Ophthalmology
Overview
 
Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine
Medicine
Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness....

 that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye. An ophthalmologist is a specialist in medical and surgical eye problems. Since ophthalmologists perform operations on eyes, they are considered to be both surgical
Surgery
Surgery is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance.An act of performing surgery may be called a surgical...

 and medical
Medicine
Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness....

 specialists.

The word ophthalmology comes from the Greek
Greek language
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

 roots ophthalmos meaning eye and logos meaning word, thought, or discourse; ophthalmology literally means "the science of eyes".
Encyclopedia
Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine
Medicine
Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness....

 that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye. An ophthalmologist is a specialist in medical and surgical eye problems. Since ophthalmologists perform operations on eyes, they are considered to be both surgical
Surgery
Surgery is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance.An act of performing surgery may be called a surgical...

 and medical
Medicine
Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness....

 specialists.

The word ophthalmology comes from the Greek
Greek language
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

 roots ophthalmos meaning eye and logos meaning word, thought, or discourse; ophthalmology literally means "the science of eyes". As a discipline, it applies to animal eyes also, since the differences from human practice are surprisingly minor and are related mainly to differences in anatomy or prevalence, not differences in disease processes. However, veterinary medicine is regulated separately in many countries and states/provinces resulting in few ophthalmologists treating both humans and animals.

Sushruta

Sushruta wrote Sushruta Samhita
Sushruta Samhita
The Sushruta Samhita is a Sanskrit text, attributed to one Sushruta, foundational to Ayurvedic medicine , with innovative chapters on surgery....

in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

 in about 800 BC which describes 76 ocular diseases (of these 51 surgical) as well as several ophthalmological surgical instruments and techniques. His description of cataract surgery was more akin to extracapsular lens extraction than to couching. The Indian surgeon Sushruta has been described as the first cataract surgeon.

Pre-Hippocrates

The pre-Hippocratics
Hippocrates
Hippocrates of Cos or Hippokrates of Kos was an ancient Greek physician of the Age of Pericles , and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine...

 largely based their anatomical conceptions of the eye on speculation, rather than empiricism
Empiricism
Empiricism is a theory of knowledge that asserts that knowledge comes only or primarily via sensory experience. One of several views of epistemology, the study of human knowledge, along with rationalism, idealism and historicism, empiricism emphasizes the role of experience and evidence,...

. They recognized the sclera and transparent cornea running flushly as the outer coating of the eye, with an inner layer with pupil, and a fluid at the centre. It was believed, by Alcamaeon and others, that this fluid was the medium of vision and flowed from the eye to the brain via a tube. Aristotle
Aristotle
Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology...

 advanced such ideas with empiricism. He dissected the eyes of animals, and discovering three layers (not two), found that the fluid was of a constant consistency with the lens forming (or congealing) after death, and the surrounding layers were seen to be juxtaposed. He, and his contemporaries, further put forth the existence of three tubes leading from the eye, not one. One tube from each eye met within the skull.

Rufus

Rufus
Rufus of Ephesus
Rufus of Ephesus was an ancient Greek physician and author who wrote treatises on dietetics, pathology, anatomy, and patient care. He was to some extent a follower of Hippocrates, although he at times criticized or departed from that author's teachings...

 recognised a more modern eye, with conjunctiva
Conjunctiva
The conjunctiva covers the sclera and lines the inside of the eyelids. It is composed of rare stratified columnar epithelium.-Function:...

, extending as a fourth epithelial layer over the eye. Rufus was the first to recognise a two chambered eye; with one chamber from cornea to lens (filled with water), the other from lens to retina (filled with an egg-white-like substance). Galen
Galen
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus , better known as Galen of Pergamon , was a prominent Roman physician, surgeon and philosopher...

 remedied some mistakes including the curvature of the cornea and lens, the nature of the optic nerve, and the existence of a posterior chamber. Though this model was roughly a correct but simplistic modern model of the eye, it contained errors. Yet it was not advanced upon again until after Vesalius
Vesalius
Andreas Vesalius was a Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica . Vesalius is often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy. Vesalius is the Latinized form of Andries van Wesel...

. A ciliary body
Ciliary body
The ciliary body is the circumferential tissue inside the eye composed of the ciliary muscle and ciliary processes. It is triangular in horizontal section and is coated by a double layer, the ciliary epithelium. This epithelium produces the aqueous humor. The inner layer is transparent and covers...

 was then discovered and the sclera, retina, choroid and cornea were seen to meet at the same point. The two chambers were seen to hold the same fluid as well as the lens being attached to the choroid. Galen continued the notion of a central canal, though he dissected the optic nerve, and saw it was solid, He mistakenly counted seven optical muscles, one too many. He also knew of the tear ducts.

Middle Eastern ophthalmology

Medieval Islamic physicians are considered founders of ophthalmology as an independent discipline. One of the pioneers of ophthalmology was the Persian physician Rhazes.

Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) wrote extensively on optics and the anatomy
Anatomy
Anatomy is a branch of biology and medicine that is the consideration of the structure of living things. It is a general term that includes human anatomy, animal anatomy , and plant anatomy...

 of the eye in his Book of Optics
Book of Optics
The Book of Optics ; ; Latin: De Aspectibus or Opticae Thesaurus: Alhazeni Arabis; Italian: Deli Aspecti) is a seven-volume treatise on optics and other fields of study composed by the medieval Muslim scholar Alhazen .-See also:* Science in medieval Islam...

