No. 16 Squadron RAF
Overview
 
No. 16 Squadron is a flying squadron of the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Formed on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world...

. It formed in 1915 at Saint-Omer
Saint-Omer
Saint-Omer , a commune and sub-prefecture of the Pas-de-Calais department west-northwest of Lille on the railway to Calais. The town is named after Saint Audomar, who brought Christianity to the area....

 to carry out a mixture of offensive patrolling and reconnaissance and was disbanded in 1919 with the end of the First World War. The squadron reformed on 1st April 1924 and again took on a reconnaissance role which it continued throughout the Second World War.

Post-war, the squadron was disbanded and reformed several times and was converted to a bomber squadron.
Encyclopedia
No. 16 Squadron is a flying squadron of the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Formed on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world...

. It formed in 1915 at Saint-Omer
Saint-Omer
Saint-Omer , a commune and sub-prefecture of the Pas-de-Calais department west-northwest of Lille on the railway to Calais. The town is named after Saint Audomar, who brought Christianity to the area....

 to carry out a mixture of offensive patrolling and reconnaissance and was disbanded in 1919 with the end of the First World War. The squadron reformed on 1st April 1924 and again took on a reconnaissance role which it continued throughout the Second World War.

Post-war, the squadron was disbanded and reformed several times and was converted to a bomber squadron. Equipped with the Tornado GR.1
Panavia Tornado
The Panavia Tornado is a family of twin-engine, variable-sweep wing combat aircraft, which was jointly developed and manufactured by the United Kingdom, West Germany and Italy...

 from 1984 the squadron took part in the Gulf War
Gulf War
The Persian Gulf War , commonly referred to as simply the Gulf War, was a war waged by a U.N.-authorized coalition force from 34 nations led by the United States, against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.The war is also known under other names, such as the First Gulf...

 in 1990. It was again disbanded in September 1991, before reforming in November 1991 as the Operational Conversion Unit
Operational Conversion Unit
An Operational Conversion Unit is a unit within an air force whose role is to support preparation for the operational missions of a specific aircraft type by providing trained personnel. OCUs teach pilots how to fly an aircraft and which tactics best exploit the performance of their aircraft and...

 for the Jaguar
SEPECAT Jaguar
The SEPECAT Jaguar is an Anglo-French jet ground attack aircraft, originally used by the British Royal Air Force and the French Armée de l'Air in the close air support and nuclear strike role, and still in service with several export customers, notably the Indian Air Force and the Royal Air Force...

. With the Jaguar's imminent withdrawal from service, the squadron disbanded once more in 2005.

16 Squadron reformed again and took on its current role on 1 October 2008. Based at RAF Cranwell
RAF Cranwell
RAF Cranwell is a Royal Air Force station in Lincolnshire close to the village of Cranwell, near Sleaford. It is currently commanded by Group Captain Dave Waddington...

, it instructs pilots in elementary flying using the Tutor.

Early years

The Squadron was formed at Saint-Omer
Saint-Omer
Saint-Omer , a commune and sub-prefecture of the Pas-de-Calais department west-northwest of Lille on the railway to Calais. The town is named after Saint Audomar, who brought Christianity to the area....

, France on 10 February 1915 from elements of Nos. 2
No. 2 Squadron RAF
No. 2 Squadron of the Royal Air Force is currently one of two RAF squadrons operating in the reconnaissance role with the Tornado GR4A and GR4 and is based at RAF Marham, Norfolk.No. II Squadron holds claim to being "the oldest heavier-than-air flying machine squadron in the world", along with No...

, 6
No. 6 Squadron RAF
No. 6 Squadron of the Royal Air Force operates the Eurofighter Typhoon FGR4 at RAF Leuchars.It was previously equipped with the Jaguar GR.3 in the close air support and tactical reconnaissance roles, and was based at RAF Coltishall, Norfolk until April 2006, moving to RAF Coningsby until...

 and 9 Squadrons. It immediately began fighting in the First World War under Hugh Dowding. For the rest of the Great War, the 'Saints' were deployed throughout Northern France and operated a mixture of aircraft including Bleriot XI
Blériot XI
The Blériot XI is the aircraft in which, on 25 July 1909, Louis Blériot made the first flight across the English Channel made in a heavier-than-air aircraft . This achievement is one of the most famous accomplishments of the early years of aviation, and not only won Blériot a lasting place in...

, Martinsyde S.1
Martinsyde S.1
-See also:-References:*Bruce, J.M. War Planes of the First World War: Volume One Fighters. London:Macdonald, 1965....

 and Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2c
Be2
The online matchmaking company be2 is one of the leading matchmakers worldwide. Internationally, be2 is represented in 37 countries..-History:...

 on offensive
Offensive (military)
An offensive is a military operation that seeks through aggressive projection of armed force to occupy territory, gain an objective or achieve some larger strategic, operational or tactical goal...

 patrol and tactical
Military tactics
Military tactics, the science and art of organizing an army or an air force, are the techniques for using weapons or military units in combination for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. Changes in philosophy and technology over time have been reflected in changes to military tactics. In...

 reconnaissance
Reconnaissance
Reconnaissance is the military term for exploring beyond the area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about enemy forces or features of the environment....

 duties. Disbandment occurred on New Year's Eve 1919 followed by reformation at Old Sarum
Old Sarum
Old Sarum is the site of the earliest settlement of Salisbury, in England. The site contains evidence of human habitation as early as 3000 BC. Old Sarum is mentioned in some of the earliest records in the country...

 on 1 April 1924. Initially the Bristol Fighter
Bristol F.2 Fighter
The Bristol F.2 Fighter was a British two-seat biplane fighter and reconnaissance aircraft of the First World War flown by the Royal Flying Corps. It is often simply called the Bristol Fighter or popularly the "Brisfit" or "Biff". Despite being a two-seater, the F.2B proved to be an agile aircraft...

 was operated in the tactical reconnaissance role and this was followed by the Atlas
Armstrong Whitworth Atlas
|-See also:-External links:* *...

 and Audax.

World War 2

In May 1938 the Lysander
Westland Lysander
The Westland Lysander was a British army co-operation and liaison aircraft produced by Westland Aircraft used immediately before and during the Second World War...

 arrived and the Squadron
Squadron (aviation)
A squadron in air force, army aviation or naval aviation is mainly a unit comprising a number of military aircraft, usually of the same type, typically with 12 to 24 aircraft, sometimes divided into three or four flights, depending on aircraft type and air force...

 continued in its tactical role in wartime France from April 1940. In November 1940 they returned to England and conducted roving sea patrols searching for both downed aircrew and enemy forces. By April 1942, 16 Squadron was re-equipped with the P-51 Mustang
P-51 Mustang
The North American Aviation P-51 Mustang was an American long-range, single-seat fighter and fighter-bomber used during World War II, the Korean War and in several other conflicts...

 and tasked to conduct fighter sweeps and reconnaissance duties over France, the Spitfire
Supermarine Spitfire
The Supermarine Spitfire is a British single-seat fighter aircraft that was used by the Royal Air Force and many other Allied countries throughout the Second World War. The Spitfire continued to be used as a front line fighter and in secondary roles into the 1950s...

 Mk V took over this role from January 1943. On 2 June 1943 the Squadron became part of the Strategic Reconnaissance Wing of the 2nd Tactical Air Force as a high-altitude photo reconnaissance unit with Spitfire PR Mk XIs based at Hartford Bridge
RAF Blackbushe
RAF Blackbushe was a Royal Air Force station in Hampshire, England, during World War II. It is now known as Blackbushe Airport.-History:The station was opened on 1 November 1942 as RAF Hartford Bridge and it was used throughout the remainder of Second World War for reconnaissance, defence and...

. In the build-up to D Day, No 16 supplied photographs instrumental to the planning of the Allied landings. Afterwards essential reconnaissance continued to be provided until the end of the war.

