Operation Phantom Fury
Overview
The Second Battle of Fallujah (code-named Operation Al-Fajr (Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

, "the dawn") and Operation Phantom Fury) was a joint U.S., Iraqi, and British offensive in November and December 2004, considered the highest point of conflict in Fallujah during the Iraq War. It was led by the U.S. Marine Corps
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the United States Navy to deliver combined-arms task forces rapidly. It is one of seven uniformed services of the United States...

 against the Iraqi insurgency
Iraqi insurgency
The Iraqi Resistance is composed of a diverse mix of militias, foreign fighters, all-Iraqi units or mixtures opposing the United States-led multinational force in Iraq and the post-2003 Iraqi government...

 stronghold in the city of Fallujah
Fallujah
Fallujah is a city in the Iraqi province of Al Anbar, located roughly west of Baghdad on the Euphrates. Fallujah dates from Babylonian times and was host to important Jewish academies for many centuries....

 and was authorized by the U.S.-appointed Iraqi Interim Government
Iraqi Interim Government
The Iraqi Interim Government was created by the United States and its coalition allies as a caretaker government to govern Iraq until the Iraqi Transitional Government was installed following the Iraqi National Assembly election conducted on January 30, 2005...

. The U.S. military called it "some of the heaviest urban combat
Urban warfare
Urban warfare is combat conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities. Urban combat is very different from combat in the open at both the operational and tactical level...

 U.S.
Encyclopedia
The Second Battle of Fallujah (code-named Operation Al-Fajr (Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

, "the dawn") and Operation Phantom Fury) was a joint U.S., Iraqi, and British offensive in November and December 2004, considered the highest point of conflict in Fallujah during the Iraq War. It was led by the U.S. Marine Corps
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the United States Navy to deliver combined-arms task forces rapidly. It is one of seven uniformed services of the United States...

 against the Iraqi insurgency
Iraqi insurgency
The Iraqi Resistance is composed of a diverse mix of militias, foreign fighters, all-Iraqi units or mixtures opposing the United States-led multinational force in Iraq and the post-2003 Iraqi government...

 stronghold in the city of Fallujah
Fallujah
Fallujah is a city in the Iraqi province of Al Anbar, located roughly west of Baghdad on the Euphrates. Fallujah dates from Babylonian times and was host to important Jewish academies for many centuries....

 and was authorized by the U.S.-appointed Iraqi Interim Government
Iraqi Interim Government
The Iraqi Interim Government was created by the United States and its coalition allies as a caretaker government to govern Iraq until the Iraqi Transitional Government was installed following the Iraqi National Assembly election conducted on January 30, 2005...

. The U.S. military called it "some of the heaviest urban combat
Urban warfare
Urban warfare is combat conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities. Urban combat is very different from combat in the open at both the operational and tactical level...

 U.S. Marines have been involved in since the Battle of Huế City in Vietnam in 1968."

This operation was the second major operation in Fallujah. Earlier, in April 2004, Coalition Forces fought the First Battle of Fallujah in order to capture or kill insurgent elements considered responsible for the deaths of a Blackwater Security
Blackwater Worldwide
Xe Services LLC, better known by its former names, Blackwater USA and Blackwater Worldwide, is a private military company founded in 1997 by Erik Prince and Al Clark.. Xe is currently the largest of the U.S. State Department's three private security contractors...

 team. When Coalition Forces (the majority being U.S. Marines) fought into the center of the city, the Iraqi government requested that the city's control be transferred to an Iraqi-run local security force, which then began stockpiling weapons and building complex defenses across the city in mid-2004. This was the bloodiest battle of the Iraq War to date, and is notable for being the first major engagement of the Iraq War fought solely against insurgents rather than the forces of the former Baathist Iraqi
Ba'athist Iraq
The History of Iraq , referred to as Ba'athist Iraq, covers the period of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party's rule over Iraq. Ba'athist rule in Iraq first occurred briefly in 1963 under Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr until overthrown that same year. Ba'athism was restored to power five years later after...

 government.

Background

In February, 2004, control of Fallujah and the surrounding area in the Al-Anbar province was transferred from the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division to the 1st Marine Division. Shortly afterward, on 31 March 2004, four American Blackwater USA
Blackwater USA
Xe Services LLC, better known by its former names, Blackwater USA and Blackwater Worldwide, is a private military company founded in 1997 by Erik Prince and Al Clark.. Xe is currently the largest of the U.S. State Department's three private security contractors...

 contractors were ambushed and killed
31 March 2004 Fallujah ambush
On March 31, 2004 an ambush saw Iraqi insurgents in Fallujah attack a convoy containing four United States contractors from the private security company Blackwater USA, who were conducting delivery for food caterers ESS....

 in the city. Images of their mutilated bodies were broadcast around the world.

Within days, U.S. Marine Corps forces launched Operation Vigilant Resolve
Operation Vigilant Resolve
As part of the occupation of Iraq, the First Battle of Fallujah, codenamed Operation Vigilant Resolve, was an unsuccessful attempt by the United States Military to capture the city of Fallujah in April 2004....

 (4 April 2004) to take back control of the city from insurgent forces. On 28 April 2004, Operation Vigilant Resolve ended with an agreement where the local population is ordered to keep the insurgents out of the city. The Fallujah Brigade, composed of local Iraqis under the command of Muhammed Latif, a former Baathist general, was allowed to pass through coalition lines and take over the city.

Insurgent strength and control began to grow to such an extent that by 24 September 2004, a senior U.S. official told ABC News
ABC News
ABC News is the news gathering and broadcasting division of American broadcast television network ABC, a subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company...

 that catching Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi ; October 30, 1966 – June 7, 2006), born Ahmad Fadeel al-Nazal al-Khalayleh was a Jordanian militant Islamist who ran a paramilitary training camp in Afghanistan...

, said to be in Fallujah, was now "the highest priority," and estimated his troops at 5,000 men, mostly non-Iraqis.

Timeline

  • 7 November 2004: U.S. Marines stage just north of Fallujah. In the city, now under complete insurgent
    Iraqi insurgency
    The Iraqi Resistance is composed of a diverse mix of militias, foreign fighters, all-Iraqi units or mixtures opposing the United States-led multinational force in Iraq and the post-2003 Iraqi government...

     control with no American presence since April, there is a large number of booby trap
    Booby trap
    A booby trap is a device designed to harm or surprise a person, unknowingly triggered by the presence or actions of the victim. As the word trap implies, they often have some form of bait designed to lure the victim towards it. However, in other cases the device is placed on busy roads or is...

    s and IEDs
    Improvised explosive device
    An improvised explosive device , also known as a roadside bomb, is a homemade bomb constructed and deployed in ways other than in conventional military action...

     constructed and set in place. Additionally, elevated sniper
    Sniper
    A sniper is a marksman who shoots targets from concealed positions or distances exceeding the capabilities of regular personnel. Snipers typically have specialized training and distinct high-precision rifles....

     positions have been created along with heavily fortified defensive positions throughout the city, in preparation for a major offensive. American UAVs
    Unmanned aerial vehicle
    An unmanned aerial vehicle , also known as a unmanned aircraft system , remotely piloted aircraft or unmanned aircraft, is a machine which functions either by the remote control of a navigator or pilot or autonomously, that is, as a self-directing entity...

     observed insurgents conducting live-fire exercises in the city in preparation for the coming attack.

