North Dakota
Overview
 
North Dakota is a state located in the Midwestern
Midwestern United States
The Midwestern United States is one of the four U.S. geographic regions defined by the United States Census Bureau, providing an official definition of the American Midwest....

 region of the United States of America, along the Canadian border. The state is bordered by Canada to the north, Minnesota
Minnesota
Minnesota is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern United States. The twelfth largest state of the U.S., it is the twenty-first most populous, with 5.3 million residents. Minnesota was carved out of the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory and admitted to the Union as the thirty-second state...

 to the east, South Dakota
South Dakota
South Dakota is a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux American Indian tribes. Once a part of Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889. The state has an area of and an estimated population of just over...

 to the south and Montana
Montana
Montana is a state in the Western United States. The western third of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller, "island ranges" are found in the central third of the state, for a total of 77 named ranges of the Rocky Mountains. This geographical fact is reflected in the state's name,...

 to the west. North Dakota is the 19th-largest state by area in the U.S. It is also the third least populous, with 672,591 residents according to the 2010 census. North Dakota was carved out of the Dakota Territory
Dakota Territory
The Territory of Dakota was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 2, 1861, until November 2, 1889, when the final extent of the reduced territory was split and admitted to the Union as the states of North and South Dakota.The Dakota Territory consisted of...

 and admitted to the Union on November 2, 1889, simultaneously with South Dakota
South Dakota
South Dakota is a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux American Indian tribes. Once a part of Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889. The state has an area of and an estimated population of just over...

.

The state capital is Bismarck
Bismarck, North Dakota
Bismarck is the capital of the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Burleigh County. It is the second most populous city in North Dakota after Fargo. The city's population was 61,272 at the 2010 census, while its metropolitan population was 108,779...

 and the largest city is Fargo.
Encyclopedia
North Dakota is a state located in the Midwestern
Midwestern United States
The Midwestern United States is one of the four U.S. geographic regions defined by the United States Census Bureau, providing an official definition of the American Midwest....

 region of the United States of America, along the Canadian border. The state is bordered by Canada to the north, Minnesota
Minnesota
Minnesota is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern United States. The twelfth largest state of the U.S., it is the twenty-first most populous, with 5.3 million residents. Minnesota was carved out of the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory and admitted to the Union as the thirty-second state...

 to the east, South Dakota
South Dakota
South Dakota is a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux American Indian tribes. Once a part of Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889. The state has an area of and an estimated population of just over...

 to the south and Montana
Montana
Montana is a state in the Western United States. The western third of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller, "island ranges" are found in the central third of the state, for a total of 77 named ranges of the Rocky Mountains. This geographical fact is reflected in the state's name,...

 to the west. North Dakota is the 19th-largest state by area in the U.S. It is also the third least populous, with 672,591 residents according to the 2010 census. North Dakota was carved out of the Dakota Territory
Dakota Territory
The Territory of Dakota was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 2, 1861, until November 2, 1889, when the final extent of the reduced territory was split and admitted to the Union as the states of North and South Dakota.The Dakota Territory consisted of...

 and admitted to the Union on November 2, 1889, simultaneously with South Dakota
South Dakota
South Dakota is a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux American Indian tribes. Once a part of Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889. The state has an area of and an estimated population of just over...

.

The state capital is Bismarck
Bismarck, North Dakota
Bismarck is the capital of the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Burleigh County. It is the second most populous city in North Dakota after Fargo. The city's population was 61,272 at the 2010 census, while its metropolitan population was 108,779...

 and the largest city is Fargo. The primary public universities are located in Grand Forks
Grand Forks, North Dakota
Grand Forks is the third-largest city in the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Grand Forks County. According to the 2010 census, the city's population was 52,838, while that of the city and surrounding metropolitan area was 98,461...

 and Fargo. The U.S. Air Force operates Air Force Base
Air Force Base
An Air Force Base is a military airbase of any of a number of air forces, such as the United States Air Force or South African Air Force ....

s at Minot AFB and Grand Forks AFB.

For more than a decade, the state has had a strong economy, with unemployment lower than the national average, job and population growth, and low housing vacancies. Much of the growth has been based on development of the Bakken oil shale fields in the western part of the state, but it has also had growth in the technology and service sectors. Flooding in June 2011 has caused extensive damage to Minot and threatened Bismarck, the capital city.

Geography

North Dakota is considered to be in the U.S. region known as the Great Plains
Great Plains
The Great Plains are a broad expanse of flat land, much of it covered in prairie, steppe and grassland, which lies west of the Mississippi River and east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada. This area covers parts of the U.S...

, and is sometimes referred to as being the "High Plains". The state shares the Red River of the North
Red River of the North
The Red River is a North American river. Originating at the confluence of the Bois de Sioux and Otter Tail rivers in the United States, it flows northward through the Red River Valley and forms the border between the U.S. states of Minnesota and North Dakota before continuing into Manitoba, Canada...

 with Minnesota
Minnesota
Minnesota is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern United States. The twelfth largest state of the U.S., it is the twenty-first most populous, with 5.3 million residents. Minnesota was carved out of the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory and admitted to the Union as the thirty-second state...

 on the east; South Dakota
South Dakota
South Dakota is a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux American Indian tribes. Once a part of Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889. The state has an area of and an estimated population of just over...

 is to the south, Montana
Montana
Montana is a state in the Western United States. The western third of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller, "island ranges" are found in the central third of the state, for a total of 77 named ranges of the Rocky Mountains. This geographical fact is reflected in the state's name,...

 is to the west, and the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of . Saskatchewan is bordered on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, and on the south by the U.S. states of Montana and North Dakota....

 and Manitoba
Manitoba
Manitoba is a Canadian prairie province with an area of . The province has over 110,000 lakes and has a largely continental climate because of its flat topography. Agriculture, mostly concentrated in the fertile southern and western parts of the province, is vital to the province's economy; other...

 are north. North Dakota sits essentially in the middle of North America, and in fact a stone marker in Rugby, North Dakota
Rugby, North Dakota
Rugby is a city in Pierce County, North Dakota in the United States. It is the county seat of Pierce County. The population was 2,876 at the 2010 census. Rugby was founded in 1886.Rugby is often billed as being the geographic center of North America....

, identifies itself as being the "Geographic Center of the North American Continent". With 70762 square miles (183,273 km²), North Dakota is the 19th largest state.

The western half of the state consists of the hilly Great Plains
Great Plains
The Great Plains are a broad expanse of flat land, much of it covered in prairie, steppe and grassland, which lies west of the Mississippi River and east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada. This area covers parts of the U.S...

, and the northern part of the Badlands
Badlands
A badlands is a type of dry terrain where softer sedimentary rocks and clay-rich soils have been extensively eroded by wind and water. It can resemble malpaís, a terrain of volcanic rock. Canyons, ravines, gullies, hoodoos and other such geological forms are common in badlands. They are often...

 to the west of the Missouri River
Missouri River
The Missouri River flows through the central United States, and is a tributary of the Mississippi River. It is the longest river in North America and drains the third largest area, though only the thirteenth largest by discharge. The Missouri's watershed encompasses most of the American Great...

. The state's high point, White Butte
White Butte
White Butte is the highest natural point in the U.S. state of North Dakota. At an elevation of 3,506 ft , it is a prominent butte in Slope County, in the Badlands of the southwestern part of the state....

 at 3506 feet (1,069 m), and Theodore Roosevelt National Park
Theodore Roosevelt National Park
Theodore Roosevelt National Park is a United States National Park comprising three geographically separated areas of badlands in western North Dakota. The park was named for U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, in honor of his achievements in conservation as president and for the landscape's...

 are located in the Badlands. The region is abundant in fossil fuel
Fossil fuel
Fossil fuels are fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes exceeds 650 million years...

s including crude oil
Petroleum
Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling...

 and lignite
Lignite
Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad,is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere between coal and peat...

 coal. The Missouri River
Missouri River
The Missouri River flows through the central United States, and is a tributary of the Mississippi River. It is the longest river in North America and drains the third largest area, though only the thirteenth largest by discharge. The Missouri's watershed encompasses most of the American Great...

 forms Lake Sakakawea
Lake Sakakawea
Lake Sakakawea is a reservoir in the Missouri River basin in central North Dakota. Named for the Shoshone-Hidatsa woman Sakakawea, it is the third largest man-made lake in the United States, after Lake Mead and Lake Powell. The lake lies in parts of six counties in western North Dakota: Dunn,...

, the third largest man-made lake in the United States, behind the Garrison Dam
Garrison Dam
Garrison Dam is an earth-fill embankment dam on the Missouri River in central North Dakota. At over two miles in length, it is the fifth-largest earthen dam in the world, constructed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers from 1947-53...

.

The central region of the state is divided into the Drift Prairie
Drift Prairie
The Drift Prairie is a geographic region of North and South Dakota.The gently rolling hills and shallow lakes were formed by glacial action, while the Badlands are characterized by the lack of this action, and the Red River Valley was a former lake bed...

 and the Missouri Plateau. The eastern part of the state consists of the flat Red River Valley
Red River Valley
The Red River Valley is a region in central North America that is drained by the Red River of the North. It is significant in the geography of North Dakota, Minnesota, and Manitoba for its relatively fertile lands and the population centers of Fargo, Moorhead, Grand Forks, and Winnipeg...

, the bottom of glacial Lake Agassiz
Lake Agassiz
Lake Agassiz was an immense glacial lake located in the center of North America. Fed by glacial runoff at the end of the last glacial period, its area was larger than all of the modern Great Lakes combined, and it held more water than contained by all lakes in the world today.-Conception:First...

. Its fertile soil, drained by the meandering Red River
Red River of the North
The Red River is a North American river. Originating at the confluence of the Bois de Sioux and Otter Tail rivers in the United States, it flows northward through the Red River Valley and forms the border between the U.S. states of Minnesota and North Dakota before continuing into Manitoba, Canada...

 flowing northward into Lake Winnipeg
Lake Winnipeg
Lake Winnipeg is a large, lake in central North America, in the province of Manitoba, Canada, with its southern tip about north of the city of Winnipeg...

, supports a large agriculture industry. Devils Lake, the largest natural lake in the state, is also found in the east.

Eastern North Dakota is overall flat, however, there are significant hills and butte
Butte
A butte is a conspicuous isolated hill with steep, often vertical sides and a small, relatively flat top; it is smaller than mesas, plateaus, and table landform tables. In some regions, such as the north central and northwestern United States, the word is used for any hill...

s in western North Dakota. Most of the state is covered in grassland
Grassland
Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses and other herbaceous plants . However, sedge and rush families can also be found. Grasslands occur naturally on all continents except Antarctica...

; crops cover most of eastern North Dakota but are sparse in the center and west. Natural trees in North Dakota are found usually where there is good drainage such as the ravines and valley near the Pembina Gorge and Killdeer Mountains, the Turtle Mountains, the hills around Devil's Lake, in the dunes area of McHenry County in central North Dakota, and along the Sheyenne Valley slopes and the Sheyenne delta.

Climate

Meteorological events can include rain, snow, hail
Hail
Hail is a form of solid precipitation. It consists of balls or irregular lumps of ice, each of which is referred to as a hail stone. Hail stones on Earth consist mostly of water ice and measure between and in diameter, with the larger stones coming from severe thunderstorms...

, blizzards, polar front
Polar front
In meteorology, the polar front is the boundary between the polar cell and the Ferrel cell in each hemisphere. At this boundary a sharp gradient in temperature occurs between these two air masses, each at very different temperatures....

s, tornadoes, thunderstorms, and high-velocity straight-line winds
Downburst
A downburst is created by an area of significantly rain-cooled air that, after reaching ground level, spreads out in all directions producing strong winds. Unlike winds in a tornado, winds in a downburst are directed outwards from the point where it hits land or water...

. Depending on location, average annual precipitation ranges from 14 inch.

Springtime flooding is a relatively common event in the Red River Valley
Red River Valley
The Red River Valley is a region in central North America that is drained by the Red River of the North. It is significant in the geography of North Dakota, Minnesota, and Manitoba for its relatively fertile lands and the population centers of Fargo, Moorhead, Grand Forks, and Winnipeg...

, because of the river flowing north into Canada, creating ice jams. The spring melt and the eventual runoff typically begins earlier in the southern part of the valley than in the northern part. The most destructive flooding in eastern North Dakota occurred in 1997.

North Dakota is largely semi-arid; however, the low temperatures and snowpack prevents the state from having a xeric character.

The American Lung Association
American Lung Association
The American Lung Association is a voluntary health organization whose mission is to save lives by improving lung health and preventing lung disease.-History:...

 in its 2009 "State of the Air" report ranked Fargo, North Dakota
Fargo, North Dakota
Fargo is the largest city in the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Cass County. In 2010, its population was 105,549, and it had an estimated metropolitan population of 208,777...

 as the cleanest city in the United States, and gave the balance of the state 11 "A" ratings on air quality.

History

Prior to European contact, Native Americans inhabited North Dakota for thousands of years. The first European to reach the area was the French-Canadian trader La Vérendrye, who led an exploration party to Mandan villages in 1738. The trading arrangement between tribes was such that North Dakota tribes rarely dealt directly with Europeans. However, the native tribes were in sufficient contact that by the time that Lewis and Clark
Lewis and Clark Expedition
The Lewis and Clark Expedition, or ″Corps of Discovery Expedition" was the first transcontinental expedition to the Pacific Coast by the United States. Commissioned by President Thomas Jefferson and led by two Virginia-born veterans of Indian wars in the Ohio Valley, Meriwether Lewis and William...

 entered North Dakota in 1804, they were aware of the French and then Spanish claims to their territory.
Much of present-day North Dakota was included in the Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
The Louisiana Purchase was the acquisition by the United States of America of of France's claim to the territory of Louisiana in 1803. The U.S...

 of 1803; the remainder was acquired in the Treaty of 1818
Treaty of 1818
The Convention respecting fisheries, boundary and the restoration of slaves between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, also known as the London Convention, Anglo-American Convention of 1818, Convention of 1818, or simply the Treaty of 1818, was a...

. Much of the acquired land was organized into Minnesota
Minnesota Territory
The Territory of Minnesota was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 3, 1849, until May 11, 1858, when the eastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Minnesota.-History:...

 and Nebraska
Nebraska Territory
The Territory of Nebraska was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 30, 1854, until March 1, 1867, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Nebraska. The Nebraska Territory was created by the Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854...

 Territories. Dakota Territory
Dakota Territory
The Territory of Dakota was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 2, 1861, until November 2, 1889, when the final extent of the reduced territory was split and admitted to the Union as the states of North and South Dakota.The Dakota Territory consisted of...

, making up present-day North and South Dakota
South Dakota
South Dakota is a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux American Indian tribes. Once a part of Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889. The state has an area of and an estimated population of just over...

, along with parts of present-day Wyoming
Wyoming
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the Western United States. The western two thirds of the state is covered mostly with the mountain ranges and rangelands in the foothills of the Eastern Rocky Mountains, while the eastern third of the state is high elevation prairie known as the High...

 and Montana
Montana
Montana is a state in the Western United States. The western third of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller, "island ranges" are found in the central third of the state, for a total of 77 named ranges of the Rocky Mountains. This geographical fact is reflected in the state's name,...

, was organized on March 2, 1861. Dakota Territory was settled sparsely until the late 19th century, when the railroads entered the region and aggressively marketed the land. An omnibus bill for statehood for North Dakota, South Dakota
South Dakota
South Dakota is a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux American Indian tribes. Once a part of Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889. The state has an area of and an estimated population of just over...

, Montana
Montana
Montana is a state in the Western United States. The western third of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller, "island ranges" are found in the central third of the state, for a total of 77 named ranges of the Rocky Mountains. This geographical fact is reflected in the state's name,...

