name of the fruit it is made from, rather than the actual color of the juice.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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