  • 8 November 2004: Operation Phantom Fury begins.

  • 16 November 2004: American spokesmen describe fighting in the city as mopping up isolated pockets of resistance.

  • 23 December 2004: Last pockets of resistance are neutralized. Three U.S. Marines are killed in the last skirmish, along with 24 insurgents. Operation Phantom Fury is the bloodiest battle of the Iraq War.

Coalition forces

Before beginning their attack, U.S. and Iraqi forces had established checkpoints around the city to prevent anyone from entering the city, and to intercept insurgents attempting to flee.

In addition, overhead imagery was used to prepare maps of the city for use by the attackers. American units were augmented by Iraqi interpreters to assist them in the planned fight. After weeks of withstanding air strikes and artillery
Artillery
Originally applied to any group of infantry primarily armed with projectile weapons, artillery has over time become limited in meaning to refer only to those engines of war that operate by projection of munitions far beyond the range of effect of personal weapons...

 bombardment, the militants holed up in the city appeared to be vulnerable to direct attack.

U.S., Iraqi, and British forces totaled about 13,000. The U.S. had gathered some 6,500 Marines and 1,500 Army soldiers that would take part in the assault with about 2,500 Navy personnel in support roles. U.S. troops were grouped in two Regimental Combat Teams: Regimental Combat Team 1 comprised 3rd Battalion/1st Marines, 3rd Battalion/5th Marines, Naval Moble Construction Battalion 4 and 23 (Seabees) as well as the U.S. Army's 2nd Battalion/7th Cavalry. Regimental Combat Team 7 comprised the 1st Battalion/8th Marines, 1st Battalion/3rd Marines, and the U.S. Army's 2nd Battalion/2nd Infantry. About 2,000 Iraqi troops assisted with the assault. All were supported by aircraft and Marine and Army artillery battalions.

The 850-strong 1st battalion of the British Black Watch regiment
Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment)
It all began in 1725 when General Wade, as leader of the King's Army in Scotland, and involved in his great project of building the military roads there, set up six companies of the Highland "Watch". These were formed to stop fighting among the clans; controlling the roads was an important part of...

 was ordered to help US and Iraqi forces with the encirclement of Fallujah.

Insurgent forces

In April, Fallujah was defended by about 500 "hardcore" and 2,000+ "part time" insurgents. By November it was estimated that the numbers had doubled. Another estimate put the number of insurgents at 3,000; however a number of insurgent leaders escaped before the attack. By the time of the attack on Fallujah in November 2004, the number of Insurgents in the city was estimated at around 3,000 to 4,000.

The Iraqi insurgents and foreign mujahadeen present in the city prepared fortified defenses in advance of the anticipated attack. They dug tunnels, trenches, prepared spider holes, and built and hid a wide variety of IEDs. In some locations they filled the interiors of darkened homes with large numbers of propane bottles, large drums of gasoline, and ordnance, all wired to a remote trigger that could be set off by an insurgent when troops entered the building. They blocked streets with Jersey barrier
Jersey barrier
A Jersey barrier or Jersey wall is a modular concrete barrier employed to separate lanes of traffic. It is designed to both minimize vehicle damage in cases of incidental contact while still preventing crossover in the case of head-on accidents....

s and even emplaced them within homes to create strong points behind which they could attack unsuspecting troops entering the building. Insurgents were equipped with a variety of advanced small arms, and had captured a variety of U.S. armament, including M14s, M16s, body armor, uniforms and helmets.

They booby-trapped buildings and vehicles, including wiring doors and windows to grenades and other ordnance. Anticipating U.S. tactics to seize the roof of high buildings, they bricked up stairwells to the roofs of many buildings, creating paths into prepared fields of fire which they hoped the troops would enter.

Intelligence briefings given prior to battle reported that Coalition forces would encounter Chechen
Chechen people
Chechens constitute the largest native ethnic group originating in the North Caucasus region. They refer to themselves as Noxçi . Also known as Sadiks , Gargareans, Malkhs...

, Filipino
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

, Saudi, Iranian, Italian
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, and Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

n combatants, as well as native Iraqis.

Civilian presence

Meanwhile, most of Fallujah’s civilian population fled the city, which greatly reduced the potential for noncombatant casualties. U.S. military officials estimated that 70–90% of the 300,000 civilians in the city fled before the attack.

Diversion

Ground operations began on the night of 7 November 2004. Attacking from the west and south, the Iraqi 36th Commando Battalion
Iraqi 36th Commando Battalion
The Iraqi 36th Commando Battalion is one of several Iraqi Special Operations Units that have emerged since the fall of the Saddam Hussein Regime. Originally part of the Iraqi Special Operations Forces Brigade , this aggressive unit has a role comparable to that of the United States Army Rangers...

 with their U.S. Army Special Forces advisers and the U.S. Marine Corps Scout Platoon, 2nd Infantry Division's 3rd Platoon Alpha Company 2/72nd Tank Battalion, and 3rd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion, reinforced by Bravo Company from the Marine Corps Reserve's 1st Battalion, 23rd Regiment, and supported by Combat Service Support Company 113, from Combat Service Support Battalion 1, captured Fallujah General Hospital and villages opposite the Euphrates River along Fallujah's western edge. Troops from the 1st Battalion, 3rd Marines fired 81mm mortar in an operation in south Fallujah. The same unit, operating under the command of the U.S. Army III Corps, then moved to the western approaches to the city and secured the Jurf Kas Sukr Bridge
Jurf Kas Sukr Bridge
Stretching across the Euphrates in the tiny Iraqi village of Jurf Kas Sukr southwest of Baghdad, the 4-lane Jurf Kas Sukr Bridge was a primary target of Operation Phantom Fury in November 2004....

. These initial attacks, however, were a diversion
Diversion
Diversion may refer to:*diversion, a detour, especially of an airplane flight due to severe weather or mechanical failure, or of an ambulance from a fully occupied emergency room to one another nearby hospital*diversion, a distraction...

 intended to distract and confuse the insurgents holding the city.

Attack

After Navy Seabees from NMCB-23 at the substation located just northeast of the city shut off electrical power to the city, two Marine Regimental Combat Teams, the Regimental Combat Team 1 (RCT-1) and Regimental Combat Team 7 (RCT-7) launched an attack along the northern edge of the city. They were assisted by two U.S. Army heavy battalion-sized units, the 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regiment, and 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry Regiment (Mechanized)
2nd Infantry Regiment (United States)
The 2nd Infantry Regiment is an infantry regiment in the United States Army. It has served the United States for more than two hundred years. It is the third oldest regiment in the US Army with a Lineage date of 1808 and a history extending back to 1791...