(1021). He was the first to hint at the retina
Retina
The vertebrate retina is a light-sensitive tissue lining the inner surface of the eye. The optics of the eye create an image of the visual world on the retina, which serves much the same function as the film in a camera. Light striking the retina initiates a cascade of chemical and electrical...

 being involved in the process of image
Image
An image is an artifact, for example a two-dimensional picture, that has a similar appearance to some subject—usually a physical object or a person.-Characteristics:...

 formation.

Ibn al-Nafis, in The Polished Book on Experimental Ophthalmology, discovered that the muscle
Muscle
Muscle is a contractile tissue of animals and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. Muscle cells contain contractile filaments that move past each other and change the size of the cell. They are classified as skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscles. Their function is to...

 behind the eyeball does not support the ophthalmic nerve
Ophthalmic nerve
The ophthalmic nerve is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, the fifth cranial nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries only sensory fibers.-Branches:*Nasociliary nerve**sensory root of ciliary ganglion**posterior ethmoidal nerve...

, and that the optic nerve
Optic nerve
The optic nerve, also called cranial nerve 2, transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. Derived from the embryonic retinal ganglion cell, a diverticulum located in the diencephalon, the optic nerve doesn't regenerate after transection.-Anatomy:The optic nerve is the second of...

s transect
Transect
A transect is a path along which one records and counts occurrences of the phenomena of study .It requires an observer to move along a fixed path and to count occurrences along the path and, at the same time, obtain the distance of the object from the path...

 but do not get in touch with each other. He also discovered new treatments for glaucoma
Glaucoma
Glaucoma is an eye disorder in which the optic nerve suffers damage, permanently damaging vision in the affected eye and progressing to complete blindness if untreated. It is often, but not always, associated with increased pressure of the fluid in the eye...

 and the weakness of vision
Visual system
The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which enables organisms to process visual detail, as well as enabling several non-image forming photoresponse functions. It interprets information from visible light to build a representation of the surrounding world...

 in one eye when the other eye is affected by disease
Disease
A disease is an abnormal condition affecting the body of an organism. It is often construed to be a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs. It may be caused by external factors, such as infectious disease, or it may be caused by internal dysfunctions, such as autoimmune...

. Salah–ud-din bin Youssef al-Kalal bi Hama (i.e. the eye doctor of Hama) was a Syrian oculist who flourished in Hama in 1296. He wrote an elaborate treatise of ophthalmology entitled Nur al-Uyun wa Jami al-Funun (light of the eyes and collection of rules).

Seventeenth and eighteenth centuries

The seventeenth and eighteenth century saw the use of hand lenses (by Malpighi), microscope
Microscope
A microscope is an instrument used to see objects that are too small for the naked eye. The science of investigating small objects using such an instrument is called microscopy...

s (van Leeuwenhoek), preparations for fixing the eye for study (Ruysch
Frederik Ruysch
Frederik Ruysch was a Dutch botanist and anatomist, remembered for his developments in anatomical preservation and the creation of dioramas or scenes incorporating human parts...

) and later the freezing of the eye (Petit
François Pourfour du Petit
François Pourfour du Petit was a French anatomist, ophthalmologist and surgeon who was a native of Paris. He studied medicine at the University of Montpellier, and afterwards studied surgery at the Hôpital de la Charité in Paris...

). This allowed for detailed study of the eye and an advanced model. Some mistakes persisted such as: why the pupil changed size (seen to be vessels of the iris filling with blood), the existence of the posterior chamber, and of course the nature of the retina. In 1722 Leeuwenhoek noted the existence of rods and cones though they were not properly discovered until Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus
Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus
Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus was a German naturalist. He was a proponent of the theory of the transmutation of species, a theory of evolution held by some biologists prior to the work of Charles Darwin...

 in 1834 by use of a microscope.

Ophthalmic surgery in Great Britain

The first ophthalmic surgeon in Great Britain was John Freke
John Freke
John Freke was an English surgeon. Together with Percival Pott he was instrumental in separating the profession of surgeon from that of barber.Freke was the son of a rural minister from Ockford Fitzpaine, Dorset...

, appointed to the position by the Governors of St Bartholomew's Hospital
St Bartholomew's Hospital
St Bartholomew's Hospital, also known as Barts, is a hospital in Smithfield in the City of London, England.-Early history:It was founded in 1123 by Raherus or Rahere , a favourite courtier of King Henry I...

 in 1727, but the establishment of the first dedicated ophthalmic hospital in 1805; now called Moorfields Eye Hospital
Moorfields Eye Hospital
Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust is an NHS eye hospital located in London, United Kingdom. It is the oldest and largest eye hospital in the world and is internationally renowned for its comprehensive clinical and research activities...

 in London, England was a transforming event in modern ophthalmology. Clinical developments at Moorfields and the founding of the Institute of Ophthalmology (now part of the University College London
University College London
University College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and the oldest and largest constituent college of the federal University of London...

) by Sir Stewart Duke Elder
Stewart Duke-Elder
Sir William Stewart Duke-Elder, GCVO, DSc, LLD, MD, PhD, FRCP, FRCS, FRS , a Scottish ophthalmologist born in Tealing near Dundee, was a dominant force in his field for more than a quarter of a century...

 established the site as the largest eye hospital in the world and a nexus for ophthalmic research.