, and Washington titled the Enabling Act of 1889
Enabling Act of 1889
The Enabling Act of 1889 is a United States statute that enabled North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Washington to form state governments and to gain admission as states of the union....

 was passed on February 22, 1889 during the administration of Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
Stephen Grover Cleveland was the 22nd and 24th president of the United States. Cleveland is the only president to serve two non-consecutive terms and therefore is the only individual to be counted twice in the numbering of the presidents...

. After Cleveland left office, it was left to his successor, Benjamin Harrison
Benjamin Harrison
Benjamin Harrison was the 23rd President of the United States . Harrison, a grandson of President William Henry Harrison, was born in North Bend, Ohio, and moved to Indianapolis, Indiana at age 21, eventually becoming a prominent politician there...

, to sign proclamations formally admitting North and South Dakota to the Union on November 2, 1889. The rivalry between the two new states presented a dilemma of which was to be admitted first. Harrison directed Secretary of State James G. Blaine
James G. Blaine
James Gillespie Blaine was a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine, two-time Secretary of State...

 to shuffle the papers and obscure from him which he was signing first and the actual order went unrecorded, thus no one knows which of the Dakotas was admitted first. However, since North Dakota alphabetically appears before South Dakota, its proclamation was published first in the Statutes At Large. Since that day, it has become common to list the Dakotas alphabetically and thus North Dakota is usually listed as the 39th state.

Unrest among wheat farmers, especially among Norwegians, led to a radical political movement after World War I centered in the left-wing Non Partisan League ("NPL"). The NPL, which eventually merged into the Democratic Party, attempted to insulate North Dakota from the power of out-of-state banks and corporations. In addition to founding the state-owned Bank of North Dakota
Bank of North Dakota
The Bank of North Dakota is a state-owned and -run financial institution based in Bismarck, North Dakota. Under state law the bank is the State of North Dakota doing business as the Bank of North Dakota....

 and North Dakota Mill and Elevator
North Dakota Mill and Elevator
The North Dakota Mill and Elevator is the largest flour mill in the United States. It is located in the city of Grand Forks, North Dakota. The mill is owned by the U.S. state of North Dakota and is the only state-owned milling facility in the United States....

 (both still in existence), the NPL established a state-owned railroad line (later sold to the Soo Line Railroad
Soo Line Railroad
The Soo Line Railroad is the primary United States railroad subsidiary of the Canadian Pacific Railway , controlled through the Soo Line Corporation, and one of seven U.S. Class I railroads. Although it is named for the Minneapolis, St. Paul and Sault Ste...

). Anti-corporate laws were passed that virtually prohibited a corporation or bank from owning title to land zoned as farmland. These laws, still in force today, after having been upheld by both State and Federal courts, make it almost impossible to foreclose on farmland, as even after foreclosure, the property title cannot be held by a bank or mortgage company.

A round of federal construction projects began in the 1950s, including the Garrison Dam
Garrison Dam
Garrison Dam is an earth-fill embankment dam on the Missouri River in central North Dakota. At over two miles in length, it is the fifth-largest earthen dam in the world, constructed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers from 1947-53...

 and the Minot
Minot Air Force Base
Minot Air Force Base is a U.S. Air Force installation in Ward County, North Dakota, north of the city of Minot. In the 2010 census, the base was counted as a CDP with a total population of 5,521....

 and Grand Forks
Grand Forks Air Force Base
Grand Forks Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located north of Emerado, North Dakota and approximately west of Grand Forks, North Dakota...

 Air Force
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947 under the National Security Act of...

 bases. There was a boom in oil exploration in western North Dakota in the 1980s, as rising petroleum prices made development profitable. The original North Dakota State Capitol burned to the ground on December 28, 1930, and was replaced by a limestone
Limestone
Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate . Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera....

 faced art deco
Art Deco
Art deco , or deco, is an eclectic artistic and design style that began in Paris in the 1920s and flourished internationally throughout the 1930s, into the World War II era. The style influenced all areas of design, including architecture and interior design, industrial design, fashion and...

 skyscraper that still stands today.

Population

From fewer than 2,000 people in 1870, North Dakota's population grew to near 680,000 by 1930. Growth then slowed, and the population has fluctuated slightly over the past seven decades, hitting a low of 617,761 in the 1970 census, with a total of 642,200 in the 2000 census. The United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

, as of July 1, 2008, estimated North Dakota's population at 641,481, which represents a decrease of 714, or 0.1%, since the last census in 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 20,460 people (that is 67,788 births minus 47,328 deaths) and a decrease due to net migration of 17,787 people out of the state. Immigration
Immigration to the United States
Immigration to the United States has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the history of the United States. The economic, social, and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding ethnicity, economic benefits, jobs for non-immigrants,...

 from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 3,323 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 21,110 people. The age and gender distributions approximate the national average. Except for Native Americans
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of North and South America, their descendants and other ethnic groups who are identified with those peoples. Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, and in the United States as Native Americans...

, the North Dakota population has a lesser percentage of minorities than in the nation as a whole. The center of population
Center of population
In demographics, the center of population of a region is a geographical point that describes a centerpoint of the region's population...

 of North Dakota is located in Wells County
Wells County, North Dakota
-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 5,102 people, 2,215 households, and 1,453 families residing in the county. The population density was 4 people per square mile . There were 2,643 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile...

, near Sykeston
Sykeston, North Dakota
As of the census of 2000, there were 153 people, 74 households, and 40 families residing in the city. The population density was 407.8 people per square mile . There were 95 housing units at an average density of 253.2 per square mile...

.

Emigration

From 1923 through the beginning of the 21st century, North Dakota experienced a virtually constant decline in population, particularly among younger people with university degrees. Subsistence farming proved to be too risky for families, and many people moved to urban areas for jobs. One of the major causes of emigration in North Dakota is the lack of skilled jobs for college graduates. Some propose the expansion of economic development programs to create skilled and high-tech jobs, but the effectiveness of such programs has been open to debate. During the first decade of the 21st century, the population increased, in large part because of jobs in the oil industry, related to development of oil-shale fields.

Race and ancestry

Most North Dakotans are of Northern European descent. As of 2009, the five largest ancestry groups in North Dakota are:
  • German
    German American
    German Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry and comprise about 51 million people, or 17% of the U.S. population, the country's largest self-reported ancestral group...

    : 47.2% (305,322)
  • Norwegian
    Norwegian American
    Norwegian Americans are Americans of Norwegian descent. Norwegian immigrants went to the United States primarily in the later half of the 19th century and the first few decades of the 20th century. There are more than 4.5 million Norwegian Americans according to the most recent U.S. census, and...

    : 30.8% (199,154)
  • Irish
    Irish American
    Irish Americans are citizens of the United States who can trace their ancestry to Ireland. A total of 36,278,332 Americans—estimated at 11.9% of the total population—reported Irish ancestry in the 2008 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau...

    : 7.7% (49,892)
  • Swedish
    Swedish American
    Swedish Americans are Americans of Swedish descent, especially the descendants of about 1.2 million immigrants from Sweden during 1885-1915. Most were Lutherans who affiliated with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America ; some were Methodists...

    : 4.7% (30,194)
  • Russian
    Russian American
    Russian Americans are primarily Americans who traces their ancestry to Russia. The definition can be applied to recent Russian immigrants to the United States, as well as to settlers of 19th century Russian settlements in northwestern America which includes today's California, Alaska and...

    : 4.1% (26,642)
  • French
    French American
    French Americans or Franco-Americans are Americans of French or French Canadian descent. About 11.8 million U.S. residents are of this descent, and about 1.6 million speak French at home.An additional 450,000 U.S...

    : 4.1% (26,320)
  • English
    English American
    English Americans are citizens or residents of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England....

    : 3.9% (25,331)


According to the 2010 Census, the racial and ethnic composition of North Dakota was as follows:
  • White
    White American
    White Americans are people of the United States who are considered or consider themselves White. The United States Census Bureau defines White people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa...

    : 90.0%
  • Native American: 5.4%
  • Hispanic or Latino
    Hispanic and Latino Americans
    Hispanic or Latino Americans are Americans with origins in the Hispanic countries of Latin America or in Spain, and in general all persons in the United States who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino.1990 Census of Population and Housing: A self-designated classification for people whose origins...

     (of any race): 2.0%
  • Black or African American
    African American
    African Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have at least partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa and are the direct descendants of enslaved Africans within the boundaries of the present United States...

    : 1.2%
  • Asian
    Asian American
    Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent. The U.S. Census Bureau definition of Asians as "Asian” refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent, including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan,...

    : 1.0%
  • Pacific Islander
    Pacific Islander American
    Pacific Islander Americans, also known as Oceanian Americans, are residents of the United States with original ancestry from Oceania. They represent the smallest racial group counted in the United States census of 2000. They numbered 874,000 people or 0.3 percent of the United States population...

    : 0.1%

  • Some other race: 0.5%
  • Two or more races
    Multiracial American
    Multiracial Americans, US residents who identify themselves as of "two or more races", were numbered at around 9 million, or 2.9% of the population, in the census of 2010. However there is considerable evidence that the real number is far higher. Prior to the mid-20th century many people hid their...

    : -0.2%

Religion

North Dakota has the lowest percentage of non-religious people of any state, and it also has the most churches per capita of any state.

A 2001 survey indicated that 35% of North Dakota's population was Lutheran
Lutheranism
Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the theology of Martin Luther, a German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation...

, and 30% was Roman Catholic
Roman Catholicism in the United States
The Catholic Church in the United States is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, the Christian Church in full communion with the Pope. With more than 68.5 registered million members, it is the largest single religious denomination in the United States, comprising about 22 percent of the population...

. Other religious groups represented were Methodists (7%), Baptists (6%), the Assemblies of God
Assemblies of God
The Assemblies of God , officially the World Assemblies of God Fellowship, is a group of over 140 autonomous but loosely-associated national groupings of churches which together form the world's largest Pentecostal denomination...

 (3%), and Jehovah's Witness (1%). Christians with unstated or other denominational affiliations, including other Protestants and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormonism
Mormonism
Mormonism is the religion practiced by Mormons, and is the predominant religious tradition of the Latter Day Saint movement. This movement was founded by Joseph Smith, Jr. beginning in the 1820s as a form of Christian primitivism. During the 1830s and 1840s, Mormonism gradually distinguished itself...

), totaled 3%, bringing the total Christian population to 86%. Other religions, such as Judaism, Islam, Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

, and Hinduism
Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...

, together represented 4% of the population. There were an estimated 920 Muslims and 730 Jews in the state in 2000. Three percent of respondents answered "no religion" on the survey, and 6% declined to answer.

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were the Roman Catholic Church with 179,349; the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America is a mainline Protestant denomination headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. The ELCA officially came into existence on January 1, 1988, by the merging of three churches. As of December 31, 2009, it had 4,543,037 baptized members, with 2,527,941 of them...

 with 174,554; and the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod with 23,720.

American Indian presence

North Dakota has a great number of Native Americans. Powwows (or pow-wows) are an important aspect of Native American culture. Throughout Native American history, powwows were held, usually in the spring, to rejoice on the beginning of new life. These events brought Native American tribes together for singing and dancing and allowed them to meet up with old friendships, as well as to make new ones. Many powwows also held religious significance for some tribes. Today, powwows are still a part of the Native American culture, and are attended by Native and non-Natives alike. In North Dakota, the United Tribes International Powwow, held each September in Bismarck
Bismarck, North Dakota
Bismarck is the capital of the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Burleigh County. It is the second most populous city in North Dakota after Fargo. The city's population was 61,272 at the 2010 census, while its metropolitan population was 108,779...

, is one of the largest powwows in the United States.

A powwow is complete with parades and dancers in regalia, with many dancing styles presented. It is traditional for male dancers to wear regalia decorated with beads, quills and eagle feathers; male grass dancers wear colorful fringe regalia; and male fancy dancers wear brightly colored feathers. Female dancers dance much more subtly than the male dancers. Fancy female dancers wear cloth, beaded moccasins and jewelry, while the jingle dress dancer wears a dress made of metal cones. There are intertribal dances throughout the powwow, where everyone (even spectators) can take part in the dancing.

Norwegian and Icelandic influence

Around 1870 many European immigrants from Norway settled in North Dakota's northeastern corner, especially near the Red River. Icelanders also arrived from Canada. Pembina
Pembina, North Dakota
Pembina is a city in Pembina County, North Dakota in the United States. The population was 592 at the 2010 census.The area of Pembina was long inhabited by various indigenous peoples...

 housed many Norwegians when it was founded; they worked on family farms. They started Lutheran churches and schools and they greatly outnumbered other denominations in the area. This group has unique foods such as lefse
Lefse
Lefse is a traditional soft, Norwegian flatbread. Lefse is made out of potato, milk or cream and flour, and cooked on a griddle. Special tools are available for lefse baking, including long wooden turning sticks and special rolling pins with deep grooves.-Flavoring:There are many ways of...

 and lutefisk
Lutefisk
Lutefisk or Lutfisk is a traditional dish of the Nordic countries and parts of the Midwest United States. It is made from aged stockfish or dried/salted whitefish and lye . It is gelatinous in texture, and has an extremely strong, pungent odor...

. The continent's largest Scandinavian event, Norsk Høstfest
Norsk Høstfest
Norsk Høstfest is an annual festival held each Fall in Minot, North Dakota. It is North America's largest Scandinavian festival. The event is conducted in the All Seasons Arena on the grounds of the North Dakota State Fair in Minot, North Dakota...

, is celebrated each September in Minot
Minot, North Dakota
Minot is a city located in north central North Dakota in the United States. It is most widely known for the Air Force base located approximately 15 miles north of the city. With a population of 40,888 at the 2010 census, Minot is the fourth largest city in the state...

. The Icelandic State Park in Pembina County
Pembina County, North Dakota
Pembina County is a county located in the U.S. state of North Dakota. At the time of the 2010 Census its population was 7,413. The county seat is Cavalier....

 and an annual Icelandic festival reflect immigrants from that country.

Old world folk customs have persisted for decades, with revival of techniques in weaving, silver crafting, and wood carving. Traditional turf-roof houses are displayed in parks; this style originated in Iceland. A stave church
Stave church
A stave church is a medieval wooden church with a post and beam construction related to timber framing. The wall frames are filled with vertical planks. The load-bearing posts have lent their name to the building technique...

 is a landmark in Minot. Ethnic Norwegians constitute nearly one-third or 32.3% of Minot's total population and 30.8% of North Dakota's total population.

Germans from Russia

Ethnic Germans who had settled in Russia for several generations grew dissatisfied in the nineteenth century. About 100,000 immigrated to the U.S. by 1900, settling primarily in North and South Dakota, Kansas and Nebraska. The south-central part of North Dakota became known as "the German-Russian triangle". By 1910, about 60,000 ethnic Germans from Russia lived in Central North Dakota. They were Lutherans and Roman Catholics who had kept many German customs of the time when their ancestors emigrated to Russia. They were committed to agriculture. A famous art form by such ethnic Germans are wrought iron crosses, which are used to mark grave sites.

Fine and performing arts

North Dakota's major fine art
Fine art
Fine art or the fine arts encompass art forms developed primarily for aesthetics and/or concept rather than practical application. Art is often a synonym for fine art, as employed in the term "art gallery"....

 museums and venues include the Chester Fritz Auditorium
Chester Fritz Auditorium
The Chester Fritz Auditorium is a performance facility on the campus of the University of North Dakota located in the city of Grand Forks, North Dakota. "The Fritz", as it is commonly known, is used for many events including concerts, dance groups, and popular Broadway musicals...

, Empire Arts Center
Empire Arts Center
The Empire Arts Center is a movie theatre in downtown Grand Forks, North Dakota United States. It was built in 1919. It was renovated in 1998 due to damage from the 1997 Red River flood and now is a center for the arts in the Greater Grand Forks metropolitan area.-External links:*...

, the Fargo Theatre
Fargo Theatre
The Fargo Theatre is an art deco movie theatre in downtown Fargo, North Dakota. It was built in 1926. It was restored in 1999 to its historic appearance and now is a center for the arts in the Fargo-Moorhead metropolitan area....