Into The Jet Age

16 Squadron was disbanded at Celle
Celle
Celle is a town and capital of the district of Celle, in Lower Saxony, Germany. The town is situated on the banks of the River Aller, a tributary of the Weser and has a population of about 71,000...

 on 1 April 1946 but reformed at RAF Fassberg
RAF Fassberg
The former Royal Air Force Station Fassberg, more commonly known as RAF Fassberg, was a Royal Air Force airbase in Germany situated in the northern suburbs of Fassberg, Lower Saxony...

 the same day and took the 24 cylinder
Cylinder (engine)
A cylinder is the central working part of a reciprocating engine or pump, the space in which a piston travels. Multiple cylinders are commonly arranged side by side in a bank, or engine block, which is typically cast from aluminum or cast iron before receiving precision machine work...

 Hawker Tempest
Hawker Tempest
The Hawker Tempest was a British fighter aircraft primarily used by the Royal Air Force in the Second World War. The Tempest was an improved derivative of the Hawker Typhoon, and one of the most powerful fighter aircraft used during the war....

 Mk V on charge until converting to the radial-engined
Radial engine
The radial engine is a reciprocating type internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinders point outward from a central crankshaft like the spokes on a wheel...

 Mk II on 7 June 1946. On 7 December 1948 No. 16 took delivery of its first jet
Jet engine
A jet engine is a reaction engine that discharges a fast moving jet to generate thrust by jet propulsion and in accordance with Newton's laws of motion. This broad definition of jet engines includes turbojets, turbofans, rockets, ramjets, pulse jets...

 aircraft, the de Havilland Vampire
De Havilland Vampire
The de Havilland DH.100 Vampire was a British jet-engine fighter commissioned by the Royal Air Force during the Second World War. Following the Gloster Meteor, it was the second jet fighter to enter service with the RAF. Although it arrived too late to see combat during the war, the Vampire served...

 FB.5, which gave way to the de Havilland Venom
De Havilland Venom
The de Havilland DH 112 Venom was a British postwar single-engined jet aircraft developed from the de Havilland Vampire. It served with the Royal Air Force as a single-seat fighter-bomber and two-seat night fighter....

 FB.1 in November 1954 until disbandment at Celle once more on 1 June 1957.

As East-West relations cooled, the Squadron reformed at Laarbruch
RAF Laarbruch
The former Royal Air Force Station Laarbruch, more commonly known as RAF Laarbruch ICAO EDUL was a Royal Air Force station, a military airbase, located in Germany on its border with the Netherlands...

 on 1 March 1958 and would remain there until 1991. 16 Squadron maintained a permanent readiness state, tasked with meeting the Soviet threat
Cold War
The Cold War was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World—primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies—and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States...

, in the expected conventional phase and with the use of tactical nuclear weapons. The Canberra
English Electric Canberra
The English Electric Canberra is a first-generation jet-powered light bomber manufactured in large numbers through the 1950s. The Canberra could fly at a higher altitude than any other bomber through the 1950s and set a world altitude record of 70,310 ft in 1957...

 B(I).8 equipped with dual-key
Two-man rule
The two-man rule is a control mechanism designed to achieve a high level of security for especially critical material or operations. Under this rule all access and actions requires the presence of two authorized people at all times.-Nuclear weapons:...

 nuclear weapons was operated for 14 years but gave way to the Buccaneer
Blackburn Buccaneer
The Blackburn Buccaneer was a British low-level subsonic strike aircraft with nuclear weapon delivery capability serving with the Royal Navy and the Royal Air Force between 1962 and 1994, including service in the 1991 Gulf War...

 S.2B on 16 October 1972. The squadron's twelve Buccaneers were equipped with a variety of conventional weapons and eighteen British WE.177
WE.177
WE.177 was the last air-delivered tactical nuclear weapon of the British Armed Forces. There were three versions; WE.177A was a boosted fission weapon, while WE.177B and WE.177C were thermonuclear weapons...

 nuclear bombs. Although Buccaneers could carry two WE.177 weapons, after taking into account attrition in the conventional phase of a high-intensity European war, and after withholding some aircraft in reserve, RAF planners expected that squadron strength remaining would still be sufficient to deliver the nuclear weapons stockpile. The Buccaneer distinguished itself in many bombing exercises, among its victories included winning the Salmond Trophy in 1978 and 1979. The Squadron re-equipped with the Tornado GR.1
Panavia Tornado
The Panavia Tornado is a family of twin-engine, variable-sweep wing combat aircraft, which was jointly developed and manufactured by the United Kingdom, West Germany and Italy...

 in 1984, retaining its role in countering a Soviet threat in Europe with conventional weapons and eighteen WE.177
WE.177
WE.177 was the last air-delivered tactical nuclear weapon of the British Armed Forces. There were three versions; WE.177A was a boosted fission weapon, while WE.177B and WE.177C were thermonuclear weapons...

 nuclear bombs. A similar ratio of 1.5 weapons per aircraft as with the Buccaneer.

Ahead of Operation GRANBY
Operation Granby
Operation Granby was the name given to the British military operations during the Gulf War. 53,462 troops were deployed during the conflict. The total cost of operations was £2.434 billion of which at least £2.049 billion was paid for by other nations such as Kuwait and Saudi Arabia; £200...

 in 1990 and the first Gulf War
Gulf War
The Persian Gulf War , commonly referred to as simply the Gulf War, was a war waged by a U.N.-authorized coalition force from 34 nations led by the United States, against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.The war is also known under other names, such as the First Gulf...

, the squadron deployed to Tabuk airbase
Airbase
An airbase is a military airfield that provides basing and support of military aircraft....

. No. 16 was the lead squadron in the deployment with No. 20
No. 20 Squadron RAF
No. 20 Squadron of the Royal Air Force was until March 2010, the OCU for the BAE Harrier GR9, and T12, operating from RAF Wittering...

 and crews from other Tornado GR.1 squadrons. The 'Tabuk Force' used JP233
JP233
Originally known as the LAAAS , the JP233 was a British submunition delivery system consisting of large dispenser pods carrying several hundred submunitions designed to attack runways.-Design and development:...

s and 1,000 lb bombs on low-level sorties against Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

i airfields and other targets. Some of the Squadron's aircraft later formed a TIALD
TIALD
TIALD, the Thermal Imaging Airborne Laser Designator pod, is manufactured by SELEX Galileo and was the UK's primary laser designator for laser-guided bombs....

 flight that conducted accurate medium-level bombing. Following hostilities, the Squadron disbanded on 11 September 1991 but reformed in November at RAF Lossiemouth
RAF Lossiemouth
RAF Lossiemouth is a Royal Air Force station to the west of the town of Lossiemouth in Moray, Scotland. It is one of the RAF's biggest bases and is currently Britain's main base for Tornado GR4s. From 2013 the Northern QRA force of Typhoon F2 will relocate to Lossiemouth following the closure of...

 as No. 16(R) Squadron, a reserve
Military reserve
A military reserve, tactical reserve, or strategic reserve is a group of military personnel or units which are initially not committed to a battle by their commander so that they are available to address unforeseen situations or exploit suddenly developing...

 squadron and an Operational Conversion Unit
Operational Conversion Unit
An Operational Conversion Unit is a unit within an air force whose role is to support preparation for the operational missions of a specific aircraft type by providing trained personnel. OCUs teach pilots how to fly an aircraft and which tactics best exploit the performance of their aircraft and...

, replacing and taking over the aircraft and weapons of 226 OCU
No. 226 Operational Conversion Unit RAF
No. 226 Operational Conversion Unit was a Royal Air Force Operational Conversion Unit. It was first formed in 1946 at RAF Molesworth under No. 11 Group of Fighter Command by redesignation of No. 1335 Conversion Unit with the mission of training fighter pilots. The unit operated with a variety of...

, training and converting new pilots for the Jaguar
SEPECAT Jaguar
The SEPECAT Jaguar is an Anglo-French jet ground attack aircraft, originally used by the British Royal Air Force and the French Armée de l'Air in the close air support and nuclear strike role, and still in service with several export customers, notably the Indian Air Force and the Royal Air Force...