Professional requirements

Ophthalmologists are medical doctors (MD/MBBS
Doctor of Medicine
Doctor of Medicine is a doctoral degree for physicians. The degree is granted by medical schools...

 or D.O., not OD or BOptom) who have completed a college degree, medical school
Medical school
A medical school is a tertiary educational institution—or part of such an institution—that teaches medicine. Degree programs offered at medical schools often include Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, Bachelor/Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Philosophy, master's degree, or other post-secondary...

, and residency in ophthalmology. In many countries, ophthalmologists also undergo additional specialized training in one of the many subspecialities. Ophthalmology was the first branch of medicine to offer board certification, now a standard practice among all specialties.

Australia and New Zealand

In Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

 and New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

, the FRACO/FRANZCO is the equivalent postgraduate specialist qualification. It is a very competitive speciality to enter training and has a closely monitored and structured training system in place over the five years of postgraduate training. Overseas-trained ophthalmologists are assessed using the pathway published on the RANZCO website. Those who have completed their formal training in the UK and have the CCST/CCT are usually deemed to be comparable.

Canada

In Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, an ophthalmology residency after medical school is undertaken. The residency lasts a minimum of five years after the MD degree although subspecialty training is undertaken by about 30% of fellows (FRCSC). There are about 30 vacancies per year for ophthalmology training in all of Canada.

Finland

In Finland
Finland
Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden in the west, Norway in the north and Russia in the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.Around 5.4 million people reside...

, physicians willing to become ophthalmologists must undergo a five year specialization which includes practical training and theoretical studies.

India

In India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, after completing MBBS degree, post-graduation in ophthalmology is required. The degrees are Doctor of Medicine (MD), Master of Surgery (MS), Diploma in Ophthalmic Medicine and Surgery (DOMS) or Diplomate of National Board (DNB). The concurrent training and work experience is in the form of a junior residency at a medical college, eye hospital or institution under the supervision of experienced faculty. Further work experience in form of fellowship, registrar or senior resident refines the skills of these eye surgeons. All India Ophthalmological Society (AIOS) and various state level ophthalmological societies (like DOS) hold regular conferences and actively promote continuing medical education. Royal colleges of the United Kingdom, mainly Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (RCSEd), Royal College of Ophthalmologists (RCOphth) and Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow (RCPSG) have conducted their fellowship and membership examinations since the mid-1990s and awarding fellowships and memberships to the successful candidates.

Pakistan

In Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

, after MBBS, a 4 year full time residency programme leads to an exit level FCPS examinations in Ophthalmology, held under the auspices of College of Physicians & Surgeons, Pakistan. The tough examination is assessed by both highly qualified Pakistani & eminent International Ophthalmic Consultants. As a prerequisite to the final examinations, an Intermediate Module, Optics & Refraction Module; and a Dissertation writing on a research carried out under supervision is also assessed.
Moreover, a two and a half years residency programme leads to MCPS while a 2 years training of DOMS is also being offered. For candidates in the Military, a stern 2 years Grading course, with quarterly assessments, is held under Armed Forces Post Graduate Medical Institute. Rawalpindi.
M.S.(Ophthalmology) is also one of the specialty programmes. In addition to programmes for doctors, various diplomas and degrees for opticians are also being offered to produce competent optic technicians in this field. These programmes are being offered notably by Punjab Institute of Preventive Ophthalmology (PIPO) Lahore and Pakistan Institute of Community Ophthalmology in Peshawar. Sub-specialty fellowships are also being offered in the fields of pediatric ophthalmology and vitreo-retinal ophthalmology.
In Pakistan King Edward Medical university has launched degree program in this field.

Philippines

Ophthalmology is a considered a medical specialty that uses medicine and surgery to treat diseases of the eye. To become a general ophthalmologist, a candidate must have completed a Doctor of Medicine degree or its equivalent (e.g. MBBS), have passed the physician licensure exam, completed an internship in medicine, and completed residency at any Philippine Academy of Ophthalmology (PAO) accredited program. Attainment of board certification in ophthalmology from PBO is optional, but is preferred and required to gain privileges in most major health institutions. Graduates of residency programs can receive further training in subspecialties of ophthalmology such as neuro-ophthalmology, etc. by completing a fellowship program which varies in length depending on each program's requirements. The leading professional organization in the country is the Philippine Academy of Ophthalmology which also regulates ophthalmology residency programs and board certification through its accrediting agency, the Philippine Board of Ophthalmology.

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, there are three colleges that grant postgraduate degrees in ophthalmology. The Royal College of Ophthalmologists (RCOphth) grants MRCOphth and FRCOphth (postgraduate exams), the Royal College of Edinburgh grants MRCSEd, the Royal College of Glasgow grants FRCS. Postgraduate work as a specialist registrar
Specialist registrar
A Specialist Registrar or SpR is a doctor in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland who is receiving advanced training in a specialist field of medicine in order eventually to become a consultant...

 and one of these degrees is required for specialisation in eye diseases. Such clinical work is within the NHS.
There are only 2.3 ophthalmologists per 100,000 population in the UK – fewer pro rata than in any other nation in the European Union (Source http://www.uems.net)

Republic of Ireland

In Ireland
Ireland
Ireland is an island to the northwest of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth...

 the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland grants FRCSI.
Postgraduate work as a specialist registrar
Specialist registrar
A Specialist Registrar or SpR is a doctor in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland who is receiving advanced training in a specialist field of medicine in order eventually to become a consultant...

 and one of these degrees is required.
Clinical work for study is within Health Service Executive (HSE) in Ireland.