, North Dakota Museum of Art
North Dakota Museum of Art
The North Dakota Museum of Art is the official art museum of the U.S. state of North Dakota. Located on the campus of the University of North Dakota in Grand Forks, the museum is a private not-for-profit institution...

, and the Plains Art Museum
Plains Art Museum
The Plains Art Museum is a fine arts museum located in downtown Fargo, North Dakota, United States.- History :The history of the museum dates back to 1965 when the "Red River Art Center" opened in the former Moorhead, Minnesota, post office. The name of the museum was changed when it was...

. The Bismarck-Mandan Symphony Orchestra
Bismarck-Mandan Symphony Orchestra
The Bismarck-Mandan Symphony Orchestra is a community orchestra based out of Bismarck, North Dakota. The symphony employs local and regional musicians in performances of classical and modern symphonic music.-External links:*...

, Fargo-Moorhead Symphony Orchestra
Fargo-Moorhead Symphony Orchestra
The Fargo-Moorhead Symphony Orchestra is a professional orchestra based out of Fargo, North Dakota. The symphony employs local and regional musicians in performances of classical and modern symphonic music....

, Greater Grand Forks Symphony Orchestra
Greater Grand Forks Symphony Orchestra
The Greater Grand Forks Symphony Orchestra is a community orchestra based in Grand Forks, North Dakota that began operation in 1908. One of only eighteen American Orchestras to have surpassed their centennial year, the symphony employs local and regional musicians in performances of classical and...

, Minot Symphony Orchestra
Minot Symphony Orchestra
The Minot Symphony Orchestra is a program of Minot State University in Minot, North Dakota. Although a separate agency, the university's music department oversees the handling of the orchestra. Maestro Denis Simons, a professor of music at Minot State University, is the orchestra's conductor and...

 and Great Plains Harmony Chorus are full-time professional and semi-professional musical ensembles that perform concerts and offer educational programs to the community.

Entertainment

North Dakotan musicians of many genres include blues
Blues
Blues is the name given to both a musical form and a music genre that originated in African-American communities of primarily the "Deep South" of the United States at the end of the 19th century from spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts and chants, and rhymed simple narrative ballads...

 guitarist Jonny Lang
Jonny Lang
Jonny Lang is a Grammy award-winning American blues, gospel, and rock singer, songwriter and recording artist. Lang's music is notable for both his unusual voice, which has been compared to that of a forty-year-old blues veteran, and for his guitar solos...

, country music
Country music
Country music is a popular American musical style that began in the rural Southern United States in the 1920s. It takes its roots from Western cowboy and folk music...

 singer Lynn Anderson
Lynn Anderson
Lynn Rene Anderson is an American country music singer and equestrian known for a string of hits throughout the 1970s and early 1980s, most notably her Grammy Award-winning, worldwide mega-hit, " Rose Garden." Helped by her regular exposure on national television, Anderson was one of the most...

, jazz
Jazz
Jazz is a musical style that originated at the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States. It was born out of a mix of African and European music traditions. From its early development until the present, jazz has incorporated music from 19th and 20th...

 and traditional pop singer and songwriter Peggy Lee
Peggy Lee
Peggy Lee was an American jazz and popular music singer, songwriter, composer, and actress in a career spanning six decades. From her beginning as a vocalist on local radio to singing with Benny Goodman's big band, she forged a sophisticated persona, evolving into a multi-faceted artist and...

, big band
Big band
A big band is a type of musical ensemble associated with jazz and the Swing Era typically consisting of rhythm, brass, and woodwind instruments totaling approximately twelve to twenty-five musicians...

 leader Lawrence Welk
Lawrence Welk
Lawrence Welk was an American musician, accordionist, bandleader, and television impresario, who hosted The Lawrence Welk Show from 1955 to 1982...

, and pop singer Bobby Vee
Bobby Vee
Robert Thomas Velline , known as Bobby Vee, is an American pop music singer. According to Billboard magazine, Vee has had 38 Hot 100 chart hits, 10 of which hit the Top 20.-Career:...

. The state is also home to two groups of the Indie rock
Indie rock
Indie rock is a genre of alternative rock that originated in the United Kingdom and the United States in the 1980s. Indie rock is extremely diverse, with sub-genres that include lo-fi, post-rock, math rock, indie pop, dream pop, noise rock, space rock, sadcore, riot grrrl and emo, among others...

 genre that have become known on a national scale: GodheadSilo
GodheadSilo
godheadSilo was a noise rock duo from Fargo, North Dakota.The band consisted of Mike Kunka on bass and Dan Haugh on drums. The two met growing up near Fargo, North Dakota. The band originally started as a three-piece, with Phil Leitch playing guitar. Leitch left the band after their first show at...

 (originally from Fargo, but later relocated to Olympia, Washington
Olympia, Washington
Olympia is the capital city of the U.S. state of Washington and the county seat of Thurston County. It was incorporated on January 28, 1859. The population was 46,478 at the 2010 census...

 and became signed to the Kill Rock Stars
Kill Rock Stars
Kill Rock Stars is an independent record label founded in 1991 by Slim Moon and based in both Olympia, Washington and Portland, Oregon. The label has released a variety of work in different genres, making it difficult to pigeonhole as having any one artistic mission...

 label) and June Panic
June Panic
June Panic is an American singer-songwriter from Grand Forks, North Dakota.-Biography:June Panic first began performing and recording in 1990, and released his early material on cassette tape for the label 3 Out of 4 Records. His first CD was the initial release for the label Secretly Canadian; he...

 (also of Fargo, signed to Secretly Canadian
Secretly Canadian
Secretly Canadian is an American independent record label based in Bloomington, Indiana. It was started in 1996 by Chris and Ben Swanson, Eric Weddle, and Jonathan Cargill. Their first release was a re-issue of an album by June Panic...

).

Ed Schultz
Ed Schultz
Edward Andrew "Ed" Schultz Is an American television and radio host and a liberal political commentator . He is the host of The Ed Show, a daily news talk program on MSNBC, and The Ed Schultz Show, a talk radio show, nationally syndicated by Dial Global, promising "straight talk."-Early...

 is known around the country as the host of progressive talk radio
Progressive talk radio
Progressive talk radio is a talk radio format devoted to expressing liberal or progressive viewpoints of issues, as opposed to conservative talk radio...

 show The Ed Schultz Show
The Ed Schultz Show
The Ed Schultz Show is a radio program hosted by Ed Schultz. It was formerly broadcast from KFGO in Fargo, North Dakota. It is heard on a network of over 100 stations , including seven of the 10 largest radio markets...

, and The Ed Show
The Ed Show
The Ed Show is an hour-long weeknight news commentary program on MSNBC. The program is hosted by Ed Schultz, who hosts the nationally syndicated radio program, The Ed Schultz Show. It debuted on MSNBC on April 6, 2009, at 6 P.M. ET. It moved to 10 P.M. ET, filling the time slot previously...

on MSNBC
MSNBC
MSNBC is a cable news channel based in the United States available in the US, Germany , South Africa, the Middle East and Canada...

. Shadoe Stevens
Shadoe Stevens
Shadoe Stevens is an American radio host, voiceover actor, and television personality. He was the host of American Top 40 from 1988 to 1995...

 hosted American Top 40
American Top 40
American Top 40 is an internationally syndicated, independent radio program created by Casey Kasem, Don Bustany, Tom Rounds and Ron Jacobs. Originally a production of Watermark Inc...

from 1988 to 1995. Josh Duhamel
Josh Duhamel
Joshua David "Josh" Duhamel is an American actor and former fashion model. He first achieved acting success in 1999 as Leo du Pres on ABC's All My Children and later as the chief of security, Danny McCoy, on NBC's Las Vegas...

 is an Emmy Award-winning actor known for his roles in All My Children
All My Children
All My Children is an American television soap opera that aired on ABC from January 5, 1970 to September 23, 2011. Created by Agnes Nixon, All My Children is set in Pine Valley, Pennsylvania, a fictitious suburb of Philadelphia. The show features Susan Lucci as Erica Kane, one of daytime's most...

and Las Vegas
Las Vegas (TV series)
Las Vegas was an American television series broadcast by NBC from September 22, 2003 to February 15, 2008. The show focuses on a team of people working at the ficticional Montecito Resort & Casino dealing with issues that arise within the working environment, ranging from valet parking and...

. Nicole Linkletter
Nicole Linkletter
Nicole Linkletter is an American fashion model, winner of Cycle 5 of America's Next Top Model.-America's Next Top Model:Linkletter appeared in Cycle 5 of the show after auditioning for the show at the Mall of America...

 and CariDee English
CariDee English
CariDee English is an American fashion model and TV personality who won Cycle 7 of America's Next Top Model in December 2006. Her prize was a $100,000 contract with CoverGirl Cosmetics, a modeling contract with Elite Models, and a six-page fashion editorial and cover for Seventeen magazine...

 were winning contestants of Cycles 5
America's Next Top Model, Cycle 5
America's Next Top Model, Cycle 5 was the fifth cycle of America's Next Top Model. The judging panel ensemble was altered - Janice Dickinson was replaced by one of the most recognizable models of the 1960s, Twiggy, and Nolé Marin was replaced by runway coach J. Alexander...

 and 7
America's Next Top Model, Cycle 7
America's Next Top Model, Cycle 7 started airing on September 20, 2006 as the first to be aired on The CW network. The season's catch-phrase is "The Competition Won't Be Pretty." The season's promotional theme song is "Hot Stuff " by Pussycat Dolls.To date, this cycle is the most watched season in...

, respectively, of America's Next Top Model
America's Next Top Model
America's Next Top Model is a reality television show in which a number of women compete for the title of America's Next Top Model and a chance to start their career in the modeling industry....

. Kellan Lutz
Kellan Lutz
Kellan Christopher Lutz is an American fashion model, and film and television actor, who is best known for playing Emmett Cullen in the Twilight series.-Early life:...

 has appeared in movies such as Stick It
Stick It
Stick It is an American teen comedy-drama film starring Jeff Bridges, Missy Peregrym, and Vanessa Lengies. It was written and directed by Jessica Bendinger, writer of Bring It On; the film marks her directorial debut...

, Accepted
Accepted
Accepted is a 2006 American comedy film directed by Steve Pink and written by Adam Cooper, Bill Collage, and Mark Perez. The main plot centers around a group of would-be college freshmen who, after being rejected from all the colleges and universities to which they had applied, proceed to create...

, Prom Night
Prom Night (2008 film)
Prom Night is a 2008 horror film from Screen Gems directed by Nelson McCormick and starring Brittany Snow. The film is a re-imagining of the 1980 Canadian horror film of the same name.-Plot:...

, and Twilight
Twilight (2008 film)
Twilight is a 2008 American romantic vampire film based on Stephenie Meyer's popular novel of the same name. Directed by Catherine Hardwicke, the film stars Kristen Stewart and Robert Pattinson. It is the first film in The Twilight Saga film series...

.

Popular culture

North Dakota cuisine includes Knoephla soup: a thick, stew-like chicken soup with dumplings, lutefisk
Lutefisk
Lutefisk or Lutfisk is a traditional dish of the Nordic countries and parts of the Midwest United States. It is made from aged stockfish or dried/salted whitefish and lye . It is gelatinous in texture, and has an extremely strong, pungent odor...

: lye-treated fish, Kuchen
Kuchen
Kuchen , the German word for cake, is used in other languages as the name for several different types of sweet desserts, pastries, and gateaux...

: a pie-like pastry, lefse
Lefse
Lefse is a traditional soft, Norwegian flatbread. Lefse is made out of potato, milk or cream and flour, and cooked on a griddle. Special tools are available for lefse baking, including long wooden turning sticks and special rolling pins with deep grooves.-Flavoring:There are many ways of...

: a flat bread made from riced potatoes that is eaten with butter and sugar, Fleischkuekle
Fleischkuekle
Fleischkuekle is a type of meat pie made with flat bread, similar to a Cornish pasty, or Russian chebureki. The dish is traditional Volga Deutsch/Germans from Russia recipe, and through immigration became an addition to the Cuisine of North Dakota. It is also spelled Fleischkuechle...

, a deep fried entree of ground beef covered in dough, and served with chips and a pickle in most restaurants; strudel: a dough-and-filling item that can either be made as a pastry, or a savory dish with onions or meat; and other traditional German and Norwegian dishes. North Dakota also shares concepts such as hot dishes along with other Midwestern states.

Along with having the most churches per capita of any state, North Dakota has the highest percentage of church-going population of any state.

Outdoor activities such as hunting and fishing are hobbies for many North Dakotans. Ice fishing
Ice fishing
Ice fishing is the practice of catching fish with lines and fish hooks or spears through an opening in the ice on a frozen body of water. Ice anglers may sit on the stool in the open on a frozen lake, or in a heated cabin on the ice, some with bunks and amenities.-Locations:It is a popular pastime...

, raccoon hunting, and snowmobiling are also popular during the winter months. Residents of North Dakota may own or visit a cabin along a lake. Popular sport fish include walleye
Walleye
Walleye is a freshwater perciform fish native to most of Canada and to the northern United States. It is a North American close relative of the European pikeperch...

, perch
Perch
Perch is a common name for fish of the genus Perca, freshwater gamefish belonging to the family Percidae. The perch, of which there are three species in different geographical areas, lend their name to a large order of vertebrates: the Perciformes, from the Greek perke meaning spotted, and the...

, and northern pike
Northern Pike
The northern pike , is a species of carnivorous fish of the genus Esox...

.

The western terminus of the North Country National Scenic Trail is located on Lake Sakakawea
Lake Sakakawea
Lake Sakakawea is a reservoir in the Missouri River basin in central North Dakota. Named for the Shoshone-Hidatsa woman Sakakawea, it is the third largest man-made lake in the United States, after Lake Mead and Lake Powell. The lake lies in parts of six counties in western North Dakota: Dunn,...

 where it abuts the Lewis and Clark Trail.
Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail
The Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail is a route across the United States commemorating the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804 to 1806. It is part of the National Trails System of the United States...


Economy


Agriculture is the largest industry in North Dakota, although petroleum and food processing
Food processing
Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food or to transform food into other forms for consumption by humans or animals either in the home or by the food processing industry...

 are also major industries. The economy of North Dakota had a gross domestic product of $24 billion in 2005. The per capita income in 2006 was $33,034, ranked 29th in the nation. The three-year median household income
Median household income
The median household income is commonly used to generate data about geographic areas and divides households into two equal segments with the first half of households earning less than the median household income and the other half earning more...

 from 2002–2004 was $39,594, ranking 37th in the U.S. North Dakota is also the only state with a state owned bank, the Bank of North Dakota
Bank of North Dakota
The Bank of North Dakota is a state-owned and -run financial institution based in Bismarck, North Dakota. Under state law the bank is the State of North Dakota doing business as the Bank of North Dakota....

 in Bismarck
Bismarck, North Dakota
Bismarck is the capital of the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Burleigh County. It is the second most populous city in North Dakota after Fargo. The city's population was 61,272 at the 2010 census, while its metropolitan population was 108,779...

, and a state owned flour mill, the North Dakota Mill and Elevator
North Dakota Mill and Elevator
The North Dakota Mill and Elevator is the largest flour mill in the United States. It is located in the city of Grand Forks, North Dakota. The mill is owned by the U.S. state of North Dakota and is the only state-owned milling facility in the United States....

 in Grand Forks
Grand Forks, North Dakota
Grand Forks is the third-largest city in the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Grand Forks County. According to the 2010 census, the city's population was 52,838, while that of the city and surrounding metropolitan area was 98,461...

.

As of September 2010, the state's unemployment rate is the lowest in the nation at 3.7% and it never touched 5 percent since 1987, the state with the nation's lowest unemployment rate. At end of 2010, the state per capita income was rank in 17th of the nation, the biggest increase of any state in a decade from rank 38th.