. Although no longer a front-line operational squadron, as a reserve, or shadow squadron, its twelve aircraft were equipped with conventional weapons and eight WE.177 nuclear weapons for use in a high-intensity European war, and it remained assigned to SACEUR for that purpose.
Although a non-operational squadron, its pilots were still involved in Operation DENY FLIGHT
Operation Deny Flight
Operation Deny Flight was a North Atlantic Treaty Organization operation that began on April 12, 1993 as the enforcement of a United Nations no-fly zone over Bosnia and Herzegovina...

 and Operation NORTHERN WATCH
Operation Northern Watch
Operation Northern Watch, the successor to Operation Provide Comfort, was a US European Command Combined Task Force charged with enforcing its own no-fly zone above the 36th parallel in Iraq...

. The Squadron moved to Coltishall
RAF Coltishall
The former Royal Air Force Station Coltishall, more commonly known as RAF Coltishall , was a Royal Air Force station, a military airbase, North-North-East of Norwich, in the English county of Norfolk, East Anglia, from 1938 to 2006....

 in the summer of 2000 but disbanded on 11 March 2005 as the Jaguar approached retirement. The Squadron Standard was laid up in Notre-Dame Cathedral Saint-Omer
Saint-Omer
Saint-Omer , a commune and sub-prefecture of the Pas-de-Calais department west-northwest of Lille on the railway to Calais. The town is named after Saint Audomar, who brought Christianity to the area....

, France on 20 March 2005 where it remains today - once laid up in a place of worship
Worship
Worship is an act of religious devotion usually directed towards a deity. The word is derived from the Old English worthscipe, meaning worthiness or worth-ship — to give, at its simplest, worth to something, for example, Christian worship.Evelyn Underhill defines worship thus: "The absolute...

, a Standard can never be removed.

Current role

On 1 October 2008, the Squadron was reformed at RAF Cranwell
RAF Cranwell
RAF Cranwell is a Royal Air Force station in Lincolnshire close to the village of Cranwell, near Sleaford. It is currently commanded by Group Captain Dave Waddington...

 as part of 22 Group operating the Grob Tutor. 16(Reserve) Squadron continues its training role by instructing new Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Formed on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world...

 pilots in Elementary Flying Training (EFT) as part of 1 EFTS. From 2005 to 2008 the unit was previously known as 1 Squadron, 1 EFTS following a restructuring of the RAF's pilot training. 16(R) Squadron instructs a third of the RAF's new pilots and some pilots from overseas; the rest are shared between 57(R) Squadron
No. 57 Squadron RAF
-History:57 Squadron of the Royal Flying Corps was formed on 8 June 1916 at Copmanthorpe, Yorkshire. In December 1916 the squadron was posted to France equipped with the FE2d. The squadron re-equipped with Airco DH4s in May 1917 and commenced long range bombing and reconnaissance operations near...

 at RAF Wyton
RAF Wyton
RAF Wyton is a Royal Air Force station near St. Ives, Cambridgeshire, England.In terms of organisation RAF Wyton is now part of the combined station RAF Brampton Wyton Henlow, a merger of Wyton with two previously separate bases, RAF Brampton and RAF Henlow. Wyton is the largest of the three. It...

 and 85(R) Squadron
No. 85 Squadron RAF
No. 85 Squadron is a squadron of the Royal Air Force. It most recently served as No. 85 Squadron based at RAF Church Fenton.-In World War I:...

 at RAF Church Fenton
RAF Church Fenton
RAF Church Fenton is a Royal Air Force airfield at Church Fenton in North Yorkshire, England.- History :Plans for a new airfield adjacent to the village of Church Fenton were announced in June 1935, it was subject to protest from the local population particularly concerning the waste of valuable...

. The Squadrons' role is to provide pilots to the more advanced flying training courses on their way to earning the coveted pilot wings
Aircrew brevet
An aircrew brevet is the badge worn on the left breast, above any medal ribbons, by qualified aircrew in the Royal Air Force, British Army, Indian Air Force, Canadian Forces, Australian Army, Royal Australian Air Force, Royal New Zealand Air Force, South African Air Force and Sri Lanka Air...

 and joining the front line
Front line
A front line is the farthest-most forward position of an armed force's personnel and equipment - generally in respect of maritime or land forces. Forward Line of Own Troops , or Forward Edge of Battle Area are technical terms used by all branches of the armed services...

. In early 2008, Prince William took his first steps on his aviation career at No. 16 Squadron's site flying his first solo sortie in Tutor G-BYXN; his father
Charles, Prince of Wales
Prince Charles, Prince of Wales is the heir apparent and eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Since 1958 his major title has been His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales. In Scotland he is additionally known as The Duke of Rothesay...

 was also taught to fly at RAF Cranwell in 1971.

Prior to joining one of the three EFT Squadrons, trainee pilots will have completed Initial Officer Training
Officer training
Officer training refers to the training that most military officers must complete before acquiring an officer rank. A potential recruit becomes an officer cadet, someone in training. An officer in training can either be trained in a military college like West Point, or taken from the enlisted ranks...

 (IOT) at RAF College Cranwell and are all commissioned officers. Some pilots arrive with no previous military flying experience but others have accrued a number of flying hours during time with a University Air Squadron
University Air Squadron
University Air Squadrons are training units of the Royal Air Force which primarily provide basic flying training, force development and adventurous training to undergraduate students at British universities...

. Additionally, a number of international pilots are trained to the same standards as RAF pilots. Mainly from the Middle-East, they typically undergo an English language
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 course at York St John University
York St John University
York St John University York St John University York St John University (formerly known variously as York St John University College (2004), York St John College (2001), Ripon and York St John: a College of the University of Leeds (c. 1996), University College of Ripon and York St John...

 before completing IOT with their RAF colleagues at RAF College Cranwell. Recent international students include pilots from the Air Forces of Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

, Kuwait
Kuwait
The State of Kuwait is a sovereign Arab state situated in the north-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south at Khafji, and Iraq to the north at Basra. It lies on the north-western shore of the Persian Gulf. The name Kuwait is derived from the...

, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

 and Qatar
Qatar
Qatar , also known as the State of Qatar or locally Dawlat Qaṭar, is a sovereign Arab state, located in the Middle East, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeasterly coast of the much larger Arabian Peninsula. Its sole land border is with Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its...

.

Following an intensive ground school, the EFT course covers the rudiments of flying
Aviation
Aviation is the design, development, production, operation, and use of aircraft, especially heavier-than-air aircraft. Aviation is derived from avis, the Latin word for bird.-History:...

, stalling
Stall (flight)
In fluid dynamics, a stall is a reduction in the lift coefficient generated by a foil as angle of attack increases. This occurs when the critical angle of attack of the foil is exceeded...

 and circuits
Airfield traffic pattern
An airfield traffic pattern is a standard path followed by aircraft when taking off or landing, while maintaining visual contact with the airfield....

 with the pilots flying their first solo
First solo flight
The first solo flight of a new pilot comprises that pilot completing a take off, and usually a short flight and safe landing, by him or herself...

 after just 10 hours of tuition. They then advance to spinning
Spin (flight)
In aviation, a spin is an aggravated stall resulting in autorotation about the spin axis wherein the aircraft follows a corkscrew downward path. Spins can be entered intentionally or unintentionally, from any flight attitude and from practically any airspeed—all that is required is sufficient yaw...

, aerobatics
Aerobatics
Aerobatics is the practice of flying maneuvers involving aircraft attitudes that are not used in normal flight. Aerobatics are performed in airplanes and gliders for training, recreation, entertainment and sport...

, instrument flying
Instrument flight rules
Instrument flight rules are one of two sets of regulations governing all aspects of civil aviation aircraft operations; the other are visual flight rules ....

, formation flying
Formation flying
Formation flying is the disciplined flight of two or more aircraft under the command of a flight leader.Military pilots use formations for mutual defense and concentration of firepower....

 and low level navigation
Air navigation
The basic principles of air navigation are identical to general navigation, which includes the process of planning, recording, and controlling the movement of a craft from one place to another....