United States

In the United States
Medical education in the United States
Medical education in the United States includes educational activities involved in the education and training of medical doctors in the United States, from entry-level training through to continuing education of qualified specialists....

, four years of residency training after medical school are required, with the first year being an internship in surgery, internal medicine, pediatrics, or a general transition year. Optional fellowships in advanced topics may be pursued for several years after residency. Most currently practicing ophthalmologists train in medical residency programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education
Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education is the body responsible for the accreditation for graduate medical training programs for medical doctors in the United States. It is a non-profit private council that evaluates and accredits medical residency and internship programs...

 (ACGME) and are board-certified by the American Board of Ophthalmology
American Board of Ophthalmology
The American Board of Ophthalmology is an independent, non-profit organization responsible for certifying ophthalmologists in the United States of America. Founded in 1916, the ABO was the first American Board established to certify medical specialists.The ABO is the founding member of the...

. Some physicians that train in osteopathic medical schools may hold a Doctor of Osteopathy ("DO
Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine
Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine is a professional doctoral degree for physicians in the United States. Holders of the MD degree, Doctor of Medicine, have the same rights, privileges and responsibilities as osteopathic physicians in the United States.The American Osteopathic Association’s Commission...

") degree rather than an MD
Doctor of Medicine
Doctor of Medicine is a doctoral degree for physicians. The degree is granted by medical schools...

. The same residency and certification requirements for ophthalmology training must be fulfilled by osteopathic physicians. Completing the requirements of continuing medical education is mandatory for continuing licensure and re-certification. Professional bodies like the AAO
American Academy of Ophthalmology
The American Academy of Ophthalmology is the largest national membership medical association of ophthalmologists–medical doctors specializing in eye care and surgery including medical, surgical and optical care. More than 90 percent of practicing U.S. Eye M.D.s are Academy members, and the...

 and ASCRS: The American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Eye surgery
Eye surgery, also known as orogolomistician surgery or ocular surgery, is surgery performed on the eye or its adnexa, typically by an ophthalmologist.-Preparation and precautions:...

 organize conferences and help members through continuing medical education
Continuing medical education
Continuing medical education refers to a specific form of continuing education that helps those in the medical field maintain competence and learn about new and developing areas of their field. These activities may take place as live events, written publications, online programs, audio, video, or...

 programs to maintain certification, in addition to political advocacy and peer support.

Sub-specialities

Ophthalmology includes sub-specialities which deal either with certain diseases or diseases of certain parts of the eye. Some of them are:
  • Anterior segment
    Anterior segment
    The anterior segment is the front third of the eye that includes the structures in front of the vitreous humour: the cornea, iris, ciliary body, and lens.Within the anterior segment are two fluid-filled spaces:...

     surgery
  • Cataract
    Cataract
    A cataract is a clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its envelope, varying in degree from slight to complete opacity and obstructing the passage of light...

     — not usually considered a subspecialty per se, since most general ophthalmologists perform cataract surgery
  • Cornea
    Cornea
    The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber. Together with the lens, the cornea refracts light, with the cornea accounting for approximately two-thirds of the eye's total optical power. In humans, the refractive power of the cornea is...

    , ocular surface, and external disease
  • Glaucoma
    Glaucoma
    Glaucoma is an eye disorder in which the optic nerve suffers damage, permanently damaging vision in the affected eye and progressing to complete blindness if untreated. It is often, but not always, associated with increased pressure of the fluid in the eye...

  • Medical retina
    Retina
    The vertebrate retina is a light-sensitive tissue lining the inner surface of the eye. The optics of the eye create an image of the visual world on the retina, which serves much the same function as the film in a camera. Light striking the retina initiates a cascade of chemical and electrical...

    , deals with treatment of retinal problems through non-surgical means.
  • Neuro-ophthalmology
    Neuro-ophthalmology
    Neuro-ophthalmology is the subspecialty of both neurology and ophthalmology concerning visual problems that are related to the nervous system ....

  • Ocular oncology
    Ocular oncology
    Ocular oncology is the branch of medicine dealing with tumors relating to the eye and its adnexa. Eye cancer can affect all parts of the eye.-Origin and location:...

  • Oculoplastics
    Oculoplastics
    Oculoplastics, or oculoplastic surgery, includes a wide variety of surgical procedures that deal with the orbit , eyelids, tear ducts, and the face...

     & Orbit surgery
  • Ophthalmic pathology
    Ophthalmic pathology
    Ophthalmic pathology is the subspecialty of surgical pathology and also a subspecialty ophthalmology of which deals with the diagnosis and characterization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the eyes. Ophthalmic pathologists generally work closely with ophthalmologists....

  • Pediatric ophthalmology
    Pediatric ophthalmology
    Pediatric ophthalmology is a sub-speciality of ophthalmology concerned with eye diseases, visual development, and vision care in children.-Training:...

    /Strabismus
    Strabismus
    Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other. It typically involves a lack of coordination between the extraocular muscles, which prevents bringing the gaze of each eye to the same point in space and preventing proper binocular vision, which may adversely...