. These two battalions were followed by four infantry battalions who were tasked with clearing the remaining buildings. The Army's mechanized Second Brigade, First Cavalry Division, augmented by the Marine's Second Reconnaissance Battalion
2nd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion
2nd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion is a mechanized infantry battalion of the United States Marine Corps. Their primary weapon system is the LAV-25 and they fall under the command of the 2nd Marine Division and II Marine Expeditionary Force. The unit is based out of the Marine Corps Base...

 and, for a few days, the 1st Battalion, 5th Infantry Regiment
5th Infantry Regiment (United States)
The 5th Infantry Regiment is the third-oldest infantry regiment of the United States Army, tracing its origins to 1808...

 [Stryker], was tasked to surround the city. The British Black Watch Battalion patrolled the main highways to the east. The RCT's were augmented by three 6-man SEAL Sniper Teams from Naval Special Warfare Task Group-Central and one Platoon from 1st Recon who provided advance reconnaissance and overwatch throughout the operation.

The six battalions of Army, Marine and Iraqi forces, moving under the cover of darkness, began the assault in the early hours of 8 November 2004 prepared by an intense artillery barrage and air attack. This was followed by an attack on the main train station that was then used as a staging point for follow-on forces. By that afternoon, under the protection of intense air cover, Marines entered the Hay Naib al-Dubat and al-Naziza districts. The Marines were followed in by the Navy Seabees of NMCB-4 and NMCB-23 who bulldozed the streets clear of debris from the bombardment that morning. Shortly after nightfall on 9 November 2004, Marines had reportedly reached Phase Line Fran at Highway 10 in the center of the city.
The 3rd Bn 5th Marines cleared the Northern Sector Highway 10 city blocks of infiltrated pockets of resistance. Some units deemed combat ineffective handed clearing operations to Darkhorse Marines. 3/5 spearheaded the assault into the harshest area of the city known as the 'Julan District.' The Battalion sustained 26 Marines killed in action and 353 wounded during the operation.

While most of the fighting subsided by 13 November 2004, Marines continued to face determined isolated resistance from insurgents hidden throughout the city. By 16 November 2004, after nine days of fighting, the Marine command described the action as mopping up pockets of resistance. Sporadic fighting continued until 23 December 2004.

Despite its success, the battle was not without controversy. On 16 November 2004, NBC News
NBC News
NBC News is the news division of American television network NBC. It first started broadcasting in February 21, 1940. NBC Nightly News has aired from Studio 3B, located on floors 3 of the NBC Studios is the headquarters of the GE Building forms the centerpiece of 30th Rockefeller Center it is...

 aired footage that showed a U.S. Marine, with 3rd Battalion 1st Marines
3rd Battalion 1st Marines
3rd Battalion 1st Marines is an infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps based out of Camp Horno on Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California...

, killing a wounded Iraqi fighter. In this video, the Marine was heard claiming that the Iraqi was "playing possum
Playing Possum
Playing Possum is singer-songwriter Carly Simon's fifth studio album, released in April 1975. It was her third consecutive album to reach the top ten of the best-selling album charts, peaking at number 10 in June 1975. Singles from the album were not as successful. The first single from the album,...

". U.S. Navy
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

 investigators NCIS
Naval Criminal Investigative Service
The United States Naval Criminal Investigative Service is the primary security, counter-intelligence, counter-terrorism, and law enforcement agency of the United States Department of the Navy...

 later determined that the Marine was acting in self-defense. The AP
Associated Press
The Associated Press is an American news agency. The AP is a cooperative owned by its contributing newspapers, radio and television stations in the United States, which both contribute stories to the AP and use material written by its staff journalists...

 reported that military-age males attempting to flee the city were turned back by the U.S. military.

By late January 2005, news reports indicated U.S. combat units were leaving the area, and were assisting the local population in returning to the now heavily-damaged city.

Recognition

The US Army's 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry Regiment was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation for actions during the battle Additionally, Operation Phantom Fury yielded two nominees for the Medal of Honor, Sergeant Rafael Peralta
Rafael Peralta
Sergeant Rafael Peralta assigned to 1st Battalion, 3rd Marine Regiment, 3rd Marine Division, III Marine Expeditionary Force, Marine Corps Base Hawaii, was a United States Marine killed in combat during Second Battle of Fallujah in the city of Fallujah, Iraq...

 who was a Marine with 1st Battalion, 3rd Marines. Sgt. Peralta was later awarded the Navy Cross, the second highest award a Marine can receive.
First Sergeant Brad Kasal of 3rd Battalion, 1st Marines was also awarded the Navy Cross for his actions during the battle. SSG David Bellavia
David Bellavia
David Bellavia is an American Iraq War veteran who was awarded the Silver Star for his actions during the Second Battle of Fallujah. Bellavia has also received the Bronze Star, three Army Commendation Medals, two Army Achievement Medals and the New York State Conspicuous Service Cross...

 of Task Force 2-2 Infantry was also nominated for the Medal of Honor for his actions during the battle.

Aftermath

The battle proved to be the bloodiest of the war and the bloodiest battle involving American troops since the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of...

. Comparisons with the Battle of Hue City and the Pacific campaign
Pacific Campaign
Pacific Campaign may refer to:* Pacific Campaign , fighting between the United States and Spain during the Spanish-American War...

 of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 were made. Coalition forces suffered a total of 107 killed and 613 wounded during Operation Phantom Fury. US forces had 54 killed and 425 wounded in the initial invasion in November. By December 23 when the operation was officially concluded the casualty number had risen to 95 killed and 560 wounded. British forces had 4 killed and 10 wounded in two separate attacks in the outskirts of Fallujah. Iraqi forces suffered 8 killed and 43 wounded Estimates of insurgent casualties are complicated by a lack of official figures. Most estimates places the number of insurgents killed at around 1,200 to 1,500, with some estimations as high as over 2,000 killed. Coalition forces also captured approximately 1,500 insurgents during the operation. The Red Cross estimated directly following the battle that some 800 civilians had been killed during the offensive.

Fallujah
Fallujah
Fallujah is a city in the Iraqi province of Al Anbar, located roughly west of Baghdad on the Euphrates. Fallujah dates from Babylonian times and was host to important Jewish academies for many centuries....

 suffered extensive damage to residences, mosques, city services, and businesses. The city, once referred to as the "City of Mosques", had over 200 pre-battle mosques of which 60 or so were destroyed in the fighting. Many of these mosques had been used as arms caches and weapon strongpoints by Islamist forces. Of the roughly 50,000 buildings in Fallujah, between 7,000 and 10,000 were estimated to have been destroyed in the offensive and from half to two-thirds of the remaining buildings had notable damage.

While pre-offensive inhabitant figures are unreliable, the nominal population was assumed to have been 200,000–350,000. One report claims that both offensives, Operation Vigilant Resolve
Operation Vigilant Resolve
As part of the occupation of Iraq, the First Battle of Fallujah, codenamed Operation Vigilant Resolve, was an unsuccessful attempt by the United States Military to capture the city of Fallujah in April 2004....

 and Operation Phantom Fury, created 200,000 internally displaced persons who are still living elsewhere in Iraq. Reports claim that up to 6000 civilians died throughout the operation. While damage to mosques was heavy, Coalition forces reported that 66 out of the city's 133 mosques had been found to be holding significant amounts of insurgent weapons.
In mid-December, residents were allowed to return after undergoing biometric identification, provided they wear their ID cards all the time. Reconstruction progressed slowly and mainly consisted of clearing rubble from heavily-damaged areas and reestablishing basic utilities. Only 10% of the pre-offensive inhabitants had returned as of mid-January, and only 30% as of the end of March 2005.

