Nucleolus organizer region
The nucleolus organizer region (NOR) or nucleolar organizer is a chromosomal
A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and protein found in cells. It is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences. Chromosomes also contain DNA-bound proteins, which serve to package the DNA and control its functions.Chromosomes...

 region around which the nucleolus
The nucleolus is a non-membrane bound structure composed of proteins and nucleic acids found within the nucleus. Ribosomal RNA is transcribed and assembled within the nucleolus...

 forms. This region is the particular part of a chromosome that is associated with a nucleolus after the nucleus
Cell nucleus
In cell biology, the nucleus is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. The genes within these...

Cell division
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells . Cell division is usually a small segment of a larger cell cycle. This type of cell division in eukaryotes is known as mitosis, and leaves the daughter cell capable of dividing again. The corresponding sort...

. The region contains several tandem copies
Tandem repeat
Tandem repeats occur in DNA when a pattern of two or more nucleotides is repeated and the repetitions are directly adjacent to each other. -Example:An example would be:in which the sequence A-T-T-C-G is repeated three times.-Terminology:...

 of ribosomal RNA
Ribosomal RNA
Ribosomal ribonucleic acid is the RNA component of the ribosome, the enzyme that is the site of protein synthesis in all living cells. Ribosomal RNA provides a mechanism for decoding mRNA into amino acids and interacts with tRNAs during translation by providing peptidyl transferase activity...

 genes. In humans, the NOR contains genes for 5.8S, 18S, and 28S rRNA clustered on the short arms of chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21 and 22 (the acrocentric chromosomes).

In karyotype
A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of an eukaryotic cell. The term is also used for the complete set of chromosomes in a species, or an individual organism.p28...

 analysis, a silver stain
Silver stain
Silver staining is the use of silver to selectively alter the appearance of the target.-Use in medicine:It is used to stain histologic sections. This kind of staining is important especially to show proteins and DNA. It is used to show both substances inside and outside cells...

 can be used to identify the NOR. Silver nitrate
Silver nitrate
Silver nitrate is an inorganic compound with chemical formula . This compound is a versatile precursor to many other silver compounds, such as those used in photography. It is far less sensitive to light than the halides...

 inserts into the NOR-associated protein in the stalks and satellites, staining the proteins dark black. The amount of stain deposited and the number of NORs differs among the population, although the cell should normally have a maximum of 10 NORs per cell.

Several genes are located at the NOR, including RUNX2
Runt-related transcription factor 2 also known as core-binding factor subunit alpha-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RUNX2 gene RUNX2 is a key transcription factor associated with osteoblast differentiation....

Nucleolar transcription factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the UBTF gene.-Interactions:UBTF has been shown to interact with Casein kinase 2, alpha 1, TAF1C, Retinoblastoma protein and TAF1.-Further reading:...

, and APC
Adenomatosis polyposis coli
Adenomatous polyposis coli also known as deleted in polyposis 2.5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APC gene. Mutations in the APC gene may result in colorectal cancer....



Barbara McClintock
Barbara McClintock
Barbara McClintock , the 1983 Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine, was an American scientist and one of the world's most distinguished cytogeneticists. McClintock received her PhD in botany from Cornell University in 1927, where she was a leader in the development of maize cytogenetics...

 first described the "nucleolar-organizing body" in Zea mays in 1934.

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