     (mis-alignment of the eyes)
  • Refractive surgery
    Refractive surgery
    Refractive eye surgery is any eye surgery used to improve the refractive state of the eye and decrease or eliminate dependency on glasses or contact lenses. This can include various methods of surgical remodeling of the cornea or cataract surgery. The most common methods today use excimer lasers to...

  • Uveitis
    Uveitis
    Uveitis specifically refers to inflammation of the middle layer of the eye, termed the "uvea" but in common usage may refer to any inflammatory process involving the interior of the eye....

    /Immunology
    Immunology
    Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. It deals with the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and diseases; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders ; the...

  • Veterinary Formal specialty training programs in veterinary ophthalmology now exist in some countries.
  • Vitreo-retinal surgery, deals with surgical management of retinal and posterior segment diseases and disorders. Medical retina and vitreo-retinal surgery sometimes together called posterior segment
    Posterior segment
    The posterior segment is the back two-thirds of the eye that includes the anterior hyaloid membrane and all of the optical structures behind it: the vitreous humor, retina, choroid, and optic nerve....

     subspecialisation.

Ophthalmic surgery

18th–19th centuries

  • Sir William Adams
    William Adams (oculist)
    Sir William Adams also known as Sir William Rawson after 1825. He was born at Morwenstow in Cornwall. He was well known as an ophthalmic surgeon and was founder of Exeter's West of England Eye Infirmary. John Nash had built the Ophthalmic Hospital for him on Albany Street, London...

     (UK) Founder of Exeter
    Exeter
    Exeter is a historic city in Devon, England. It lies within the ceremonial county of Devon, of which it is the county town as well as the home of Devon County Council. Currently the administrative area has the status of a non-metropolitan district, and is therefore under the administration of the...

    's West of England
    England
    England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

     Eye Infirmary.
  • Carl Ferdinand von Arlt
    Carl Ferdinand von Arlt
    Carl Ferdinand Ritter von Arlt was an Austrian ophthalmologist who was born in Ober-Graupen, a village near Teplitz in Bohemia. He earned his doctorate in Prague in 1839, and later became a professor of ophthalmology in Prague and Vienna...

     (1812–1887), the elder (Austrian) proved that myopia is largely due to an excessive axial length, published influential textbooks on eye disease, and ran annual eye clinics in needy areas long before the concept of volunteer eye camps became popular. His name is still attached to some disease signs, e.g., von Arlt's line in trachoma. His son Ferdinand Ritter von Arlt, the younger, was also an ophthalmologist.
  • Jacques Daviel
    Jacques Daviel
    Jacques Daviel was a French ophthalmologist credited with originating the first significant advance in cataract surgery since couching was invented in ancient India...

     (France) claimed to be the 'father' of modern cataract
    Cataract
    A cataract is a clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its envelope, varying in degree from slight to complete opacity and obstructing the passage of light...

     surgery in that he performed extracapsular extraction instead of needling the cataract or pushing it back into the vitreous. It is said that he carried out the technique on 206 patients in 1752–3, out of which 182 were reported to be successful. These figures are not very credible, given the total lack of both anaesthesia and aseptic technique at that time.
  • Frans Cornelis Donders (1818–1889) (Dutch) published pioneering analyses of ocular biomechanics, intraocular pressure, glaucoma, and physiological optics. Made possible the prescribing of combinations of spherical and cylindrical lenses to treat astigmatism.
  • Albrecht von Graefe (1828–1870) (Germany) Along with Helmholtz and Donders, one of the 'founding fathers' of ophthalmology as a specialty. A brilliant clinician and charismatic teacher who had an international influence on the development of ophthalmology. A pioneer in mapping visual field defects and diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma. Introduced a cataract extraction technique that remained the standard for over 100 years, and many other important surgical techniques such as iridectomy. Rationalised the use of many ophthalmically important drugs, including mydriatics & miotics. The founder of one of the earliest ophthalmic societies (German Ophthalmological Society, 1857) and one of the earliest ophthalmic journals (Graefe's Archives of Ophthalmology). The most important ophthalmologist of the nineteenth century.
  • Allvar Gullstrand
    Allvar Gullstrand
    Allvar Gullstrand was a Swedish ophthalmologist.Born at Landskrona, Sweden, Gullstrand was professor successively of eye therapy and of optics at the University of Uppsala. He applied the methods of physical mathematics to the study of optical images and of the refraction of light in the eye...

     (Sweden), Nobel Prize
    Nobel Prize
    The Nobel Prizes are annual international awards bestowed by Scandinavian committees in recognition of cultural and scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the prizes in 1895...

     winner in 1911 for his research on the eye as a light-refracting apparatus. Described the schematic eye a mathematical model of the human eye
    Human eye
    The human eye is an organ which reacts to light for several purposes. As a conscious sense organ, the eye allows vision. Rod and cone cells in the retina allow conscious light perception and vision including color differentiation and the perception of depth...

     based on his measurements known as the optical constants of the eye. His measurements are still used today.
  • Hermann von Helmholtz
    Hermann von Helmholtz
    Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions to several widely varied areas of modern science...