The recapture of the city itself proved to be largely a success for U.S. forces, with a large number of local insurgent fighters being killed, and the momentum the Sunni rebellion had gained from controlling the city being dashed in the face of overwhelming U.S. firepower. Furthermore, al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda is a global broad-based militant Islamist terrorist organization founded by Osama bin Laden sometime between August 1988 and late 1989. It operates as a network comprising both a multinational, stateless army and a radical Sunni Muslim movement calling for global Jihad...

's foothold in Iraq had been seriously degraded, even though its leader Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi ; October 30, 1966 – June 7, 2006), born Ahmad Fadeel al-Nazal al-Khalayleh was a Jordanian militant Islamist who ran a paramilitary training camp in Afghanistan...

 managed to escape. Insurgent elements almost immediately began to attempt to re-group their power base in the city, with limited success.

Nevertheless the battle proved to be less than the decisive engagement that the U.S. military had hoped for. Some of the nonlocal insurgents were believed to have fled before the military assault along with Zarqawi, leaving mostly local militants behind. Subsequent U.S. military operations against insurgent positions were ineffective at drawing out insurgents into another open battle, and by September 2006 the situation had deteriorated to the point that the Al-Anbar province that contained Fallujah was reported to be in total insurgent control by the U.S. Marine Corps, with the exception of only pacified Fallujah, but now with an insurgent-plagued Ramadi
Ramadi
Ramadi is a city in central Iraq, about west of Baghdad. It is the capital of Al Anbar Governorate.-History:Ramadi is located in a fertile, irrigated, alluvial plain.The Ottoman Empire founded Ramadi in 1869...



After the U.S. military operation of November 2004, the number of insurgent attacks gradually increased in and around the city, and although news reports were often few and far between, several reports of IED attacks on Iraqi troops were reported in the press. Most notable of these attacks was a suicide car bomb attack on 23 June 2005 on a convoy that killed 6 Marines. Thirteen other Marines were injured in the attack. However, fourteen months later insurgents were again able to operate in large numbers.

A third and ultimately successful push was mounted from September 2006 and lasting until mid-January 2007. Tactics developed in what has been called the "Third Battle of Fallujah," when applied on a larger scale in Ramadi and the surrounding area led to what became known as "the Great Sunni Awakening
Awakening movements in Iraq
The National Council for the Awakening of Iraq , also known as the Sunni Awakening movement Anbar Awakening or the Sons of Iraq program, are coalitions between tribal Sheikhs in a particular province in Iraq that unite to maintain security in their communities.-About:The movement started among...

." After four years of bitter fighting, Fallujah was turned over to the Iraqi Forces and Iraqi Provincial Authority during the Fall of 2007.

White phosphorus controversy

On 26 November 2004, independent journalist Dahr Jamail
Dahr Jamail
Dahr Jamail is an American journalist who is best known as one of the few unembedded journalists to report extensively from Iraq during the 2003 Iraq invasion. He spent eight months in Iraq, between 2003 to 2005, and presented his stories on his website, entitled Dahr Jamail's MidEast Dispatches....

 was perhaps the first to report on the use of "unusual weapons" used in the November 2004 Battle of Fallujah
White phosphorus use in Iraq
There have been several cases in which white phosphorus has been used or has been claimed to have been used as an anti-personnel weapon in Iraq by the Saddam Hussein regime and the United States military...

. U.S. media watchdog group Project Censored awarded Jamail's story as contributing to the #2 under-reported story of the year, "Media Coverage Fails on Iraq". On 9 November 2005 the Italian state-run broadcaster RAI
RAI
RAI — Radiotelevisione italiana S.p.A. known until 1954 as Radio Audizioni Italiane, is the Italian state owned public service broadcaster controlled by the Ministry of Economic Development. Rai is the biggest television company in Italy...

 ran a documentary titled "Fallujah, The Hidden Massacre
Fallujah, The Hidden Massacre
-War crimes:The primary theme of the film is its assertion of a case for war crimes committed by the United States in its military offensive against Fallujah in Iraq...

" depicting what it alleges was the United States' use of white phosphorus
White phosphorus (weapon)
White phosphorus is a material made from a common allotrope of the chemical element phosphorus that is used in smoke, tracer, illumination and incendiary munitions. Other common names include WP, and the slang term "Willie Pete," which is dated from its use in Vietnam, and is still sometimes used...

 (WP) in the attack causing insurgents and civilians to be killed or injured by chemical burns. The effects of WP were claimed to be very characteristic. Bodies were shown which were partially turned into what appears to be ash, but sometimes the hands of the bodies had skin or skin layers peeled off and hanging like gloves instead. The documentary further claims that the United States used incendiary MK-77 bombs
Mark 77 bomb
The Mark 77 bomb is a US 750-lb air-dropped incendiary bomb carrying of a fuel gel mix which is the direct successor to napalm.The MK-77 is the primary incendiary weapon currently in use by the United States military...

 (similar to napalm
Napalm
Napalm is a thickening/gelling agent generally mixed with gasoline or a similar fuel for use in an incendiary device, primarily as an anti-personnel weapon...

). The use of incendiary weapons against civilians is illegal by Protocol III of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
The United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons , concluded at Geneva on October 10, 1980 and entered into force in December 1983, seeks to prohibit or restrict the use of certain conventional weapons which are considered excessively injurious or whose effects are indiscriminate.The...

 (1980). The documentary stated:
WP proved to be an effective and versatile munition. We used it for screening missions at two breaches and, later in the fight, as a potent psychological weapon
Psychological warfare
Psychological warfare , or the basic aspects of modern psychological operations , have been known by many other names or terms, including Psy Ops, Political Warfare, “Hearts and Minds,” and Propaganda...

 against the insurgents in trench
Trench
A trench is a type of excavation or depression in the ground. Trenches are generally defined by being deeper than they are wide , and by being narrow compared to their length ....

 lines and spider holes when we could not get effects on them with HE. We fired 'shake and bake' missions at the insurgents, using WP to flush them out and HE to take them out. .. We used improved WP for screening missions when HC smoke would have been more effective and saved our WP for lethal missions.


The U.S. State Department
United States Department of State
The United States Department of State , is the United States federal executive department responsible for international relations of the United States, equivalent to the foreign ministries of other countries...

 initially denied using white phosphorus as a munition, a claim later contradicted by the Department of Defense when bloggers discovered a U.S. Army magazine had run a story detailing its use in Fallujah. According to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons is an intergovernmental organization, located in The Hague, Netherlands. The organization promotes and verifies the adherence to the Chemical Weapons Convention which prohibits of the use of chemical weapons and requires their destruction...