Agriculture

North Dakota's earliest industries were fur trading and agriculture. Although less than 10% of the population is employed in the agricultural sector, it remains a major part of the state's economy, ranking 9th in the nation in the value of crops and 18th in total value of agricultural products sold. North Dakota has about 90% of its land area in farms with 27500000 acres (111,288.7 km²) of cropland, the third largest in the nation. Between 2002 and 2007 total cropland increased by about one million acres (4,000 km²), the only state showing an increase. Over the same period, 1800000 acres (7,284.3 km²) were shifted into soybean and corn production, the largest such shift in the United States.
The state is the largest producer in the U.S. of many cereal grains including barley
Barley
Barley is a major cereal grain, a member of the grass family. It serves as a major animal fodder, as a base malt for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods...

 (36% of U.S. crop), durum wheat
Durum
Durum wheat or macaroni wheat is the only tetraploid species of wheat of commercial importance that is widely cultivated today...

 (58%), hard red spring wheat (48%), oat
Oat
The common oat is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name . While oats are suitable for human consumption as oatmeal and rolled oats, one of the most common uses is as livestock feed...

s (17%), and combined wheat of all types (15%). It is the second leading producer of buckwheat
Buckwheat
Buckwheat refers to a variety of plants in the dicot family Polygonaceae: the Eurasian genus Fagopyrum, the North American genus Eriogonum, and the Northern Hemisphere genus Fallopia. Either of the latter two may be referred to as "wild buckwheat"...

 (20%). As of 2007, corn became the state's largest crop produced, although only 2% of U.S. production.

The state is the leading producer of many oilseeds including 92% of the U.S. canola
Canola
Canola refers to a cultivar of either Rapeseed or Field Mustard . Its seeds are used to produce edible oil suitable for consumption by humans and livestock. The oil is also suitable for use as biodiesel.Originally, Canola was bred naturally from rapeseed in Canada by Keith Downey and Baldur R...

 crop, 94% of flax
Flax
Flax is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae. It is native to the region extending from the eastern Mediterranean to India and was probably first domesticated in the Fertile Crescent...

 seed, 53% of sunflower seed
Sunflower seed
The sunflower seed is the fruit of the sunflower . The term "sunflower seed" is actually a misnomer when applied to the seed in its pericarp . Botanically speaking, it is more properly referred to as an achene. When dehulled, the edible remainder is called the sunflower kernel.There are three types...

s, 18% of safflower
Safflower
Safflower is a highly branched, herbaceous, thistle-like annual. It is commercially cultivated for vegetable oil extracted from the seeds. Plants are 30 to 150 cm tall with globular flower heads having yellow, orange or red flowers. Each branch will usually have from one to five flower heads...

 seeds, and 62% of mustard seed
Mustard seed
Mustard seeds are the small round seeds of various mustard plants. The seeds are usually about 1 or 2 mm in diameter. Mustard seeds may be colored from yellowish white to black. They are important spices in many regional foods. The seeds can come from three different plants: black mustard , brown...

. Soybeans are also an increasingly important crop with 400000 acres (1,618.7 km²) additional planted between 2002 and 2007.

North Dakota is the second leading producer of sugarbeets, grown in the Red River Valley
Red River Valley
The Red River Valley is a region in central North America that is drained by the Red River of the North. It is significant in the geography of North Dakota, Minnesota, and Manitoba for its relatively fertile lands and the population centers of Fargo, Moorhead, Grand Forks, and Winnipeg...

. The state is also the largest producer of honey, dry edible peas and beans, lentil
Lentil
The lentil is an edible pulse. It is a bushy annual plant of the legume family, grown for its lens-shaped seeds...

s, and the third largest producer of potatoes.

North Dakota's economy is aided by nearly $1 billion in federal agricultural subsidies annually.

Energy

The energy industry is a major contributor to the economy. Lignite coal reserves in Western North Dakota are used to generate about 90% of the electricity consumed, and is also exported to nearby states. North Dakota has the second largest lignite coal production in the U.S.

Oil was discovered near Tioga
Tioga, North Dakota
As of the census of 2000, there were 1,125 people, 490 households, and 311 families residing in the city. The population density was 856.1 people per square mile . There were 569 housing units at an average density of 433.0 per square mile...

 in 1951, generating 53 Moilbbl of oil a year by 1984. Recoverable oil reserves have jumped dramatically recently. The oil reserves of the Bakken Formation
Bakken Formation
The Bakken formation, initially described by geologist J.W. Nordquist in 1953,is a rock unit from the Late Devonian to Early Mississippian age occupying about of the subsurface of the Williston Basin, underlying parts of Montana, North Dakota, and Saskatchewan...

 may hold up to 400 Goilbbl of oil, 25 times larger than the reserves in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is a national wildlife refuge in northeastern Alaska, United States. It consists of in the Alaska North Slope region. It is the largest National Wildlife Refuge in the country, slightly larger than the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge...

. However, a report issued in April 2008 by the U.S. Geological Survey estimates that the oil recoverable by current technology in the Bakken formation is two orders of magnitude less, in the range of 3 Goilbbl to 4.3 Goilbbl, with a mean of 3.65 Goilbbl. Western North Dakota is currently in an oil boom: the Williston, Tioga, Stanley
Stanley, North Dakota
As of the census of 2000, there were 1,279 people, 576 households, and 332 families residing in the city. The population density was 740.3 people per square mile . There were 664 housing units at an average density of 384.3 per square mile...

 and Minot-Burlington
Burlington, North Dakota
Burlington is a city in Ward County, North Dakota in the United States. Burlington was founded in 1883, having been third in a series that included two earlier settlements. Despite this, Burlington is still the oldest city in Ward County, as well as north-western and north central North Dakota...

 communities are experiencing rapid growth. As of 2010, the state has the 4th largest oil production in the U.S. of 355,000 barrels per day, more than triple 2007 production.

The Great Plains area, which North Dakota is a part of, is called the "Saudi Arabia" of wind energy, Wind energy in North Dakota is also very cost effective because the state has large rural expanses and wind speeds seldom go below 10 mi/h.

State taxes

North Dakota has a slightly progressive income tax
Progressive tax
A progressive tax is a tax by which the tax rate increases as the taxable base amount increases. "Progressive" describes a distribution effect on income or expenditure, referring to the way the rate progresses from low to high, where the average tax rate is less than the marginal tax rate...

 structure; the five brackets of state income tax
Income tax
An income tax is a tax levied on the income of individuals or businesses . Various income tax systems exist, with varying degrees of tax incidence. Income taxation can be progressive, proportional, or regressive. When the tax is levied on the income of companies, it is often called a corporate...

 rates are 2.1%, 3.92% 4.34%, 5.04%, and 5.54% as of 2004. In 2005 North Dakota ranked 22nd highest by per capita state taxes. The sales tax
Sales tax
A sales tax is a tax, usually paid by the consumer at the point of purchase, itemized separately from the base price, for certain goods and services. The tax amount is usually calculated by applying a percentage rate to the taxable price of a sale....

 in North Dakota is 5% for most items. The state allows municipalities to institute local sales taxes and special local taxes, such as the 1.75% supplemental sales tax in Grand Forks. Excise taxes
Excise
Excise tax in the United States is a indirect tax on listed items. Excise taxes can be and are made by federal, state and local governments and are far from uniform throughout the United States...

 are levied on the purchase price or market value of aircraft registered in North Dakota. The state imposes a use tax
Use tax
A use tax is a type of excise tax levied in the United States. It is assessed upon otherwise "tax free" tangible personal property purchased by a resident of the assessing state for use, storage or consumption of goods in that state , regardless of where the purchase took place...

 on items purchased elsewhere but used within North Dakota. Owners of real property
Real property
In English Common Law, real property, real estate, realty, or immovable property is any subset of land that has been legally defined and the improvements to it made by human efforts: any buildings, machinery, wells, dams, ponds, mines, canals, roads, various property rights, and so forth...

 in North Dakota pay property tax
Property tax
A property tax is an ad valorem levy on the value of property that the owner is required to pay. The tax is levied by the governing authority of the jurisdiction in which the property is located; it may be paid to a national government, a federated state or a municipality...

 to their county, municipality, school district, and special taxing districts.

The Tax Foundation
Tax Foundation
The Tax Foundation is a Washington, D.C.-based think tank founded in 1937 that collects data and publishes research studies on tax policies at the federal and state levels. The organization is broken into three primary areas of research which are the Center for Federal Fiscal Policy, The and the...

 ranks North Dakota as the state with the 20th most "business friendly" tax climate in the nation. Tax Freedom Day
Tax Freedom Day
Tax Freedom Day is the first day of the year in which a nation as a whole has theoretically earned enough income to fund its annual tax burden. It is annually calculated in the United States by the Tax Foundation—a Washington, D.C.-based tax research organization...

 arrives on April 1, 10 days earlier than the national Tax Freedom Day. In 2006, North Dakota was the state with the lowest number of returns filed by taxpayers with an Adjusted Gross Income
Adjusted Gross Income
For United States individual income tax, taxable income is adjusted gross income less allowances for personal exemptions and itemized deductions. Adjusted gross income is total gross income minus specific items laid out in the tax code...

 of over $1M – only 333.

Tourism

North Dakota is considered the least visited state, owing, in part, to its not having a major tourist attraction. Areas popular with visitors include Theodore Roosevelt National Park
Theodore Roosevelt National Park
Theodore Roosevelt National Park is a United States National Park comprising three geographically separated areas of badlands in western North Dakota. The park was named for U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, in honor of his achievements in conservation as president and for the landscape's...

 in the western part of the state. The park often exceeds 475,000 visitors each year. Regular events in the state that attract tourists include Norsk Høstfest
Norsk Høstfest
Norsk Høstfest is an annual festival held each Fall in Minot, North Dakota. It is North America's largest Scandinavian festival. The event is conducted in the All Seasons Arena on the grounds of the North Dakota State Fair in Minot, North Dakota...

in Minot
Minot, North Dakota
Minot is a city located in north central North Dakota in the United States. It is most widely known for the Air Force base located approximately 15 miles north of the city. With a population of 40,888 at the 2010 census, Minot is the fourth largest city in the state...

, billed as North America's largest Scandinavian
Scandinavians
Scandinavians are a group of Germanic peoples, inhabiting Scandinavia and to a lesser extent countries associated with Scandinavia, and speaking Scandinavian languages. The group includes Danes, Norwegians and Swedes, and additionally the descendants of Scandinavian settlers such as the Icelandic...

 festival; the Medora Musical
Medora Musical
The Medora Musical is a regularly performed musical production near the town of Medora, North Dakota. It is presented in the Burning Hills Amphitheatre starting at 8:30 p.m. MDT nightly from June 10th-September 10th. The amphitheatre seats 2,853...

; and the North Dakota State Fair
North Dakota State Fair
The North Dakota State Fair is an annual state fair held each July in Minot, North Dakota. The fair features carnival rides, agricultural expositions, government and commercial exhibitions, and a variety of musical and performance entertainment....

.

Medicine

North Dakota is the only US state that legally demands its pharmacies to have 51% shares owned by pharmacists.

Transportation

Transportation in North Dakota is overseen by the North Dakota Department of Transportation
North Dakota Department of Transportation
The North Dakota Department of Transportation is a part of the government of the U.S. state of North Dakota. NDDOT oversees the state's transportation system. This includes planning both new construction and reconstruction projects on roads and highways throughout the state...

. The major Interstate highways
Interstate Highway System
The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, , is a network of limited-access roads including freeways, highways, and expressways forming part of the National Highway System of the United States of America...

 are Interstate 29
Interstate 29
Interstate 29 is an Interstate Highway in the Midwestern United States. I-29 runs from Kansas City, Missouri, at a junction with Interstate 35 and Interstate 70 to the Canadian border near Pembina, North Dakota, where it connects with Manitoba Highway 75 via the short Manitoba Highway 29.-Route...

 and Interstate 94
Interstate 94
Interstate 94 is the northernmost east–west Interstate Highway, connecting the Great Lakes and Intermountain regions of the United States. I-94's western terminus is in Billings, Montana at a junction with Interstate 90; its eastern terminus is the U.S...

, with I-29 and I-94 meeting at Fargo
Fargo, North Dakota
Fargo is the largest city in the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Cass County. In 2010, its population was 105,549, and it had an estimated metropolitan population of 208,777...

, with I-29 oriented north to south along the eastern edge of the state, and I-94 bisecting the state from east to west between Minnesota and Montana. A unique feature of the North Dakota Interstate Highway system, is that virtually all of it is paved in concrete, rather than blacktop, because of the extreme weather conditions it must endure. The largest rail systems in the state are operated by BNSF and the Canadian Pacific Railway
Canadian Pacific Railway
The Canadian Pacific Railway , formerly also known as CP Rail between 1968 and 1996, is a historic Canadian Class I railway founded in 1881 and now operated by Canadian Pacific Railway Limited, which began operations as legal owner in a corporate restructuring in 2001...

. Many branch lines formerly used by BNSF and Canadian Pacific Railway are now operated by the Dakota, Missouri Valley and Western Railroad
Dakota, Missouri Valley and Western Railroad
The Dakota, Missouri Valley and Western Railroad started operations in September 1990 operating over 360 miles of former Soo Line Railroad track in Montana and North Dakota. The railroad operates approximately 523 miles of track...

 and the Red River Valley and Western Railroad
Red River Valley and Western Railroad
The Red River Valley and Western Railroad is a regional railroad operating in the US states of North Dakota and Minnesota, which began operations in 1987...

.

North Dakota's principal airports are the Hector International Airport
Hector International Airport
Hector International Airport is a joint civil-military public airport located three miles northwest of the central business district of Fargo, a city in Cass County, North Dakota, United States. It is owned by the City of Fargo Municipal Airport Authority.The airport was named after Martin...

 (FAR) in Fargo, Grand Forks International Airport
Grand Forks International Airport
Grand Forks International Airport is a public airport located five miles northwest of the central business district of Grand Forks, a city in Grand Forks County, North Dakota, United States...

 (GFK), Bismarck Municipal Airport
Bismarck Municipal Airport
-Top Destinations:...

 (BIS), and the Minot International Airport
Minot International Airport
Minot International Airport is a public airport located two miles north of the central business district of Minot, a city in Ward County, North Dakota, United States. It is owned by the City of Minot...

 (MOT).

Amtrak's
Amtrak
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak , is a government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "track". It is headquartered at Union...

 Empire Builder
Empire Builder
The Empire Builder is a passenger train route operated by Amtrak in the Midwestern and Northwestern United States. It is Amtrak's busiest long-distance route and busiest daily train, carrying more than 500,000 travelers annually since 2007. Overall, it is the railroad's 10th-busiest line. Before...

 runs through North Dakota, making stops at Fargo
Fargo (Amtrak station)
The Fargo Amtrak station is a train station in Fargo, North Dakota, United States, served by Amtrak, the national railroad passenger system. While the largest city in North Dakota, Fargo has only the third-most rail passenger traffic in the state, behind Minot and Williston...

 (2:13 am westbound, 3:35 am eastbound), Grand Forks
Grand Forks (Amtrak station)
The Grand Forks Amtrak station is a train station in western Grand Forks, North Dakota served by Amtrak, the national railroad passenger system.It is located at a railroad wye where Amtrak trains turn south...

 (4:52 am westbound, 12:57 am eastbound), Minot
Minot (Amtrak station)
The Minot Amtrak station is a train station in Minot, North Dakota served by Amtrak, the national railroad passenger system. The station is located at the site of the former Great Northern Railway station, adjacent to the Minot Public Library, and quite close to Minot's City Hall.Minot is a...