. As the course progresses, emergency handling and airmanship
Airmanship
Airmanship is skill and knowledge applied to aerial navigation, similar to seamanship in maritime navigation. Airmanship covers a broad range of desirable behaviors and abilities in an aviator...

 are introduced, this includes simulated engine failures
Gliding (flight)
Gliding flight is heavier-than-air flight without the use of thrust. It is employed by gliding animals and by aircraft such as gliders. The most common human application of gliding flight is in sport and recreation using aircraft designed for this purpose...

 and the use of emergency frequencies
Aircraft emergency frequency
The aircraft emergency frequency is a frequency used on the aircraft radio band reserved for emergency communications for aircraft in distress. The frequencies are 121.5 MHz for civilian, also known as International Air Distress and 243.0 MHz for military use, also known as Military Air...

. EFT culminates in the Final Handling Test which is a composite sortie
Sortie
Sortie is a term for deployment or dispatch of one military unit, be it an aircraft, ship, or troops from a strongpoint. The sortie, whether by one or more aircraft or vessels, usually has a specific mission....

 comprising any elements taught during the course.

After FHT and approximately 60 hours of flying, successful pilots are selected according to their capability, service need and personal preference to one of the three advanced flying training streams - Fast Jet, Rotary Wing or Multi-Engine. Those selected for Fast Jet training move to RAF Linton-on-Ouse
RAF Linton-on-Ouse
RAF Linton-on-Ouse is a Royal Air Force station at Linton-on-Ouse near York in Yorkshire, England. It is currently a major flying training centre, one of the RAF's busiest airfields...

 to fly the Tucano with either No. 72 Squadron
No. 72 Squadron RAF
No. 72 Squadron Royal Air Force started its service life supporting the army during World War I on operations in Middle East and afterwards was quickly disbanded. In its second incarnation the squadron was a real fighter unit, transitioning from Gloster Gladiator biplanes to Gloster Javelin...

 or No. 207 Squadron, successful pilots then move to RAF Valley
RAF Valley
RAF Valley is a Royal Air Force station on the island of Anglesey, Wales, and which is also used as Anglesey Airport. It provides fast-jet training using the BAE Hawk and provides training for aircrew working with Search and Rescue. Unofficially the motto for RAF Valley is 'One Valley, Training...

 to fly the Hawk
BAE Hawk
The BAE Systems Hawk is a British single-engine, advanced jet trainer aircraft. It first flew in 1974 as the Hawker Siddeley Hawk. The Hawk is used by the Royal Air Force, and other air forces, as either a trainer or a low-cost combat aircraft...

. Prospective Rotary Wing pilots go to the DHFS
Defence Helicopter Flying School
The Defence Helicopter Flying School at RAF Shawbury, a Royal Air Force station near Shrewsbury, England, trains aircrew from all three of the Armed Forces.-Squadrons:The DHFS has three flying squadrons:...

 to fly the Squirrel and Griffin. Multi-Engine pilots remain at RAF Cranwell
RAF Cranwell
RAF Cranwell is a Royal Air Force station in Lincolnshire close to the village of Cranwell, near Sleaford. It is currently commanded by Group Captain Dave Waddington...

 and move across the airfield to No. 45 Squadron
No. 45 Squadron RAF
-First World War:Formed during World War I at Gosport on 1 March 1916 as Number 45 Squadron, the unit was first equipped with Sopwith 1½ Strutters which it was to fly in the Scout role. Deployed to France in October of that year, the Squadron found itself suffering heavy losses due to the quality...

 and fly the Enhanced Avionics Tutor
Grob G 115
|- Incidents and Accidents :*In February 2009, two RAF Tutors operating air experience flights from RAF St Athan collided in mid-air. All four occupants were killed, a pilot and a female Air Training Corps cadet in each aircraft. The two cadets killed were cousins Nikkita Marie Walters, 13, and...

 and King Air
Beechcraft Super King Air
The Beechcraft Super King Air family is part of a line of twin-turboprop aircraft produced by the Beech Aircraft Corporation . The King Air line comprises a number of model series that fall into two families: the Model 90 series, Model 100 series , Model 200 series and Model 300 series...

.

Aircraft operated

From To Manufacturer Aircraft
February 1915 March 1915 Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.5
Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.5
|-See also:...

February 1915 March 1915 Vickers
Vickers
Vickers was a famous name in British engineering that existed through many companies from 1828 until 1999.-Early history:Vickers was formed in Sheffield as a steel foundry by the miller Edward Vickers and his father-in-law George Naylor in 1828. Naylor was a partner in the foundry Naylor &...

F.B.5
February 1915 March 1915 Blériot
Louis Blériot
Louis Charles Joseph Blériot was a French aviator, inventor and engineer. In 1909 he completed the first flight across a large body of water in a heavier-than-air craft, when he crossed the English Channel. For this achievement, he received a prize of £1,000...

XI
Blériot XI
The Blériot XI is the aircraft in which, on 25 July 1909, Louis Blériot made the first flight across the English Channel made in a heavier-than-air aircraft . This achievement is one of the most famous accomplishments of the early years of aviation, and not only won Blériot a lasting place in...

February 1915 May 1915 Martinsyde
Martinsyde
Martinsyde was a British aircraft and motorcycle manufacturer between 1908 and 1922, when they were forced into liquidation by a factory fire.-History:...

S.1
Martinsyde S.1
-See also:-References:*Bruce, J.M. War Planes of the First World War: Volume One Fighters. London:Macdonald, 1965....

March 1915 May 1915 Voisin
Gabriel Voisin
Gabriel Voisin was an aviation pioneer and the creator of Europe's first manned, engine-powered, heavier-than-air aircraft capable of a sustained , circular, controlled flight, including take-off and landing. It was flown by Henry Farman on January 13, 1908 near Paris, France...

III
Voisin III
-Survivors and replicas:There is a Full-scale replica of the Voisin III La on display at the Pearson Air Museum in Vancouver, WA near Portland Oregon-References:* * archived from www.caedmon.n-yorks.sch.uk* archived from www.csd.uwo.ca...

March 1915 May 1917 Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2c
Royal Aircraft Factory BE.2
The Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2 was a British single-engine two-seat biplane which was in service with the Royal Flying Corps from 1912 until the end of World War I. The "Bleriot" in its designation refers to the fact that, like the Bleriot types it was of tractor configuration, with the...

May 1915 November 1917 Farman Aviation Works S.11
March 1915 December 1919 Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.8
Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.8
The Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.8 was a British two-seat biplane reconnaissance and bomber aircraft of the First World War designed by John Kenworthy. Intended as a replacement for the vulnerable B.E.2, the R.E.8 was more difficult to fly, and was regarded with great suspicion at first in the Royal...

1924 1931 Bristol Aeroplane Company
Bristol Aeroplane Company
The Bristol Aeroplane Company, originally the British and Colonial Aeroplane Company, was both one of the first and one of the most important British aviation companies, designing and manufacturing both airframes and aero engines...

F.2 Fighter
Bristol F.2 Fighter
The Bristol F.2 Fighter was a British two-seat biplane fighter and reconnaissance aircraft of the First World War flown by the Royal Flying Corps. It is often simply called the Bristol Fighter or popularly the "Brisfit" or "Biff". Despite being a two-seater, the F.2B proved to be an agile aircraft...

1931 1934 Armstrong Whitworth
Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft
Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft Company, or Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft, was a British aircraft manufacturer.-History:Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft was established as the Aerial Department of the Sir W. G Armstrong Whitworth & Company engineering group in Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1912, and...

Atlas
Armstrong Whitworth Atlas
|-See also:-External links:* *...

1934 1938 Hawker
Hawker Aircraft
Hawker Aircraft Limited was a British aircraft manufacturer responsible for some of the most famous products in British aviation history.-History:...

Audax
Hawker Hart
The Hawker Hart was a British two-seater biplane light bomber of the Royal Air Force , which had a prominent role during the RAF's inter-war period. The Hart was designed during the 1920s by Sydney Camm and built by Hawker Aircraft...