    , great German polymath, invented the ophthalmoscope (1851) and published important work on physiological optics, including colour vision (1850s).
  • Socrate Polara
    Polara family
    Polara is a noble family from Modica, a town in the Province of Ragusa, Sicily, Italy. In 1639 Giambattista Polara was Maestro Giurato of the County and in 1640 his brother Vincenzo was General Administrator. In 1691 Antonino Polara Tomasi Rosso,grandson of Vincenzo, was the first Barone of Baucino...

     (1800-1860) (Italy), founded the first dedicated opthalmology clinic in Sicily in 1829 entirely as a philanthropic endeavor; later appointed as the first director of the opthalmology department at the Grand Hospital of Palermo, Sicily (Italy) in 1831 after the Sicilian government became convinced of the importance of state support for the specialization.
  • Hermann Snellen
    Hermann Snellen
    Herman Snellen was a Dutch ophthalmologist who introduced the Snellen chart to study visual acuity . He took over directorship of the Netherlands Hospital for Eye Patients after Dr...

     (Netherlands) introduced the Snellen chart
    Snellen chart
    A Snellen chart is an eye chart used by eye care professionals and others to measure visual acuity. Snellen charts are named after the Dutch ophthalmologist Herman Snellen who developed the chart during 1862...

     to study visual acuity
    Visual acuity
    Visual acuity is acuteness or clearness of vision, which is dependent on the sharpness of the retinal focus within the eye and the sensitivity of the interpretative faculty of the brain....

    .
  • Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (United Kingdom). English writer, primarily of the Sherlock Holmes stories. Trained in but apparently never practiced Ophthalmology.
  • Jose Rizal
    José Rizal
    José Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda , was a Filipino polymath, patriot and the most prominent advocate for reform in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial era. He is regarded as the foremost Filipino patriot and is listed as one of the national heroes of the Philippines by...

     (Philippines). The Philippines' national hero was an ophthalmologist. One of his works was an operation of his mother's both eyes for removal of a cataract.

20th–21st centuries

  • William Horatio Bates (1860–1931) (United States) Creator of the unorthodox Bates Method
    Bates Method
    The Bates method is an alternative therapy aimed at improving eyesight. Eye-care physician William Horatio Bates attributed nearly all sight problems to habitual strain of the eyes, and felt that glasses were harmful and never necessary...

    , credited for being the founder of the Natural Vision Improvement movement.
  • Vladimir Petrovich Filatov
    Volodymyr Filatov
    Vladimir Petrovich Filatov was a Russian ophthalmologist and surgeon best known for his development of tissue therapy. He introduced the tube flap grafting method, corneal transplantation and preservation of grafts from cadaver eyes. He founded The Filatov Institute of Eye Diseases & Tissue...

     (1875–1956) (Ukraine) His contributions to the medical world include the tube flap grafting method, corneal transplantation and preservation of grafts from cadaver eyes and tissue therapy. He founded The Filatov Institute of Eye Diseases & Tissue Therapy
    The Filatov Institute of Eye Diseases & Tissue Therapy
    The Filatov Institute of Eye Diseases & Tissue Therapy is a large ophthalmology clinic at Frantsuzsky Boulevard 49/51 in Odessa, Ukraine. It was founded in 1936 by Vladimir Petrovich Filatov....

    , Odessa, one of the leading eye care institutes in the world.
  • Ignacio Barraquer
    Ignacio Barraquer
    Ignacio Barraquer was a Spanish ophthalmologist known for his contributions to the advancement of cataract surgery. Barraquer was born in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain...

     (1884–1965) (Spain) In 1917, invented the first motorized vacuum instrument (erisophake) for intracapsular cataract
    Cataract
    A cataract is a clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its envelope, varying in degree from slight to complete opacity and obstructing the passage of light...

     extraction. Founded of the Barraquer Clinic in 1941 and the Barraquer Institute in 1947 in Barcelona, Spain.
  • Tsutomu Sato (Japan) Pioneer in incisional refractive surgery, including techniques for astigmatism and the invention of radial keratotomy
    Radial keratotomy
    Radial keratotomy is a refractive surgical procedure to correct myopia.- Discovery :The procedure was discovered by Svyatoslav Fyodorov who removed glass from the eye of one of his patients who had been in an accident. A boy, who wore eyeglasses, fell off his bicycle and his glasses shattered on...

     for myopia.
  • Jules Gonin
    Jules Gonin
    Jules Gonin was a Professor of Ophthalmology in Lausanne who pioneered the procedure of ignipuncture, the first successful surgery for the treatment of retinal detachments.-External links:** at www.ascrs.org...

     (1870–1935) (Switzerland) "Father of retinal detachment surgery".
  • Sir Harold Ridley
    Harold Ridley (ophthalmologist)
    Sir Nicholas Harold Lloyd Ridley was an English ophthalmologist who pioneered artificial intraocular lens transplant surgery for cataract patients.-Early years:...

     (United Kingdom) In 1949, may have been the first to successfully implant an artificial intraocular lens after observing that plastic fragments in the eyes of wartime pilots were well tolerated. He fought for decades against strong reactionary opinions to have the concept accepted as feasible and useful.
  • Charles Schepens
    Charles Schepens
    Charles L. Schepens was an influential Belgian ophthalmologist, regarded by many in the profession as "the father of modern retinal surgery", and member of the French Resistance....