 (OPCW), quoted by the RAI documentary, WP is allowed as an illumination device, not as an offensive weapon if its chemical properties are put to use. The OPCW has also stated that it is the toxic properties of white phosphorus that are prohibited and the use of its heat may not be prohibited. The US government
Federal government of the United States
The federal government of the United States is the national government of the constitutional republic of fifty states that is the United States of America. The federal government comprises three distinct branches of government: a legislative, an executive and a judiciary. These branches and...

 maintains its denial of WP use against civilians, but has admitted its use as an offensive weapon against enemy combatant
Combatant
A combatant is someone who takes a direct part in the hostilities of an armed conflict. If a combatant follows the law of war, then they are considered a privileged combatant, and upon capture they qualify as a prisoner of war under the Third Geneva Convention...

s. An article in Washington Post exactly a year before also pointed out the use of white phosphorus in the battle, but attracted little attention.

White phosphorus, when used for screening or as a marker, or used as an incendiary against combatant forces, is not banned by Protocol III of the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. But if used as a weapon in a civilian area, it would be prohibited. The protocol specifically excludes weapons whose incendiary effect is secondary, such as smoke grenades. This has been often read as excluding white phosphorus munitions from this protocol, as well. Washington has not signed the treaty among countries in the world which prohibits the use of white phosphorus.(Trone)

Graphic visual footage of the weapons allegedly being fired from helicopters into urban areas is displayed, as well as detailed footage of the remains of those apparently killed by these weapons. Questions have been raised concerning this footage since white phosphorus can not be delivered by helicopters in the manner shown in the film. The helicopters in the film are more likely dispensing illumination flares or counter measures to divert heat seeking surface to air missiles.

U.S. forces

Regimental Combat Team 1 (RCT-1) built around the 1st Marine Regiment:
  • 3rd Battalion 1st Marines
    3rd Battalion 1st Marines
    3rd Battalion 1st Marines is an infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps based out of Camp Horno on Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California...

     (Infantry)
  • 3rd Battalion 5th Marines
    3rd Battalion 5th Marines
    3rd Battalion 5th Marines is an infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps. The battalion, nicknamed "Dark Horse", is based out of Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California and consists of approximately 1,000 Marines and Sailors...

     (Infantry)
  • 1st Battalion 24th Marines
    1st Battalion 24th Marines
    1st Battalion, 24th Marines is a reserve infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps located throughout Michigan and Ohio consisting of approximately 1,000 Marines and Sailors...

    - augmented by 3rd Battalion 24th Marines
    3rd Battalion 24th Marines
    3rd Battalion 24th Marines is a reserve infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps located throughout the Midwestern United States consisting of approximately 800 Marines and Sailors...

  • 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry (US Army Infantry)
  • Company's C and D, 2nd Assault Amphibian Battalion
    2nd Assault Amphibian Battalion
    2nd Assault Amphibian Battalion is a mechanized battalion of the United States Marine Corps. Their primary weapon system is the Amphibious Assault Vehicle and they are part of the 2nd Marine Division and the II Marine Expeditionary Force...

     (Armored)
  • 1st,2nd and 3rd Platoon, Company A,3rd Assault Amphibian Battalion
    3rd Assault Amphibian Battalion
    3rd Assault Amphibian Battalion is one of two active duty assault amphibian battalions in the United States Marine Corps. The battalion's primary weapon system is the Amphibious Assault Vehicle or AAV...

     Armored
  • 3rd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion
    3rd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion
    3rd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion ' is a mechanized infantry battalion of the United States Marine Corps. Their primary weapon system is the LAV-25 and they are part of the 1st Marine Division and I Marine Expeditionary Force...

      (Mechanized)(Armored)
  • Combat Service Support Company 113, Combat Service Support Battalion 1
  • Combat Service Support Company 122, Heavy Equipment Platoon, 1st Maintenance Battalion
  • Counter Battery Radar Platoon, 14th Marine Regiment (Artillery)
  • 4th Battalion 14th Marines
    4th Battalion 14th Marines
    4th Battalion, 14th Marines was a United States reserve artillery battalion comprising three firing batteries and a headquarters battery. The battalion was based in Bessemer, Alabama and its primary weapon system is the M198 Howitzer with a maximum effective range of 30 kilometers...

    — Battery "M" (Artillery)
  • Company C, 3rd Battalion, 8th Cavalry Regiment
    U.S. 8th Cavalry Regiment
    The 8th Cavalry Regiment was constituted 28 July 1866 and organized as a regiment on 21 September 1866 at Camp Reynolds, Angel Island, California. Enlisted personnel were "composed chiefly of men enlisted on the Pacific Coast, and included many of the class styled 'Forty-niners'; men who had worked...

    , (US Army)
  • 2nd Platoon, Company B, 2nd Battalion, 162nd Infantry
    162nd Infantry Regiment (United States)
    The 162nd Infantry Regiment is a regiment of the Oregon Army National Guard with headquarters in Springfield, Oregon. In January, 2006 as part of the Army's transformation towards a modular force, the 1st Battalion, 162nd Infantry Regiment was inactivated...

     (US Army)
  • 2nd Tank Battalion
    2nd Tank Battalion
    The 2nd Tank Battalion is an armored battalion of the United States Marine Corps which is based out of the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina...

     – Co C
  • TOW Platoon (-), 23rd Marines
  • Scout Platoon, Headquarters & Service Company, 4th Tank Battalion
    4th Tank Battalion
    4th Tank Battalion is an armored battalion of the United States Marine Corps reserve. Their primary weapon system is the M1-A1 Abrams main battle tank and they are part of the 4th Marine Division and Marine Forces Reserve...

  • Scout Platoon, 2nd Tank Battalion
    2nd Tank Battalion
    The 2nd Tank Battalion is an armored battalion of the United States Marine Corps which is based out of the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina...

     (Attached 2/10 MAR HQ BTRY)
  • Company A, MP Battalion, 2nd Marine Logistics Group
    2nd Marine Logistics Group
    The 2nd Marine Logistics Group is a logistics unit of the United States Marine Corps and is headquartered at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. 2nd MLG was formerly known as 2nd Force Service Support Group , reorganized with its sister FSSGs into Marine Logistics Groups in 2005...

    , 2nd Marine Division
  • Company B, (reinforced), 2nd Combat Engineer Battalion
    2nd Combat Engineer Battalion
    2nd Combat Engineer Battalion is a combat engineer battalion of the United States Marine Corps. They are based out of Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina and fall under the command of the 2nd Marine Division and the II Marine Expeditionary Force....

    , 2nd Marine Division
  • Military Police Company A, 4th Marine Logistics Group
    4th Marine Logistics Group
    The 4th Marine Logistics Group is a logistics unit of the United States Marine Corps and is headquartered at New Orleans, Louisiana.-Mission:...

    , 4th Marine Division
  • Detachment 4, 4th Civil Affairs Group
  • Combat Logistics Company 115, Combat Logistics Battalion 1
    Combat Logistics Battalion 1
    Combat Logistics Battalion 1 is a logistics battalion of the United States Marine Corps. They are part of Combat Logistics Regiment 1 and the 1st Marine Logistics Group...