1938 1942 Westland
Westland Aircraft
Westland Aircraft was a British aircraft manufacturer located in Yeovil in Somerset. Formed as a separate company by separation from Petters Ltd just before the start of the Second World War, Westland had been building aircraft since 1915...

Lysander
Westland Lysander
The Westland Lysander was a British army co-operation and liaison aircraft produced by Westland Aircraft used immediately before and during the Second World War...

1942 1944 North American Aviation
North American Aviation
North American Aviation was a major US aerospace manufacturer, responsible for a number of historic aircraft, including the T-6 Texan trainer, the P-51 Mustang fighter, the B-25 Mitchell bomber, the F-86 Sabre jet fighter, the X-15 rocket plane, and the XB-70, as well as Apollo Command and Service...

P-51 Mustang
P-51 Mustang
The North American Aviation P-51 Mustang was an American long-range, single-seat fighter and fighter-bomber used during World War II, the Korean War and in several other conflicts...

1944 1946 Supermarine
Supermarine
Supermarine was a British aircraft manufacturer that became famous for producing a range of sea planes and the Supermarine Spitfire fighter. The name now belongs to an English motorboat manufacturer.-History:...

Spitfire Mk.XI
Supermarine Spitfire
The Supermarine Spitfire is a British single-seat fighter aircraft that was used by the Royal Air Force and many other Allied countries throughout the Second World War. The Spitfire continued to be used as a front line fighter and in secondary roles into the 1950s...

1946 1948 Hawker Tempest V
Hawker Tempest
The Hawker Tempest was a British fighter aircraft primarily used by the Royal Air Force in the Second World War. The Tempest was an improved derivative of the Hawker Typhoon, and one of the most powerful fighter aircraft used during the war....

1948 1948 Hawker Tempest II
Hawker Tempest
The Hawker Tempest was a British fighter aircraft primarily used by the Royal Air Force in the Second World War. The Tempest was an improved derivative of the Hawker Typhoon, and one of the most powerful fighter aircraft used during the war....

1948 1954 de Havilland
De Havilland
The de Havilland Aircraft Company was a British aviation manufacturer founded in 1920 when Airco, of which Geoffrey de Havilland had been chief designer, was sold to BSA by the owner George Holt Thomas. De Havilland then set up a company under his name in September of that year at Stag Lane...

Vampire FB.5
De Havilland Vampire
The de Havilland DH.100 Vampire was a British jet-engine fighter commissioned by the Royal Air Force during the Second World War. Following the Gloster Meteor, it was the second jet fighter to enter service with the RAF. Although it arrived too late to see combat during the war, the Vampire served...

1954 1957 de Havilland Venom FB.1
De Havilland Venom
The de Havilland DH 112 Venom was a British postwar single-engined jet aircraft developed from the de Havilland Vampire. It served with the Royal Air Force as a single-seat fighter-bomber and two-seat night fighter....

1958 1972 English Electric
English Electric
English Electric was a British industrial manufacturer. Founded in 1918, it initially specialised in industrial electric motors and transformers...

Canberra B(I).8
English Electric Canberra
The English Electric Canberra is a first-generation jet-powered light bomber manufactured in large numbers through the 1950s. The Canberra could fly at a higher altitude than any other bomber through the 1950s and set a world altitude record of 70,310 ft in 1957...

1972 1984 Blackburn
Blackburn Aircraft
Blackburn Aircraft Limited was a British aircraft manufacturer that concentrated mainly on naval and maritime aircraft during the first part of the 20th century.-History:...

Buccaneer S.2B
Blackburn Buccaneer
The Blackburn Buccaneer was a British low-level subsonic strike aircraft with nuclear weapon delivery capability serving with the Royal Navy and the Royal Air Force between 1962 and 1994, including service in the 1991 Gulf War...

1984 1991 Panavia Tornado GR.1
Panavia Tornado
The Panavia Tornado is a family of twin-engine, variable-sweep wing combat aircraft, which was jointly developed and manufactured by the United Kingdom, West Germany and Italy...

1991 2005 SEPECAT Jaguar GR.1 and GR.3
SEPECAT Jaguar
The SEPECAT Jaguar is an Anglo-French jet ground attack aircraft, originally used by the British Royal Air Force and the French Armée de l'Air in the close air support and nuclear strike role, and still in service with several export customers, notably the Indian Air Force and the Royal Air Force...

2008 Present Grob Tutor

Commanding officers

! style="text-align: left; background: #B0C4DE;"|From
! style="text-align: left; background: #B0C4DE;"|To
! style="text-align: left; background: #B0C4DE;"|Rank
! style="text-align: left; background: #B0C4DE;"|Name
|-
| 8 February 1915
| 23 July 1915
| Major
| F V Holt
Felton Holt
Air Vice Marshal Felton Vesey Holt CMG, DSO, RAF was a squadron and wing commander in the Royal Flying Corps who became a brigadier general in the newly established Royal Air Force just before the end of World War I...


|-
| 23 July 1915
| January 1916
| Major
| H C T Dowding
Hugh Dowding, 1st Baron Dowding
Air Chief Marshal Hugh Caswall Tremenheere Dowding, 1st Baron Dowding GCB, GCVO, CMG was a British officer in the Royal Air Force...


|-
| January 1916
| 5 August 1916
| Major
| D W Powell
|-
| 5 August 1916
| 16 June 1917
| Major
| P C Maltby
Paul Maltby
-References:*...


|-
| 16 June 1918
| June 1918
| Major
| C F A Portal
Charles Portal, 1st Viscount Portal of Hungerford
Marshal of the Royal Air Force Charles Frederick Algernon Portal, 1st Viscount Portal of Hungerford KG GCB OM DSO & Bar MC was a senior Royal Air Force officer and an advocate of strategic bombing...

 DSO
Distinguished Service Order
The Distinguished Service Order is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other parts of the British Commonwealth and Empire, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat.Instituted on 6 September...

 and Bar
Medal bar
A medal bar or medal clasp is a thin metal bar attached to the ribbon of a military decoration, civil decoration, or other medal. It is most commonly used to indicate the campaign or operation the recipient received the award for, and multiple bars on the same medal are used to indicate that the...

 MC
Military Cross
The Military Cross is the third-level military decoration awarded to officers and other ranks of the British Armed Forces; and formerly also to officers of other Commonwealth countries....


|-
| June 1918
| 1919
| Major
| A W C V Parr
|-
| 1924
| 1925
| Squadron Leader
Squadron Leader
Squadron Leader is a commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many countries which have historical British influence. It is also sometimes used as the English translation of an equivalent rank in countries which have a non-English air force-specific rank structure. In these...


| J O Archer CBE
CBE
CBE and C.B.E. are abbreviations for "Commander of the Order of the British Empire", a grade in the Order of the British Empire.Other uses include:* Chemical and Biochemical Engineering...


|-
| 1925
| 1928
| Squadron Leader
| W A Coryton
Alec Coryton
Air Chief Marshal Sir William Alec Coryton KCB, KBE, MVO, DFC, RAF , commonly known as Alec Coryton, was a senior RAF commander in World War II.-Life:...