 (around 9 am westbound and around 9:30 pm eastbound), and four other stations. It is the descendant of the famous line of the same name run by the Great Northern Railway, which was built by the tycoon James J. Hill
James J. Hill
James Jerome Hill , was a Canadian-American railroad executive. He was the chief executive officer of a family of lines headed by the Great Northern Railway, which served a substantial area of the Upper Midwest, the northern Great Plains, and Pacific Northwest...

 and ran from St. Paul to Seattle. Intercity bus service is provided by Greyhound and Jefferson Lines
Jefferson Lines
Jefferson Lines is a regional intercity bus company operating in United States. The company's name originates in the Jefferson Highway, a north-south route in the early National Auto Trail system which once ran from Winnipeg in Manitoba, Canada, south to New Orleans, Louisiana. The service to...

. Public transit in North Dakota is currently limited to bus
Bus
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common type of bus is the single-decker bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker buses and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses; coaches are...

 systems in the larger cities.

In March 2011, North Dakota ranked as a bottom-ten "worst" state (tied with Montana
Montana
Montana is a state in the Western United States. The western third of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller, "island ranges" are found in the central third of the state, for a total of 77 named ranges of the Rocky Mountains. This geographical fact is reflected in the state's name,...

 and Texas) in the American State Litter Scorecard. North Dakota suffers from poor effectiveness and quality of its statewide public space cleanliness—mostly roadside and adjacent property litter/debris—due to overall state and related eradication standards and performance indicators.

Law and government

As with the federal government of the United States, power in North Dakota is divided into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. Additionally, North Dakota was the first US state to introduce the initiative in 1898.

Executive

The executive branch is headed by the governor
Governor of North Dakota
The Governor of North Dakota is the chief executive of North Dakota. The current Governor is Jack Dalrymple. The Governor has the right to sign and laws, and to call the Legislative Assembly, into emergency session. The Governor is also chairman of the North Dakota Industrial Commission. The...

. The current governor is Jack Dalrymple
Jack Dalrymple
John "Jack" Dalrymple is a North Dakota politician and businessman who is the current Governor of North Dakota, and a one-time candidate for the U.S. Senate in 1992. Dalrymple became governor after the resignation of John Hoeven, who was elected to the U.S...

, a Republican
North Dakota Republican Party
The North Dakota Republican Party is the North Dakota affiliate of the United States Republican Party. The party platform is generally conservative.The North Dakota Republican Party is strongly in control of the state's politics...

 who took office December 7, 2010 after his predecessor, John Hoeven
John Hoeven
John Henry Hoeven III is the junior United States Senator from North Dakota. He is a member of the North Dakota Republican Party. He is expected to become the state's senior senator when Kent Conrad retires from the Senate in January 2013.Hoeven served as the 31st Governor of North Dakota,...

 won his race for U.S. Senate, and resigned to prepare for that office. The current Lieutenant Governor of North Dakota
Lieutenant Governor of North Dakota
The Lieutenant Governor of North Dakota is a political office in North Dakota. The Lieutenant Governor's duty is to preside as President of the Senate, and is responsible for legislative relations, the state budget and agri-business development. Should the Governor's office become vacant, the...

 is Drew Wrigley
Drew Wrigley
Drew Wrigley is the 37th and current Lieutenant Governor of North Dakota. He was appointed by Governor Jack Dalrymple on December 7, 2010. Wrigley previously served as U.S...

, who is also the President of the Senate
President of the Senate
The President of the Senate is a title often given to the presiding officer of a senate, and is the speaker of other assemblies.The senate president often ranks high in a jurisdiction's succession for its top executive office: for example, the President of the Senate of Nigeria is second in line...

. The offices of governor and lieutenant governor have four-year terms, which are next up for election in 2012. The governor has a cabinet consisting of the leaders of various state government agencies, called commissioners. The other elected constitutional offices are secretary of state
North Dakota Secretary of State
The North Dakota Secretary of State is an elected office in the U.S. state of North Dakota. The current Secretary of State is Alvin Jaeger. The general duties of the Secretary of State include being the custodian of the state's Great Seal and other official state documents, recording the official...

, attorney general
North Dakota Attorney General
The North Dakota Attorney General is the chief legal officer of the North Dakota state government. The current Attorney General is Wayne Stenehjem...

, and state auditor
North Dakota State Auditor
The North Dakota State Auditor is a political office in North Dakota. The auditor's duty is to oversee the three divisions of the Office of the State Auditor: State Audit, which audits the state of North Dakota; Local Government Audit, which performs audits of counties, school districts, and other...

.

Legislative

The North Dakota Legislative Assembly
North Dakota Legislative Assembly
The North Dakota Legislative Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of North Dakota. The Legislative Assembly consists of two chambers, the lower North Dakota House of Representatives, with 94 representatives, and the upper North Dakota Senate, with 47 senators...

 is a bicameral body consisting of the Senate
North Dakota Senate
The North Dakota Senate is the upper house of the North Dakota Legislative Assembly, smaller than the North Dakota House of Representatives.North Dakota is divided into between 40 and 54 legislative districts apportioned by population as determined by the decennial census...

 and the House of Representatives
North Dakota House of Representatives
The North Dakota House of Representatives is the lower house of the North Dakota Legislative Assembly and is larger than the North Dakota Senate....

. The state has 47 districts. Each district has one senator and two representatives. Both senators and representatives are elected to four year terms. The state's legal code is named the North Dakota Century Code
North Dakota Century Code
The North Dakota Century Code is the collection of all the statutes passed by the North Dakota Legislative Assembly since the state's admission to the Union. It also includes the North Dakota Constitution....

.

Judicial

North Dakota's court system has four levels. Municipal courts serve the cities, and most cases start in the district court
Courts of North Dakota
Courts of North Dakota include:State courts of North Dakota*North Dakota Supreme Court**North Dakota District Courts ***North Dakota Municipal CourtsFederal courts located in North Dakota...

s, which are courts of general jurisdiction. There are 42 district court judges in seven judicial districts. Appeals from the trial courts and challenges to certain governmental decisions are heard by the North Dakota Court of Appeals, consisting of three-judge panels. The five-justice North Dakota Supreme Court
North Dakota Supreme Court
The North Dakota Supreme Court is the highest court of law in the state of North Dakota. The Court rules on questions of law in appeals from the state's district courts....

 hears all appeals from the district courts and the Court of Appeals.

Regional

There are three Sioux
Sioux
The Sioux are Native American and First Nations people in North America. The term can refer to any ethnic group within the Great Sioux Nation or any of the nation's many language dialects...

, one Three Affiliated Tribes, and one Ojibwa
Ojibwa
The Ojibwe or Chippewa are among the largest groups of Native Americans–First Nations north of Mexico. They are divided between Canada and the United States. In Canada, they are the third-largest population among First Nations, surpassed only by Cree and Inuit...

 reservations
Indian reservation
An American Indian reservation is an area of land managed by a Native American tribe under the United States Department of the Interior's Bureau of Indian Affairs...

 in North Dakota. These communities are self-governing.

Federal

North Dakota's United States Senators are Democrat Kent Conrad
Kent Conrad
Kent Conrad is the senior United States Senator from North Dakota. He is a member of the North Dakota Democratic-NPL Party, the North Dakota affiliate of the Democratic Party...

 and Republican John Hoeven
John Hoeven
John Henry Hoeven III is the junior United States Senator from North Dakota. He is a member of the North Dakota Republican Party. He is expected to become the state's senior senator when Kent Conrad retires from the Senate in January 2013.Hoeven served as the 31st Governor of North Dakota,...

. The state has one at-large
At-Large
At-large is a designation for representative members of a governing body who are elected or appointed to represent the whole membership of the body , rather than a subset of that membership...

 congressional district
North Dakota's At-large congressional district
North Dakota's At-large congressional district is the sole congressional district for the state of North Dakota. All of North Dakota is contained within one at large Congressional District making it the eighth largest district in the nation.- History:...

 represented by Republican representative
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is one of the two Houses of the United States Congress, the bicameral legislature which also includes the Senate.The composition and powers of the House are established in Article One of the Constitution...

 Rick Berg
Rick Berg
Richard Alan Berg is the U.S. Representative for . Berg serves on the House Ways and Means Committee. He is a member of the Republican Party. Previously, he served in the state House of Representatives. He served as Majority Leader and Speaker.-Early life, education, and pre-political career:Berg...

.

Federal court cases are heard in the United States District Court for the District of North Dakota
United States District Court for the District of North Dakota
The United States District Court for the District of North Dakota is the United States District Court or the Federal district court, whose jurisdiction is the state of North Dakota. The court is headquartered out of Fargo and has additional locations at Bismarck, Grand Forks, and Minot...

, which holds court in Bismarck
Bismarck, North Dakota
Bismarck is the capital of the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Burleigh County. It is the second most populous city in North Dakota after Fargo. The city's population was 61,272 at the 2010 census, while its metropolitan population was 108,779...

, Fargo
Fargo, North Dakota
Fargo is the largest city in the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Cass County. In 2010, its population was 105,549, and it had an estimated metropolitan population of 208,777...

, Grand Forks
Grand Forks, North Dakota
Grand Forks is the third-largest city in the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Grand Forks County. According to the 2010 census, the city's population was 52,838, while that of the city and surrounding metropolitan area was 98,461...

, and Minot
Minot, North Dakota
Minot is a city located in north central North Dakota in the United States. It is most widely known for the Air Force base located approximately 15 miles north of the city. With a population of 40,888 at the 2010 census, Minot is the fourth largest city in the state...

. Appeals are heard by the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals
United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit
The United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts:* Eastern District of Arkansas* Western District of Arkansas...

 based in St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis is an independent city on the eastern border of Missouri, United States. With a population of 319,294, it was the 58th-largest U.S. city at the 2010 U.S. Census. The Greater St...

.

Politics

The major political parties in North Dakota are the Democratic-NPL and the Republican Party
North Dakota Republican Party
The North Dakota Republican Party is the North Dakota affiliate of the United States Republican Party. The party platform is generally conservative.The North Dakota Republican Party is strongly in control of the state's politics...

. , the Constitution Party
Constitution Party (United States)
The Constitution Party is a paleoconservative political party in the United States. It was founded as the U.S. Taxpayers' Party by Howard Philips in 1991. Phillips was the party's candidate in the 1992, 1996 and 2000 presidential elections...

 and the Libertarian Party
Libertarian Party (United States)
The Libertarian Party is the third largest and fastest growing political party in the United States. The political platform of the Libertarian Party reflects its brand of libertarianism, favoring minimally regulated, laissez-faire markets, strong civil liberties, minimally regulated migration...

 are also organized parties in the state.

At the state level, the governorship
Governor of North Dakota
The Governor of North Dakota is the chief executive of North Dakota. The current Governor is Jack Dalrymple. The Governor has the right to sign and laws, and to call the Legislative Assembly, into emergency session. The Governor is also chairman of the North Dakota Industrial Commission. The...

 has been held by the Republican Party since 1992, along with a majority of the state legislature and statewide officers. Dem-NPL showings were strong in the 2000 governor's race, and in the 2006 legislative elections, but the League has not had a major breakthrough since the administration of former state governor George Sinner
George Sinner
George Albert Sinner is a Democratic-NPL politician who served as the 29th Governor of North Dakota from 1985 through 1992. He served two four-year terms as governor.- Early years, education, professional background :...

.

The Republican Party presidential candidate usually carries the state; in 2004, George W. Bush
George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States, from 2001 to 2009. Before that, he was the 46th Governor of Texas, having served from 1995 to 2000....

 won with 62.9% of the vote. Of all the Democratic presidential candidates since 1892, only Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
Stephen Grover Cleveland was the 22nd and 24th president of the United States. Cleveland is the only president to serve two non-consecutive terms and therefore is the only individual to be counted twice in the numbering of the presidents...

, Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
Thomas Woodrow Wilson was the 28th President of the United States, from 1913 to 1921. A leader of the Progressive Movement, he served as President of Princeton University from 1902 to 1910, and then as the Governor of New Jersey from 1911 to 1913...

, Franklin Roosevelt, and Lyndon Johnson received Electoral College votes from North Dakota.

On the other hand, Dem-NPL candidates for North Dakota's federal Senate and Congressional seats have won every election between 1982 and 2008, and the state's federal delegation was entirely Democratic from 1987 to 2011.

Indian tribes and reservations

Federally recognized tribes within the boundaries of North Dakota have independent, sovereign relationships with the federal government and territorial reservations:
  • Standing Rock Sioux of Standing Rock Indian Reservation
    Standing Rock Indian Reservation
    The Standing Rock Indian Reservation is a Lakota, Yanktonai and Dakota Indian reservation in North Dakota and South Dakota in the United States...

    ;
  • Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians
    Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians
    The Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians is a Native American tribe of Ojibwa and Métis peoples, based on the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation in Belcourt, North Dakota. The tribe has 30,000 enrolled members...

     at Turtle Mountain Reservation;
  • Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation
    Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation
    Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation, also known as the Three Affiliated Tribes, are a Native American group comprising a union of the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara peoples, whose native lands ranged across the Missouri River basin in the Dakotas...

    , Fort Berthold Reservation
    Fort Berthold Reservation
    The Fort Berthold Indian Reservation is a U.S. Indian reservation in western North Dakota that is home for the federally recognized Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation, also known as the Three Affiliated Tribes...

    ; and
  • Spirit Lake Tribe
    Spirit Lake Tribe
    The Spirit Lake Tribe is a Sioux tribe. Its reservation is located in east-central North Dakota on the southern shores of Devils Lake...

    , whose reservation is near Devil's Lake
    Devils Lake, North Dakota
    As of the 2000 Census, there were 7,222 people, 3,127 households, and 1,773 families residing in the city. The population density was . There were 3,508 housing units at an average density of . The racial makeup of the city was 89.23% White, 0.22% African American, 7.84% Native American, 0.28%...


Bismarck

Bismarck
Bismarck, North Dakota
Bismarck is the capital of the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Burleigh County. It is the second most populous city in North Dakota after Fargo. The city's population was 61,272 at the 2010 census, while its metropolitan population was 108,779...

, located in south-central North Dakota along the banks of the Missouri River
Missouri River
The Missouri River flows through the central United States, and is a tributary of the Mississippi River. It is the longest river in North America and drains the third largest area, though only the thirteenth largest by discharge. The Missouri's watershed encompasses most of the American Great...

, has been North Dakota's capital city since 1883, first as capital of the Dakota Territory
Dakota Territory
The Territory of Dakota was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 2, 1861, until November 2, 1889, when the final extent of the reduced territory was split and admitted to the Union as the states of North and South Dakota.The Dakota Territory consisted of...

, and then as state capital since 1889. While Bismarck had served adequately as the territorial capital, many thought the state's capital city should be located to the east since then, as now, the majority of North Dakotans lived in the eastern half of the state. To that end, the legislature chose Jamestown
Jamestown, North Dakota
As of the census of 2000, there were 15,527 people, 6,505 households, and 3,798 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,246.7 per square mile . There were 6,970 housing units at an average density of 559.6 per square mile...

 as the new capital, and the state's official records were moved there. They were stored in the new Stutsman County
Stutsman County, North Dakota
-National protected areas:*Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge *Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge*Halfway Lake National Wildlife Refuge-Demographics:...

 Court House, in preparation for the first session of the North Dakota Legislature.

Before the legislators gathered, a small group of Bismarck residents raided Jamestown in a January blizzard, broke into the court house and took the state records, transporting them back to Bismarck ahead of a pursuing posse. Bismarck leaders held the records hostage until the legislature agreed to meet in Bismarck. Once the legislators began meeting in Bismarck, they decided it was too much work to move the capital. They refused to formally vote to establish Bismarck as the state capital city.

Bismarck's popularity and beauty attracts many people from other parts of the state. The state capitol building is the tallest building in the state, and the city has the largest museum in the state, a civic center, the largest opera/ballet house in the state, and the largest zoo in the state. Community life is reflected in night clubs, churches, schools, stadiums, and several universities in Bismarck: University of Mary
University of Mary
The University of Mary is a four year Catholic university near Bismarck, North Dakota.The university is the largest degree granting institution in Bismarck...