     (Belgium) "Father of modern retinal surgery". Developer of the Schepens indirect binocular ophthalmoscope whilst at Moorfields Eye Hospital. Founder of the Schepens Eye Research Institute in Boston
    Boston
    Boston is the capital of and largest city in Massachusetts, and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. The largest city in New England, Boston is regarded as the unofficial "Capital of New England" for its economic and cultural impact on the entire New England region. The city proper had...

    , Massachusetts
    Massachusetts
    The Commonwealth of Massachusetts is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. It is bordered by Rhode Island and Connecticut to the south, New York to the west, and Vermont and New Hampshire to the north; at its east lies the Atlantic Ocean. As of the 2010...

    . This premier research institute is associated with Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary.
  • Marshall M. Parks
    Marshall M. Parks
    Marshall Miller Parks was an American ophthalmologist known to many as "the father of pediatric ophthalmology".-Early life:...

     "Father of pediatric ophthalmology".
  • José Ignacio Barraquer (1916–1998) (Spain) "Father of modern refractive surgery". In the 1960s, developed lamellar techniques including keratomileusis
    Keratomileusis
    Keratomileusis is the surgical improvement of the refractive state of the cornea performed by lifting up the front surface of the eye by forming a thin hinged flap under which the shape of the cornea is changed by using an excimer laser or other surgical device, and was developed by José Ignacio...

     and keratophakia, as well as the first microkeratome
    Microkeratome
    A microkeratome is a precision surgical instrument with an oscillating blade designed for creating the corneal flap in LASIK or ALK surgery. The normal human cornea varies from around 500 to 600 micrometres in thickness; and in the LASIK procedure, the microkeratome creates a 83 to 200 micrometre...

     and corneal microlathe.
  • Tadeusz Krwawicz
    Tadeusz Krwawicz
    Tadeusz Krwawicz was a Polish pioneer in medicine....

     (Poland) In 1961, developed the first cryoprobe for intracapsular cataract
    Cataract
    A cataract is a clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its envelope, varying in degree from slight to complete opacity and obstructing the passage of light...

     extraction.
  • Svyatoslav Fyodorov
    Svyatoslav Fyodorov
    Svyatoslav Nikolayevich Fyodorov was a Russian ophthalmologist, eye microsurgeon, professor, full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Russian Academy of Medical Sciences and politician...

     (Russia) Popularizer of radial keratotomy
    Radial keratotomy
    Radial keratotomy is a refractive surgical procedure to correct myopia.- Discovery :The procedure was discovered by Svyatoslav Fyodorov who removed glass from the eye of one of his patients who had been in an accident. A boy, who wore eyeglasses, fell off his bicycle and his glasses shattered on...

    .
  • Charles Kelman
    Charles Kelman
    Charles D. Kelman was an ophthalmologist and a pioneer in cataract surgery.Kelman was born in Brooklyn, New York to David and Eva Kelman. He grew up in Queens where he attended Forest Hills High School. After graduation, he attended Boston's Tufts University, where he earned a B.S...

     (United States) Developed the ultrasound and mechanized irrigation and aspiration system for phacoemulsification
    Phacoemulsification
    Phacoemulsification refers to modern cataract surgery in which the eye's internal lens is emulsified with an ultrasonic handpiece and aspirated from the eye...

    , first allowing cataract extraction through a small incision.
  • Ioannis Pallikaris
    Ioannis Pallikaris
    Ioannis G. Pallikaris is a Greek ophthalmologist who in 1989 performed the first LASIK procedure on a human eye. Pallikaris also developed Epi-LASIK....

     (Greece) Performed the first laser-assisted intrastromal keratomileusis
    Keratomileusis
    Keratomileusis is the surgical improvement of the refractive state of the cornea performed by lifting up the front surface of the eye by forming a thin hinged flap under which the shape of the cornea is changed by using an excimer laser or other surgical device, and was developed by José Ignacio...

     or LASIK
    LASIK
    LASIK or Lasik , commonly referred to simply as laser eye surgery, is a type of refractive surgery for correcting myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism...

     surgery.
  • Fred Hollows
    Fred Hollows
    Frederick "Fred" Cossom Hollows, AC was an ophthalmologist who became known for his work in restoring eyesight for countless thousands of people in Australia and many other countries...

     (New Zealand/Australia) Pioneered programs in Nepal
    Nepal
    Nepal , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India...

    , Eritrea
    Eritrea
    Eritrea , officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa. Eritrea derives it's name from the Greek word Erethria, meaning 'red land'. The capital is Asmara. It is bordered by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south, and Djibouti in the southeast...

    , and Vietnam
    Vietnam
    Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

    , and among Australian aborigines, including the establishment of cheap laboratory production of intraocular lenses in Nepal and Eritrea.
  • Ian Constable
    Ian Constable
    Ian Jeffrey Constable AO is an Australian ophthalmologist and the founder and director of the Lions Eye Institute in Perth, Western Australia. He is also the Foundation Lions Professor of Ophthalmology at the University of Western Australia, and the Foundation Director of UWA’s Centre for...

     (Australia) Founded the Lions Eye Institute
    Lions Eye Institute
    The Lions Eye Institute in Perth, Western Australia, is the largest eye research institute in the southern hemisphere. It is a limited liability company, with not-for-profit and tax-exempt gift recipient status, overseen by a Board of Directors...

     in Perth
    Perth, Western Australia
    Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia and the fourth most populous city in Australia. The Perth metropolitan area has an estimated population of almost 1,700,000....