 MVO
|-
| 1928
| 1931
| Squadron Leader
| D O Mulholland AFC
Air Force Cross (United Kingdom)
The Air Force Cross is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the United Kingdom Armed Forces, and formerly also to officers of the other Commonwealth countries, for "an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying, though not in active operations against the enemy"...


|-
| 1931
| 1933
| Squadron Leader
| A R Churchman DFC
Distinguished Flying Cross (United Kingdom)
The Distinguished Flying Cross is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the United Kingdom's Royal Air Force and other services, and formerly to officers of other Commonwealth countries, for "an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying in active operations against...


|-
| 1933
| 1934
| Squadron Leader
| J R I Scrambler AFC
Air Force Cross (United Kingdom)
The Air Force Cross is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the United Kingdom Armed Forces, and formerly also to officers of the other Commonwealth countries, for "an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying, though not in active operations against the enemy"...


|-
| 1934
| 1936
| Squadron Leader
| R P Musgrave-Whitman OBE MC
Military Cross
The Military Cross is the third-level military decoration awarded to officers and other ranks of the British Armed Forces; and formerly also to officers of other Commonwealth countries....


|-
| 1936
| 1938
| Squadron Leader
| T Humble
|-
| 1938
| 1939
| Squadron Leader
| R E S Skelton
|-
| 1940
| 1940
| Wing Commander
Wing Commander (rank)
Wing commander is a commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many other Commonwealth countries...


| T Humble
|-
| 1940
| 1941
| Wing Commander
| R C Hancock
|-
| 1941
| 1942
| Wing Commander
| P W Stansfeld
|-
| 1942
| 1942
| Wing Commander
| A F Pallot
|-
| 1942
| 1943
| Wing Commander
| J R Davenport
|-
| 1943
| 1943
| Wing Commander
| R I M Bowen DFC
Distinguished Flying Cross (United Kingdom)
The Distinguished Flying Cross is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the United Kingdom's Royal Air Force and other services, and formerly to officers of other Commonwealth countries, for "an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying in active operations against...


|-
| 1943
| 1943
| Squadron Leader
| Mackie
|-
| 1943
| 1944
| Squadron Leader
| E M Goodale DSO
Distinguished Service Order
The Distinguished Service Order is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other parts of the British Commonwealth and Empire, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat.Instituted on 6 September...


|-
| 1944
| 1945
| Squadron Leader
| A N Davies DFC
Distinguished Flying Cross (United Kingdom)
The Distinguished Flying Cross is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the United Kingdom's Royal Air Force and other services, and formerly to officers of other Commonwealth countries, for "an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying in active operations against...


|-
| 1945
| 1946
| Squadron Leader
| A S Baker DFC
Distinguished Flying Cross (United Kingdom)
The Distinguished Flying Cross is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the United Kingdom's Royal Air Force and other services, and formerly to officers of other Commonwealth countries, for "an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying in active operations against...


|-
| 1946
| 1948
| Squadron Leader
| D C Usher DFC
Distinguished Flying Cross (United Kingdom)
The Distinguished Flying Cross is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the United Kingdom's Royal Air Force and other services, and formerly to officers of other Commonwealth countries, for "an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying in active operations against...

 DFM
Distinguished Flying Medal
The Distinguished Flying Medal was a military decoration awarded to personnel of the Royal Air Force and the other services, and formerly also to personnel of other Commonwealth countries, below commissioned rank, for "an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying in active...


|-
| 1948
| 1948
| Squadron Leader
| R E Mooney
|-
| 1948
| 1949
| Squadron Leader
| L A Malins DSO
Distinguished Service Order
The Distinguished Service Order is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other parts of the British Commonwealth and Empire, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat.Instituted on 6 September...

 DFC
Distinguished Flying Cross (United Kingdom)
The Distinguished Flying Cross is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the United Kingdom's Royal Air Force and other services, and formerly to officers of other Commonwealth countries, for "an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying in active operations against...


|-
| 1949
| 1951
| Squadron Leader
| L H Lambert DFC
Distinguished Flying Cross (United Kingdom)
The Distinguished Flying Cross is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the United Kingdom's Royal Air Force and other services, and formerly to officers of other Commonwealth countries, for "an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying in active operations against...

 AFC
Air Force Cross (United Kingdom)
The Air Force Cross is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the United Kingdom Armed Forces, and formerly also to officers of the other Commonwealth countries, for "an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying, though not in active operations against the enemy"...


|-
| 1951
| 1952
| Squadron Leader
| J E J Sing DFC
Distinguished Flying Cross (United Kingdom)
The Distinguished Flying Cross is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the United Kingdom's Royal Air Force and other services, and formerly to officers of other Commonwealth countries, for "an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying in active operations against...


|-
| 1952
| 1952
| Squadron Leader
| R H Benwell
|-
| 1952
| 1954
| Squadron Leader
| R U P De Burgh
|-
| 1954
| 1956
| Squadron Leader
| G G G Walkington
|-
| 1956
| 1956
| Squadron Leader
| C E Keay
|-
| 1956
| 1958
| Flight Lieutenant
Flight Lieutenant
Flight lieutenant is a junior commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many Commonwealth countries. It ranks above flying officer and immediately below squadron leader. The name of the rank is the complete phrase; it is never shortened to "lieutenant"...


| H E Clements
|-
| 1958
| 1960
| Wing Commander
| J R Forsythe DFC
Distinguished Flying Cross (United Kingdom)
The Distinguished Flying Cross is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the United Kingdom's Royal Air Force and other services, and formerly to officers of other Commonwealth countries, for "an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying in active operations against...


|-
| 1960
| 1963
| Wing Commander
| J E Holland DFC
Distinguished Flying Cross (United Kingdom)
The Distinguished Flying Cross is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the United Kingdom's Royal Air Force and other services, and formerly to officers of other Commonwealth countries, for "an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying in active operations against...


|-
| 1963
| 1964
| Wing Commander
| J V Horwood
|-
| 1964
| 1966
| Wing Commander
| A L Bennett
|-
| 1966
| 1968
| Wing Commander
| J C Newby
|-
| 1968
| 1970
| Wing Commander
| L C Swalwell
|-
| 1970
| 1973
| Wing Commander
| K J Appleboom
|-
| 1973
| 1975
| Wing Commander
| R A Edwards
|-
| 1975
| 1977
| Wing Commander
| W I C Stoker
|-
| 1977
| 1980
| Wing Commander
| D Cousins
David Cousins
Air Chief Marshal Sir David Cousins KCB AFC BA RAF is a retired senior Royal Air Force commander.-RAF career:He joined the RAF in 1961 and spent three years at RAF College Cranwell. He then had a number of operational flying tours, initially flying Lightnings in the air defence role in the UK and...

 AFC
Air Force Cross (United Kingdom)
The Air Force Cross is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the United Kingdom Armed Forces, and formerly also to officers of the other Commonwealth countries, for "an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying, though not in active operations against the enemy"...


|-
| 1980
| 1983
| Wing Commander
| P C Norriss
|-
| 1983
| 1984
| Wing Commander
| E R Cox
|-
| 1984
| 1986
| Wing Commander
| R H Goodall AFC
Air Force Cross (United Kingdom)
The Air Force Cross is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the United Kingdom Armed Forces, and formerly also to officers of the other Commonwealth countries, for "an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying, though not in active operations against the enemy"...


|-
| 1986
| 1988
| Wing Commander
| R F R Carr
|-
| 1988
| 1991
| Wing Commander
| I Travers Smith DSO
Distinguished Service Order
The Distinguished Service Order is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other parts of the British Commonwealth and Empire, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat.Instituted on 6 September...


|-
| 1991
| 1992
| Wing Commander
| N C Rusling
|-
| 1992
| 1995
| Wing Commander
| J W White
|-
| 1995
| 1997
| Wing Commander
| B W Newby AFC
Air Force Cross (United Kingdom)
The Air Force Cross is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the United Kingdom Armed Forces, and formerly also to officers of the other Commonwealth countries, for "an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying, though not in active operations against the enemy"...


|-
| 1997
| 2000
| Wing Commander
| A J Sudlow MBE
MBE
MBE can stand for:* Mail Boxes Etc.* Management by exception* Master of Bioethics* Master of Bioscience Enterprise* Master of Business Engineering* Master of Business Economics* Mean Biased Error...


|-
| 2000
| 2002
| Wing Commander
| P Allan
|-
| 2002
| 2005
| Wing Commander
| G Stockill
|-
| 2008
| 2009
| Squadron Leader
| I S Smith
|-
| 2009
| Present
| Squadron Leader
| S J Foote

Stations

! style="text-align: left; background: #B0C4DE;"|From

! style="text-align: left; background: #B0C4DE;"|To

! style="text-align: left; background: #B0C4DE;"|Location

! style="text-align: left; background: #B0C4DE;"|Notes
|-
| 10 February 1915
| 5 March 1915
| Saint-Omer
Saint-Omer
Saint-Omer , a commune and sub-prefecture of the Pas-de-Calais department west-northwest of Lille on the railway to Calais. The town is named after Saint Audomar, who brought Christianity to the area....


| Formation.
|-
| 6 March 1915
| 31 May 1915
| La Gorgue
La Gorgue
-References:*...


| Detachment to Aire
Aire-sur-la-Lys
Aire-sur-la-Lys is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France.-Geography:The commune is located 10 miles southeast of Saint-Omer, at the junction of the N43 with several departmental roads, by the banks of the Lys and the Laquette rivers.-History:Aire-sur-la-Lys is mentioned for...