, Bismarck State College
Bismarck State College
Bismark State College is the third largest college in the North Dakota University System with approximately 4200 students. It is a comprehensive community college that offers two-year and four-year degree plans. BSC offers the first two years of education toward a bachelor's degree in most fields...

, United Tribes Technical College
United Tribes Technical College
United Tribes Technical College is a tribal college in Bismarck, North Dakota. Founded in 1969 by an association of North Dakota's native tribes, the college offers certificate programs and two-year degrees in over 20 programs of study.-External links:*...

, and Rasmussen College
Rasmussen College
Rasmussen College is a 110-year old for-profit private college offering Bachelor's and Associate's degrees at multiple campuses in Minnesota including Blaine, Brooklyn Park, Eagan, Bloomington, Lake Elmo, Mankato, Moorhead and St...

. Bismarck is the center in North Dakota of government, health care, banking, finance, nature protection and preservation, recreational activities, cultural opportunity, job availability, literature, and education. The city has many parks and recreational areas, three malls, and many plazas. Its downtown is located on top of rolling hills along the Missouri River
Missouri River
The Missouri River flows through the central United States, and is a tributary of the Mississippi River. It is the longest river in North America and drains the third largest area, though only the thirteenth largest by discharge. The Missouri's watershed encompasses most of the American Great...

.

Trees grow well in Bismarck because water is plentiful. Bismarck provides almost all radio signals and transfers data (weather predictions, news, newspaper, sporting events) to almost all of North Dakota. Eastern Montana and northern South Dakota are also covered by the city of Bismarck. Bismarck ranks second in tourism after Minot, and attracts tourism year round. Bismarck is the second-largest metro area after Fargo. Bismarck has been ranked the "Official Safest (Large Population) City in America to Live".

Major cities

Fargo
Fargo, North Dakota
Fargo is the largest city in the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Cass County. In 2010, its population was 105,549, and it had an estimated metropolitan population of 208,777...

 is the largest city in North Dakota. Bismarck grew with the discovery of gold in the Black Hills in 1874. Many miners and settlers came to the region from western gold fields in California and Colorado. A second economic impetus was the construction of Garrison Dam
Garrison Dam
Garrison Dam is an earth-fill embankment dam on the Missouri River in central North Dakota. At over two miles in length, it is the fifth-largest earthen dam in the world, constructed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers from 1947-53...

 on Lake Sakakawea
Lake Sakakawea
Lake Sakakawea is a reservoir in the Missouri River basin in central North Dakota. Named for the Shoshone-Hidatsa woman Sakakawea, it is the third largest man-made lake in the United States, after Lake Mead and Lake Powell. The lake lies in parts of six counties in western North Dakota: Dunn,...

. Retail stores have flocked to the area to benefit from the city's growing population. Minot is a city in northern North Dakota is home of the North Dakota State Fair
North Dakota State Fair
The North Dakota State Fair is an annual state fair held each July in Minot, North Dakota. The fair features carnival rides, agricultural expositions, government and commercial exhibitions, and a variety of musical and performance entertainment....

. Located a few miles west of Bismarck on the west side of the Missouri River, Mandan was named for the Mandan Indians who inhabited the area at the time of the Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis and Clark Expedition
The Lewis and Clark Expedition, or ″Corps of Discovery Expedition" was the first transcontinental expedition to the Pacific Coast by the United States. Commissioned by President Thomas Jefferson and led by two Virginia-born veterans of Indian wars in the Ohio Valley, Meriwether Lewis and William...

. New Salem
New Salem, North Dakota
As of the census of 2000, there were 938 people, 411 households, and 246 families residing in the city. The population density was 649.0 people per square mile . There were 448 housing units at an average density of 310.0 per square mile...

 is the site of the world's largest statue of a holstein cow; the world's largest statue of a bison
American Bison
The American bison , also commonly known as the American buffalo, is a North American species of bison that once roamed the grasslands of North America in massive herds...

 is in Jamestown
Jamestown, North Dakota
As of the census of 2000, there were 15,527 people, 6,505 households, and 3,798 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,246.7 per square mile . There were 6,970 housing units at an average density of 559.6 per square mile...

.

Grand Forks
Grand Forks, North Dakota
Grand Forks is the third-largest city in the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Grand Forks County. According to the 2010 census, the city's population was 52,838, while that of the city and surrounding metropolitan area was 98,461...

 and Devils Lake
Devils Lake, North Dakota
As of the 2000 Census, there were 7,222 people, 3,127 households, and 1,773 families residing in the city. The population density was . There were 3,508 housing units at an average density of . The racial makeup of the city was 89.23% White, 0.22% African American, 7.84% Native American, 0.28%...

 are located in scenic areas of North Dakota. Williston
Williston, North Dakota
-Demographics:Preliminary data from a 2010 housing study indicates that population has grown by nearly 22 percent over the past decade; the actual increase might be much higher. Williston is in western North Dakota's booming oil patch, and adequate, affordable housing has become a concern. The...

 is located near the confluence
Confluence
Confluence, in geography, describes the meeting of two or more bodies of water.Confluence may also refer to:* Confluence , a property of term rewriting systems...

 of the Missouri River and the Yellowstone River
Yellowstone River
The Yellowstone River is a tributary of the Missouri River, approximately long, in the western United States. Considered the principal tributary of the upper Missouri, the river and its tributaries drain a wide area stretching from the Rocky Mountains in the vicinity of the Yellowstone National...

 near Montana
Montana
Montana is a state in the Western United States. The western third of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller, "island ranges" are found in the central third of the state, for a total of 77 named ranges of the Rocky Mountains. This geographical fact is reflected in the state's name,...

. Medora
Medora, North Dakota
In the city the population was spread out with 26.0% under the age of 18, 4.0% from 18 to 24, 29.0% from 25 to 44, 26.0% from 45 to 64, and 15.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 96.1 males...

 in the North Dakota Badlands
Badlands
A badlands is a type of dry terrain where softer sedimentary rocks and clay-rich soils have been extensively eroded by wind and water. It can resemble malpaís, a terrain of volcanic rock. Canyons, ravines, gullies, hoodoos and other such geological forms are common in badlands. They are often...

 hosts the Medora Musical
Medora Musical
The Medora Musical is a regularly performed musical production near the town of Medora, North Dakota. It is presented in the Burning Hills Amphitheatre starting at 8:30 p.m. MDT nightly from June 10th-September 10th. The amphitheatre seats 2,853...

 every summer and is the gateway to Theodore Roosevelt National Park
Theodore Roosevelt National Park
Theodore Roosevelt National Park is a United States National Park comprising three geographically separated areas of badlands in western North Dakota. The park was named for U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, in honor of his achievements in conservation as president and for the landscape's...

. Fort Yates
Fort Yates, North Dakota
Fort Yates is a city in Sioux County, North Dakota in the United States. It is the tribal headquarters of the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe and county seat of Sioux County...

, located along the Missouri River on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation
Standing Rock Indian Reservation
The Standing Rock Indian Reservation is a Lakota, Yanktonai and Dakota Indian reservation in North Dakota and South Dakota in the United States...

 claims to host the final resting place of Hunkpapa
Hunkpapa
The Hunkpapa are a Native American group, one of the seven council fires of the Lakota Sioux tribe. The name Húŋkpapȟa is a Sioux word meaning "Head of the Circle"...

 Lakota leader Sitting Bull
Sitting Bull
Sitting Bull Sitting Bull Sitting Bull (Lakota: Tȟatȟáŋka Íyotake (in Standard Lakota Orthography), also nicknamed Slon-he or "Slow"; (c. 1831 – December 15, 1890) was a Hunkpapa Lakota Sioux holy man who led his people as a tribal chief during years of resistance to United States government policies...

 (Mobridge, South Dakota
Mobridge, South Dakota
Mobridge is a city in Walworth County, South Dakota, United States. The population was 3,465 at the 2010 census.-Geography:Mobridge is located at ....

 also claims his gravesite).

Higher education

The state has 11 public colleges and universities, five tribal community colleges
Tribal colleges and universities
Tribal colleges and universities are a category of higher education, minority-serving institutions in the United States. The educational institutions are distinguished by being controlled and operated by Native American tribes; they have become part of American Indians' institution-building in...

, and four private schools. The largest institutions are North Dakota State University
North Dakota State University
North Dakota State University of Agriculture and Applied Sciences, more commonly known as North Dakota State University , is a public university in Fargo, North Dakota. NDSU has about 14,000 students and it is the largest university in North Dakota based on full time students and land size...

 and the University of North Dakota
University of North Dakota
The University of North Dakota is a public university in Grand Forks, North Dakota, USA. Established by the Dakota Territorial Assembly in 1883, six years before the establishment of the state of North Dakota, UND is the oldest and largest university in the state and enrolls over 14,000 students. ...

.

The higher education system consists of the following institutions:

North Dakota University System
North Dakota University System
The North Dakota University System is the group of public colleges and universities in the U.S. state of North Dakota. The NDUS's policy making body is the North Dakota State Board of Higher Education...

 (public institutions):
  • Bismarck State College
    Bismarck State College
    Bismark State College is the third largest college in the North Dakota University System with approximately 4200 students. It is a comprehensive community college that offers two-year and four-year degree plans. BSC offers the first two years of education toward a bachelor's degree in most fields...

     in Bismarck
    Bismarck, North Dakota
    Bismarck is the capital of the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Burleigh County. It is the second most populous city in North Dakota after Fargo. The city's population was 61,272 at the 2010 census, while its metropolitan population was 108,779...

  • Dickinson State University
    Dickinson State University
    Dickinson State University is a four-year public university in Dickinson, North Dakota, United States, and is a part of the North Dakota University System...

     in Dickinson
    Dickinson, North Dakota
    As of the census of 2000, there were 16,010 people, 6,517 households, and 4,020 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,690.7 inhabitants per square mile . There were 7,033 housing units at an average density of 742.7 per square mile...

  • Lake Region State College
    Lake Region State College
    Lake Region State College is a 2-year public college in Devils Lake, North Dakota. It was founded in 1941 as an extension of the public school system and first known as Devils Lake Junior College and Business School. Several name changes have occurred over the years ranging from Lake Region...

     in Devils Lake
    Devils Lake, North Dakota
    As of the 2000 Census, there were 7,222 people, 3,127 households, and 1,773 families residing in the city. The population density was . There were 3,508 housing units at an average density of . The racial makeup of the city was 89.23% White, 0.22% African American, 7.84% Native American, 0.28%...

  • Mayville State University
    Mayville State University
    Mayville State University is an institution of higher learning in Mayville, North Dakota, part of the North Dakota University System....

     in Mayville
    Mayville, North Dakota
    Mayville is a city in Traill County, North Dakota in the United States. The population was 1,858 at the 2010 census, which makes Mayville the largest community in Traill County. Mayville was founded in 1881....

  • Minot State University
    Minot State University
    Minot State University is a four-year institution of higher learning in Minot, North Dakota. Founded in 1913 as a normal school, Minot State University is the third-largest university in North Dakota, offering undergraduate and graduate degree programs.Minot State University was founded in 1913...

     in Minot
    Minot, North Dakota
    Minot is a city located in north central North Dakota in the United States. It is most widely known for the Air Force base located approximately 15 miles north of the city. With a population of 40,888 at the 2010 census, Minot is the fourth largest city in the state...

  • Dakota College at Bottineau in Bottineau
    Bottineau, North Dakota
    As of the census of 2000, there were 2,336 people, 979 households, and 550 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,230.0 people per square mile . There were 1,114 housing units at an average density of 1,063.4 per square mile...

  • North Dakota State University
    North Dakota State University
    North Dakota State University of Agriculture and Applied Sciences, more commonly known as North Dakota State University , is a public university in Fargo, North Dakota. NDSU has about 14,000 students and it is the largest university in North Dakota based on full time students and land size...

     in Fargo
    Fargo, North Dakota
    Fargo is the largest city in the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Cass County. In 2010, its population was 105,549, and it had an estimated metropolitan population of 208,777...

  • North Dakota State College of Science
    North Dakota State College of Science
    The North Dakota State College of Science is a 2-year public college in Wahpeton, North Dakota and part of the North Dakota University System...

     in Wahpeton
    Wahpeton, North Dakota
    The first European explorer in the area was Jonathan Carver in 1767. He explored and mapped the Northwest at the request of Major Robert Rogers, commander of Fort Michilimackinac, the British fort at Mackinaw City, Michigan, which protected the passage between Lake Michigan and Lake Huron...

  • University of North Dakota
    University of North Dakota
    The University of North Dakota is a public university in Grand Forks, North Dakota, USA. Established by the Dakota Territorial Assembly in 1883, six years before the establishment of the state of North Dakota, UND is the oldest and largest university in the state and enrolls over 14,000 students. ...

     in Grand Forks
    Grand Forks, North Dakota
    Grand Forks is the third-largest city in the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Grand Forks County. According to the 2010 census, the city's population was 52,838, while that of the city and surrounding metropolitan area was 98,461...

  • Valley City State University
    Valley City State University
    Valley City State University is an institution of higher learning in Valley City, North Dakota, part of the eleven-member North Dakota University System. Founded in 1890 as a territorial normal school, VCSU offers four-year degrees in a number of fields in five academic divisions and graduate...

     in Valley City
    Valley City, North Dakota
    As of the census of 2000, there were 6,826 people, 2,996 households, and 1,668 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,062.5 per square mile . There were 3,250 housing units at an average density of 982.0 per square mile...

  • Williston State College
    Williston State College
    Williston State College is a two-year public college in Williston, North Dakota, part of the North Dakota University System. Founded in 1957, WSC provides general, vocational, and technical education. For most of its history the college has worked in close connection with the University of North...

     in Williston
    Williston, North Dakota
    -Demographics:Preliminary data from a 2010 housing study indicates that population has grown by nearly 22 percent over the past decade; the actual increase might be much higher. Williston is in western North Dakota's booming oil patch, and adequate, affordable housing has become a concern. The...



Tribal institutions:
  • Cankdeska Cikana Community College
    Cankdeska Cikana Community College
    Cankdeska Cikana Community College is a tribal college in Fort Totten, North Dakota, on the Spirit Lake Reservation. The college is named after Paul "Little Hoop" Yankton, a Dakota man who fought and died in World War II....

     in Fort Totten
    Fort Totten, North Dakota
    As of the census of 2000, there were 952 people, 230 households, and 200 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 124.2 people per square mile . There were 255 housing units at an average density of 33.3/sq mi . The racial makeup of the CDP was 0.84% White, 0.11% African...

  • Fort Berthold Community College
    Fort Berthold Community College
    The Fort Berthold Community College is a tribally controlled college chartered by the Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation headquarters at New Town, North Dakota. FBCC is tribally controlled by a Board of Directors, which consist of seven members. The College was founded May 2,...

     in New Town
    New Town, North Dakota
    As of the census of 2000, there were 1,367 people, 488 households, and 318 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,031.6 people per square mile . There were 512 housing units at an average density of 760.9 per square mile...

  • Sitting Bull College
    Sitting Bull College
    Sitting Bull College is a tribal college in Fort Yates, North Dakota. It was founded in 1973 by the Standing Rock Sioux tribe of the Standing Rock reservation in south-central North Dakota. It is one of 34 tribally controlled colleges nationwide. It is also a member of the American Indian Higher...

     in Fort Yates
    Fort Yates, North Dakota
    Fort Yates is a city in Sioux County, North Dakota in the United States. It is the tribal headquarters of the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe and county seat of Sioux County...

  • Turtle Mountain Community College
    Turtle Mountain Community College
    Turtle Mountain Community College is a tribal college in Belcourt, North Dakota. It was founded by the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians in 1972 and offers two-year Associate degrees in a number of subjects as well as four-year Bachelor degrees in elementary and secondary science.-External...

     in Belcourt
    Belcourt, North Dakota
    As of the census of 2000, there were 2,440 people, 806 households, and 561 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 417.0 people per square mile . There were 856 housing units at an average density of 146.3/sq mi...