    , 1st Marine Logistics Group
    1st Marine Logistics Group
    The 1st Marine Logistics Group is a logistics unit of the United States Marine Corps and is headquartered at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California, with detachments located at Marine Corps Air Station Yuma, Marine Corps Air Station Miramar and the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center...

  • Shock Trauma Platoon, 1st Marine Logistics Group
    1st Marine Logistics Group
    The 1st Marine Logistics Group is a logistics unit of the United States Marine Corps and is headquartered at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California, with detachments located at Marine Corps Air Station Yuma, Marine Corps Air Station Miramar and the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center...

  • Company B, 1st Battalion, 4th Marines
    1st Battalion 4th Marines
    1st Battalion, 4th Marines is an infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps based out of Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California consisting of approximately 1000 Marines and sailors...

  • Company B, 1st Battalion, 23rd Marines
    1st Battalion 23rd Marines
    1st Battalion, 23rd Marines is one of 36 infantry battalions in the United States Marine Corps, and one of only nine battalions found in the reserve. It is located throughout Texas and Louisiana consisting of approximately 1000 Marines and Sailors...

  • Evac Platoon, Company C, 181 SPT Battalion, 81 HBCT
  • 2nd Battalion 11th Marines, Kilo 3/12, Golf, HQ Btry (Artillery- Serving as Provisionary Rifle Companies)
  • 1st Battalion 10th Marines, Charlie Btry (Artillery- Serving as Provisional Infantry Company)
  • 4th Battalion 14th Marines, Kilo Btry (Artillery- Serving as Provisional Infantry Company)
  • Motor Transport Platoon, 2nd Battalion 10th Marines
    2nd Battalion 10th Marines
    2nd Battalion 10th Marines is an artillery battalion of the United States Marine Corps comprising three firing batteries and a headquarters battery. The battalion is stationed at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina and its primary weapon system is the M777A2 howitzer with a maximum...

    , HQ Btry
  • Task Force ECHO (NMCB (Naval Mobile Construction Battalion) FOUR, NMCB TWO THREE, and Company A, 120th Engineer Battalion Oklahoma National Guard

  • Marine Aircraft Group 39
    Marine Aircraft Group 39
    Marine Aircraft Group 39 is a United States Marine Corps aviation unit based at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California that is currently composed of six AH-1W Super Cobra and UH-1N Huey light attack squadrons, three CH-46 Sea Knight squadrons and one logistics squadron...

     – HMLA-367
    HMLA-367
    Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron 367 is a United States Marine Corps helicopter squadron consisting of AH-1W SuperCobra attack helicopters, AH-1Z Viper attack helicopters and UH-1Y Venom utility helicopters...

    , HMM-161, HMM-364
    HMM-364
    Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 364 is a United States Marine Corps helicopter squadron consisting of CH-46E Sea Knight transport helicopters...

     and HMM-268
    HMM-268
    Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 268 is a United States Marine Corps helicopter squadron consisting of CH-46E Sea Knight transport helicopters...

     at Al Taqaddum Airbase
  • H&S and C Cos. 4th Combat Engineer Battalion
  • Naval Special Warfare Task Group-Central (Sniper Element Alpha and Bravo)
  • Naval Mobile Construction Battalion 4 (Seabees)
  • Naval Mobile Construction Battalion 23 (Seabees)
  • 3rd Squad, 3rd Platoon, A Co, 44th Engineer Battalion, 2nd Brigade, 2nd Inf Div
  • 3rd Platoon, A Co, 2/72 Tank Battalion, 2nd Infantry Division (US Army)


Regimental Combat Team 7 (RCT-7) built around the 7th Marine Regiment:
  • 1st Battalion 3rd Marines
    1st Battalion 3rd Marines
    1st Battalion, 3rd Marines is an infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps based out of Marine Corps Base Hawaii. Nicknamed the "Lava Dogs", the battalion consists of approximately 800 Marines and Sailors and falls under the command of the 3rd Marine Regiment of the 3rd Marine...

     (Infantry)
    • Tactical PSYOP Team 1171(USAR), attached to 1/3 Marines, 1 NOV-15 DEC 2004
  • 1st Battalion 8th Marines
    1st Battalion 8th Marines
    1st Battalion, 8th Marines is an infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps based out of Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina...

     (Infantry)
  • Task Force 2-2
    • 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry Regiment (US Army Infantry)
    • 2nd Platoon, Alpha company, 82nd Engineer Battalion
    • F Troop, 4th Cavalry (Brigade Reconnaissance Troop)
    • 2nd Battalion, 63rd Armored Regiment
  • 1st Battalion 12th Marines
    1st Battalion 12th Marines
    1st Battalion 12th Marines is an artillery battalion comprising four firing batteries and a Headquarters Battery. The battalion is stationed at Marine Corps Base Hawaii and falls under the 12th Marine Regiment and the 3rd Marine Division...

     – Battery "C" (Artillery)
  • F Troop 4th Cavalry 3rd Brigade Reconnaissance Troop 1st Infantry Division (US Army)
  • 2nd Tank Battalion
    2nd Tank Battalion
    The 2nd Tank Battalion is an armored battalion of the United States Marine Corps which is based out of the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina...

     – Co A (Armored)
  • Company C, 2nd Combat Engineer Battalion
    2nd Combat Engineer Battalion
    2nd Combat Engineer Battalion is a combat engineer battalion of the United States Marine Corps. They are based out of Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina and fall under the command of the 2nd Marine Division and the II Marine Expeditionary Force....

  • 2nd Platoon, C Company, 44th Engineer Battalion, 2nd Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division (US Army)
  • Company C, 2nd Assault Amphibian Battalion
    2nd Assault Amphibian Battalion
    2nd Assault Amphibian Battalion is a mechanized battalion of the United States Marine Corps. Their primary weapon system is the Amphibious Assault Vehicle and they are part of the 2nd Marine Division and the II Marine Expeditionary Force...

     (Armored)
  • Company B, MP Battalion, 4th Marine Logistics Group
    4th Marine Logistics Group
    The 4th Marine Logistics Group is a logistics unit of the United States Marine Corps and is headquartered at New Orleans, Louisiana.-Mission:...

  • 3rd Platoon, Combat Engineer Company, Combat Assault Battalion
    Combat Assault Battalion
    Combat Assault Battalion is a mechanized battalion of the United States Marine Corps. Their primary weapon systems are the Amphibious Assault Vehicle, LAV-25 and various engineering vehicles. CAB is a subordinate element part of the 3rd Marine Division and the III Marine Expeditionary Force...

    , 3rd Marine Division
  • 2nd Force Reconnaissance Company
    2nd Force Reconnaissance Company
    The Second Force Reconnaissance Company was the deep reconnaissance/direct action that was assigned to the Fleet Marine Force, Atlantic and its subordinate elements of the Marine Air-Ground Task Force.-Mission:...