.

Battle of Neuve Chapelle
Battle of Neuve Chapelle
The Battles of Neuve Chapelle and Artois was a battle in the First World War. It was a British offensive in the Artois region and broke through at Neuve-Chapelle but they were unable to exploit the advantage.The battle began on 10 March 1915...

 began 10 March 1915.
|-
| 1 June 1915
| 17 July 1915
| Choques
|
|-
| 18 July 1915
| 11 December 1915
| Merville
Merville, Nord
-References:*...


| Battle of Loos
Battle of Loos
The Battle of Loos was one of the major British offensives mounted on the Western Front in 1915 during World War I. It marked the first time the British used poison gas during the war, and is also famous for the fact that it witnessed the first large-scale use of 'new' or Kitchener's Army...

 between 25 and 28 September 1915.
|-
| 12 December 1915
| 30 August 1916
| La Gorgue
La Gorgue
-References:*...


|
|-
| 31 August 1916
| 24 May 1917
| Bruay
| Battle of the Somme between 1 July and 18 November 1916.
|-
| 25 May 1917
| 20 October 1918
| Camblain-l'Abbe
Camblain-l'Abbé
Camblain-l’Abbé is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France.-Geography:A farming village located 9 miles northwest of Arras at the junction of the D341 with the D73E.-Population:...


|
|-
| 21 October 1918
| 24 October 1918
| La Brayelle
|
|-
| 25 October 1918
| 13 February 1918
| Auchy
|
|-
| 14 February 1918
| 31 December 1918
| Fowlmere
Fowlmere
Fowlmere is one of the southernmost villages in Cambridgeshire, England. It is very close to the Imperial War Museum Duxford, and 9 miles southwest of the city of Cambridge.- History :...


| Disbanded following cessation of hostilities.
|-
| 1 April 1924
| 16 February 1940
| Old Sarum
Old Sarum Airfield
Old Sarum Airfield is located north northeast of Salisbury, Wiltshire, England.The aerodrome has a CAA Ordinary Licence that allows flights for the public transport of passengers or for flying instruction as authorised by the licensee . The aerodrome is not licensed for night use.The site is a...


| Reformed as Army co-operation squadron.
1938 - First squadron to operate the Lysander.
|-
| 17 February 1940
| 12 April 1940
| Hawkinge
Hawkinge
Hawkinge is a village and civil parish in the Shepway District of Kent, England. The original village of Hawkinge is actually just less than a mile due east of the present village centre ; the modern, much larger, village of Hawkinge was formed by the merging of Hawkinge and Uphill...


|
|-
| 13 April 1940
| 13 April 1940
| Amiens
Amiens
Amiens is a city and commune in northern France, north of Paris and south-west of Lille. It is the capital of the Somme department in Picardy...


|
|-
| 14 April 1940
| 18 May 1940
| Bertangles
Bertangles
Bertangles is a commune in the Somme department in Picardie in northern France.-Geography:Bertangles is situated on the D97 road, just off the N25, north of Amiens...


| Battle of France
Battle of France
In the Second World War, the Battle of France was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries, beginning on 10 May 1940, which ended the Phoney War. The battle consisted of two main operations. In the first, Fall Gelb , German armoured units pushed through the Ardennes, to cut off and...

 commenced 10 May 1940.
|-
| 19 May 1940
| 2 June 1940
| Lympne
Lympne Airport
Lympne Airport , , was a military and later civil airfield at Lympne, Kent, United Kingdom, which operated from 1916 to 1984. RFC Lympne was originally an acceptance point for aircraft being delivered to, and returning from, France during the First World War...


| Dunkirk evacuation between 26 May and 4 June 1940.
|-
| 3 June 1940
| 28 June 1940
| Redhill
Redhill Aerodrome
Redhill Aerodrome is located southeast of Redhill, Surrey, England, in green belt land.Redhill Aerodrome has a CAA Ordinary Licence that allows flights for the public transport of passengers or for flying instruction as authorised by the licensee .-Early history:The airfield came into use in the...


| First RAF squadron to operate there.
|-
| 29 June 1940
| 2 August 1940
| Cambridge
Cambridge Airport
Cambridge Airport is a small regional airport in South Cambridgeshire, England. It is located on the eastern outskirts of Cambridge, south of Newmarket Road and west of the village of Teversham, from the centre of Cambridge and approximately from London.Opened in 1938, when it replaced the old...


|
|-
| 3 August 1940
| 14 August 1940
| Okehampton
Okehampton
Okehampton is a town and civil parish in West Devon in the English county of Devon. It is situated at the northern edge of Dartmoor, and has an estimated population of 7,155.-History:...


| Detachment to Cambridge.
|-
| 15 August 1940
| 3 June 1941
| Western Zoyland
RAF Weston Zoyland
thumb|C-47s of the 306th Troop Carrier SquadronRAF Station Weston Zoyland is a former World War II airfield in Somerset, England. The airfield is located approximately east-southeast of Bridgwater; about west-southwest of London...


| Detachments to Okehampton, Roborough
Roborough
Roborough is a village in the South Hams of Devon, England. It lies just outside the northern boundary of the city of Plymouth on the main road to Tavistock, and is a popular dormitory village....

, Tilshead
Tilshead
Tilshead is a small village located in Wiltshire, in England. It lies approximately midway between the villages of Shrewton and Market Lavington, and is located at the source of the River Till. Its population in 2001 was 359, down from a peak of 989 inhabitants in 1951.. The White Barrow long...

, St Just
St Just in Penwith
St Just is a town and civil parish in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The parish encompasses the town of St Just and the nearby settlements of Trewellard, Pendeen and Kelynack: it is bounded by the parishes of Morvah to the north-east, Sancreed and Madron to the east, St Buryan and Sennen to...

 and Bolt Head
Bolt Head
Bolt Head is a National Trust headland on the South Coast of Devon, Britain, situated west of the Kingsbridge Estuary.-External links:*...

.

Battle of Britain
Battle of Britain
The Battle of Britain is the name given to the World War II air campaign waged by the German Air Force against the United Kingdom during the summer and autumn of 1940...

 occurred between 10 July and 31 October 1940.
|-
| 4 June 1941
| 5 June 1941
| Okehampton
|
|-
| 6 June 1941
| 8 September 1941
| Weston Zoyland
| Detachments to Lee-on-Solent and Tilshead.
|-
| 9 September 1941
| 10 September 1941
| Okehampton
|
|-
| 11 September 1941
| 24 September 1941
| Weston Zoyland
|
|-
| 25 September 1941
| 2 October 1941
| Thruxton
Thruxton, Hampshire
Thruxton is just off the A303 road five miles west of Andover. It is a village with a Manor House, thatched cottages and village green...


|
|-
| 3 October 1941
| 22 November 1941
| Weston Zoyland
| Detachment to Farnborough
Farnborough Airfield
Farnborough Airport or TAG London Farnborough Airport is an airport situated in Farnborough, Rushmoor, Hampshire, England...

.
|-
| 23 November 1941
| 26 November 1941
| Lympne
|
|-
| 27 November 1941
| 31 December 1942
| Weston Zoyland
| Detachment to Okehampton.
|-
| 1 January 1943
| 25 February 1943
| Andover
RAF Andover
Andover Airfield is a former Royal Flying Corps and Royal Air Force station. The ICAO code for the airfield is EGWA and the IATA code is ADV...


|
|-
| 26 February 1943
| 12 March 1943
| Ford
Ford, Wiltshire
Ford is a small village located in the northwest of Wiltshire. It had a population of 580 in the 2001 census. The village is situated along a small stretch of the A420 road, lying 11 miles east of Bristol and 4 miles west of Chippenham....