    , Western Australia
    Western Australia
    Western Australia is a state of Australia, occupying the entire western third of the Australian continent. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Great Australian Bight and Indian Ocean to the south, the Northern Territory to the north-east and South Australia to the south-east...

    , the largest eye research institute in the southern hemisphere and home to ten ophthalmologists.
  • Rand Paul
    Rand Paul
    Randal Howard "Rand" Paul is the junior United States Senator for Kentucky. He is a member of the Republican Party. A member of the Tea Party movement, he describes himself as a "constitutional conservative" and a libertarian...

     (United States) is a current member of The United States Senate from Kentucky
    Kentucky
    The Commonwealth of Kentucky is a state located in the East Central United States of America. As classified by the United States Census Bureau, Kentucky is a Southern state, more specifically in the East South Central region. Kentucky is one of four U.S. states constituted as a commonwealth...

    . His father is U.S. Representative Ron Paul
    Ron Paul
    Ronald Ernest "Ron" Paul is an American physician, author and United States Congressman who is seeking to be the Republican Party candidate in the 2012 presidential election. Paul represents Texas's 14th congressional district, which covers an area south and southwest of Houston that includes...

    .
  • L. L. Zamenhof
    L. L. Zamenhof
    Ludwig Lazarus Zamenhof December 15, 1859 – April 14, 1917) was the inventor of Esperanto, the most successful constructed language designed for international communication.-Cultural background:...

     (Poland) Creator of the Esperanto
    Esperanto
    is the most widely spoken constructed international auxiliary language. Its name derives from Doktoro Esperanto , the pseudonym under which L. L. Zamenhof published the first book detailing Esperanto, the Unua Libro, in 1887...

     language.
  • Bashar al-Assad
    Bashar al-Assad
    Bashar al-Assad is the President of Syria and Regional Secretary of the Ba'ath Party. His father Hafez al-Assad ruled Syria for 29 years until his death in 2000. Al-Assad was elected in 2000, re-elected in 2007, unopposed each time.- Early Life :...

     (Syria) The President of Syria. He did his ophthalmology residency in a hospital in London.
  • Syed Modasser Ali
    Syed Modasser Ali
    Syed Modasser Ali FRCS, FRCOpth is an ophthalmic surgeon from Bangladesh and a former Executive Board member of the World Health Organisation. He is the founder of Mojibunnessa Eye Hospital, the first registered eye hospital in Bangladesh...

     (Bangladesh) An ophthalmic surgeon who used to be the Director-General of Health Services for the government of Bangladesh
    Bangladesh
    Bangladesh , officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south...

    . He wrote the first book on community ophthalmology (public eye health
    Public health
    Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals" . It is concerned with threats to health based on population health...

    ).

See also

  • Book of the Ten Treatises of the Eye
    Book of the Ten Treatises of the Eye
    Hunayn ibn Ishaq's Book of the Ten Treatises of the Eye is a 9th-century theory of vision based upon the cosmological natures of pathways from the brain to the object being perceived. This ophthalmic composition is heavily derived from Galen's De placitis Hippocratis at Platonis and De usu...

    (book)
  • Eye care professional
    Eye care professional
    An eye care professional is an individual who provides a service related to the eyes or vision. It is a general term that can refer to any healthcare worker involved in eye care, from one with a small amount of post-secondary training to practitioners with a doctoral level of education.-Current...

  • Eye disease
  • Eye examination
    Eye examination
    An eye examination is a battery of tests performed by an ophthalmologist, optometrist, or orthoptist assessing vision and ability to focus on and discern objects, as well as other tests and examinations pertaining to the eyes....

  • Eye surgery
    Eye surgery
    Eye surgery, also known as orogolomistician surgery or ocular surgery, is surgery performed on the eye or its adnexa, typically by an ophthalmologist.-Preparation and precautions:...

  • History of eye colors
  • Ophthalmology in medieval Islam
    Ophthalmology in medieval Islam
    Ophthalmology was one of the foremost branches in medieval Islamic medicine. The oculist or kahhal , a somewhat despised professional in Galen’s time, was an honored member of the medical profession by the Abbasid period, occupying a unique place in royal households...

  • Optics
    Optics
    Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behavior and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it. Optics usually describes the behavior of visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light...

  • Optometry
    Optometry
    Optometry is a health care profession concerned with eyes and related structures, as well as vision, visual systems, and vision information processing in humans. Optometrists, or Doctors of Optometry, are state licensed medical professionals trained to prescribe and fit lenses to improve vision,...

  • Orthoptics
  • Pediatric ophthalmology
    Pediatric ophthalmology
    Pediatric ophthalmology is a sub-speciality of ophthalmology concerned with eye diseases, visual development, and vision care in children.-Training:...

  • Prentice position
    Prentice position
    The Prentice position is an orientation of a prism, used in optics and ophthalmology. In this position, the prism is oriented such that light enters it at an angle of 90° to the first surface, so that the beam does not refract at that surface...

  • Bates method
    Bates Method
    The Bates method is an alternative therapy aimed at improving eyesight. Eye-care physician William Horatio Bates attributed nearly all sight problems to habitual strain of the eyes, and felt that glasses were harmful and never necessary...


External links

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