  • 2nd Platoon, Company C, 3rd Assault Amphibian Battalion
    3rd Assault Amphibian Battalion
    3rd Assault Amphibian Battalion is one of two active duty assault amphibian battalions in the United States Marine Corps. The battalion's primary weapon system is the Amphibious Assault Vehicle or AAV...

  • 1st Platoon, Engineer Company C, 6th Engineer Support Battalion
  • Company C, 1st Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion
    1st Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion
    1st Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion is a mechanized infantry battalion of the United States Marine Corps. Nicknamed the "Highlanders," their primary weapon system is the LAV-25 and they fall under the command of the 1st Marine Division and the I Marine Expeditionary Force...

  • Company A, 2nd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion
    2nd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion
    2nd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion is a mechanized infantry battalion of the United States Marine Corps. Their primary weapon system is the LAV-25 and they fall under the command of the 2nd Marine Division and II Marine Expeditionary Force. The unit is based out of the Marine Corps Base...

  • MEU Service Support Group 31
    Combat Logistics Battalion 31
    Combat Logistics Battalion 31 is a logistics battalion of the United States Marine Corps. It is task organized combat service support element capable of providing a wide range of combat related support to all elements of the 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit...

    , 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit
    31st Marine Expeditionary Unit
    The 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit is one of seven Marine Expeditionary Units currently in existence in the United States Marine Corps. The Marine Expeditionary Unit is a Marine Air Ground Task Force with a strength of about 2,200 personnel...

  • Explosive Ordnance Disposal Mobile Unit THREE


2nd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division (US Army)
  • 1st Battalion, 5th Infantry
    5th Infantry Regiment (United States)
    The 5th Infantry Regiment is the third-oldest infantry regiment of the United States Army, tracing its origins to 1808...

     (US Army)
  • A Troop 2nd Squadron, 14th Cavalry (US Army)
  • 3rd Battalion, 82nd Field Artillery Regiment (US Army)
  • 2nd Battalion, 12th Cavalry (US Army)
  • 759th Military Police Battalion
    759th Military Police Battalion
    The 759th Military Police Battalion is a Military Police Battalion in the United States Army. It is currently stationed at Fort Carson, CO "The Mountain Post"...

     Composite (US Army)
    • 148th Military Police Team
    • 21st Military Police Company (Airborne)
    • 630th Military Police Company
    • 984th Military Police Company
  • 2nd Reconnaissance Battalion
    2nd Reconnaissance Battalion
    The 2nd Reconnaissance Battalion is a reconnaissance battalion in the United States Marine Corps. Located at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina the battalion falls under the command of the 2nd Marine Division and the II Marine Expeditionary Force .2nd Recon is a battalion of men...

     (US Marine Corps)
  • 15th Forward Support Battalion
  • 2nd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division TAC(Bravo Company, 13th Signal, E-31; Bravo Company, 312th Military Intel)


1st Squadron, 124th Cavalry, 36th Infantry Division  (US Army)
  • CROWS Team One


US Special Operations Command (embedded)
  • Naval Special Warfare Task Group-Central (Sniper Element Charlie)

  • Small Craft Company Special Operations River Recon

Iraqi forces

  • 1st Specialized Special Forces Battalion (Iraqi National Guard), Companies D and B
  • Iraqi 36th Commando Battalion
    Iraqi 36th Commando Battalion
    The Iraqi 36th Commando Battalion is one of several Iraqi Special Operations Units that have emerged since the fall of the Saddam Hussein Regime. Originally part of the Iraqi Special Operations Forces Brigade , this aggressive unit has a role comparable to that of the United States Army Rangers...

  • Iraqi Counterterrorism Force
  • Emergency Response Unit (Iraqi-Ministry of Interior) – Attached to RCT-7
  • 1st Battalion, 1st Brigade, Iraqi Intervention Force (ICDC) – Operated independently of Coalition forces
  • 2nd Battalion, 1st Brigade, Iraqi Intervention Force (IIF) – Attached to RCT-7
  • 4th Battalion, 1st Brigade, Iraqi Intervention Force (IIF) – Attached to RCT-1
  • 5th Battalion, 3rd Brigade, Iraqi Intervention Force (IIF) – Attached to RCT-7
  • 6th Battalion, 3rd Brigade, Iraqi Intervention Force (IIF) – Attached to 2nd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division

British forces

  • 1st Battalion, The Black Watch
    Black Watch
    The Black Watch, 3rd Battalion, Royal Regiment of Scotland is an infantry battalion of the Royal Regiment of Scotland. The unit's traditional colours were retired in 2011 in a ceremony led by Queen Elizabeth II....

     Regiment
  • Special Boat Service
    Special Boat Service
    The Special Boat Service is the special forces unit of the British Royal Navy. Together with the Special Air Service, Special Reconnaissance Regiment and the Special Forces Support Group they form the United Kingdom Special Forces and come under joint control of the same Director Special...

  • Various Royal Air Force
    Royal Air Force
    The Royal Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Formed on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world...

     Tornado squadrons

Related documentaries and popular media

Documentaries
  • Fallujah, The Hidden Massacre
    Fallujah, The Hidden Massacre
    -War crimes:The primary theme of the film is its assertion of a case for war crimes committed by the United States in its military offensive against Fallujah in Iraq...

    , a documentary alleging the use of white phosphorus and the Mk-77 by the U.S. Army against civilians in the city.
  • Occupation: Dreamland
    Occupation: Dreamland
    Occupation: Dreamland is a "grunt's-eye view," 2005 documentary film focused on a company of the 1/505 of the 82nd Airborne Division in Fallujah, Iraq, in early 2004. It is directed by Ian Olds and Garrett Scott....

    , a 2005 documentary film that follows soldiers of the 1/505
    505th Parachute Infantry Regiment
    The 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment is one of four infantry regiments of the 82nd Airborne Division of the United States Army.Activated in 1942, the regiment participated in the campaigns of Sicily, Salerno, Normandy, Holland and the Battle of the Bulge during World War II...

     of the 82nd Airborne Division in Fallujah, Iraq, in the beginning of 2004.
  • Shootout! - D-Day: Fallujah (UPC: 733961741353), a 2006 A&E History Channel Special detailing various gun battles that occurred during the Second Battle of Fallujah.


Dramatizations
  • Games:
    • Six Days in Fallujah
      Six Days in Fallujah
      Six Days in Fallujah is a third-person shooter video game described by the developer, Atomic Games, as a tactical shooter and survival horror game. It is the first game to focus directly on Operation Iraqi Freedom, mainly the Second Battle of Fallujah or Operation Phantom Fury. The game follows a...

      , is a video game that follows a squad of Marines from 3rd Battalion 1st Marines over the span of the six bloodiest days in the battle for Fallujah. It was designed with input from active-duty and retired marines from 3rd Battalion 1st Marines, as well as interviews from the U.S. Marines, Iraqi insurgents, and Iraqi civilians involved in the battle. Currently the game has no publisher after being dropped by Konami
      Konami
      is a Japanese leading developer and publisher of numerous popular and strong-selling toys, trading cards, anime, tokusatsu, slot machines, arcade cabinets and video games...

       for the controversy surrounding it and remains in limbo.
    • Close Combat: First to Fight
      Close Combat: First to Fight
      Close Combat: First to Fight is a squad-based military first-person shooter game created by Destineer Studios for the Windows, Macintosh and Xbox platforms. It was released in April 2005. The player commands a fireteam of 3 other U.S...