  • United Tribes Technical College
    United Tribes Technical College
    United Tribes Technical College is a tribal college in Bismarck, North Dakota. Founded in 1969 by an association of North Dakota's native tribes, the college offers certificate programs and two-year degrees in over 20 programs of study.-External links:*...

     in Bismarck
    Bismarck, North Dakota
    Bismarck is the capital of the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Burleigh County. It is the second most populous city in North Dakota after Fargo. The city's population was 61,272 at the 2010 census, while its metropolitan population was 108,779...



Private institutions:
  • Rasmussen College
    Rasmussen College
    Rasmussen College is a 110-year old for-profit private college offering Bachelor's and Associate's degrees at multiple campuses in Minnesota including Blaine, Brooklyn Park, Eagan, Bloomington, Lake Elmo, Mankato, Moorhead and St...

     in Fargo
    Fargo, North Dakota
    Fargo is the largest city in the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Cass County. In 2010, its population was 105,549, and it had an estimated metropolitan population of 208,777...

     and Bismarck
    Bismarck, North Dakota
    Bismarck is the capital of the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Burleigh County. It is the second most populous city in North Dakota after Fargo. The city's population was 61,272 at the 2010 census, while its metropolitan population was 108,779...

  • Jamestown College
    Jamestown College
    Jamestown College is a private liberal arts college founded by the Presbyterian Church located in Jamestown, North Dakota. It has about 1,000 students enrolled today and has been co-educational from its founding....

     in Jamestown
    Jamestown, North Dakota
    As of the census of 2000, there were 15,527 people, 6,505 households, and 3,798 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,246.7 per square mile . There were 6,970 housing units at an average density of 559.6 per square mile...

  • University of Mary
    University of Mary
    The University of Mary is a four year Catholic university near Bismarck, North Dakota.The university is the largest degree granting institution in Bismarck...

     in Bismarck
    Bismarck, North Dakota
    Bismarck is the capital of the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Burleigh County. It is the second most populous city in North Dakota after Fargo. The city's population was 61,272 at the 2010 census, while its metropolitan population was 108,779...

  • Trinity Bible College
    Trinity Bible College
    Trinity Bible College is a private college in Ellendale, North Dakota, affiliated with the Assemblies of God USA. The school was first founded in Devils Lake in 1948, but after several moves, settled in Ellendale in 1972 where it assumed ownership of the former campus of the North Dakota State...

     in Ellendale
    Ellendale, North Dakota
    As of the census of 2000, there were 1,559 people, 603 households, and 355 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,083.6 people per square mile . There were 750 housing units at an average density of 521.3 per square mile...


State symbols

State bird: Western Meadowlark
Western Meadowlark
Not to be confused with Eastern MeadowlarkThe Western Meadowlark is a medium-sized icterid bird, about 8.5 in long. It nests on the ground in open country in western and central North America. It feeds mostly on insects, but also seeds and berries...

, Sturnella neglecta
State fish: Northern pike
Northern Pike
The northern pike , is a species of carnivorous fish of the genus Esox...

, Esox lucius
State horse
State horse
Twelve U.S. states have designated a horse breed as the official state horse. The first state horse was designated in Vermont in 1961. The most recent state designations occurred in 2010, when North Carolina and South Carolina both declared state breeds...

: Nokota horse
Nokota horse
The Nokota horse is a feral and semi-feral horse breed located in the badlands of southwestern North Dakota in the United States. The breed developed in the 19th century from foundation bloodstock consisting of ranch-bred horses produced from local Indian horses mixed with Spanish horses,...

State flower: Wild Prairie Rose
Wild Prairie Rose
Rosa arkansana is a species of rose native to a large area of central North America, between the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains from Alberta, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan south to New Mexico, Texas and Indiana.There are two varieties:*Rosa arkansana var...

, Rosa arkansana
State tree: American Elm
American Elm
Ulmus americana, generally known as the American Elm or, less commonly, as the White Elm or Water Elm, is a species native to eastern North America, occurring from Nova Scotia west to Alberta and Montana, and south to Florida and central Texas. The American elm is an extremely hardy tree that can...

, Ulmus americana
State fossil
State fossil
Most American states have made a state fossil designation, in many cases during the 1980s. It is common to designate one species in which fossilization has occurred, rather than a single specimen, or a category of fossils not limited to a single species....

: Teredo Petrified wood
Petrified wood
Petrified wood is the name given to a special type of fossilized remains of terrestrial vegetation. It is the result of a tree having turned completely into stone by the process of permineralization...

State grass: Western Wheatgrass, Pascopyrum smithii (Rydb.) A. Löve
State nicknames: Roughrider State, Flickertail State, Peace Garden State, Sioux state.
State mottos:
(Great Seal of North Dakota
Great Seal of North Dakota
The Great Seal of the State of North Dakota is the official seal of the U.S. state of North Dakota. The coloring added to the seal varies by source.-Description:The seal is based on the description of the seal of the Territory of Dakota, enacted in 1862-3....

) Liberty and Union, Now and Forever, One and Inseparable
(Coat of Arms of North Dakota
Coat of arms of North Dakota
The coat of arms of North Dakota is probably the most obscure symbol of North Dakota. Though nominally created for use by the state government and National Guard units, the arms have seen little use since their creation in 1957...

) Strength from the Soil
(Latin Motto of North Dakota, Affective August 1, 2011 "Serit ut alteri saeclo prosit" (One sows for the benefit of another age.)
State slogan: Legendary
State song: North Dakota Hymn
North Dakota Hymn
The "North Dakota Hymn" is the state song of the U.S. state of North Dakota. It was written by a poet named James Foley in 1926 in such a way that it could be sung along with the tune of "The Austrian Hymn". C. S. Putman arranged the music with distinct ragtime syncopation.-Lyrics:The "North Dakota...

State dance: Square Dance
Square dance
Square dance is a folk dance with four couples arranged in a square, with one couple on each side, beginning with Couple 1 facing away from the music and going counter-clockwise until getting to Couple 4. Couples 1 and 3 are known as the head couples, while Couples 2 and 4 are the side couples...

State fruit: Chokecherry
Chokecherry
Prunus virginiana, commonly called chokecherry, bitter-berry, or Virginia bird cherry, is a species of bird cherry native to North America, where it is found almost throughout the continent except for the Deep South and the far north.-Growth:It is a suckering shrub or small tree growing to 5 m tall...

State march: Flickertail March
State beverage: Milk
State art museum: North Dakota Museum of Art
North Dakota Museum of Art
The North Dakota Museum of Art is the official art museum of the U.S. state of North Dakota. Located on the campus of the University of North Dakota in Grand Forks, the museum is a private not-for-profit institution...

State license plate: see the different types over time


"The Flickertail State" is one of North Dakota's nicknames and is derived from Richardson's Ground Squirrel
Richardson's Ground Squirrel
Richardson's ground squirrel , or the flickertail, is a North American ground squirrel in the genus Urocitellus...

 (Spermophilus richardsonii), a very common animal in the region. The ground squirrel constantly flicks its tail in a distinctive manner. In 1953, legislation to make the ground squirrel the state emblem was voted down in the state legislature.

Media

North Dakota's media market
Media market
A media market, broadcast market, media region, designated market area , Television Market Area , or simply market is a region where the population can receive the same television and radio station offerings, and may also include other types of media including newspapers and Internet content...

s are Fargo
Fargo, North Dakota
Fargo is the largest city in the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Cass County. In 2010, its population was 105,549, and it had an estimated metropolitan population of 208,777...

-Grand Forks
Grand Forks, North Dakota
Grand Forks is the third-largest city in the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Grand Forks County. According to the 2010 census, the city's population was 52,838, while that of the city and surrounding metropolitan area was 98,461...

, (121st largest nationally), making up the eastern half of the state, and Minot
Minot, North Dakota
Minot is a city located in north central North Dakota in the United States. It is most widely known for the Air Force base located approximately 15 miles north of the city. With a population of 40,888 at the 2010 census, Minot is the fourth largest city in the state...

-Bismarck
Bismarck, North Dakota
Bismarck is the capital of the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Burleigh County. It is the second most populous city in North Dakota after Fargo. The city's population was 61,272 at the 2010 census, while its metropolitan population was 108,779...

 (158th), making up the western half of the state. Prairie Public Television
Prairie Public Television
Prairie Public Television is the Public Broadcasting Service member state network for the U.S. state of North Dakota. Along with its state radio network Prairie Public, the state network currently has nine digital stations covering all of North Dakota, plus portions of Minnesota, Montana, South...

 (PPTV) is a statewide public television network affiliated with PBS
Public Broadcasting Service
The Public Broadcasting Service is an American non-profit public broadcasting television network with 354 member TV stations in the United States which hold collective ownership. Its headquarters is in Arlington, Virginia....

.

Broadcast television
Terrestrial television
Terrestrial television is a mode of television broadcasting which does not involve satellite transmission or cables — typically using radio waves through transmitting and receiving antennas or television antenna aerials...

 in North Dakota started on April 3, 1953, when KCJB-TV (now KXMC-TV
KXMC-TV
KXMC-TV, channel 13, is the CBS affiliated television station for Minot, North Dakota. The station serves the northern half of the Western North Dakota television market...

) in Minot began broadcasting. There are currently 28 analog broadcast stations and 18 digital
Digital television
Digital television is the transmission of audio and video by digital signals, in contrast to the analog signals used by analog TV...

 channels broadcast over North Dakota.

The state's largest newspaper is The Forum of Fargo-Moorhead
The Forum of Fargo-Moorhead
The Forum of Fargo-Moorhead, previously titled the Fargo Forum, is a daily newspaper printed in Fargo, North Dakota and owned by Forum Communications. The Forum, as it is commonly known, is the primary daily paper for southeast North Dakota, and also much of northwest Minnesota. Its average daily...

. Other weekly and monthly publications (most of which are fully supported by advertising) are also available. The most prominent of these is the alternative weekly
Alternative weekly
An alternative newspaper is a type of newspaper, that eschews comprehensive coverage of general news in favor of stylized reporting, opinionated reviews and columns, investigations into edgy topics and magazine-style feature stories highlighting local people and culture. Their news coverage is more...

 High Plains Reader
High Plains Reader
The High Plains Reader is an alternative newspaper serving the Fargo and Grand Forks metropolitan areas, with an estimated readership of 20,000 to 30,000 weekly between print and online readers...

, which covers Fargo and Grand Forks.

Prairie Public is a statewide radio network affiliated with National Public Radio. The state's oldest radio station, WDAY-AM, was launched on May 23, 1922. The Forum Communications
Forum Communications
Forum Communications Company is a media firm based in Fargo, North Dakota. The company prints a number of newspapers in North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, including The Forum of Fargo-Moorhead....

 owned station is still on the air, and currently broadcasts a news/talk
Talk radio
Talk radio is a radio format containing discussion about topical issues. Most shows are regularly hosted by a single individual, and often feature interviews with a number of different guests. Talk radio typically includes an element of listener participation, usually by broadcasting live...

 format.

North Dakotans

  • Sam Anderson
    Sam Anderson
    Sam Anderson is an American actor.-Early life:Anderson was born in Wahpeton, North Dakota. He is a graduate of the University of North Dakota in Grand Forks. During the 1970s, Sam taught drama at Antelope Valley College in Lancaster, California.-Career:Anderson is perhaps best known for his roles...

    , actor.
  • Brian Bohrer
    Brian Bohrer
    Brian Lester Bohrer is a pastor and author. He is best known for his book called, “Word Therapy” a teaching on the creative power of your words.- History :...

    , minister and author.
  • James F. Buchli, former NASA
    NASA
    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation's civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research...

     astronaut
    Astronaut
    An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft....

    .
  • Quentin N. Burdick
    Quentin N. Burdick
    Quentin Northrup Burdick was a United States Senator from North Dakota from August 8, 1960 until his death in 1992. Prior to that he had served in the United States House of Representatives from January 3, 1959 to August 8, 1960. He was the son of NPL North Dakota Congressman Usher L...

    , former U.S. Senator, third longest-serving Senator among current members of this body.
  • Warren Christopher
    Warren Christopher
    Warren Minor Christopher was an American lawyer, diplomat and politician. During Bill Clinton's first term as President, Christopher served as the 63rd Secretary of State. He also served as Deputy Attorney General in the Lyndon Johnson administration, and as Deputy Secretary of State in the Jimmy...

    , former U.S. Secretary of State, diplomat and lawyer.
  • Shannon Curfman
    Shannon Curfman
    Shannon Marie Curfman is an American blues-rock guitarist and singer. She came to prominence in 1999, at the age of 14, with the release of her first album, Loud Guitars, Big Suspicions, which she recorded a year earlier.Curfman has toured with John Mellencamp, Buddy Guy, George Thorogood and The...

    , American blues-rock guitarist and singer.
  • Angie Dickinson
    Angie Dickinson
    Angie Dickinson is an American actress. She has appeared in more than fifty films, including Rio Bravo, Ocean's Eleven, Dressed to Kill and Pay It Forward, and starred on television as Sergeant Suzanne "Pepper" Anderson on the 1970s crime series Police Woman.-Early life:Dickinson, the second of...

    , Golden Globe-winning television and film actress.
  • Josh Duhamel
    Josh Duhamel
    Joshua David "Josh" Duhamel is an American actor and former fashion model. He first achieved acting success in 1999 as Leo du Pres on ABC's All My Children and later as the chief of security, Danny McCoy, on NBC's Las Vegas...

    , Emmy Award
    Emmy Award
    An Emmy Award, often referred to simply as the Emmy, is a television production award, similar in nature to the Peabody Awards but more focused on entertainment, and is considered the television equivalent to the Academy Awards and the Grammy Awards .A majority of Emmys are presented in various...

    -winning actor and former male fashion model.
  • Carl Ben Eielson, aviator
    Aviator
    An aviator is a person who flies an aircraft. The first recorded use of the term was in 1887, as a variation of 'aviation', from the Latin avis , coined in 1863 by G. de la Landelle in Aviation Ou Navigation Aérienne...

    , bush pilot and explorer.
  • CariDee English
    CariDee English
    CariDee English is an American fashion model and TV personality who won Cycle 7 of America's Next Top Model in December 2006. Her prize was a $100,000 contract with CoverGirl Cosmetics, a modeling contract with Elite Models, and a six-page fashion editorial and cover for Seventeen magazine...

    , winner of Cycle 7 on America's Next Top Model
    America's Next Top Model
    America's Next Top Model is a reality television show in which a number of women compete for the title of America's Next Top Model and a chance to start their career in the modeling industry....

    . Host of Pretty Wicked
    Pretty Wicked
    Pretty Wicked is a reality show on the Oxygen Network. The series challenges 10 women to put looks aside and compete to see who is the most beautiful on the inside. The winner receives a grand prize of $50,000. The show is hosted by Caridee English, winner of America's Next Top Model...

    .
  • Louise Erdrich
    Louise Erdrich
    Karen Louise Erdrich, known as Louise Erdrich, is an author of novels, poetry, and children's books featuring Native American heritage. She is widely acclaimed as one of the most significant writers of the second wave of what critic Kenneth Lincoln has called the Native American Renaissance...

    , Native American author of novels, poetry, and children's books.
  • Darin Erstad
    Darin Erstad
    Darin Charles Erstad is the Head Coach of the University of Nebraska Cornhuskers baseball team and a former Major League Baseball outfielder/first baseman. Prior to , he had played with the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim franchise before signing with the Chicago White Sox in 2007...

    , MLB all-star and World Series Champion.
  • Travis Hafner
    Travis Hafner
    Travis Lee Hafner is a left-handed hitting designated hitter for the Cleveland Indians of the American League Central Division. His nickname, "Pronk", was given to him by former teammate Bill Selby during spring training of when people sometimes referred to him as "The Project" and other times...