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| 13 March 1943
| 5 April 1943
| Andover
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| 6 April 1943
| 8 April 1943
| Weston Zoyland
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| 9 April 1943
| 15 May 1943
| Andover
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|-
| 16 May 1943
| 21 May 1943
| Weston Zoyland
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|-
| 22 May 1943
| 31 May 1943
| Andover
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|-
| 1 June 1943
| 28 June 1943
| Middle Wallop
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|-
| 29 June 1943
| 15 April 1944
| Hartford Bridge
RAF Blackbushe
RAF Blackbushe was a Royal Air Force station in Hampshire, England, during World War II. It is now known as Blackbushe Airport.-History:The station was opened on 1 November 1942 as RAF Hartford Bridge and it was used throughout the remainder of Second World War for reconnaissance, defence and...


| Operated in Strategic Reconnaissance Wing of the 2nd Tactical Air Force.
|-
| 16 April 1944
| 19 September 1945
| Northolt
RAF Northolt
RAF Northolt is a Royal Air Force station situated in South Ruislip, east by northeast of Uxbridge in the London Borough of Hillingdon, West London. Approximately north of London Heathrow Airport, the station also handles a large number of private civil flights...


| D-Day on 6 June 1944. Disbanded following cessation of hostilities.
|-
| 19 September 1945
| 1 April 1946
| Celle
RAF Celle
The former Royal Air Force Station Celle , more commonly known as RAF Celle , was a Royal Air Force station, a military airbase, in Germany, situated in the south-western suburbs of Celle, Lower Saxony...


| Reformed and disbanded. Renumbered from 268 Squadron
No. 268 Squadron RAF
No. 268 Squadron RAF was a Second World War Royal Air Force squadron that operated the North American Mustang on missions over occupied Europe and in support of the D-Day landings.-History:...

.
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| 1 April 1946
| 31 May 1946
| Fassberg
RAF Fassberg
The former Royal Air Force Station Fassberg, more commonly known as RAF Fassberg, was a Royal Air Force airbase in Germany situated in the northern suburbs of Fassberg, Lower Saxony...


| Reformed from 56 Squadron
No. 56 Squadron RAF
Number 56 Squadron is one of the oldest and most successful squadrons of the Royal Air Force, with battle honours from many of the significant air campaigns of both World War I and World War II...

.
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| 1 June 1946
| 11 June 1946
| Manston
RAF Manston
RAF Manston was an RAF station in the north-east of Kent, at on the Isle of Thanet from 1916 until 1996. The site is now split between a commercial airport Kent International Airport and a continuing military use by the Defence Fire Training and Development Centre , following on from a long...


|
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| 12 June 1946
| 20 June 1946
| Fassberg
|
|-
| 21 June 1946
| 13 July 1946
| Sylt
Sylt
Sylt is an island in northern Germany, part of Nordfriesland district, Schleswig-Holstein, and well known for the distinctive shape of its shoreline. It belongs to the North Frisian Islands and is the largest island in North Frisia...


|
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| 14 July 1946
| 4 September 1946
| Fassberg
|
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| 5 September 1946
| 15 September 1946
| Manston
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|-
| 16 September 1946
| 3 February 1947
| Fassberg
|
|-
| 4 February 1947
| 20 March 1947
| Gatow
RAF Gatow
Known for most of its operational life as Royal Air Force Station Gatow, or more commonly RAF Gatow, this former British Royal Air Force military airbase is in the district of Gatow in south-western Berlin, west of the Havel river, in the borough of Spandau...


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| 21 March 1947
| 7 May 1947
| Fassberg
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| 8 May 1947
| 19 May 1947
| Ahlhorn
RAF Ahlhorn
The former Royal Air Force Station Ahlhorn, commonly known as RAF Ahlhorn, was a Royal Air Force airbase in Germany situated in the southern suburbs of Ahlhorn, Lower Saxony....


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| 20 May 1947
| 12 July 1947
| Fassberg
|
|-
| 13 July 1947
| 11 August 1947
| Zeltweg
Zeltweg Airfield
Zeltweg Airfield, now known as Fliegerhorst Hinterstoisser, is a military airfield in Styria, Austria near Zeltweg. It is the main airfield of the Austrian Air Force.-Motorsports:...


|
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| 12 August 1947
| 5 October 1947
| Fassberg
|
|-
| 6 October 1947
| 16 October 1947
| Middle Wallop
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|-
| 17 October 1947
| 2 November 1947
| Fassberg
|
|-
| 3 November 1947
| 23 November 1947
| Lübeck
Lübeck
The Hanseatic City of Lübeck is the second-largest city in Schleswig-Holstein, in northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany. It was for several centuries the "capital" of the Hanseatic League and, because of its Brick Gothic architectural heritage, is listed by UNESCO as a World...


|
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| 24 November 1947
| 31 November 1947
| Fassberg
|
|-
| 1 December 1947
| 5 January 1948
| Gütersloh
RAF Gütersloh
The former Royal Air Force Station Gütersloh, more commonly known as RAF Gütersloh, was a Royal Air Force Germany military airbase, the nearest Royal Air Force airbase to the East/West German border, in the vicinity of the town of Gütersloh. It was constructed by the Germans prior to World War II...


|
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| 6 January 1948
| 1 February 1948
| Gatow
|
|-
| 2 February 1948
| 13 July 1948
| Gütersloh
| Berlin Airlift begins on 24 June 1948.
|-
| 14 July 1948
| 6 August 1948
| Lübeck
|
|-
| 7 August 1948
| 1 November 1950
| Gütersloh
| Berlin Airlift ends 11 May 1949.
|-
| 2 November 1950
| 1 June 1957
| Celle
| Disbanded.
|-
| 1 March 1958
| 6 June 1972
| Laarbruch
RAF Laarbruch
The former Royal Air Force Station Laarbruch, more commonly known as RAF Laarbruch ICAO EDUL was a Royal Air Force station, a military airbase, located in Germany on its border with the Netherlands...


| Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
The Cuban Missile Crisis was a confrontation among the Soviet Union, Cuba and the United States in October 1962, during the Cold War...

 between 8 and 28 October 1962.
|-
| 8 Jan 1973
| 29 Feb 1984
| Laarbruch
|
|-
| 1 Mar 1984
| 11 Sep 1991
| Laarbruch
| Squadron took part in Operation GRANBY
Operation Granby
Operation Granby was the name given to the British military operations during the Gulf War. 53,462 troops were deployed during the conflict. The total cost of operations was £2.434 billion of which at least £2.049 billion was paid for by other nations such as Kuwait and Saudi Arabia; £200...

.
|-
| 1 November 1991
| 20 July 2000
| Lossiemouth
RAF Lossiemouth
RAF Lossiemouth is a Royal Air Force station to the west of the town of Lossiemouth in Moray, Scotland. It is one of the RAF's biggest bases and is currently Britain's main base for Tornado GR4s. From 2013 the Northern QRA force of Typhoon F2 will relocate to Lossiemouth following the closure of...


| Became a Reserve squadron as Jaguar OCU.
|-
| 21 July 2000
| 11 March 2005
| Coltishall
RAF Coltishall
The former Royal Air Force Station Coltishall, more commonly known as RAF Coltishall , was a Royal Air Force station, a military airbase, North-North-East of Norwich, in the English county of Norfolk, East Anglia, from 1938 to 2006....


| Coltishall, the last surviving operational RAF base involved in the Battle of Britain, closed on 30 November 2006.
|-
| 1 October 2008
| Present
| Cranwell
RAF Cranwell
RAF Cranwell is a Royal Air Force station in Lincolnshire close to the village of Cranwell, near Sleaford. It is currently commanded by Group Captain Dave Waddington...


| Elementary flying training.

External links




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