      , is a video game that was also designed with input from active-duty and retired Marines from 3rd Battalion 1st Marines, who had participated in combat around Fallujah, Iraq during Operation Phantom Fury.


Other
  • Christmas in Fallujah
    Christmas in Fallujah
    "Christmas in Fallujah" is a single written by Billy Joel and performed by Cass Dillon. The single was released on December 4, 2007 exclusively from the iTunes Store and is included on Dillon's album A Good Thing Never Dies...

    , song by Jefferson Pepper (2005) (UPC: 669910486467)
  • Christmas in Fallujah
    Christmas in Fallujah
    "Christmas in Fallujah" is a single written by Billy Joel and performed by Cass Dillon. The single was released on December 4, 2007 exclusively from the iTunes Store and is included on Dillon's album A Good Thing Never Dies...

    , song by Cass Dillon and Billy Joel (2007) (Digital download, CD single)


Books

  • No True Glory: A Frontline Account of the Battle for Fallujah, by Bing West
    Bing West
    Francis J. "Bing" West is an author and former Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs during the Reagan Administration. His 2004 book The March Up: Taking Baghdad with the First Marine Division, written with United States Marine Corps General Ray L...

     (2005) (ISBN 978-0-553-80402-7)
  • We Were One: Shoulder to Shoulder with the Marines Who Took Fallujah, by Patrick O'Donnell (2006) (ISBN 978-0-306-81469-3)
  • Fighting For Fallujah: A New Dawn for Iraq, by John R. Ballard (2006) (ISBN 978-0-275-99055-8)
  • Fallujah With Honor: First Battalion, Eighth Marine's Role in Operation Phantom Fury, by Gary Livingston (2006) (ISBN 1-928724-06-X)
  • Battle of Fallujah: Occupation, Resistance And Stalemate in the War in Iraq, by Vincent L. Foulk (2006) (ISBN 0-7864-2677-2)
  • Among Warriors In Iraq: True Grit, Special Ops, and Raiding in Mosul and Fallujah, by Mike Tucker (2006) (ISBN 978-1-59228-732-1)
  • Iraq 1941: The Battles For Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad, by Robert Lyman (2006) (ISBN 978-1-84176-991-2)
  • My Men Are My Heroes: The Brad Kasal Story, by Brad Kasal
    Bradley Kasal
    Bradley Kasal is a Sergeant Major in the United States Marine Corps who received the Navy Cross for heroic actions performed as the First Sergeant of Weapons Company, 3rd Battalion, 1st Marines during a firefight in Operation Phantom Fury in Fallujah, Iraq on November 13, 2004.On May 1, 2006, in a...

     as told to Nathaniel R. Helms (2007) (ISBN 0-696-23236-7)
  • On Call In Hell: A Doctor's Iraq War Story, by Cdr. Richard Jadick (2007) (ISBN 0-451-22053-6)
  • House to House
    House to House
    House to House: A Soldier's Memoir is a 2007 memoir by Iraq War veteran and Silver Star winner David Bellavia.-Summary:House to House is an autobiography about the actions of Staff Sergeant David Bellavia during the second Battle of Fallujah...

    : An Epic Memoir of War, by SSG David Bellavia
    David Bellavia
    David Bellavia is an American Iraq War veteran who was awarded the Silver Star for his actions during the Second Battle of Fallujah. Bellavia has also received the Bronze Star, three Army Commendation Medals, two Army Achievement Medals and the New York State Conspicuous Service Cross...

     (2007) (ISBN 978-1-4165-7471-2)
  • The Navy Cross: Extraordinary Heroism in Iraq, Afghanistan and Other Conflicts, by James E. Wise, Scott Baron (2007) (ISBN 1-59114-945-2)
  • Marakat Al-Fallujah: Hazimat Amrika Fi Al-Iraq, by Ahmad Mansur (2008) (ISBN 978-977-427-309-4)
  • Sunrise over Fallujah: A Publishers Weekly Best Book of 2008 (2008) (ISBN 978-0-439-91625-7)
  • Fallujah
    Fallujah
    Fallujah is a city in the Iraqi province of Al Anbar, located roughly west of Baghdad on the Euphrates. Fallujah dates from Babylonian times and was host to important Jewish academies for many centuries....

    : Shock & Awe (2009) (ISBN 978-0-85124-706-9)
  • Inside Fallujah: The War on the Ground, Ahmed Mansour (2009) (ISBN 978-1-56656-778-7)
  • The Daily Thoughts of a Fallujah Marine: by Josh Daugherty (2009) (ISBN 978-1-60836-044-4)
  • Once a Marine: An Iraq War Tank Commander's Inspirational Memoir of Combat, Courage, and Recovery, by Nicholas Popaditch, with Mike Steere (2008) (ISBN 978-1-932714-47-0)
  • Operation Phantom Fury
    Operation Phantom Fury
    The Second Battle of Fallujah was a joint U.S., Iraqi, and British offensive in November and December 2004, considered the highest point of conflict in Fallujah during the Iraq War. It was led by the U.S...

    : The Assault and Capture of Fallujah, Iraq, by Dick Camp (2009) (ISBN 978-0-7603-3698-4)
  • New Dawn
    New Dawn
    Fiji Focus is a Fiji bi-monthly newspaper, originally launched as New Dawn by the government of Fiji's Ministry of Information and Archives in June 2009...

    : The Battles for Fallujah, by Richard S. Lowry (2010) (ISBN 1-932714-77-4)

See also

  • Iraqi Insurgency
    Iraqi insurgency
    The Iraqi Resistance is composed of a diverse mix of militias, foreign fighters, all-Iraqi units or mixtures opposing the United States-led multinational force in Iraq and the post-2003 Iraqi government...

  • History of Iraqi insurgency
    History of Iraqi insurgency
    This is a history of the Iraqi insurgency, the armed opposition to the United States-led multinational force in Iraq in Iraq and the post-2003 Iraqi government.-Build up to insurgency:...

  • Fallujah during the Iraq War
  • 2004 in Iraq
    2004 in Iraq
    -Incumbents:* Head of State -*# Government Administrator – L. Paul Bremer III *# President - Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer * Head of Government -*# President of the Governing Council of Iraq - Adnan Pachachi...

  • 2003 Invasion of Iraq
    2003 invasion of Iraq
    The 2003 invasion of Iraq , was the start of the conflict known as the Iraq War, or Operation Iraqi Freedom, in which a combined force of troops from the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and Poland invaded Iraq and toppled the regime of Saddam Hussein in 21 days of major combat operations...

  • Battle of Mosul (2004)
    Battle of Mosul (2004)
    The Battle for Mosul was a battle fought during the Iraq War in 2004 for the capital of the Ninawa Governorate in northern Iraq that occurred concurrently to fighting in Fallujah.- Prelude :...


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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