    , MLB Designated Hitter
    Designated hitter
    In baseball, the designated hitter rule is the common name for Major League Baseball Rule 6.10, an official position adopted by the American League in 1973 that allows teams to designate a player, known as the designated hitter , to bat in place of the pitcher each time he would otherwise come to...

     for the Cleveland Indians
    Cleveland Indians
    The Cleveland Indians are a professional baseball team based in Cleveland, Ohio. They are in the Central Division of Major League Baseball's American League. Since , they have played in Progressive Field. The team's spring training facility is in Goodyear, Arizona...

    .
  • Richard Hieb
    Richard Hieb
    Richard James Hieb is a former NASA astronaut and a veteran of three space shuttle missions. He was a mission specialist on STS-39 and STS-49, and was a payload commander on STS-65...

    , former NASA
    NASA
    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation's civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research...

     astronaut
    Astronaut
    An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft....

    .
  • Virgil Hill, former WBA World Cruiserweight champion and Olympic boxer.
  • Gordon Kahl
    Gordon Kahl
    Gordon Wendell Kahl is best known for his involvement in two fatal shootouts with law enforcement officers in the United States in 1983....

    , tax protestor best known for the Medina shootout in 1983.
  • Chuck Klosterman
    Chuck Klosterman
    Charles John "Chuck" Klosterman is an American author and essayist who has written for The New York Times Magazine, The Believer, and The Washington Post, and has written books focusing on American popular culture....

    , writer, journalist, critic, humorist, and essayist whose work often focuses on pop culture.
  • Louis L'Amour
    Louis L'Amour
    Louis Dearborn L'Amour was an American author. His books consisted primarily of Western fiction novels , however he also wrote historical fiction , science fiction , nonfiction , as well as poetry and short-story collections. Many of his stories were made into movies...

    , author of primarily Western fiction
    Western fiction
    Western fiction is a genre of literature set in the American Old West frontier and typically set from the late eighteenth to the late nineteenth century. Well-known writers of Western fiction include Zane Grey from the early 1900s and Louis L'Amour from the mid 20th century...

    .
  • Jonny Lang
    Jonny Lang
    Jonny Lang is a Grammy award-winning American blues, gospel, and rock singer, songwriter and recording artist. Lang's music is notable for both his unusual voice, which has been compared to that of a forty-year-old blues veteran, and for his guitar solos...

    , Grammy-winning
    Grammy Award
    A Grammy Award — or Grammy — is an accolade by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences of the United States to recognize outstanding achievement in the music industry...

     blues
    Blues
    Blues is the name given to both a musical form and a music genre that originated in African-American communities of primarily the "Deep South" of the United States at the end of the 19th century from spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts and chants, and rhymed simple narrative ballads...

     guitarist and singer.
  • Peggy Lee
    Peggy Lee
    Peggy Lee was an American jazz and popular music singer, songwriter, composer, and actress in a career spanning six decades. From her beginning as a vocalist on local radio to singing with Benny Goodman's big band, she forged a sophisticated persona, evolving into a multi-faceted artist and...

    , jazz
    Jazz
    Jazz is a musical style that originated at the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States. It was born out of a mix of African and European music traditions. From its early development until the present, jazz has incorporated music from 19th and 20th...

     and traditional pop singer and songwriter.
  • Nicole Linkletter
    Nicole Linkletter
    Nicole Linkletter is an American fashion model, winner of Cycle 5 of America's Next Top Model.-America's Next Top Model:Linkletter appeared in Cycle 5 of the show after auditioning for the show at the Mall of America...

    , winner of Cycle 5 on "America's Next Top Model
    America's Next Top Model
    America's Next Top Model is a reality television show in which a number of women compete for the title of America's Next Top Model and a chance to start their career in the modeling industry....

    ".
  • Kellan Lutz
    Kellan Lutz
    Kellan Christopher Lutz is an American fashion model, and film and television actor, who is best known for playing Emmett Cullen in the Twilight series.-Early life:...

    , actor who portrays Emmett Cullen in Twilight
    Twilight (2008 film)
    Twilight is a 2008 American romantic vampire film based on Stephenie Meyer's popular novel of the same name. Directed by Catherine Hardwicke, the film stars Kristen Stewart and Robert Pattinson. It is the first film in The Twilight Saga film series...

    and New Moon
    New Moon (2009 film)
    The Twilight Saga: New Moon, commonly referred to as New Moon, is a 2009 American romance fantasy-vampire film based on Stephenie Meyer's 2006 novel New Moon. It is the second film in The Twilight Saga film series and is the sequel to 2008's Twilight. Summit Entertainment greenlit the sequel in...

    . Former male fashion model.
  • Roger Maris
    Roger Maris
    Roger Eugene Maris was an American Major League Baseball right fielder. During the 1961 season, he hit a record 61 home runs for the New York Yankees, breaking Babe Ruth's single-season record of 60 home runs...

    , right fielder
    Right fielder
    A right fielder, abbreviated RF, is the outfielder in baseball or softball who plays defense in right field. Right field is the area of the outfield to the right of a person standing at home plate and facing towards the pitcher's mound...

     in Major League Baseball
    Major League Baseball
    Major League Baseball is the highest level of professional baseball in the United States and Canada, consisting of teams that play in the National League and the American League...

     and former single season home run record holder
  • Phil Jackson
    Phil Jackson
    Philip Douglas "Phil" Jackson is a retired American professional basketball coach and player. Jackson is widely considered one of the greatest coaches in the history of the National Basketball Association . His reputation was established as head coach of the Chicago Bulls from 1989 through 1998;...

    , coach for the LA Lakers.
  • Helen Marshall
    Helen Marshall
    Helen M. Marshall is the 18th Borough President of Queens, first elected in November 2001, to succeed the term-limited Claire Shulman...

    , poet and medievalist.
  • Thomas McGrath
    Thomas McGrath (poet)
    Thomas Matthew McGrath, was a celebrated American poet....

    , poet and political activist.
  • Mancur Olson
    Mancur Olson
    Mancur Lloyd Olson, Jr. was a leading American economist and social scientist who, at the time of his death, worked at the University of Maryland, College Park...

    , economist.
  • Alan Ritchson
    Alan Ritchson
    Alan Ritchson is an American actor, singer, and fashion model. He is best known for his modeling career as well as his portrayals of the superhero Aquaman on The CW's Smallville and Thad Castle on Spike TV's Blue Mountain State....

    , participant in 3rd season of American Idol
    American Idol
    American Idol, titled American Idol: The Search for a Superstar for the first season, is a reality television singing competition created by Simon Fuller and produced by FremantleMedia North America and 19 Entertainment...

    , singer, model and actor.
  • Sakakawea, Shoshone
    Shoshone
    The Shoshone or Shoshoni are a Native American tribe in the United States with three large divisions: the Northern, the Western and the Eastern....

     woman of Lewis and Clark fame.
  • Ed Schultz
    Ed Schultz
    Edward Andrew "Ed" Schultz Is an American television and radio host and a liberal political commentator . He is the host of The Ed Show, a daily news talk program on MSNBC, and The Ed Schultz Show, a talk radio show, nationally syndicated by Dial Global, promising "straight talk."-Early...

    , host of The Ed Schultz Show
    The Ed Schultz Show
    The Ed Schultz Show is a radio program hosted by Ed Schultz. It was formerly broadcast from KFGO in Fargo, North Dakota. It is heard on a network of over 100 stations , including seven of the 10 largest radio markets...

    .
  • Eric Sevareid
    Eric Sevareid
    Arnold Eric Sevareid was a CBS news journalist from 1939 to 1977. He was one of a group of elite war correspondents—dubbed "Murrow's Boys"—because they were hired by pioneering CBS newsman Edward R. Murrow....

    , CBS
    CBS
    CBS Broadcasting Inc. is a major US commercial broadcasting television network, which started as a radio network. The name is derived from the initials of the network's former name, Columbia Broadcasting System. The network is sometimes referred to as the "Eye Network" in reference to the shape of...

     news journalist.
  • Ann Sothern
    Ann Sothern
    Ann Sothern was an American film and television actress whose career spanned six decades.-Early life and career:...

    , Oscar nominated
    Academy Awards
    An Academy Award, also known as an Oscar, is an accolade bestowed by the American Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to recognize excellence of professionals in the film industry, including directors, actors, and writers...

     film and television actress.
  • Richard St. Clair
    Richard St. Clair
    Richard St. Clair is an American composer, pedagogue, and pianist.-Life History and Musical Career:Richard St. Clair, a noted American musician, is descended from both Franco-Scottish roots on his father's side, and Norwegian-Swedish roots on his mother's side...

    , Harvard-educated composer of modern classical music.
  • Shadoe Stevens
    Shadoe Stevens
    Shadoe Stevens is an American radio host, voiceover actor, and television personality. He was the host of American Top 40 from 1988 to 1995...

    , host of American Top 40
    American Top 40
    American Top 40 is an internationally syndicated, independent radio program created by Casey Kasem, Don Bustany, Tom Rounds and Ron Jacobs. Originally a production of Watermark Inc...

    .
  • Bobby Vee
    Bobby Vee
    Robert Thomas Velline , known as Bobby Vee, is an American pop music singer. According to Billboard magazine, Vee has had 38 Hot 100 chart hits, 10 of which hit the Top 20.-Career:...

    , pop music singer.
  • Lawrence Welk
    Lawrence Welk
    Lawrence Welk was an American musician, accordionist, bandleader, and television impresario, who hosted The Lawrence Welk Show from 1955 to 1982...

    , musician, accordion
    Accordion
    The accordion is a box-shaped musical instrument of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone family, sometimes referred to as a squeezebox. A person who plays the accordion is called an accordionist....

     player, bandleader
    Bandleader
    A bandleader is the leader of a band of musicians. The term is most commonly, though not exclusively, used with a group that plays popular music as a small combo or a big band, such as one which plays jazz, blues, rhythm and blues or rock and roll music....

    , and television impresario
    Impresario
    An impresario is a person who organizes and often finances concerts, plays or operas; analogous to a film producer in filmmaking, television production and an angel investor in business...

    .
  • Wiz Khalifa
    Wiz Khalifa
    Cameron Jibril Thomaz , better known by the stage name Wiz Khalifa , is an American rapper. He released his debut album, Show and Prove, in 2006, and signed to Warner Bros. Records in 2007...

     hip hop artist.

See also

  • Great Plains
    Great Plains
    The Great Plains are a broad expanse of flat land, much of it covered in prairie, steppe and grassland, which lies west of the Mississippi River and east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada. This area covers parts of the U.S...

  • List of National Register of Historic Places in North Dakota
  • List of people from North Dakota

  • Missouri River
    Missouri River
    The Missouri River flows through the central United States, and is a tributary of the Mississippi River. It is the longest river in North America and drains the third largest area, though only the thirteenth largest by discharge. The Missouri's watershed encompasses most of the American Great...

  • Red River of the North
    Red River of the North
    The Red River is a North American river. Originating at the confluence of the Bois de Sioux and Otter Tail rivers in the United States, it flows northward through the Red River Valley and forms the border between the U.S. states of Minnesota and North Dakota before continuing into Manitoba, Canada...

  • US state


Further reading

  • Arends, Shirley Fischer. The Central Dakota Germans: Their History, Language, and Culture. (1989). 289 pp.
  • Berg, Francie M., ed. Ethnic Heritage in North Dakota. (1983). 174 pp.
  • Blackorby, Edward C. Prairie Rebel: The Public Life of William Lemke (1963), radical leader in 1930s online edition
  • Collins, Michael L. That Damned Cowboy: Theodore Roosevelt and the American West, 1883–1898 (1989). Teddy was a rancher here in the 1880s
  • Cooper, Jerry and Smith, Glen. Citizens as Soldiers: A History of the North Dakota National Guard. (1986). 447 pp.
  • Crawford, Lewis F. History of North Dakota (3 vol 1931), excellent history in vol 1; biographies in vol. 2–3
  • Danbom, David B. "Our Purpose Is to Serve": The First Century of the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station. (1990). 237 pp.
  • Eisenberg, C. G. History of the First Dakota-District of the Evangelical-Lutheran Synod of Iowa and Other States. (1982). 268 pp.
  • Ginsburg, Faye D. Contested Lives: The Abortion Debate in an American Community. (1989). 315 pp. the issue in Fargo
  • Hargreaves, Mary W. M. Dry Farming in the Northern Great Plains: Years of Readjustment, 1920–1990. (1993). 386 pp.
  • Howard, Thomas W., ed. The North Dakota Political Tradition. (1981). 220 pp.
  • Hudson, John C. Plains Country Towns. (1985). 189 pp. geographer studies small towns
  • Junker, Rozanne Enerson. The Bank of North Dakota: An Experiment in State Ownership. (1989). 185 pp.
  • Lamar, Howard R. Dakota Territory, 1861–1889: A Study of Frontier Politics (1956).
  • Lounsberry, Clement A. Early history of North Dakota (1919) excellent history by editor of Bismark Tribune; 645pp online edition
  • Lysengen, Janet Daley and Rathke, Ann M., eds. The Centennial Anthology of "North Dakota History: Journal of the Northern Plains." (1996). 526 pp. articles from state history journal covering all major topics in the state's history
  • Morlan, Robert L. Political Prairie Fire: The Nonpartisan League, 1915–1922. (1955). 414 pp. NPL comes to power briefly
  • Peirce, Neal R. The Great Plains States of America: People, Politics, and Power in the Nine Great Plains States (1973) excerpt and text ssearch, chapter on North Dakota
  • Robinson, Elwyn B., D. Jerome Tweton, and David B. Danbom. History of North Dakota (2nd ed. 1995) standard history, by leading scholars; extensive bibliography
  • Schneider, Mary Jane. North Dakota Indians: An Introduction. (1986). 276 pp.
  • Sherman, William C. and Thorson, Playford V., eds. Plains Folk: North Dakota's Ethnic History. (1988). 419 pp.
  • Sherman, William C. Prairie Mosaic: An Ethnic Atlas of Rural North Dakota. (1983). 152 pp.
  • Smith, Glen H. Langer of North Dakota: A Study in Isolationism, 1940–1959. (1979). 238 pp. biography of influential conservative Senator
  • Snortland, J. Signe, ed. A Traveler's Companion to North Dakota State Historic Sites. (1996). 155 pp.
  • Stock, Catherine McNicol. Main Street in Crisis: The Great Depression and the Old Middle Class on the Northern Plains. (1992). 305pp. online edition
  • Tauxe, Caroline S. Farms, Mines and Main Streets: Uneven Development in a Dakota County. (1993). 276 pp. coal and grain in Mercer county
  • Tweton, D. Jerome and Jelliff, Theodore B. North Dakota: The Heritage of a People. (1976). 242 pp. textbook history
  • Wilkins, Robert P. and Wilkins, Wynona Hutchette. North Dakota: A Bicentennial History. (1977) 218 pp. popular history
  • Wishart, David J. ed. Encyclopedia of the Great Plains, University of Nebraska Press, 2004, ISBN 0-8032-4787-7. complete text online; 900 pages of scholarly articles
  • Young, Carrie. Prairie Cooks: Glorified Rice, Three-Day Buns, and Other Reminiscences. (1993). 136 pp.

Primary sources

  • Benson, Bjorn; Hampsten, Elizabeth; and Sweney, Kathryn, eds. Day In, Day Out: Women's Lives in North Dakota. (1988). 326 pp.
  • Maximilian, Prince of Wied. Travels in the Interior of North America in the rears 1832 to 1834 (Vols. XXII-XXIV of "Early Western Travels, 1748–1846," ed. by Reuben Gold Thwaites; 1905–1906). Maximilian spent the winter of 1833–1834 at Fort Clark.
  • University of North Dakota, Bureau of Governmental Affairs, ed., A Compilation of North Dakota Political Party Platforms, 1884–1978. (1979). 388 pp.
  • WPA. North Dakota: A Guide to the Northern Prairie State (2nd ed. 1950), the classic guide online edition

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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